In many countries, a MAYOR (/ˈmɛər/ or /ˈmeɪər/ , from the
Latin _maior_ , meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in
a municipal government such as that of a city or a town .
Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs
regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the
means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on
the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the
municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body
with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial
role. Options for selection of a mayor include direct election by the
public, or selection by an elected governing council or board.
* 1 History
* 1.1 British Isles
* 1.2 Continental Europe
* 1.2.1 Scandinavia
* 2 Mayors by country
* 2.1 Australia
* 2.2 Brazil
* 2.3 Canada
* 2.4 Dominican
* 2.6 Germany
* 2.11 Ireland
* 2.12 Italy
* 2.13 Japan
* 2.14 Moldova
* 2.16 New Zealand
* 2.22 Russia
* 2.24 Spain and Hispanic America
* 2.26 Switzerland
* 2.27 Taiwan
* 2.28 Turkey
* 2.30 United States
* 3 Multi-tier local government
* 4 Acting mayor
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links
Mayors in England and
Mayors in Wales
Wales , the position of mayor descends from the
feudal lord's bailiff or reeve (_see borough _). The chief magistrate
London bore the title of portreeve for considerably more than a
century after the
Norman Conquest . This official was elected by
popular choice, a privilege secured from King John . By the beginning
of the 12th century, the title of portreeve gave way to that of mayor
as the designation of the chief officer of London, followed around
1190 by that of
Winchester . Other boroughs adopted the title later.
In the 19th century, in the
United Kingdom , the Municipal
Corporations Act 1882 , Section 15, regulated the election of mayors.
The mayor was to be a fit person elected annually on 9 November by the
council of the borough from among the aldermen or councillors or
persons qualified to be such. His term of office was one year, but he
was eligible for re-election. He might appoint a deputy to act during
illness or absence, and such deputy must be either an alderman or
councillor. A mayor who was absent from the borough for more than two
months became disqualified and had to vacate his office. A mayor was
_ex officio_ a justice of the peace for the borough during his year of
office and the following year. He received such remuneration as the
council thought reasonable. These provisions have now been repealed.
In medieval Wales, the
Laws of Hywel Dda
Laws of Hywel Dda codified the mayor (
_maior_; Welsh : _maer_) as a position at the royal courts charged
with administering the serfs of the king\'s lands . To maintain its
dependence on and loyalty to the Crown, the position was forbidden to
the leaders of the clan groups. A separate mayor, known as the "cow
dung mayor" (_maer biswail_), was charged with overseeing the royal
cattle. There were similar offices at the Scottish and Irish courts.
The office of mayor in most modern English and Welsh boroughs and
towns did not in the 20th century entail any important administrative
duties, and was generally regarded as an honour conferred for local
distinction, long service on the Council, or for past services. The
mayor was expected to devote much of his (or her) time to civic,
ceremonial, and representational functions, and to preside over
meetings for the advancement of the public welfare. His or her
administrative duties were to act as returning officer at
parliamentary elections, and as chairman of the meetings of the
council. However, since reforms introduced in 2000, 14 English local
authorities have directly elected mayors who combine the 'civic' mayor
role with that of Leader of the Council and have significantly greater
powers than either. The mayor of a town council is officially known as
"town mayor" (although in popular parlance, the word "town" is often
dropped). Women mayors are also known as "mayor"; the wife of a mayor
is sometimes known as the "mayoress". Mayors are not appointed to
District Councils which do not have borough status . Their place is
taken by the Chairman of Council, who undertakes exactly the same
functions and is, like a mayor, the civic head of the district
Scotland the post holders are known as Convenors, Provosts, or
Lord Provosts depending on the local authority.
Mayor of the Palace and podestà
The original Frankish mayors or majordomos were – like the Welsh
_meiri_ – lords commanding the king's lands around the Merovingian
Austrasia , Burgundy , and
Neustria . The mayorship of Paris
eventually became hereditary in the
Pippinids , who later established
Carolingian dynasty .
France , since the Revolution , a mayor (_maire_) and a
number of mayoral adjuncts (_adjoints au maire_) are selected by the
municipal council from among their number. Most of the administrative
work is left in their hands, with the full council meeting
comparatively infrequently. The model was copied throughout Europe in
Britain's mayors, Italy's sindacos , most of the German states'
burgomasters , and Portugal's presidents of the municipal chambers .
