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In many countries, a MAYOR (/ˈmɛər/ or /ˈmeɪər/ , from the Latin
Latin
_maior_ , meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town .

Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role. Options for selection of a mayor include direct election by the public, or selection by an elected governing council or board.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 British Isles

* 1.2 Continental Europe

* 1.2.1 Scandinavia

* 2 Mayors by country

* 2.1 Australia * 2.2 Brazil * 2.3 Canada * 2.4 Dominican Republic
Republic
* 2.5 France
France
* 2.6 Germany * 2.7 Greece
Greece
* 2.8 India
India
* 2.9 Indonesia
Indonesia
* 2.10 Iran
Iran
* 2.11 Ireland * 2.12 Italy * 2.13 Japan * 2.14 Moldova * 2.15 Netherlands
Netherlands
* 2.16 New Zealand * 2.17 Pakistan
Pakistan
* 2.18 Philippines
Philippines
* 2.19 Poland
Poland
* 2.20 Portugal
Portugal
* 2.21 Romania
Romania
* 2.22 Russia * 2.23 Serbia
Serbia
* 2.24 Spain and Hispanic America * 2.25 Sweden
Sweden
* 2.26 Switzerland * 2.27 Taiwan * 2.28 Turkey * 2.29 Ukraine
Ukraine
* 2.30 United States

* 3 Multi-tier local government * 4 Acting mayor * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

BRITISH ISLES

See also: Mayors in England and Mayors in Wales

In modern England
England
and Wales
Wales
, the position of mayor descends from the feudal lord's bailiff or reeve (_see borough _). The chief magistrate of London
London
bore the title of portreeve for considerably more than a century after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
. This official was elected by popular choice, a privilege secured from King John . By the beginning of the 12th century, the title of portreeve gave way to that of mayor as the designation of the chief officer of London, followed around 1190 by that of Winchester
Winchester
. Other boroughs adopted the title later. In the 19th century, in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the Municipal Corporations Act 1882 , Section 15, regulated the election of mayors. The mayor was to be a fit person elected annually on 9 November by the council of the borough from among the aldermen or councillors or persons qualified to be such. His term of office was one year, but he was eligible for re-election. He might appoint a deputy to act during illness or absence, and such deputy must be either an alderman or councillor. A mayor who was absent from the borough for more than two months became disqualified and had to vacate his office. A mayor was _ex officio_ a justice of the peace for the borough during his year of office and the following year. He received such remuneration as the council thought reasonable. These provisions have now been repealed.

In medieval Wales, the Laws of Hywel Dda
Laws of Hywel Dda
codified the mayor ( Latin
Latin
: _maior_; Welsh : _maer_) as a position at the royal courts charged with administering the serfs of the king\'s lands . To maintain its dependence on and loyalty to the Crown, the position was forbidden to the leaders of the clan groups. A separate mayor, known as the "cow dung mayor" (_maer biswail_), was charged with overseeing the royal cattle. There were similar offices at the Scottish and Irish courts.

The office of mayor in most modern English and Welsh boroughs and towns did not in the 20th century entail any important administrative duties, and was generally regarded as an honour conferred for local distinction, long service on the Council, or for past services. The mayor was expected to devote much of his (or her) time to civic, ceremonial, and representational functions, and to preside over meetings for the advancement of the public welfare. His or her administrative duties were to act as returning officer at parliamentary elections, and as chairman of the meetings of the council. However, since reforms introduced in 2000, 14 English local authorities have directly elected mayors who combine the 'civic' mayor role with that of Leader of the Council and have significantly greater powers than either. The mayor of a town council is officially known as "town mayor" (although in popular parlance, the word "town" is often dropped). Women mayors are also known as "mayor"; the wife of a mayor is sometimes known as the "mayoress". Mayors are not appointed to District Councils which do not have borough status . Their place is taken by the Chairman of Council, who undertakes exactly the same functions and is, like a mayor, the civic head of the district concerned.

In Scotland
Scotland
the post holders are known as Convenors, Provosts, or Lord Provosts depending on the local authority.

