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MASHHAD (Persian : مشهد‎‎, IPA: ( listen )) is the second most populous city in Iran
Iran
and capital of Razavi Khorasan Province
Razavi Khorasan Province
. It is located in the northeast of the country, close to the borders of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
. Its population was 2,749,374 at the 2011 census and its built-up (or metro) area was home to 2,782,976 inhabitants including Mashhad
Mashhad
Taman and Torqabeh
Torqabeh
cities. It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road
Silk Road
connecting with Merv
Merv
in the East.

The city is named after and revered for housing the tomb of Imam Reza , the eighth Shia Imam. Every year, millions of pilgrims visit the Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine and pay their tributes to Imam Reza. The Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
is also buried within the shrine.

Mashhad
Mashhad
has experienced the rise and fall of many governments over the course of history. Many Arab, Turkic , and especially Mongolian and Afghan
Afghan
tribes have brought great changes in the language, ethnicity and culture of the people each in their own time. Surprisingly, Mashhad
Mashhad
enjoyed relative prosperity in its economy in the Mongol period. Mashhad
Mashhad
is famously known as the city of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
, the Iranian poet of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
, which is considered to be the national epic of Iran. The city is the hometown of some of the most significant Iranian literary figures and artists such as Mehdi Akhavan-Sales , the famous contemporary poet, and Mohammad-Reza Shajarian , the traditional Iranian singer and composer. Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
and Akhavan Sales are both buried in Tus , an ancient city that is considered to be the main origin of the current city of Mashhad. On 30 October 2009 (the anniversary of the death of Imam Reza), Iran's then-President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad declared Mashhad
Mashhad
as "Iran's spiritual capital".

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Etymology and Early History * 1.2 Mongolian invasion: Ilkhanates * 1.3 Timurid Empire * 1.4 Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
* 1.5 Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
* 1.6 Qajar dynasty

* 1.7 Pahlavi dynasty

* 1.7.1 Modernization under Reza Shah
Shah
* 1.7.2 1912 Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine bombardment * 1.7.3 1935 Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine rebellion * 1.7.4 1941–1979 reforms * 1.7.5 1994 Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine bombing

* 1.8 Mashhad
Mashhad
after the Revolution

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Ethnic Groups

* 3.1.1 Afghan
Afghan
Population

* 3.2 Religion

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Astan Quds Razavi
Astan Quds Razavi
* 4.2 Padideh Shandiz * 4.3 Credit Institutions * 4.4 Others

* 5 Language

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Religious Seminaries * 6.2 Newspapers * 6.3 Capital of Islamic Culture

* 7 Main sites

* 8 Transportation

* 8.1 Airport * 8.2 Metro * 8.3 Rail

* 9 Government and politics

* 9.1 Members of Parliament * 9.2 Members of Assembly of Experts * 9.3 City Council and Mayor

* 10 Universities and Colleges

* 11 Sports

* 11.1 Major sport teams * 11.2 Other sports

* 12 Gallery * 13 Mashhad
Mashhad
as capital of Persia and Independent Khorasan * 14 Famous people from Mashhad
Mashhad
and Tus * 15 Twin towns – Sister cities

* 16 Consulates

* 16.1 Active * 16.2 Former

* 17 See also * 18 Footnotes * 19 References * 20 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Mashhad

ETYMOLOGY AND EARLY HISTORY

The name Mashhad
Mashhad
comes from Arabic
Arabic
, meaning a shrine or the place of martyrdom ; the place where Ali ar-Ridha (Persian , Imam Reza), the eighth Imam of Shia Muslims, suddenly died (according to the Shias, was martyred) and so his shrine was placed there. Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
at his court.

