Meccano is a model construction system created in Liverpool, United
Kingdom, by Frank Hornby. The brand now maintains a manufacturing
facility in Calais, France.
Meccano consists of reusable metal
strips, plates, angle girders, wheels, axles and gears, and plastic
parts that are connected together using nuts, bolts and set screws
(also known as grub screws). It enables the building of working models
and mechanical devices. Although
Meccano has always been seen as an
engaging educational toy, today the brand focuses on promoting
engineering and robotics through fun play to support STEM learning.
The ideas for
Meccano were first conceived by Hornby in 1898 and he
developed and patented the construction kit as "Mechanics Made Easy"
in 1901. The name was later changed to "Meccano" and manufactured by
the British company,
Meccano Ltd, between 1908 and 1980. It is now
France and China by
Meccano S.N. of France, part of
Spin Master toy company. In the United States, a
competitive toy with a similar play pattern was launched in 1913 under
Erector Set brand. Erector was purchased by the
Meccano company in
2000 and continued to be sold under Erector Sets in the US through
early 2015. After August 2015, the Erector brand was relaunched under
the global brand name Meccano.
1.1 First sets
1.4 New versions
1.5 Further developments
1.7 Compatible kits
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
Meccano history, see Frank Hornby.
Meccano set on display in the Edinburgh Museum of Childhood
In 1901 Frank Hornby, a clerk from Liverpool, England, invented and
patented a new toy called "Mechanics Made Easy" that was based on the
principles of mechanical engineering. It was a model construction
kit consisting of perforated metal strips, plates and girders, with
wheels, pulleys, gears, shaft collars and axles for mechanisms and
motion, and nuts and bolts and set screws to connect the pieces. The
perforations were at a standard ½ inch (12.7 mm) spacing, the
axles were 8-gauge, and the nuts and bolts used 5/32 inch BSW threads.
The only tools required to assemble models were a screwdriver and
spanners (wrenches). It was more than just a toy: it was educational,
teaching basic mechanical principles like levers and gearing.
The parts for Hornby's new construction kit were initially supplied by
outside manufacturers, but as demand began to exceed supply, Hornby
set up his own factory in Duke Street, Liverpool. As the construction
kits gained in popularity they soon became known as
Meccano and went
on sale across the world. In September 1907, Hornby registered the
Meccano trade mark, and in May 1908, he formed
Meccano Ltd. To keep
pace with demand, a new
Meccano factory was built in Binns Road,
Liverpool in 1914, which became
Meccano Ltd's headquarters for the
next 60 years. Hornby also established
Meccano factories in France,
Spain and Argentina. The word "Meccano" was thought to have been
derived from the phrase "Make and Know".
The first construction sets had parts that were rather crudely made:
the metal strips and plates had a tinplate finish, were not rounded at
the ends and were not very sturdy. But manufacturing methods were
improving all the time and by 1907 the quality and appearance had
improved considerably: the metal strips were now made of thicker steel
with rounded ends and were nickel-plated, while the wheels and gears
were machined from brass.
A model steam locomotive built with Meccano
The first sets under the new
Meccano name were numbered 1 to 6. In
1922 the No. 7
Meccano Outfit was introduced, which was the largest
set of its day, and the most sought after because of its model
building capabilities and prestige.
In 1926, to mark the 25th anniversary of his patent, Hornby introduced
Meccano in Colours" with the familiar red and green coloured Meccano
pieces. Initially plates were a light red and items like the braced
girders were a pea-green. However, the following year strips and
girders were painted dark green, the plates Burgundy red, while the
wheels and gears remained brass. In 1934 the
Meccano pieces changed
colour again: the strips and girders became gold while the plates were
changed to blue with gold criss-cross lines on them, but only on one
side, the reverse remaining plain blue. This new colour scheme was
only available in the
United Kingdom until the end of the Second World
War in 1945. The old red and green sets were still produced for the
export market and were re-introduced in the UK after the war.
In 1958 the colours were changed slightly to what became known as
'light red and green' but this incarnation had the shortest lifespan
as the colours changed dramatically in 1964 to the black and yellow
colour scheme. However, this light red and green period did see the
introduction of about 90 new parts, more modern packaging, a new
cabinet was introduced for the number 10 set, the first plastic parts
were introduced, and the "exploded diagram" instructions made their
Instruction book for the 1956
Meccano No. 7 and 8 Outfits, showing a
model of a walking drag line excavator built with the red and green
Meccano pieces of the time.