CONTINENTAL EUROPE

Main articles: Mayor of the Palace and podestà

The original Frankish mayors or majordomos were – like the Welsh _meiri_ – lords commanding the king's lands around the Merovingian courts in Austrasia
Austrasia
, Burgundy , and Neustria . The mayorship of Paris eventually became hereditary in the Pippinids
Pippinids
, who later established the Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
.

In modern France
France
, since the Revolution , a mayor (_maire_) and a number of mayoral adjuncts (_adjoints au maire_) are selected by the municipal council from among their number. Most of the administrative work is left in their hands, with the full council meeting comparatively infrequently. The model was copied throughout Europe in Britain's mayors, Italy's sindacos , most of the German states' burgomasters , and Portugal's presidents of the municipal chambers .

In Medieval Italy
Medieval Italy
, the city-states who did not consider themselves independent principalities or dukedoms – particularly those of the Imperial Ghibelline
Ghibelline
faction – were led by podestàs .

The Greek equivalent of a mayor is the demarch (Greek: δήμαρχος, lit. "archon of the deme ").

Scandinavia

In Denmark
Denmark
all municipalities are led by a political official called _borgmester _, "mayor". The mayor of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
is however called _overborgmester _ "superior mayor". In that city other mayors, _borgmestre_ (plural), are subordinate to him with different undertakings, like ministers to a prime minister. In other municipalities in Denmark
Denmark
there is only a single mayor.

In Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
the mayoral title _borgermester/borgmästare_ has now been abolished. Norway
Norway
abolished it in 1937 as a title of the non-political top manager of (city) municipalities and replaced it with the title _rådmann_ ("alderman " or "magistrate "), which is still in use when referring to the top managers of the municipalities of Norway
Norway
. The top _elected_ official of the municipalities of Norway, on the other hand, has the title _ordfører_, which actually means "word-bearer", i.e. "chairman" or "president", an equivalent to the Swedish word _ordförande_.

In Sweden
Sweden
_borgmästare_ was a title of the senior judge of the courts of the cities, courts which were called _rådhusrätt_, literally "town hall court", somewhat of an equivalent to an English magistrates\' court . These courts were abolished in 1971. Until 1965 these mayor judges on historical grounds also performed administrative functions in the "board of magistrates", in Swedish known collegially as _magistrat_. Until 1965 there were also municipal mayors (_kommunalborgmästare_), who had these non-political administrative roles in smaller cities without a magistrates' court or _magistrat_. This office was an invention of the 20th century as the smaller cities in Sweden
Sweden
during the first half of the 20th century subsequently lost their own courts and magistrates.

In the 16th century in Sweden, king Gustav Vasa
Gustav Vasa
considerably centralised government and appointed the mayors directly. In 1693 king Charles XI
Charles XI
accepted a compromise after repeated petitions from the Estate of the Burgesses over decades against the royal mayor appointments. The compromise was that the burgesses in a city could normally nominate a mayor under the supervision of the local governor. The nominee was then to be presented to and appointed by the king, but the king could appoint mayors directly in exceptional cases. This was codified in the Instrument of Government
Instrument of Government
of 1720 and on 8 July the same year Riksrådet ("the Council of the Realm") decided, after a petition from the said Estate, that only the city could present nominees, not the king or anyone else. Thus the supervision of the local governor and directly appointed mayors by the king ceased after 1720 (the so-called Age of Liberty
Age of Liberty
). On 16 October 1723, it was decided after a petition that the city should present three nominees, of whom the king (or the Council of the Realm) appointed one. This was kept as a rule from then on in all later regulations and was also kept as a tradition in the 1809 Instrument of Government
Instrument of Government
(§ 31) until 1965.