At the beginning of the 9th century (3rd century AH), Mashhad
Mashhad
was a small village called Sanabad, which was situated 24 kilometres (15 miles) away from Tus . There was a summer palace of Humayd ibn Qahtaba , the governor of Khurasan . In 808, when Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
, Abbasid caliph , was passing through there to quell the insurrection of Rafi ibn al-Layth in Transoxania
Transoxania
, he became ill and died. He was buried under the palace of Humayd ibn Qahtaba. Due to this historical event, the Dar al-Imarah was known as the Mausoleum of Haruniyyeh. Several years later in 818 Ali al-Ridha was martyred by al-Ma\'mun and was buried beside the grave of Harun. Although Mashhad
Mashhad
is considered as the owner of cultural heritage of Tus (including its figures like Nizam al-Mulk , Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
, Ahmad Ghazali , Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
, Asadi Tusi and Shaykh Tusi
Shaykh Tusi
), the earlier Arab geographers have correctly identified Mashhad
Mashhad
and Tus as two separate cities, which are now located about 19 kilometres (12 miles) from each other.

MONGOLIAN INVASION: ILKHANATES

Although some believe that after this event, the city was called Mashhad
Mashhad
al-Ridha (the place of martyrdom of al-Ridha), it seems that Mashhad, as a place-name, first appears in al-Maqdisi, i.e. in the last third of the 10th century. About the middle of the 14th century, the traveller Ibn Battuta uses the expression "town of Mashhad al-Rida". Towards the end of the Middle Ages, the name Nuqan, which is still found on coins in the first half of the 14th century under the Il-Khanids, seems to have been gradually ousted by al- Mashhad
Mashhad
or Mashhad. Terken Khatun , Empress of the Khwarazmian Empire, known as "the Queen of the Turks", held captive by Mongol army.

Shias started visiting there for pilgrimage of his grave. By the end of the 9th century, a dome was built on the grave and many buildings and bazaars sprang up around it. During more than a millennium it has been devastated and reconstructed several times. In 1161 however, the Ghuzz Turks succeeded in taking the place, but they spared the sacred area in their pillaging. It was not considered a great city until Mongol raids
Mongol raids
in 1220, which caused the destruction of many large cities in Khurasan, leaving Mashhad
Mashhad
relatively intact in the hands of Mongolian commanders because of the cemetery of Ali Al-Rezza and Harun al-Rashid (the latter was stolen). Thus the survivors of the massacres migrated to Mashhad. The only well-known food in Mashhad, "sholeh Mashhadi" (شله مشهدی) or "Sholeh", dates back to the era of the Mongolian invasion when it is thought to be cooked with any food available (the main ingredients are meat, grains and abundant spices) and be a Mongolian word. When the traveller Ibn Battuta visited the town in 1333, he reported that it was a large town with abundant fruit trees, streams and mills. A great dome of elegant construction surmounts the noble mausoleum, the walls being decorated with colored tiles.

TIMURID EMPIRE

The map of the Persian Empire in 1747 at the time of Afsharid Dynasty. The name of Mashhad
Mashhad
is seen belong Tous

It seems that the importance of Sanabad- Mashhad
Mashhad
continually increased with the growing fame of its sanctuary and the decline of Tus, which received its death blow in 1389 from Miran Shah , a son of Timur
Timur
. When the Mongol noble who governed the place rebelled and attempted to make himself independent, Miran Shah was sent against him by his father. Tus was stormed after a siege of several months, sacked and left a heap of ruins; 10,000 inhabitants were massacred. Those who escaped the holocaust settled in the shelter of the 'Alid sanctuary. Tus was henceforth abandoned and Mashhad
Mashhad
took its place as the capital of the district.

Later on, during the reign of the Timurid Shahrukh Mirza
Shahrukh Mirza
, Mashhad became one of the main cities of the realm. In 1418, his wife Goharshad funded the construction of an outstanding mosque beside the shrine, which is known as the Goharshad Mosque
Mosque
. The mosque remains relatively intact to this date, its great size an indicator to the status the city held in the 15th century.