In 1934 the nine basic
Meccano outfits (numbered 00 to 7) were
replaced by eleven outfits, labelled 0, A to H, K and L, the old No. 7
Outfit becoming the L Outfit. This L Outfit is often regarded as the
best of the largest
Meccano outfits. In 1937 the alphabetical outfit
series was replaced by a numeric series, 0 to 10, the L Outfit being
replaced by the smaller No. 10 Outfit. Although reduced in size from
the L Outfit, the No. 10 Outfit became Meccano's flagship set and
remained relatively unchanged until it was discontinued a half-century
later in 1992. Accessory sets were retained, numbered 1A to 9A, that
converted a set to the next in the series (for example, accessory set
6A would convert a No. 6 set to a No. 7 set). As had been the case
from early days,
Meccano Ltd would also supply individual Meccano
parts to complement existing sets.
World War II interrupted the production of
Meccano in England when the
Binns Road factory converted to manufacturing for the war effort. The
Korean War in 1950 also disrupted production due to a metal shortage
and it was not until the mid-1950s that
Meccano production returned to
normal with new parts being added to all the sets.
In 1955 outfits 00 to 10 as well as conversion sets 00A to 9A were
available. In 1961 a Mechanisms Outfit and a Gears Outfit were
added to the range, and in 1962 outfit 00 was withdrawn.
1970s No. 2
In the early 1960s
Meccano Ltd experienced financial problems and was
Lines Bros Ltd
Lines Bros Ltd (who operated under the brand name
"Tri-ang") in 1964. In an attempt to redefine Meccano's image, the
colour scheme was changed again, this time to yellow and black plates,
with silver strips and girders. The silver was soon replaced by zinc
in 1967 when it was found that the silver pieces marked easily. The
colours of yellow and black were chosen because they were the colours
typically used by most large construction vehicles of the day.
In 1970 electronic parts were introduced, and the current
black-coloured plates were changed to blue. The range of sets was
reduced by one with the deletion of the old No. 9 set and the
renumbering of the old No. 0 to 8 sets to No. 1 to 9. The No. 10 set
Lines Brothers went into voluntary liquidation in 1971 and Airfix
Industries purchased the
Meccano business in the UK and General Mills
of the US purchased the French business. The French company was known
as Miro Meccano. In 1973 outfits 1 to 10 were still available, but new
kits were added: Army Multikit, Highway Multikit, Plastic Meccano,
Meccano and two Clock Kits.
In 1978 the range of
Meccano sets was further reduced and changed with
the replacement of the No. 2 to 8 sets by six completely new sets,
labelled A and 1 to 5. The old No. 9 and 10 sets were left largely
unchanged. While some
Airfix divisions were profitable, particularly
their model kits, they needed to save money. With unions threatening
all out industrial action if there were any job losses,
down the Binns Road factory, bringing to an end the manufacture of
Meccano in England.
Meccano still continued to be manufactured in
France, as the British and French businesses had different owners.
France made the famous dark blue and red
Construction SET 1 to
SET 10 Boxes Series until the early 1990s.
Frank Hornby (inventor) and David Elliott (financier)
Branded as Mechanics Made Easy
Meccano Ltd, UK. 100% owned by Frank Hornby
Frank Hornby bought David Elliott out and rebranded the business.
Meccano Ltd, UK. 100% owned by Frank Hornby's family
Frank Hornby died in 1936
Lines Bros Ltd, UK (quoted on London Stock Exchange)
Argentinian rights licensed to Exacto in 1966
Airfix Product Ltd, UK (quoted on London Stock Exchange)
Commonwealth rights only
General Mills Inc, USA (quoted on New York Stock Exchange)
Rest of world rights except Argentina
General Mills Inc, USA (quoted on New York Stock Exchange
Global rights except Argentina
France (Owned by Marc Redibo)
Revoked Argentinian licence to secure global rights
France (Owned by Dominique Duvauchelle)
France (Owned 51% by Dominique Duvauchelle and 49% by
Nikko Toys of Japan)
France during this period.