In Finland
Finland
, there are two mayors, in Tampere
Tampere
and Pirkkala . Usually in Finland
Finland
the highest executive official is not democratically elected, but is appointed to a public office by the city council, and is called simply _kaupunginjohtaja_ "city manager" or _kunnanjohtaja_ "municipal manager", depending on whether the municipality defines itself as a city. The term _pormestari_ "mayor", from Swedish _borgmästare_ confusingly on historical grounds has referred to the highest official in the registry office and in the city courts (abolished in 1993) as in Sweden, not the city manager. In addition, _pormestari_ is also an honorary title, which may be given for distinguished service in the post of the city manager. The city manager of Helsinki is called _ylipormestari_, which translates to "Chief Mayor", for historical reasons. Furthermore, the term "city manager" may be seen translated as "mayor".

MAYORS BY COUNTRY

AUSTRALIA

On Australian councils, the mayor is generally the member of the council who acts as ceremonial figurehead at official functions, as well as carrying the authority of council between meetings. Mayoral decisions made between meetings are subject to Council and may be confirmed or repealed if necessary. Mayors in Australia may be elected either directly through a ballot for the position of mayor at a local-government election, or alternatively may be elected from within the council at a meeting in September.

The civic regalia and insignia of local government have basically remained unaltered for centuries. The robes, the mayoral chain and the mace are not intended to glorify the individual, but rather they are a uniform of office and are used to respect and honour the people whom the users serve.

The mayoral robe is crimson with lapels and sleeves trimmed in ermine. The mayor may also wear a lace fall (neck piece) and cuffs.

The deputy-mayoral robe is crimson with lapels and sleeves trimmed with black velvet and bordered with lapin.

Mayors have the title of 'HIS/HER WORSHIP \' whilst holding the position.

In councils where Councillors
Councillors
are elected representing political parties, the mayor is normally the leader of the party receiving the most seats on council. In Queensland
Queensland
the Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
and Mayors are elected by popular vote at the general council election.

BRAZIL

Every municipality in Brazil elects a mayor (Portuguese: _prefeito_/_prefeita_), for a four-year term, acting as an executive officer with the city council (Portuguese: _Câmara Municipal_) functioning with legislative powers. The mayor can be re-elected and manage the city for two consecutive terms.

The Brazilian system works similarly to the mayor-council government in the United States.

CANADA

The chief executives of boroughs (_arrondissements _) in Quebec
Quebec
are termed mayors (_maires/mairesses_ in French). A borough mayor simultaneously serves as head of the borough council and as a regular councillor on the main city council.

As is the practice in most Commonwealth countries, in Canada a mayor is addressed as His/Her Worship while holding office.

In some small townships in Ontario
Ontario
, the title REEVE was historically used instead of mayor. In some other municipalities, "mayor" and "reeve" were two separate offices, with the mayor retaining leadership powers while the reeve was equivalent to what other municipalities called an "at-large councillor". While most municipalities in the province now designate their elected municipal government heads as mayors, in certain areas of the province, the elected head of the municipality continues to be refereed to as reeve, and the second-in-command is referred to as the deputy reeve. For example, this continues to be the case in the municipalities of Algonquin Highlands , Dysart et al
Dysart et al
, Highlands East
Highlands East
, and Minden Hills , all located within the Haliburton County
Haliburton County
.

Many municipalities in Alberta continue to use the title reeve to denote the office of mayor or chief elected official in accordance with the Municipal
Municipal
Government Act.

In rural municipalities (RM) in the provinces of Manitoba
Manitoba
and Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
, the elected head of the RM is still referred to as a "reeve", as are the heads of most counties and District Municipalities (DMs) in Alberta.

The scheduling of municipal elections in Canada varies by jurisdiction, as each province and territory has its own laws regarding municipal governance. See also municipal elections in Canada .

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

The mayor of a municipality in the Dominican Republic
Republic
is called indistinctly _alcalde_ or _síndico_. The latter name is preferred as to avoid confusing the title with the similarly sounding _alcaide_ (_lit. prison warden _). Such person is the governor of the municipality whose township elected him (or her) by direct vote for a term of four years. The mayor's office daily duties are restricted to the local governance, and as such, it is responsible for the coordination of waste collection , upkeep of public spaces (parks, undeveloped urban parcels, streets, city ornate, traffic light control, sewage and most public utilities). In practice most of it duties are centered in light street repairing (new or big road projects, like overpasses, bridges, pedestrian crossings, etc. are handled by the Public Works Ministry (_Ministerio de Obras Públicas_ in Spanish) office), under the direct control of the Central Government. Subcontracting garbage collection and management, overseeing the use of public spaces and arbitring neighborhood land _use_ disputes which is managed by the National Property office (_Oficina de Bienes Nacionales_ in Spanish) is also controlled by the mayor's office. Water, electrical supply and public transportation coordination are handled by several Central Government's offices, and as such, are not under control of the mayor.