SAFAVID DYNASTY

Shah
Shah
Ismail I
Ismail I
, founder of the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
, conquered Mashhad after the death of Husayn Bayqarah and the decline of the Timurid dynasty. was later captured by the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
during the reign of Shah Abbas I . In the 16th century the town suffered considerably from the repeated raids of the Özbegs (Uzbeks). In 1507, it was taken by the troops of the Shaybani or Shabani Khan. After two decades, Shah Tahmasp I succeeded in repelling the enemy from the town again in 1528. But in 1544, the Özbegs again succeeded in entering the town and plundering and murdering there. The year 1589 was a disastrous one for Mashhad. The Shaybanid 'Abd al-Mu'min after a four months’ siege forced the town to surrender. Shah
Shah
Abbas I, who lived in Mashhad
Mashhad
from 1585 till his official ascent of the throne in Qazwin in 1587, was not able to retake Mashhad
Mashhad
from the Özbegs till 1598. Mashhad
Mashhad
was retaken by the Shah
Shah
Abbas after a long and hard struggle, defeating the Uzbeks in a great battle near Herat
Herat
as well as managing to drive them beyond the Oxus River . Shah
Shah
Abbas I wanted to encourage Iranians to go to Mashhad
Mashhad
for pilgrimage. He is said to have walked from Isfahan
Isfahan
to Mashhad. During the Safavid
Safavid
era, Mashhad
Mashhad
gained even more religious recognition, becoming the most important city of Greater Khorasan, as several madrasah and other structures were built besides the Imam Reza shrine . Besides its religious significance, Mashhad
Mashhad
has played an important political role as well. The Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
has been criticized in a book (Red Shi\'sm vs. Black Shi\'ism on the perceived dual aspects of the Shi'a religion throughout history) as a period in which although the dynasty didn't form the idea of Black Shi'ism, but this idea was formed after the defeat of Shah
Shah
Ismail against the Ottoman leader Sultan Yavuz Selim. Black Shi'ism is a product of the Post-Safavid-Period. Under Tahmasp II, in 1722, the Abdalis Afghans invaded Khorasan and seized Mashhad. After three years, Persians besieged them for two months and retook the city in 1726.

AFSHARID DYNASTY

It saw its greatest glory under Nader Shah
Nader Shah
, ruler of Iran
Iran
from 1736 to 1747 and also a great benefactor of the shrine of Imam Reza, who made the city his capital. Nearly the whole eastern part of the kingdom of Nadir Shah
Shah
passed in this period of Persian impotence under the rule of the vigorous Afghan
Afghan
Ahmad Shah
Shah
Durrani . Ahmad defeated the Persians and took Mashhad
Mashhad
after an eight months’ siege in 1753. Ahmad Shah
Shah
and his successor Timur
Timur
Shah
Shah
left Shah
Shah
Rukh in possession of Khurasan as their vassal, making Khurasan a kind of buffer state between them and Persia. As the real rulers, however, both these Afghan
Afghan
rulers struck coins in Mashhad. Otherwise, the reign of the blind Shah
Shah
Rukh, which with repeated short interruptions lasted for nearly half a century, passed without any events of special note. It was only after the death of Timur
Timur
Shah
Shah
(1792) that Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar , the founder of the Qajar dynasty, succeeded in taking Shah Rukh's domains and putting him to death in 1795, thus ending the separation of Khurasan from the rest of Persia.

QAJAR DYNASTY

Mashhad
Mashhad
in 1858

Some believe that Mashhad
Mashhad
was ruled by Shahrukh Afshar and remained the capital of the Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
during Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
until Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar conquered the then larger region of Khorasan in 1796.

PAHLAVI DYNASTY

Modernization Under Reza Shah

The modern development of the city accelerated under the regime of Reza Shah
Shah
(1925-1941). Shah
Shah
Reza Hospital (currently Imam Reza Hospital, affiliated to the Basij organization) was founded in 1934, the sugar factory of Abkuh in 1935 and the Faculty of Medicine of Mashhad
Mashhad
in 1939. The first power station was installed in 1936 and in 1939 the first urban transport service began with two buses. In this year the first population census was performed, with a result of 76471 inhabitants.