France (Owned 51% Ingroup and 49% by 21 Centrale
21 Centrale Partners: Owned by the Benetton family. Ingroup: Owned by
the Inberg family who ran Meccano.
Spin Master Ltd, Canada (Quoted on Toronto Stock Exchange from 2015)
Design and marketing in US and Canada.
General Mills bought up
Airfix Products and with it what was
Meccano Ltd UK, giving it complete control of the Meccano
franchise. All the existing
Meccano sets were scrapped and a totally
new range of sets were designed for production in Calais, France
Meccano Junior". These new sets included many plastic parts
and could only build small models.
Meccano model motorcycle built with the
Meccano Motion System 50 set.
General Mills left the toy business completely, selling off
their toy divisions.
Meccano was sold out to a French accountant, Marc
Rebibo, and, once again, all existing
Meccano sets were scrapped. The
Meccano Junior" sets were replaced with three "Premier Meccano" sets
and two "Motor" sets (including a six-speed motor) were introduced.
Due to high demand, the old
Meccano No.1 to No.10 construction sets
from 1981 were re-introduced.
In 1989 Marc Rebibo sold what remained of
Meccano to Dominique
Duvauchelle. Allen head zinc plated steel bolts replaced the original
slot-headed brass-plated bolts and the "Plastic
Meccano Junior" sets
were brought back. With younger model builders in mind, many theme
sets were also introduced, including the "
Agricultural" 200-Series & 300-Series, the "Space" 100-Series and
the "Dynamic" 400-Series minisets. The old-style No. 5 to 10 sets
remained in production until 1992.
In 1994 additional theme sets were introduced and a pull-back friction
motor was added to the Plastic
Meccano System. In 1996 "Action
Control" sets with infrared controls were added and 1999 saw the
introduction of a "Motion System" range of sets that changed the look
Meccano completely. There were six one-model sets, two five-model
sets, and five new sets numbered 10 to 50, the 20 to 50 sets being
motorized. A complete change from the normal practice (sticking to a
single majority colour) was that every set had its own colour scheme,
often in bright neon colours.
In 2000 Nikko, a Japanese toy manufacturer, purchased 49 per cent of
Meccano and took on its marketing internationally through its
established channels for radio-controlled toys. Development and design
Meccano SN, based in Calais, France. Nikko launched a
successful range of new sets, including "Crazy Inventors" and the
"Future Master" range. Significantly, Nikko radio control and
programmable electronics started to appear in the System. However,
under commercial pressure, Nikko sold its interest in the
and System back to
Meccano SN, the French parent company, in August
Meccano is now manufactured in
France and China. During 2013
Meccano brand was acquired in its entirety by the Canadian toy
company Spin Master.
Meccano today is very different from its heyday in the 1930s to 1950s.
The target market of youngsters has not changed significantly;
however, the mass market, instant-appeal approach does not always
Meccano enthusiasts. For example, it is often
difficult to obtain original spares.
Many parts were introduced since the
Liverpool factory closed under
the French-and-Japanese running of the company. These included plastic
parts, can motors, and modern battery holders.
Metal became an
expensive raw material to work with and many of the metal parts were
replaced with plastic parts. Allen (hex-headed) zinc electroplated
steel bolts replaced the slotted bolts. Some
enthusiastically embrace the changes and new parts. However, the
"purists" look down on these new parts. Some enthusiasts set
self-imposed limits on using only parts deemed to be traditional and
steer clear of those parts viewed as “not truly Meccano”.[citation
Original specialist parts, such as very long (up to 2 foot) angle
girders, loom shuttles, printing rollers, etc. often required for
large Super Models are becoming more difficult to obtain. There are
replica manufacturers who satisfy the needs of enthusiasts who wish to
build models requiring these parts.
What has remained the same during all these years is the Imperial ½
inch perforation spacing and the 5/32 inch whitworth thread for nuts
and bolts (and other threaded parts). These unchanged standards and
complete interchangeability of parts results in many modern models
functioning perfectly with
Meccano components that are more than 100
years old and vice versa. Indeed, old and new parts can be intermixed
with impunity, the only problem being the odd mixture of colour
Meccano launched "
Meccano Evolution", a new "back to basics"
iteration of Meccano, which allowed smaller and more detailed models
to be built using simpler and more "functional" parts than were
supplied in previous "new Meccano" sets.