FRANCE

For more details on this topic, see Mayor (France)
Mayor (France)
.

Mayors (_maires_) in France
France
are elected every six years in local elections .

GERMANY

In Germany local government is regulated by state statutes. Nowadays only the mayors of the three city-states (Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen ) are still elected by the respective city-state parliaments. In all the other states the mayors are now elected directly by the EU citizens living in that area. The post of mayor may be said to be a professional one, the mayor being the head of the local government, and requiring, in order to be eligible, a training in administration. In big cities (details are regulated by state statutes) the official title is Oberbürgermeister ( Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
). In these cities a "simple" mayor is just a deputy responsible for a distinct task (e.g., welfare or construction works). Big cities are usually kreisfrei ("free of district") . That means that the city council also has the powers and duties of a rural district council. The leader of a rural district council is called Landrat ("land counsellor"). In that case the chief mayor has also the duties and powers of a Landrat. The term Oberbürgermeister is not used in the three city-states, where the mayors are simultaneously head of state governments , but _Regierender Bürgermeister_ ( Governing Mayor of Berlin
Governing Mayor of Berlin
), _Erster Bürgermeister_ ( First Mayor of the city-state of Hamburg
First Mayor of the city-state of Hamburg
) and _Präsident des Senats und Bürgermeister_ ( President
President
of the Senate and Mayor of Bremen ) are used.

GREECE

Mayors in Greece
Greece
were elected every four years in local elections and are the head of various municipal governments in which the state is divided. Starting from 2014, mayors are elected for a 5-year term. Local administration elections for the new, consolidated municipalities and peripheries will henceforth be held together with the elections for the European Parliament
European Parliament
.

Local administration in Greece
Greece
recently underwent extensive reform in two phases: the first phase, implemented in 1997 and commonly called the "Kapodistrias Project", consolidated the country's numerous municipalities and communities down to approximately 1000. The second phase, initially called "Kapodistrias II" but eventually called the " Callicrates
Callicrates
Project", was implemented in 2010, further consolidated municipalities down to 370, and merged the country's 54 prefectures into 13 peripheries. The Callicratean municipalities were designed according to several guidelines; for example each island (except Crete ) was incorporated into a single municipality, while the majority of small towns were consolidated so as to have an average municipal population of 25,000.

INDIA

In India
India
, the mayor is leader of the council and has a number of roles, both legislative and functional. The legislative requirements are outlined in Section 73 and 73AA of Local Government Act 1989. Mayors are elected indirectly by the public.

INDONESIA

In Indonesia
Indonesia
, the mayor is the regional head of the city area. A mayor has the same level as the head of the regional district for the area. Basically, the mayor has the duty and authority to lead the implementation of the policies established by the region with the city council. The mayor is elected in a pair with a deputy mayor, through elections. The mayor is a political role, and not a civil-service career position.

IRAN

In Iran
Iran
, the mayor is the executive manager of city and elected by the Islamic City
City
Council. The mayor is elected for a four-year term.

IRELAND

In the Republic
Republic
of Ireland, the head of a borough corporation was called "mayor" from the Municipal
Municipal
Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 until boroughs were abolished by the Local Government Reform Act 2014 . The Local Government Act 2001 allowed county councils to style their chairperson as "mayor" and most do so. City
City
council chairs are "mayor" (or "lord mayor" in the cases of Dublin and of Cork ). Since 2000 there have been proposals for a directly elected mayor of the Dublin Metropolitan Area .