1912 Imam Reza Shrine Bombardment

In 1911 Yusuf Khan of Herat
Herat
was declared independent in Mashhad
Mashhad
as Muhammad Ali Shah
Shah
and brought together a large group of reactionaries opposed to the revolution, and keep stirring for some time. This gave Russia
Russia
the excuse to intervene and 29 March 1912 bombed the city; this bombing killed several people and pilgrims; action against a Muslim shrine caused a great shock to all Islamic countries. On March 29, 1912, the sanctuary of Imam Reza
Imam Reza
was bombed by the Russian artillery fire, causing some damage, including to the golden dome, resulting in a widespread and persisting resentment in the Shiite Muslim world as well as British India
British India
. This bombing was orchestrated by Prince Dabizha (a Georgian who was the Russian Consul in Mashhad) and General Radko (a Bulgarian who was commander of the Russian Cossacks in the city). Yusuf Khan ended captured by the Persians and executed.

1935 Imam Reza Shrine Rebellion

Main article: Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine rebellion

In 1935, a backlash against the modernizing, anti-religious policies of Reza Shah
Shah
erupted in the Mashhad
Mashhad
shrine. Responding to a cleric who denounced the Shah's heretical innovations, corruption and heavy consumer taxes, many bazaaris and villagers took refuge in the shrine, chanted slogans such as "The Shah
Shah
is a new Yazid." For four days local police and army refused to violate the shrine and the standoff was ended when troops from Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
arrived and broke into the shrine, killing dozens and injuring hundreds, and marking a final rupture between Shi'ite
Shi'ite
clergy and the Shah. Interestingly, according to some Mashhadi historians, the Goharshad Mosque
Mosque
uprising, which took place in 1935, is an uprising against Reza Shah's decree banning all veils (headscarf and chador) on 8 January 1936. In 1939, the former President and the current Supreme Leader of Iran
Iran
Ali Khamenei
Ali Khamenei
was born in this city.

1941–1979 Reforms

Comprehensive planning of Mashhad
Mashhad
in 1974

Mashhad
Mashhad
experienced population growth after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
Iran
in 1941 because of relative insecurity in rural areas, the 1948 drought, and the establishment of Mashhad
Mashhad
University in 1949. At the same time, public transport vehicles increased to 77 buses and 200 taxis and the railway link with the capital Tehran
Tehran
was established in 1957. The 1956 census reflected a population of 241,989 people. The increase in population continued in the following years thanks to the increase in Iranian oil revenues, the decline of the feudal social model, the agrarian reform of 1963, the founding of the city's airport, the creation of new factories and the development of the health system. In 1966, the population reached 409616 inhabitants, and 667,770 in 1976 . The extension of the city was expanded from 16 to 33 square kilometres (170,000,000 to 360,000,000 square feet ). In 1975, a plan for the development of the sanctuary was used to destroy a large number of street markets and mosques and ancient madrassahs and a new modern type of bazaar designed by the famous Iranian architect Dariush Borbor
Dariush Borbor
was built in Meydan-e Ab square (in Persian, میدان آب") to relocate those affected.

1994 Imam Reza Shrine Bombing

On June 20, 1994, a bomb exploded in a prayer hall of the shrine of the Imam Reza
Imam Reza
The bomb that killed at least 25 people on June 20 in Mashhad
Mashhad
exploded on Ashura . The Baluch terrorist, Ramzi Yousef
Ramzi Yousef
, a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim turned Wahhabi , one of the main perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was found to be behind the plot. However, official state media blamed Mehdi Nahvi, a supposed member of the People\'s Mujahedin of Iran
Iran
(MKO) in order to prevent sectarian violence.