Meccano Evolution has
narrower strips, with holes spaced at twice the density of the
original system. In late 2013, the company also opened a public
Meccano Lab" play space and R&D centre, in Calais,
Spin Master launched Meccanoids,
The current range of
Meccano electric motors are small DC types
designed to run on domestic batteries. These are low-torque high-speed
"can" motors. These are inexpensive and suitable for small models that
a child might construct from the standard range of sets. Adult
enthusiasts tend to use a wider range of high-performance motors that
are better suited to powering large models. During Meccano's heyday,
the electric motors available were universal wound (for use on DC or
AC supplies) that were called the MECCANO MOTOR M-Series in the 1970s;
these electric motors ranged from 3 volt to the E20R 20 volt Electric
Reversible Motor depending on the motor model. They became better
known as the M1, M3 and M5 Electric Motors. Particularly well known
were the E020, E20R and E15R universal motors, issued after the Second
World War. These could be run from a mains
Meccano Transformer No.T20
1 AMP 20 Volts Set or, in the case of the E15R, a 12 V car battery.
Earlier there had been short-lived (and potentially lethal) mains
motors designed for DC mains with a domestic lightbulb in series to
drop the voltage, followed by motors of the post-War pattern but wound
for 4.5 or 6 V DC and suited to lead/acid accumulator power. These, as
well as the latter accumulator are now rare if in good condition.
Meccano steam engine, 1965–1979.
For many years, live steam engines were made and sold under the
Meccano brand, although they were not made by Meccano. Earlier
examples were just vertical steam engines, typical of the time, sold
Meccano name. The first to be specially designed for Meccano
was introduced in 1929. This was a vertically boilered engine in a
chassis designed to facilitate it being integrated into Meccano
models. From 1965 to 1976,
Mamod made a steam engine for Meccano, the
design of which was based on the 1929 version, with a similar chassis
but using a standard
Mamod horizontal boiler and engine parts. The
model had no official model number, being known simply as the Meccano
steam engine. However, it has since become generally known as the
MEC1. Even after it was no longer being sold under the
Mamod continued to manufacture the same model (with minor differences)
until 1985, under their own name with the model number SP3.
Some model construction kits are compatible with Meccano. One example
is the Swiss brand Stokys (de), which has been manufactured since
1941. Their elements are mainly made of thick stable metal in order to
fit to the general approach of Swiss Quality. Other examples are
Exacto and Metallus (construction kits) (de).
Meccano has always had several compatible products on the market (such
as X-Series Meccano, Plastic Meccano, Mogul Toys and Speed-Play). In
2007, a plastic robot named "Spykee" arrived. The robot is controlled
using a WiFi interface and has a webcam but cannot climb stairs as is
sometimes claimed. It can also be controlled over the Internet and
configured as a security camera. The robot is primarily packaged in a
single plastic base component and comprises additional bolt-on plastic
parts that are present for aesthetic purposes only (i.e. the arms do
not function). The robot base does include some standard
spacing. By September 2008, the
Spykee robot family numbers five, with
each robot having different capabilities.
Since the 1920s, construction kits compatible with
manufactured in the Soviet Union. They did not have a
uniform colour scheme, parts could be in any color. Usually the strips
and girders were not painted, and the plates could be either unpainted
or painted in red, yellow, and blue. In the 1970s, plastic parts were
introduced. The "Krugozor" (English: "Outlook"; Russian:
"Кругозор") plant in Moscow produced some sets which included
electrical motors and gears. The largest set of the 1970s–1980s was
called "Yunost-3" (Russian: "Юность-3") and contained about 200
parts. The "Yunost" ("Adolescence") series were practically identical
Meccano sets with the same number, but there is no
evidence of larger sets (equivalent to No. 4 or larger) being
produced. There were instructions for building 44 models. Today, many
similar kits, mostly Russian and Chinese-produced, are being sold in
Unlike the Czech Merkur sets, the Soviet ones used mixed Metric and
Imperial measurements despite the latter having been abandoned in
Russia since the 1920s. The spacing between holes was 12.7 mm, or
1/2 inch, and the hole diameter was 4.3 mm, or
1/6 inch, but the nuts and bolts included were Metric.