ITALY

In Italy the mayor is called _sindaco_, or informally _primo cittadino_ ("first citizen"). Every municipality (Italian : _Comune_) has its mayor who represents the local government. The mayor is elected every five years by the inhabitants of the municipality, but he cannot be re-elected after two terms (except in small towns).

JAPAN

Japan's Local- Autonomy
Autonomy
Law of 1947 defines the structure of Japanese local governments, which were strengthened after World War II. It gives strong executive power to the mayor in the local politics like strong mayors in large cities in the United States of America. The titles that are translated as "mayor" by the governments are those of the heads of cities _shichō_ (市長), towns _chōchō_ (町長), villages _sonchō_ (村長), and Tokyo's special wards _kuchō_ (区長). (The head of the Tokyo
Tokyo
prefecture is the Governor
Governor
(知事, _Chiji_).) A mayor is elected every four years by direct popular votes held separately from the assembly. A mayor can be recalled by a popular initiative but the prefectural and the national governments cannot remove a mayor from office. Towards the assembly the mayor prepares budgets, proposes local acts and has vetoes on local acts just approved by the assembly which can be overridden by two-thirds assembly support. A mayor can resolve the assembly if the assembly passes a motion of no confidence or if the mayor thinks the assembly has no confidence in fact.

MOLDOVA

The Mayor
Mayor
of the municipality in Moldova is elected for four years. In Chişinău
Chişinău
, the last mayor elections had to be repeated three times, because of the low rate of participation.

NETHERLANDS

Main article: Burgemeester
Burgemeester

In the Netherlands
Netherlands
, the mayor (in Dutch : _burgemeester_) is the leader of the municipal executives ('College van Burgemeester
Burgemeester
en Wethouders '). In the Netherlands, burgermeesters are _de facto_ appointed by the national cabinet , _de jure_ by the monarch . They preside both the municipal executive and the legislative ('gemeenteraad '). The title is sometimes translated as burgomaster , to emphasize the appointed, rather than elected, nature of the office. The appointment procedure was brought for discussion in the early 2000s (decade), as some of the political parties represented in parliament regarded the procedure as undemocratic. Generally, mayors in the Netherlands
Netherlands
are selected from the established political parties. Alternatives proposed were direct election of the mayor by the people or appointment by the city council (_gemeenteraad_). A constitutional change to allow for this failed to pass the Senate in March 2005.

NEW ZEALAND

Main article: Mayors in New Zealand

Mayors in New Zealand are elected every three years in the local body elections .

PAKISTAN

In Pakistan
Pakistan
, a city is headed by the District Nazim
Nazim
(the word means "supervisor" in Urdu, but is sometimes translated as Mayor) and assisted by Naib Nazim
Nazim
who is also speaker of District Council. District Nazim
Nazim
is elected by the nazims of union councils , union councillors and by tehsil nazims, who themselves are elected directly by the votes of the local public. Council elections are held every four years.

PHILIPPINES

In the Philippines
Philippines
, mayors are the head of a municipality or a city , with the vice - mayor as the second highest position in the city. They are elected every three years during the midterm and national elections, and they can serve until three terms of office. As of - September 2012, there are 1,635 mayors in the Philippines.

POLAND

Mayors in Poland
Poland
are directly elected by inhabitants of their respective municipality . The mayor is the sole chief of the executive branch of the municipality and he cannot serve on the municipal council (city council ) or in the parliament . The mayor may appoint a deputy mayor if needed. In Poland, a mayor is called a _burmistrz_ or, in towns with more than 100,000 inhabitants or other municipalities that traditionally use the title, _prezydent_ ("president", for example " President
President
of Warsaw
Warsaw
", instead of " Mayor
Mayor
of Warsaw"). The equivalent title in a rural community ("gmina ") is "wójt ".

The mayor is elected for a four-year term concurrently with the four-year term of the municipal council, and his/her service is terminated at the end of the municipal council's term. Mayors cannot be dismissed by the municipal council, but they can be removed from the office by the citizens of their municipality in a referendum . A mayor can also be dismissed by the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
in case of persistent transgression of the law. Citizens having a criminal record cannot run for mayor, but only if sentenced for intentional offense ex officio .