MASHHAD AFTER THE REVOLUTION

In 1998 and 2003 there were student disturbances after the same events in Tehran
Tehran
.

GEOGRAPHY

The city is located at 36.20º North latitude and 59.35º East longitude, in the valley of the Kashafrud River near Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
, between the two mountain ranges of Binalood and Hezar Masjed Mountains . The city benefits from the proximity of the mountains, having cool winters, pleasant springs, mild summers, and beautiful autumns. It is only about 250 km (160 mi) from Ashgabat
Ashgabat
, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
.

The city is the administrative center of Mashhad
Mashhad
County
County
(or the Shahrestan of Mashhad) as well as the somewhat smaller district ( Bakhsh ) of Mashhad. The city itself, excluding parts of the surrounding Bakhsh and Shahrestan, is divided into 13 smaller administrative units, with a total population of more than 3 million.

CLIMATE

Mashhad
Mashhad
features a steppe climate (Köppen BSk) with hot summers and cool winters. The city only sees about 250 millimetres (9.8 inches) of precipitation per year, some of which occasionally falls in the form of snow. Mashhad
Mashhad
also has wetter and drier periods with the bulk of the annual precipitation falling between the months of December and May. Summers are typically hot and dry, with high temperatures sometimes exceeding 35 °C (95 °F). Winters are typically cool to cold and somewhat damper, with overnight lows routinely dropping below freezing. Mashhad
Mashhad
enjoys on average just above 2900 hours of sunshine per year.

CLIMATE DATA FOR MASHHAD (1951–2010, EXTREMES 1951–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 24.0 (75.2) 26.0 (78.8) 32.0 (89.6) 35.4 (95.7) 39.2 (102.6) 41.6 (106.9) 43.8 (110.8) 42.4 (108.3) 42.0 (107.6) 35.8 (96.4) 29.4 (84.9) 28.2 (82.8) 43.8 (110.8)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 7.1 (44.8) 9.3 (48.7) 14.2 (57.6) 20.9 (69.6) 26.8 (80.2) 32.3 (90.1) 34.4 (93.9) 33.1 (91.6) 28.9 (84) 22.5 (72.5) 15.5 (59.9) 9.8 (49.6) 21.2 (70.2)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 1.7 (35.1) 3.7 (38.7) 8.5 (47.3) 14.7 (58.5) 19.6 (67.3) 24.4 (75.9) 26.6 (79.9) 24.8 (76.6) 20.3 (68.5) 14.5 (58.1) 8.7 (47.7) 4.0 (39.2) 14.3 (57.7)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −3.8 (25.2) −1.8 (28.8) 2.9 (37.2) 8.4 (47.1) 12.4 (54.3) 16.4 (61.5) 18.7 (65.7) 16.5 (61.7) 11.7 (53.1) 6.4 (43.5) 1.9 (35.4) −1.7 (28.9) 7.3 (45.1)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −27.0 (−16.6) −28.0 (−18.4) −13.0 (8.6) −7.0 (19.4) −1.0 (30.2) 4.0 (39.2) 10.0 (50) 5.0 (41) −1.0 (30.2) −8.0 (17.6) −16.0 (3.2) −25.0 (−13) −28.0 (−18.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 32.6 (1.283) 34.5 (1.358) 55.5 (2.185) 45.4 (1.787) 27.2 (1.071) 4.0 (0.157) 1.1 (0.043) 0.7 (0.028) 2.1 (0.083) 8.0 (0.315) 16.1 (0.634) 24.3 (0.957) 251.5 (9.902)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 5.6 5.8 8.2 6.8 4.5 1.1 0.3 0.2 0.5 1.5 2.9 4.2 41.6

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 5.6 5.8 4.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.2 3.8 20.9

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 75 73 69 62 50 37 34 33 37 49 63 73 54

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 148.3 147.5 163.3 200.4 280.4 343.2 366.9 359.7 305.2 249.5 188.3 151.6 2,904.3

Source: Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization (records), (temperatures), (precipitation), (humidity), (days with precipitation),

(sunshine)

DEMOGRAPHICS

There are also over 20 million pilgrims who visit the city every year.