Medieval Italy , the city-states who did not consider themselves
independent principalities or dukedoms – particularly those of the
Ghibelline faction – were led by podestàs .
The Greek equivalent of a mayor is the demarch (Greek:
δήμαρχος, lit. "archon of the deme ").
Denmark all municipalities are led by a political official called
_borgmester _, "mayor". The mayor of
Copenhagen is however called
_overborgmester _ "superior mayor". In that city other mayors,
_borgmestre_ (plural), are subordinate to him with different
undertakings, like ministers to a prime minister. In other
Denmark there is only a single mayor.
Sweden the mayoral title _borgermester/borgmästare_
has now been abolished.
Norway abolished it in 1937 as a title of the
non-political top manager of (city) municipalities and replaced it
with the title _rådmann_ ("alderman " or "magistrate "), which is
still in use when referring to the top managers of the municipalities
Norway . The top _elected_ official of the municipalities of
Norway, on the other hand, has the title _ordfører_, which actually
means "word-bearer", i.e. "chairman" or "president", an equivalent to
the Swedish word _ordförande_.
Sweden _borgmästare_ was a title of the senior judge of the
courts of the cities, courts which were called _rådhusrätt_,
literally "town hall court", somewhat of an equivalent to an English
magistrates\' court . These courts were abolished in 1971. Until 1965
these mayor judges on historical grounds also performed administrative
functions in the "board of magistrates", in Swedish known collegially
as _magistrat_. Until 1965 there were also municipal mayors
(_kommunalborgmästare_), who had these non-political administrative
roles in smaller cities without a magistrates' court or _magistrat_.
This office was an invention of the 20th century as the smaller cities
Sweden during the first half of the 20th century subsequently lost
their own courts and magistrates.
In the 16th century in Sweden, king
Gustav Vasa considerably
centralised government and appointed the mayors directly. In 1693 king
Charles XI accepted a compromise after repeated petitions from the
Estate of the Burgesses over decades against the royal mayor
appointments. The compromise was that the burgesses in a city could
normally nominate a mayor under the supervision of the local governor.
The nominee was then to be presented to and appointed by the king, but
the king could appoint mayors directly in exceptional cases. This was
codified in the
Instrument of Government
Instrument of Government of 1720 and on 8 July the
same year Riksrådet ("the Council of the Realm") decided, after a
petition from the said Estate, that only the city could present
nominees, not the king or anyone else. Thus the supervision of the
local governor and directly appointed mayors by the king ceased after
1720 (the so-called
Age of Liberty
Age of Liberty ). On 16 October 1723, it was
decided after a petition that the city should present three nominees,
of whom the king (or the Council of the Realm) appointed one. This
was kept as a rule from then on in all later regulations and was also
kept as a tradition in the 1809
Instrument of Government
Instrument of Government (§ 31) until
Finland , there are two mayors, in
Pirkkala . Usually
Finland the highest executive official is not democratically
elected, but is appointed to a public office by the city council, and
is called simply _kaupunginjohtaja_ "city manager" or _kunnanjohtaja_
"municipal manager", depending on whether the municipality defines
itself as a city. The term _pormestari_ "mayor", from Swedish
_borgmästare_ confusingly on historical grounds has referred to the
highest official in the registry office and in the city courts
(abolished in 1993) as in Sweden, not the city manager. In addition,
_pormestari_ is also an honorary title, which may be given for
distinguished service in the post of the city manager. The city
manager of Helsinki is called _ylipormestari_, which translates to
"Chief Mayor", for historical reasons. Furthermore, the term "city
manager" may be seen translated as "mayor".
MAYORS BY COUNTRY
On Australian councils, the mayor is generally the member of the
council who acts as ceremonial figurehead at official functions, as
well as carrying the authority of council between meetings. Mayoral
decisions made between meetings are subject to Council and may be
confirmed or repealed if necessary. Mayors in Australia may be elected
either directly through a ballot for the position of mayor at a
local-government election, or alternatively may be elected from within
the council at a meeting in September.
The civic regalia and insignia of local government have basically
remained unaltered for centuries. The robes, the mayoral chain and the
mace are not intended to glorify the individual, but rather they are a
uniform of office and are used to respect and honour the people whom
the users serve.