The mayor manages the municipal estate, issues minor regulations, and incurs liabilities within limits set by the municipal council. The mayor presents a budget to the municipal council, that may then be amended by the council. After the municipal council passes the budget in a form of resolution, the mayor is responsible for its realization. The mayor is the head of the town hall and the register office (he/she may appoint deputies for these specific tasks). Mayors legally act as employers for all of the officials of the town hall. Mayors in Poland have wide administrative authority: the only official that he/she cannot appoint or dismiss is a city treasurer , who is appointed by a city council. Although mayors in Poland
Poland
do not have veto power over city council resolutions, their position is relatively strong and should be classified as a mayor-council government .

PORTUGAL

In Portugal
Portugal
and many other Portuguese-speaking countries the mayor of a municipality is called the _Presidente da Câmara Municipal_ ( President
President
of the Municipal
Municipal
Chamber ).

ROMANIA

In Romania
Romania
the mayor of a commune, town or city is called _primar_. He is elected for a period of four years. In carrying out his responsibilities he is assisted by an elected local council (_consiliu local_). Bucharest
Bucharest
has a general mayor (_primar general_) and six sector mayors (_primar de sector_), one for each sector . The responsibilities of the mayor and of the local council are defined by Law 215/2001 of the Romanian Parliament.

RUSSIA

In Russia, the mayor is one of possible titles of the head of the administration of a city (municipality). (Sometimes a mayor acts as the head of a municipality.) This title is equivalent to that of the head of a Russian rural district. Exceptionally, the mayors of Moscow , Saint-Petersburg
Saint-Petersburg
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
are equivalent to governors in Russia, since these three federal cities are equivalent to Russian federations.

Except for those just-named three large cities, the governance system of a Russian municipality (city, county, district or town) is subordinate to the representative council of the federation in which it is located. The mayor, is either directly elected in municipal elections (citywide referendum) or is elected by the members of the municipality's representative council. Election by council members is now more widespread because it better integrates with the Russian federal three-level vertical governance structure:

* National government:

* President
President
(executive) * Federal Assembly

* Federation governments:

* Heads of federation (commonly governors) * Regional representative councils

* Local governments:

* Heads of administration (who have the official title of 'mayor', whether or not local law defines it as such) * Local representative councils

The typical term of office of a mayor in Russia is four years. The mayor's office administers all municipal services, public property, police and fire protection, and most public agencies, and enforces all local and state laws within a city or town.

According to Medialogy, the mayor of Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
, Edward Lokot', is mentioned in the media more than any other Russian mayor. The mayor of Kazan
Kazan
, Il'sur Metshin, is the most popular in Russia, scoring 76 out of 100, according to the Russian People's Rating of Mayors.

SERBIA

In Serbia
Serbia
, the mayor is the head of the city or a town. He acts on behalf of the city, and performs an executive function. The position of the mayor of Belgrade
Belgrade
is important as the capital city is the most important hub of economics, culture and science in Serbia
Serbia
. Furthermore, the post of the mayor of Belgrade
Belgrade
is the third most important position in the government after the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
and President
President
.

SPAIN AND HISPANIC AMERICA

_ Alcalde
Alcalde
_ is the most common Spanish term for the mayor of a town or city. It is derived from the Arabic
Arabic
_al-qaḍi _ (قاضي), i.e., "the ( Sharia
Sharia
) judge," who often had administrative, as well as judicial, functions. Although the Castilian _alcalde_ and the Andalusian _qaḍi_ had slightly different attributes (the _qaḍi_ oversaw an entire province, the _alcalde_ only a municipality; the former was appointed by the ruler of the state but the latter was elected by the municipal council ), the adoption of this term reflects how much Muslim society in the Iberian Peninsula influenced the Christian one in the early phases of the Reconquista
Reconquista
. As Spanish Christians took over an increasing part of the Peninsula, they adapted the Muslim systems and terminology for their own use.