Meccano model of a steam shovel excavator powered by a restored 1929
Meccano steam engine. It was built by Chris Els in 2004.
Meccano set there was a wide range of models that could be
built. Here are the models for which instructions were given in the
largest set of the late 1950s, the "Outfit 10":
"Railway Service Crane", "Sports Motor Car", "Coal Tipper", "Cargo
Ship", "Double Decker Bus", "Lifting Shovel", "Blocksetting Crane",
"Beam Bridge", "Dumper Truck", "Automatic Gantry Crane", "Automatic
Snow Loader", "4-4-0 Passenger Locomotive"
On top of these there were instruction leaflets available for:
"Combine Harvester", "The Eiffel Tower", "Showman’s Traction
Engine", "Twin-Cylinder Motor Cycle Engine", "Trench Digger", "Bottom
Dump Truck", "Road Surfacing Machine", "Mechanical Loading Shovel"
It has been said that the instructions sometimes contained deliberate
errors to challenge the ingenuity of its users. However, those
involved in their production maintain such errors were accidental, and
are no more common than the unintentional errors in other modelling
Since this time, enthusiasts such as G. Maurice Morris and MW Models
have taken to publishing their own model plans, ranging from small
models up to large and complex machines.
Meccano differential analyser in use at the Cambridge
University Mathematics Laboratory, c. 1937. The person on the right is
Dr. Maurice Wilkes, who was in charge of it at the time.
Meccano began to be used in the construction of differential
analysers, a type of analogue computer used to solve differential
equations which has long since become obsolete. Though invented on
paper in the 19th century, the first such machine had only been built
in 1931, and normally they would be built by specialist manufacturers,
at great cost. For example, in 1947, UCLA in the US installed a
differential analyser built for them by
General Electric at a cost of
$125,000. However, a "proof of concept" model of a differential
analyser which made extensive use of
Meccano parts was built at
Manchester University, UK, in 1934, by
Douglas Hartree and Arthur
Porter: use of
Meccano meant that the machine was cheap to build, and
it proved "accurate enough for the solution of many scientific
problems". This machine is now in the Science Museum, Exhibition
Road, London, England. A similar machine built by J.B. Bratt at
Cambridge University in 1935 is now in the Museum of Transport and
Technology (MOTAT) collection in Auckland, New Zealand. A
memorandum written for the British military's Armament Research
Department in 1944 describes how this same machine was modified during
World War II for improved reliability and enhanced capability, and
identifies its wartime applications as including research on the flow
of heat, explosive detonations, and simulations of transmission
lines. After a lengthy period of neglect, a restoration effort
began in 2003, and a successful "full run through" of this machine was
completed on 16 December 2008.
In 2005, Tim Robinson displayed his own
Meccano differential analyser
at the Computer History Museum, at Mountain View, California, US, and
Robinson has also built and exhibited two models of Charles Babbage's
difference engine, also using Meccano.
Meccano S.A. built a giant
Ferris wheel in France. It was
modelled after the original 1893 Ferris
Wheel built by George
Washington Gale Ferris Jr. at the
World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition at
Chicago and was shipped to the United States to promote "Erector
Meccano S.A. had bought out the "Erector" trade name
and began selling
Meccano sets in the U.S. It went on display in New
York City after which it was purchased by Ripley's Believe It or Not!
and put on display in their
St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine, Florida museum. The model,
the largest in size at the time, is 6.5 metres (21.3 ft) high,
weighs 544 kilograms (1,200 pounds), was made from 19,507 pieces,
50,560 nuts and bolts, and took 1,239 hours to construct. At this
mass and size, some deviation from Meccano-only parts was a necessity,
to prevent it collapsing (mainly in the structural spokes). The
largest model by mass would certainly be in contention but some models
have topped 600 kg.
A recent large model, weighing approximately 500 kg and 23 m
long, was built in September 2009 by TV presenter
James May and a team
of volunteers from the engineering department of the University of
Liverpool, who created a
Meccano bridge spanning the Leeds and
Liverpool Canal in Liverpool. As with other models of this size and
weight some non-
Meccano parts were used. It was built from "[about]
100,000 pieces of real Meccano", taking 1,100 hours, and consisted of
a 9-metre (29.5 ft) "swing bridge" section, and a 12-metre
(39.4 ft) "drawbridge" section. A contender for the
largest model on record was built in 2014 by Graham Shepherd of
Grahamstown, South Africa. The fully motorized Krupp 288 Bucket Wheel
Excavator (as used on large opencast mining) is complete with
Meccano parts as well as
replica and strengthened parts (thickened profile plates and high
tensile bolts in areas carrying large loads). Shepherd reports the
model as being 1,335 kilograms (2,943 pounds) in mass and 17 ft tall.