The mayoral robe is crimson with lapels and sleeves trimmed in
ermine. The mayor may also wear a lace fall (neck piece) and cuffs.
The deputy-mayoral robe is crimson with lapels and sleeves trimmed
with black velvet and bordered with lapin.
Mayors have the title of 'HIS/HER WORSHIP \' whilst holding the
In councils where
Councillors are elected representing political
parties, the mayor is normally the leader of the party receiving the
most seats on council. In
Lord Mayor and Mayors are
elected by popular vote at the general council election.
Every municipality in Brazil elects a mayor (Portuguese:
_prefeito_/_prefeita_), for a four-year term, acting as an executive
officer with the city council (Portuguese: _Câmara Municipal_)
functioning with legislative powers. The mayor can be re-elected and
manage the city for two consecutive terms.
The Brazilian system works similarly to the mayor-council government
in the United States.
The chief executives of boroughs (_arrondissements _) in
termed mayors (_maires/mairesses_ in French). A borough mayor
simultaneously serves as head of the borough council and as a regular
councillor on the main city council.
As is the practice in most Commonwealth countries, in Canada a mayor
is addressed as His/Her Worship while holding office.
In some small townships in
Ontario , the title REEVE was historically
used instead of mayor. In some other municipalities, "mayor" and
"reeve" were two separate offices, with the mayor retaining leadership
powers while the reeve was equivalent to what other municipalities
called an "at-large councillor". While most municipalities in the
province now designate their elected municipal government heads as
mayors, in certain areas of the province, the elected head of the
municipality continues to be refereed to as reeve, and the
second-in-command is referred to as the deputy reeve. For example,
this continues to be the case in the municipalities of Algonquin
Dysart et al
Dysart et al ,
Highlands East , and
Minden Hills , all
located within the
Haliburton County .
Many municipalities in Alberta continue to use the title reeve to
denote the office of mayor or chief elected official in accordance
Municipal Government Act.
In rural municipalities (RM) in the provinces of
Saskatchewan , the elected head of the RM is still referred to as a
"reeve", as are the heads of most counties and District Municipalities
(DMs) in Alberta.
The scheduling of municipal elections in Canada varies by
jurisdiction, as each province and territory has its own laws
regarding municipal governance. See also municipal elections in Canada
The mayor of a municipality in the Dominican
Republic is called
indistinctly _alcalde_ or _síndico_. The latter name is preferred as
to avoid confusing the title with the similarly sounding _alcaide_
(_lit. prison warden _). Such person is the governor of the
municipality whose township elected him (or her) by direct vote for a
term of four years. The mayor's office daily duties are restricted to
the local governance, and as such, it is responsible for the
coordination of waste collection , upkeep of public spaces (parks,
undeveloped urban parcels, streets, city ornate, traffic light
control, sewage and most public utilities). In practice most of it
duties are centered in light street repairing (new or big road
projects, like overpasses, bridges, pedestrian crossings, etc. are
handled by the Public Works Ministry (_Ministerio de Obras Públicas_
in Spanish) office), under the direct control of the Central
Government. Subcontracting garbage collection and management,
overseeing the use of public spaces and arbitring neighborhood land
_use_ disputes which is managed by the National Property office
(_Oficina de Bienes Nacionales_ in Spanish) is also controlled by the
mayor's office. Water, electrical supply and public transportation
coordination are handled by several Central Government's offices, and
as such, are not under control of the mayor.
For more details on this topic, see
Mayor (France) .
Mayors (_maires_) in
France are elected every six years in local
In Germany local government is regulated by state statutes. Nowadays
only the mayors of the three city-states (Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen )
are still elected by the respective city-state parliaments. In all the
other states the mayors are now elected directly by the EU citizens
living in that area. The post of mayor may be said to be a
professional one, the mayor being the head of the local government,
and requiring, in order to be eligible, a training in administration.