Today, it refers to the executive head of a municipal or local government, who usually does not have judicial functions. The word _intendente _ is used in Argentina
Argentina
and Paraguay
Paraguay
for the office that is analogous to a mayor.

In larger cities in Mexico
Mexico
, the chief executive is known as a "municipal president" or _presidente municipal._

SWEDEN

The Swedish title _borgmästare_ (burgomaster ) was abolished in the court reform of 1971 when also the towns of Sweden
Sweden
were officially abolished. Since the middle of the 20th century, the municipal commissioner – the highest-ranking politician in each municipality – is informally titled "mayor" in English.

SWITZERLAND

The function and title for mayor vary from one canton to another. Generally, the mayor presides an executive council of several members governing a municipality .

The title is:

* in Italian: _Sindaco_ ( Ticino
Ticino
), Podestà ( Grigioni ) * in French: _Maire_ (Geneva , Jura , Bern ), _Syndic_ ( Vaud
Vaud
, Fribourg ), _Président du Conseil municipal_ ( Valais
Valais
), _Président du Conseil communal_ (Neuchâtel ) * in German: e.g. _Stadtpräsident_, _Stadtammann_, _Gemeindepräsident_, _Gemeindeammann_

TAIWAN

In the Republic
Republic
of China in Taiwan the mayor is the head of city's government and its city's council, which is in charge of legislative affairs. The mayor and city council are elected separately by the city's residents.

TURKEY

Mayors (Turkish :_Belediye Başkanı_) in Turkey are elected by the inhabitants of the settlement. As a rule, there are municipalities in all province centers and district centers as well as towns (Turkish : _belde_) which are actually villages with a population in excess of 2000. However beginning by 1983, a new level of municipality is introduced in Turkish administrative system. In big cities Metropolitan municipalities (Turkish : _Büyükşehir belediyesi_) are established. (See Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey
Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey
) In a Metropolitan municipality there may be several district municipalities (hence mayors).

UKRAINE

In Ukraine
Ukraine
the title _Mer_ was introduced for the position of the head of the municipal state administration in the federal cities of Kiev
Kiev
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
. In the rest of the urban and rural settlements the position is unofficial and simply refers to the head of a local council who at the moment of such assignment cannot be affiliated with any party of the council.

UNITED STATES

Main article: Mayoralty in the United States

The mayor is the leader in most United States municipalities (such as cities, townships, etc.). In the United States , there are several distinct types of mayors, depending on the system of local government. Under council-manager government , the mayor is a first among equals on the city council , which acts as a legislative body while executive functions are performed by the appointed manager. The mayor may chair the city council, but lacks any special legislative powers. The mayor and city council serve part-time, with day-to-day administration in the hands of a professional city manager. The system is most common among medium-sized cities from around 25,000 to several hundred thousand, usually rural and suburban municipalities.

In the second form, known as mayor-council government , the mayoralty and city council are separate offices. Under a _strong mayor_ system, the mayor acts as an elected executive with the city council exercising legislative powers. They may select a chief administrative officer to oversee the different departments. This is the system used in most of the United States' large cities, primarily because mayors serve full-time and have a wide range of services that they oversee. In a _weak mayor_ or _ceremonial mayor_ system, the mayor has appointing power for department heads but is subject to checks by the city council, sharing both executive and legislative duties with the council. This is common for smaller cities, especially in New England . Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte, North Carolina
and Minneapolis
Minneapolis
, Minnesota are two notable large cities with a ceremonial mayor.

Many American mayors are styled "HIS/HER HONOR" while in office.

Joseph P. Riley, Jr. of Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina
, has been in office longer than any other sitting city mayor in the United States.

MULTI-TIER LOCAL GOVERNMENT

In several countries, where there is not local autonomy , mayors are often appointed by some branch of the federal or regional government. In some cities, subdivisions such as boroughs may have their own mayors; this is the case, for example, with the arrondissements of Paris, Montreal
Montreal
, and Mexico
Mexico
City
City
. In Belgium, the capital, Brussels , is administratively one of the federation's three regions, and is the only city subdivided, without the other regions' provincial level, into 19 rather small municipalities, which each have an elected—formally appointed— Burgomaster
Burgomaster
(i.e., Mayor, responsible to his / her elected council); while Antwerp
Antwerp
, the other major metropolitan area, has one large city (where the boroughs, former municipalities merged into it, elect a lower level, albeit with very limited competence) and several smaller surrounding municipalities, each under a normal Burgomaster
Burgomaster
as in Brussels.