ETHNIC GROUPS

The vast majority of Mashhadi people are ethnic Persians, who form the majority of the city's population. Other ethnic groups include Kurdish and Turkmen people
Turkmen people
who have emigrated recently to the city from the North Khorasan province. There is also a significant community of non- Arabic
Arabic
speakers of Arabian descent who have assimilated with the Persian culture and no longer speak their own language although they have retained a distinct Arabian culture, cuisine and religious practices. The people from Mashhad
Mashhad
who look East Asian are of Hazara Turkmen , or Uyghur ancestry or indeed a combination of all other ethnic groups as racial mixing has been widely practiced in this region. Among the non-Iranians, there are many immigrants from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Iraq
Iraq
and Pakistan
Pakistan
.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Persians   92.5%

Khorasani Hazaras   10.0%

Khorasani Turks   3%

Khorasani Kurds   1.5%

Arabs   0.5%

Others   0.5%

Afghan
Afghan
Population

As neighbouring areas with cultural ties, there has been a long history of population movements between Khorasan and Afghanistan. Like the other areas in Khorasan province where there is an Afghan community due to the influx of Afghan
Afghan
refugees coming from Afghanistan in recent years, the demographic explosion of Mashhad
Mashhad
continued with the addition of some 296 000 Afghans Refugees to Mashhad, following the communist revolution of 1978. In many cases, they are no longer refugees but should be mentioned as locals (Iran's Ministry of Interior estimates that the total number of Afghans in Iran
Iran
is now around 3 million. Considering that there were 296000 Afghans Refugees to Mashhad
Mashhad
(from 2.5 million in the whole Iran) following the communist revolution of 1978, the number of Afghans in Mashhad
Mashhad
cannot be lesser that 296000 people - and so a rate more than 10.8% should be considered). Afghan
Afghan
refugees originate up to 90% from the provinces of Herat, Farah and Nimruz Province, speak in Dari Farsi and familiar with the culture in Mashhad. Even before the political frontier between Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan, the Persian-speaking inhabitants from the provinces of Herat
Herat
and Farah in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
had had kinship, as well as ethnical, religious, or economic relations with the Iranian province of Khorasan (especially Mashhad, where people speak a dialect akin with Harat dialect). According to Khorasan Razavi's General Administration of Nationals and Immigrants, there are 142,000 registered Afghan
Afghan
citizens living in Khorasan, 95 percent of which were identified in Mashhad. The Afghan
Afghan
immigrants have several neighborhoods around the city, especially in a new quarter to the northeast of Mashhad. This new Afghan
Afghan
quarter evokes the traditional relations of Mashhad
Mashhad
with the Herat
Herat
region and Central Asia.One of the districts inhabited by Afghan
Afghan
immigrants is Golshahr.

RELIGION

See also: Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine

Today, the holy shrine and its museum hold one of the most extensive cultural and artistic treasuries of Iran, in particular manuscript books and paintings. Several important theological schools are associated with the shrine of the Eighth Imam.

The second-largest holy city in the world, Mashhad
Mashhad
attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year, many of whom come to pay homage to the Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine (the eighth Shi\'ite Imam). It has been a magnet for travellers since medieval times. Thus, even as those who complete the pilgrimage to Mecca receive the title of Haji, those who make the pilgrimage to Mashhad—and especially to the Imam Reza shrine—are known as Mashtee, a term employed also of its inhabitants. As an important problem, the duration when new passengers stay in Mashhad
Mashhad
has been considerably reduced to 2 days nowadays and they prefer to finish their trip immediately after doing pilgrimage and shopping in the markets. There are about 3000-5000 unauthorized residential units in Mashhad, which, as a unique statistic worldwide, has caused various problems in the city.