In big cities (details are regulated by state statutes) the official
title is Oberbürgermeister (
Lord Mayor ). In these cities a "simple"
mayor is just a deputy responsible for a distinct task (e.g., welfare
or construction works). Big cities are usually kreisfrei ("free of
district") . That means that the city council also has the powers and
duties of a rural district council. The leader of a rural district
council is called Landrat ("land counsellor"). In that case the chief
mayor has also the duties and powers of a Landrat. The term
Oberbürgermeister is not used in the three city-states, where the
mayors are simultaneously head of state governments , but _Regierender
Governing Mayor of Berlin
Governing Mayor of Berlin ), _Erster Bürgermeister_
First Mayor of the city-state of Hamburg
First Mayor of the city-state of Hamburg ) and _Präsident des Senats
und Bürgermeister_ (
President of the Senate and
Mayor of Bremen ) are
Greece were elected every four years in local elections and
are the head of various municipal governments in which the state is
divided. Starting from 2014, mayors are elected for a 5-year term.
Local administration elections for the new, consolidated
municipalities and peripheries will henceforth be held together with
the elections for the
European Parliament .
Local administration in
Greece recently underwent extensive reform in
two phases: the first phase, implemented in 1997 and commonly called
the "Kapodistrias Project", consolidated the country's numerous
municipalities and communities down to approximately 1000. The second
phase, initially called "Kapodistrias II" but eventually called the
Callicrates Project", was implemented in 2010, further consolidated
municipalities down to 370, and merged the country's 54 prefectures
into 13 peripheries. The Callicratean municipalities were designed
according to several guidelines; for example each island (except Crete
) was incorporated into a single municipality, while the majority of
small towns were consolidated so as to have an average municipal
population of 25,000.
India , the mayor is leader of the council and has a number of
roles, both legislative and functional. The legislative requirements
are outlined in Section 73 and 73AA of Local Government Act 1989.
Mayors are elected indirectly by the public.
Indonesia , the mayor is the regional head of the city area. A
mayor has the same level as the head of the regional district for the
area. Basically, the mayor has the duty and authority to lead the
implementation of the policies established by the region with the city
council. The mayor is elected in a pair with a deputy mayor, through
elections. The mayor is a political role, and not a civil-service
Iran , the mayor is the executive manager of city and elected by
City Council. The mayor is elected for a four-year term.
Republic of Ireland, the head of a borough corporation was
called "mayor" from the
Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840
until boroughs were abolished by the Local Government Reform Act 2014
Local Government Act 2001 allowed county councils to style their
chairperson as "mayor" and most do so.
City council chairs are "mayor"
(or "lord mayor" in the cases of Dublin and of Cork ). Since 2000
there have been proposals for a directly elected mayor of the Dublin
Metropolitan Area .
In Italy the mayor is called _sindaco_, or informally _primo
cittadino_ ("first citizen"). Every municipality (Italian : _Comune_)
has its mayor who represents the local government. The mayor is
elected every five years by the inhabitants of the municipality, but
he cannot be re-elected after two terms (except in small towns).
Autonomy Law of 1947 defines the structure of Japanese
local governments, which were strengthened after World War II. It
gives strong executive power to the mayor in the local politics like
strong mayors in large cities in the United States of America. The
titles that are translated as "mayor" by the governments are those of
the heads of cities _shichō_ (市長), towns _chōchō_ (町長),
villages _sonchō_ (村長), and Tokyo's special wards _kuchō_
(区長). (The head of the
Tokyo prefecture is the
_Chiji_).) A mayor is elected every four years by direct popular votes
held separately from the assembly. A mayor can be recalled by a
popular initiative but the prefectural and the national governments
cannot remove a mayor from office. Towards the assembly the mayor
prepares budgets, proposes local acts and has vetoes on local acts
just approved by the assembly which can be overridden by two-thirds
assembly support. A mayor can resolve the assembly if the assembly
passes a motion of no confidence or if the mayor thinks the assembly
has no confidence in fact.
Mayor of the municipality in Moldova is elected for four years.
Chişinău , the last mayor elections had to be repeated three
times, because of the low rate of participation.
Netherlands , the mayor (in Dutch : _burgemeester_) is the
leader of the municipal executives ('College van
Wethouders '). In the Netherlands, burgermeesters are _de facto_
appointed by the national cabinet , _de jure_ by the monarch . They
preside both the municipal executive and the legislative
('gemeenteraad '). The title is sometimes translated as burgomaster ,
to emphasize the appointed, rather than elected, nature of the office.