In the People's Republic
Republic
of China, the Mayor
Mayor
(市長) may be the administrative head of any municipality, provincial, prefecture-level, or county-level. The Mayor
Mayor
is usually the most recognized official in cities, although the position is the second-highest-ranking official in charge after the local Communist Party Secretary. In principle, the Mayor
Mayor
(who also serves as the Deputy Communist Party Secretary of the city) is responsible for managing the city administration while the Communist Party Secretary is responsible for general policy and managing the party bureaucracy, but in practice the roles blur, frequently causing conflict.

ACTING MAYOR

ACTING MAYOR is a temporary office created by the charter of some municipal governments.

In many cities and towns, the charter or some similar fundamental document provides that in the event of the death, illness, resignation, or removal from office of the incumbent mayor, another official will lead the municipality for a temporary period, which, depending on the jurisdiction, may be for a stated period of days or months until a special election can be held, or until the original end of the term to which the vacating mayor was elected.

Some cities may also provide for a deputy mayor to be temporarily designated as "acting mayor" in the event that the incumbent mayor is temporarily unavailable, such as for health reasons or out-of-town travel, but still continues to hold the position and is expected to return to the duties of the office. In this latter capacity, the acting mayor's role is to ensure that city government business can continue in the regular mayor's absence, and the acting mayor is not deemed to have actually held the office of mayor.

The position of acting mayor is usually of considerably more importance in a mayor-council form of municipal government, where the mayor performs functions of day-to-day leadership, than it is in a council-manager form of government, where the city manager provides day-to-day leadership and the position of mayor is either a largely or entirely ceremonial one.

In some jurisdictions, the mayor's successor is not considered to be an acting mayor but rather fully mayor in his or her own right, much in the manner that the Vice President
President
of the United States is not styled or considered to be Acting President
President
following the death or resignation of the President
President
, but rather President
President
in every sense.

SEE ALSO

* Lists of mayors by country * Deputy mayor * Governor
Governor

CONCEPTS:

* Acting (law) * Burgomaster
Burgomaster
* Sarpanch * World Mayor

LOCAL GOVERNMENT:

* Seat of local government
Seat of local government
* Council-manager government * Mayor-council government

Historical

* Schultheiß
Schultheiß
* Urban prefect
Urban prefect

REFERENCES

Notes

* ^ _A_ _B_ Wade-Evans, Arthur . _Welsh Medieval Law_. Oxford Univ., 1909. Accessed 1 Feb 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ The article _Borgmästare_ (in Swedish) in Nordisk Familjebok . * ^ (in Italian) _No ai tre mandati dei sindaci. Principio di legalità batte disobbedienti_. * ^ APD-Timisoara. "Legea nr. 215/2001". _resurse-pentru-democratie.org_. * ^ http://www.mlg.ru/ratings/mayors/2949/6/2014/4/ * ^ "Регионы России: Рейтинг Мэров (Май, 2014)". _russia-rating.ru_. * ^ Kim Severson
Kim Severson
(November 5, 2011). "Term No. 10? Why Not, a Mayor Asks". _ New York Times
New York Times
_. Retrieved 2011-11-06. As far as people who keep track of these things can tell, Mayor
Mayor
Joseph P. Riley Jr. of Charleston, S.C., was in office longer than any other recent American city mayor.

Bibliography

* A. Shaw, _ Municipal
Municipal
Government in Continental Europe_ * J – A. Fairlie, _ Municipal
Municipal
Administration_ * S. and B. Webb, _English Local Government_ * Redlich and Hirst, _Local Government in England_ * A. L. Lowell, _The Government of England_.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Look up MAYOR _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to MAYORS _.

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