It required substantial timber support frames to facilitate final
Meccano remains a very versatile constructional medium. Almost any
mechanical device can be built with it, from structures, to complex
working cranes, automatic gearboxes or clocks.
Meccano is frequently
used to prototype new ideas and inventions. Model realisation using
Meccano is limited mainly by the imagination and ingenuity of the
Meccano Centennial poster and sticker issued in 2001 to celebrate one
hundred years of Meccano, showing the
Meccano blocksetting crane with
a portrait of Frank Hornby, Meccano's inventor.
Frank Hornby launched the
Meccano Guild in 1919, to encourage boys of
all ages—as well as early clubs—to become part of a central
organisation, which oversaw club formation, and set guidelines for
club proceedings. The
Meccano Magazine was used as a means to keep
Guild clubs informed of each other's activities (as well as encourage
the sales of Meccano).
The International Society of Meccanomen was founded in 1989 in
England, nine years after the
Liverpool factory closed. This
organisation is considered the modern replacement of the Guild system
and now has some 600 members in over 30 countries.
Today, over a hundred years since its inception, there are thousands
Meccano enthusiasts worldwide, many clubs and hundreds of websites
Meccano history, model building instructions and nostalgia.
Individuals and companies worldwide still manufacture parts, some long
out of production. There are annual
Meccano exhibitions around the
world, notably in
France (at a different venue around May each year)
Skegness in England (around July every year). Many notable
shows also take place in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand each
year to name a few.
Publications devoted fully or in part to
Meccano included Meccano
Magazine from 1916 to 1981, and numerous
Special Model Leaflets aimed
at serious enthusiasts, on how to construct very large, complex models
and machines. Some models use many more parts than an entire Set 10.
The original large models from the 1930s model leaflets are called the
Meccano Super Models, often popular at
Meccano and other model
engineering exhibitions and sometimes used as nostalgic showpieces by
retailers. Modern dedicated publications include: Constructor
Quarterly, The International Meccanoman and the ModelPlans series of
instructions. These feature large model instructions and ideas for
enthusiasts. There are also a myriad of club-generated periodicals,
Meccano content and keeping enthusiasts in touch.
Pierre Bastien with his instruments made from Meccano
The careers many people chose were influenced by their experience and
knowledge gained from using the product.
Meccano is mentioned in the first chapter of Graham Greene's novel The
Power and the Glory. It also mentioned at some length in J. J.
Connington's 1928 detective novel, Nemesis at Raynham Parva (U.S.
title, Grim Vengeance, 1929).
Pierre Bastien is a French musical artist who has created a large
collection of kinetic experimental musical instruments constructed
In Sydney, Australia an overhead gantry with directional signs and
traffic lights erected in 1962 gained the
Liver bird sculpted in
Liverpool Shopping Park, on the site
of the former
Meccano factory on Binns Road
Tetrix Robotics Kit
^ Roger Marriott (2012) Meccano, Shire Books, Colchester, UK
^ "Hornby's 1901 patent". Retrieved 17 July 2007.
^ O'Shea, Patrick. "What is Meccano?". Johannesburg
Retrieved 17 July 2007.
^ Instruktion för bygglåda Nr. 2 (in Swedish).
Meccano The Thrill of Build-It-Yourself.
Meccano Ltd. 1961.
^ Contents of
Meccano outfits 1962.
Meccano Ltd. 1962.
^ Book of Models outfit 2.
Meccano Ltd. 1971. [page needed]
Meccano sarjat ja uutuudet 1973 (outfits and novelties) (in
Finnish). Helsinki, Finland: Ky Lelumyynti. 1973.
^ Ward, Arthur, The Boys Book of Airfix
Meccano revives French production BBC News 24 December 2010.