The appointment procedure was brought for discussion in the early
2000s (decade), as some of the political parties represented in
parliament regarded the procedure as undemocratic. Generally, mayors
Netherlands are selected from the established political
parties. Alternatives proposed were direct election of the mayor by
the people or appointment by the city council (_gemeenteraad_). A
constitutional change to allow for this failed to pass the Senate in
Mayors in New Zealand
Mayors in New Zealand are elected every three years in the local body
Pakistan , a city is headed by the District
Nazim (the word means
"supervisor" in Urdu, but is sometimes translated as Mayor) and
assisted by Naib
Nazim who is also speaker of District Council.
Nazim is elected by the nazims of union councils , union
councillors and by tehsil nazims, who themselves are elected directly
by the votes of the local public. Council elections are held every
Philippines , mayors are the head of a municipality or a city
, with the vice - mayor as the second highest position in the city.
They are elected every three years during the midterm and national
elections, and they can serve until three terms of office. As of -
September 2012, there are 1,635 mayors in the Philippines.
Poland are directly elected by inhabitants of their
respective municipality . The mayor is the sole chief of the executive
branch of the municipality and he cannot serve on the municipal
council (city council ) or in the parliament . The mayor may appoint a
deputy mayor if needed. In Poland, a mayor is called a _burmistrz_ or,
in towns with more than 100,000 inhabitants or other municipalities
that traditionally use the title, _prezydent_ ("president", for
Warsaw ", instead of "
Mayor of Warsaw"). The
equivalent title in a rural community ("gmina ") is "wójt ".
The mayor is elected for a four-year term concurrently with the
four-year term of the municipal council, and his/her service is
terminated at the end of the municipal council's term. Mayors cannot
be dismissed by the municipal council, but they can be removed from
the office by the citizens of their municipality in a referendum . A
mayor can also be dismissed by the
Prime Minister in case of
persistent transgression of the law. Citizens having a criminal record
cannot run for mayor, but only if sentenced for intentional offense ex
The mayor manages the municipal estate, issues minor regulations, and
incurs liabilities within limits set by the municipal council. The
mayor presents a budget to the municipal council, that may then be
amended by the council. After the municipal council passes the budget
in a form of resolution, the mayor is responsible for its realization.
The mayor is the head of the town hall and the register office (he/she
may appoint deputies for these specific tasks). Mayors legally act as
employers for all of the officials of the town hall. Mayors in Poland
have wide administrative authority: the only official that he/she
cannot appoint or dismiss is a city treasurer , who is appointed by a
city council. Although mayors in
Poland do not have veto power over
city council resolutions, their position is relatively strong and
should be classified as a mayor-council government .
Portugal and many other Portuguese-speaking countries the mayor of
a municipality is called the _Presidente da Câmara Municipal_
President of the
Municipal Chamber ).
Romania the mayor of a commune, town or city is called _primar_.
He is elected for a period of four years. In carrying out his
responsibilities he is assisted by an elected local council (_consiliu
Bucharest has a general mayor (_primar general_) and six
sector mayors (_primar de sector_), one for each sector . The
responsibilities of the mayor and of the local council are defined by
Law 215/2001 of the Romanian Parliament.
In Russia, the mayor is one of possible titles of the head of the
administration of a city (municipality). (Sometimes a mayor acts as
the head of a municipality.) This title is equivalent to that of the
head of a Russian rural district. Exceptionally, the mayors of Moscow
Sevastopol are equivalent to governors in
Russia, since these three federal cities are equivalent to Russian
Except for those just-named three large cities, the governance system
of a Russian municipality (city, county, district or town) is
subordinate to the representative council of the federation in which
it is located. The mayor, is either directly elected in municipal
elections (citywide referendum) or is elected by the members of the
municipality's representative council. Election by council members is
now more widespread because it better integrates with the Russian
federal three-level vertical governance structure:
* National government:
* Federal Assembly
* Federation governments:
* Heads of federation (commonly governors)
* Regional representative councils
* Local governments:
* Heads of administration (who have the official title of 'mayor',
whether or not local law defines it as such)
* Local representative councils
The typical term of office of a mayor in Russia is four years. The
mayor's office administers all municipal services, public property,
police and fire protection, and most public agencies, and enforces all
local and state laws within a city or town.
According to Medialogy, the mayor of
Novosibirsk , Edward Lokot', is
mentioned in the media more than any other Russian mayor. The mayor of
Kazan , Il'sur Metshin, is the most popular in Russia, scoring 76 out
of 100, according to the Russian People's Rating of Mayors.
Serbia , the mayor is the head of the city or a town. He acts on
behalf of the city, and performs an executive function. The position
of the mayor of
Belgrade is important as the capital city is the most
important hub of economics, culture and science in
Furthermore, the post of the mayor of
Belgrade is the third most
important position in the government after the
Prime Minister and
SPAIN AND HISPANIC AMERICA
Alcalde _ is the most common Spanish term for the mayor of a town or
city. It is derived from the
Arabic _al-qaḍi _ (قاضي), i.e.,
Sharia ) judge," who often had administrative, as well as
judicial, functions. Although the Castilian _alcalde_ and the
Andalusian _qaḍi_ had slightly different attributes (the _qaḍi_
oversaw an entire province, the _alcalde_ only a municipality; the
former was appointed by the ruler of the state but the latter was
elected by the municipal council ), the adoption of this term reflects
how much Muslim society in the Iberian Peninsula influenced the
Christian one in the early phases of the
Reconquista . As Spanish
Christians took over an increasing part of the Peninsula, they adapted
the Muslim systems and terminology for their own use.
Today, it refers to the executive head of a municipal or local
government, who usually does not have judicial functions. The word
_intendente _ is used in
Paraguay for the office that is
analogous to a mayor.
In larger cities in
Mexico , the chief executive is known as a
"municipal president" or _presidente municipal._
The Swedish title _borgmästare_ (burgomaster ) was abolished in the
court reform of 1971 when also the towns of
Sweden were officially
abolished. Since the middle of the 20th century, the municipal
commissioner – the highest-ranking politician in each municipality
– is informally titled "mayor" in English.
The function and title for mayor vary from one canton to another.
Generally, the mayor presides an executive council of several members
governing a municipality .
The title is:
* in Italian: _Sindaco_ (
* in French: _Maire_ (Geneva , Jura , Bern ), _Syndic_ (
Fribourg ), _Président du Conseil municipal_ (
Valais ), _Président
du Conseil communal_ (Neuchâtel )
* in German: e.g. _Stadtpräsident_, _Stadtammann_,
Republic of China in Taiwan the mayor is the head of city's
government and its city's council, which is in charge of legislative
affairs. The mayor and city council are elected separately by the
Mayors (Turkish :_Belediye Başkanı_) in Turkey are elected by the
inhabitants of the settlement. As a rule, there are municipalities in
all province centers and district centers as well as towns (Turkish :
_belde_) which are actually villages with a population in excess of
2000. However beginning by 1983, a new level of municipality is
introduced in Turkish administrative system. In big cities
Metropolitan municipalities (Turkish : _Büyükşehir belediyesi_) are
Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey
Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey ) In a
Metropolitan municipality there may be several district municipalities
Ukraine the title _Mer_ was introduced for the position of the
head of the municipal state administration in the federal cities of
Sevastopol . In the rest of the urban and rural settlements
the position is unofficial and simply refers to the head of a local
council who at the moment of such assignment cannot be affiliated with
any party of the council.
Mayoralty in the United States
The mayor is the leader in most United States municipalities (such as
cities, townships, etc.). In the United States , there are several
distinct types of mayors, depending on the system of local government.
Under council-manager government , the mayor is a first among equals
on the city council , which acts as a legislative body while executive
functions are performed by the appointed manager. The mayor may chair
the city council, but lacks any special legislative powers. The mayor
and city council serve part-time, with day-to-day administration in
the hands of a professional city manager. The system is most common
among medium-sized cities from around 25,000 to several hundred
thousand, usually rural and suburban municipalities.
In the second form, known as mayor-council government , the mayoralty
and city council are separate offices. Under a _strong mayor_ system,
the mayor acts as an elected executive with the city council
exercising legislative powers. They may select a chief administrative
officer to oversee the different departments. This is the system used
in most of the United States' large cities, primarily because mayors
serve full-time and have a wide range of services that they oversee.