^ Strauss, Marina (13 August 2013). "
Spin Master acquires iconic
Meccano in bid to take on Lego". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 25
Meccano ouvre les portes de son laboratoire expérimental le 6
novembre 2013 : Le
Meccano Lab' Archived 6 December 2013 at the
^ Calais :
Meccano Lab, pour les (grands) enfants adeptes de jeux
de construction L Voix du Nord , 6 November 2013
^ "Introducing Meccanoid". Mecanno Maker System. Retrieved 12 January
^ Poeter, Damon (6 January 2015). "
Spin Master Revives
'Meccanoid' Robot Kit". PC Magazine. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
^ "James May's Top Toys". 17 December 2008. UKTV. Dave. Missing
or empty series= (help)
^ Robinson, Tim (June 2005), "The
Meccano Set Computers A history of
differential analyzers made from children's toys", IEEE Control
Systems Magazine, 25 (3): 74–83, doi:10.1109/MCS.2005.1432602 .
^ "UCLA's Bush Analyzer Retires to Smithsonian" (Google News).
Computerworld. 9 January 1978. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
^ a b c "Differential Analyser".
Meccano Guild]. Retrieved 21
^ Cairns, W. J., Crank, J., & Lloyd, E. C. Some Improvements in
Construction of a Small Scale Differential Analyser and a Review
of Recent Applications, Armament Research Department Theoretical
Research Memo. No. 27/44, 1944 (see Robinson, Tim (7 June 2008).
"Bibliography". Tim Robinson's
Meccano Computing Machinery web site.
Retrieved 26 July 2010. ). The memorandum is now in The National
Archives, UK: "Piece reference DEFE 15/751". The National Archives.
Retrieved 26 July 2010. For the "Armament Research Department",
see Fort Halstead, and cf. the entry for 1944 in "MoD History of
Innovation" (pdf). Ploughshare Innovations Ltd. Retrieved 26 July
2010. It has been said that this machine was used in preparation
for Operation Chastise, otherwise known as the "Dam Busters raid"
(e.g. in O’Neill, Rob (16 July 2007). "
Meccano 'Dam Busters'
computer stars at MOTAT". Computerworld. Archived from the original on
17 August 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2007. ), but see Irwin, William
(July 2009). "The Differential Analyser Explained".
Guild. Retrieved 21 July 2010. It is rumoured that a differential
analyser was used in the development of the "bouncing bomb" by Barnes
Wallis for the "Dam Busters" attack on the Ruhr valley hydroelectric
dams in WW2. This was first mentioned in
MOTAT literature in 1973.
However after extensive enquiries and literature searches over the
last few years, no evidence can be found that the [differential
analyser held by MOTAT], nor any other differential analyser, was used
for this purpose. Considering the secrecy surrounding war time
activities at the time it could still be possible, but most people
from that era are now deceased. Two remaining personalities still
alive from that era were consulted, namely Arthur Porter and Maurice
Wilkes, but neither could substantiate the rumour
^ Robinson, Tim, Tim Robinson's Differential Analyzer (10 February
2005), Robinson's Difference Engine #1 (3 April 2006), Robinson's
Difference Engine #2 (7 May 2006). Tim Robinson's
Machinery web site. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
Meccano Models of the Twentieth Century". The New Zealand
Meccano Modellers. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
Meccano bridge challenge". 8 August 2009. Archived from the
original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
^ "May builds
Meccano canal bridge". BBC News. 8 August 2009.
Retrieved 12 May 2010. See James May's Toy Stories.
^ bagger288meccano.blogspot.com, 14 October 2014
^ "Harry Kroto Nobel Prize autobiography". Retrieved 17 July
Meccano Magazine story". Culture Shock. Retrieved 5 January
^ Greene, Graham (2003) . The Power and the Glory. Penguin
Classics. p. 12. ISBN 0-14-243730-1.
^ Connington, J. J. (30 November 2012). Nemesis at Raynham Parva.
Orion. ISBN 978-1-4719-0600-8.
^ Consultation on the future of the
Meccano Set Archived 20 October
2016 at the Wayback Machine. Roads & Maritime Services
Meccano set future on hold Daily Telegraph 9 June 2015
Jim Gamble and Bert Love (1986), The
Meccano System, London: New
Cavendish Books. ISBN 0-904568-36-9.
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