In a _weak mayor_ or _ceremonial mayor_ system, the mayor has
appointing power for department heads but is subject to checks by the
city council, sharing both executive and legislative duties with the
council. This is common for smaller cities, especially in New England
Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte, North Carolina and
Minneapolis , Minnesota are two
notable large cities with a ceremonial mayor.
Many American mayors are styled "HIS/HER HONOR" while in office.
Joseph P. Riley, Jr. of
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina , has been in
office longer than any other sitting city mayor in the United States.
MULTI-TIER LOCAL GOVERNMENT
In several countries, where there is not local autonomy , mayors are
often appointed by some branch of the federal or regional government.
In some cities, subdivisions such as boroughs may have their own
mayors; this is the case, for example, with the arrondissements of
Montreal , and
City . In Belgium, the capital, Brussels
, is administratively one of the federation's three regions, and is
the only city subdivided, without the other regions' provincial level,
into 19 rather small municipalities, which each have an
Burgomaster (i.e., Mayor, responsible
to his / her elected council); while
Antwerp , the other major
metropolitan area, has one large city (where the boroughs, former
municipalities merged into it, elect a lower level, albeit with very
limited competence) and several smaller surrounding municipalities,
each under a normal
Burgomaster as in Brussels.
In the People's
Republic of China, the
Mayor (市長) may be the
administrative head of any municipality, provincial, prefecture-level,
or county-level. The
Mayor is usually the most recognized official in
cities, although the position is the second-highest-ranking official
in charge after the local Communist Party Secretary. In principle, the
Mayor (who also serves as the Deputy Communist Party Secretary of the
city) is responsible for managing the city administration while the
Communist Party Secretary is responsible for general policy and
managing the party bureaucracy, but in practice the roles blur,
frequently causing conflict.
ACTING MAYOR is a temporary office created by the charter of some
In many cities and towns, the charter or some similar fundamental
document provides that in the event of the death, illness,
resignation, or removal from office of the incumbent mayor, another
official will lead the municipality for a temporary period, which,
depending on the jurisdiction, may be for a stated period of days or
months until a special election can be held, or until the original end
of the term to which the vacating mayor was elected.
Some cities may also provide for a deputy mayor to be temporarily
designated as "acting mayor" in the event that the incumbent mayor is
temporarily unavailable, such as for health reasons or out-of-town
travel, but still continues to hold the position and is expected to
return to the duties of the office. In this latter capacity, the
acting mayor's role is to ensure that city government business can
continue in the regular mayor's absence, and the acting mayor is not
deemed to have actually held the office of mayor.
The position of acting mayor is usually of considerably more
importance in a mayor-council form of municipal government, where the
mayor performs functions of day-to-day leadership, than it is in a
council-manager form of government, where the city manager provides
day-to-day leadership and the position of mayor is either a largely or
entirely ceremonial one.
In some jurisdictions, the mayor's successor is not considered to be
an acting mayor but rather fully mayor in his or her own right, much
in the manner that the Vice
President of the United States is not
styled or considered to be Acting
President following the death or
resignation of the
President , but rather
President in every sense.
Lists of mayors by country
Seat of local government
Seat of local government
* ^ _A_ _B_
Wade-Evans, Arthur . _Welsh Medieval Law_. Oxford
Univ., 1909. Accessed 1 Feb 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ The article _Borgmästare_ (in Swedish) in Nordisk
* ^ (in Italian) _No ai tre mandati dei sindaci. Principio di
legalità batte disobbedienti_.
* ^ APD-Timisoara. "Legea nr. 215/2001".
* ^ http://www.mlg.ru/ratings/mayors/2949/6/2014/4/
* ^ "Регионы России: Рейтинг Мэров
(Май, 2014)". _russia-rating.ru_.
Kim Severson (November 5, 2011). "Term No. 10? Why Not, a Mayor
New York Times
New York Times _. Retrieved 2011-11-06. As far as people who
keep track of these things can tell,
Mayor Joseph P. Riley Jr. of
Charleston, S.C., was in office longer than any other recent American
* A. Shaw, _
Municipal Government in Continental Europe_
* J – A. Fairlie, _
* S. and B. Webb, _English Local Government_
* Redlich and Hirst, _Local Government in England_
* A. L. Lowell, _The Government of England_.
Look up MAYOR _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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