Although mainly inhabited by Muslims, there were in the past some religious minorities in Mashhad, mainly Jews who were forcibly converted to Islam in 1839 after the Allahdad incident took place for Mashhadi Jews in 1839. They became known as Jadid al-Islam ("Newcomers in Islam"). On the outside, they adapted to the Islamic way of life, but often secretly kept their faith and traditions.

ECONOMY

Bazar-e-Raza, a popular market with spice shops and boutiques designed by the famous Iranian architect, Dariush Borbor
Dariush Borbor
in 1976

Mashhad
Mashhad
is Iran's second largest automobile production hub. The city's economy is based mainly on dry fruits, salted nuts, saffron, Iranian sweets like gaz and sohaan, precious stones like agates, turquoise, intricately designed silver jewelry studded with rubies and emeralds, eighteen carat gold jewelry, perfumes, religious souvenirs, trench coats, scarves, termeh, carpets and rugs. Turquoise
Turquoise
, one of the products of Mashhad
Mashhad

According to the writings and documents, the oldest existing carpet attributed to the city belongs to the reign of Shah
Shah
Abbas (Abbas I of Persia ). Also, there is a type of carpet, classified as Mashhad turkbâf, which, as its name suggests, is made with Turkish knot by craftsmen who emigrated from Tabriz
Tabriz
to Mashhad
Mashhad
in the nineteenth century . Among the major industries in the city, there is nutrition industries , clothing , leather , textiles , chemicals , steel and non-metallic mineral industries , construction materials factories , handicraft industry and metal industries .

With more than 55% of hotels in Iran, Mashhad
Mashhad
is the hub of tourism in Iran. In the geography of tourism, religious places known as the most powerful hub to attract travelers around the world, every year 20 to 30 million pilgrims from Iran
Iran
and more than 2 million pilgrims and tourists from around the world come to Mashhad, despite some problems. Mashhad
Mashhad
is one of the main producers of leather products in the region.

However, unemployment, poverty, drug addiction, theft and sexual exploitation are the most important social problems of the city. In Mashhad
Mashhad
tour be careful in choosing the hotel a few points: 1-Hotel be near the shrine of Imam Reza
Imam Reza
(AS) 2-3-star hotel to be high or a very good hotel 3-The hotel is a good hotel for people.

The divorce rate in Mashhad
Mashhad
has increased by 35 percent in 2014. Khorasan and Mashhad
Mashhad
ranked the second in violence across the country in 2013.

ASTAN QUDS RAZAVI

At the same time, the city has kept its character as a goal of pilgrimage, dominated by the strength of the economic and political authority of the Astan Quds Razavi, the administration of the Shrine waqf, probably the most important in the Muslim worldand the largest active bonyad in Iran. The Astan Quds Razavi
Astan Quds Razavi
is a major player in the economy of the city of Mashhad. The land occupied by the shrine has grown fourfold since 1979 according to the head of the foundation's international relations department. The Shrine of Imam Reza
Imam Reza
is vaster than Vatican City. The foundation owns most of the real estate in Mashhad
Mashhad
and rents out shop space to bazaaris and hoteliers. The main resource of the institution is endowments, estimated to have annual revenue of $210 billion. Ebrahim Raisi
Ebrahim Raisi
is the current Custodian of Astan Quds Razavi. Mall at Mashhad
Mashhad

PADIDEH SHANDIZ

Mashhad
Mashhad
Carpet
Carpet

Padideh Shandiz International Tourism
Tourism
Development Company, an Iranian private joint-stock holding company, behaves like a public company by selling stocks despite being a joint-stock in the field of restaurants, tourism and construction, with a footbal club (Padideh F.C. ; formerly named Azadegan League club Mes Sarcheshmeh). In January 2015, the company was accused of a "fraud" worth $34.3 billion, which is one eighth of Iran
Iran
budget.

CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

Several credit institutions have been established in Mashhad, including Samenolhojaj (مؤسسه مالی و اعتباری ثامن الحجج ), Samenola'emmeh (مؤسسه اعتباری ثامن ) and Melal (formerly Asgarieh, مؤسسه اعتباری عسکریه ). The depositors of the first institution have faced problem in receiving cash from the institution.

OTHERS

The city's International Exhibition Center is the second most active exhibition center after Tehran, which due to proximity to Central Asian countries hosts dozens of international exhibitions each year.

Companies such as Smart-innovators in Mashhad
Mashhad
are pioneers in electrical and computer technology.

LANGUAGE

The language mainly spoken in Mashhad
Mashhad
is Persian with a variating Mashhadi accent, which can at times, prove itself as a sort of dialect. The Mashhadi dialect is somewhat different from the Persian dialect in some of its tones and stresses. For instance, the Mashhadi dialect shares vocabulary and phonology with Dari Persian. Likewise, the dialect of Herati in Western Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is quite similar to the Persian dialect in Mashhad
Mashhad
and is akin to the Persian dialects of Khorasan Province, notably those of Mashhad. Hazaragi is another dialect spoken by Hazara people
Hazara people
who live as a diaspora community in Mashhad. Today, the Mashhadi dialect is rarely spoken by young people of Mashhad, most of them perceive it as a humiliation. This is thought to be related to the non-positive performance of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
Broadcasting (IRIB).

CULTURE

Tomb
Tomb
of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
in Tous .

RELIGIOUS SEMINARIES

Relief in Tous depicting popular stories of Persian mythology
Persian mythology
, from the book of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
.

Long a center of secular and religious learning, Mashhad
Mashhad
has been a center for the Islamic arts and sciences as well as piety and pilgrimage. Mashhad
Mashhad
was an educational centre, with a considerable number of Islamic schools (madrasas, the majority of them, however, dating from the later afavid period. Mashhad
Mashhad
Hawza (Persian: حوزه علمیه مشهد) is one of the largest seminaries of traditional Islamic school of higher learning in Mashhad, which was headed by Abbas Vaez-Tabasi (who was Chairman of the Astan Quds Razavi
Astan Quds Razavi
board from 1979) after the revolution and in which Iranian politician and clerics such as Ali Khamenei
Ali Khamenei
, Ahmad Alamolhoda , Abolghasem Khazali , Mohammad Reyshahri , Morteza Motahhari , Abbas Vaez-Tabasi , Madmoud Halabi (the founder of Hojjatieh and Mohammad Hadi Abd-e Khodaee learned Islamic studies. The number of seminary schools in Mashhad
Mashhad
is now thirty nine and there are an estimated 2300 seminarians in the city.

The Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad
Mashhad
, named after the great Iranian poet, is located here and is regarded as the third institution in attracting foreign students, mainly from Afghanistan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, Central Asian republics. The Madrassa
Madrassa
of Ayatollah Al-Khoei , originally built in the seventeenth century and recently replaced with modern facilities, is the city's foremost traditional centre for religious learning. The Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, founded in 1984, stands at the centre of town, within the shrine complex. The prestige of traditional religious education at Mashhad
Mashhad
attracts students, known as Talabeh, or "Mollah" internationally. Tomb
Tomb
of Nader Shah
Nader Shah

Mashhad
Mashhad
is also home to one of the oldest libraries of the Middle-East called the Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi with a history of over six centuries. There are some six million historical documents in the foundation's central library. A museum is also home to over 70,000 rare manuscripts from various historical eras

The Astan Quds Razavi Central Museum , which is part of the Astan-e Quds Razavi Complex, contains Islamic art
Islamic art
and historical artifacts. Hoz Loghman Mosque
Mosque

In 1569 (977 H), 'Imad al-Din Mas'ud Shirazi, a physician at the Mashhad
Mashhad
hospital, wrote the earliest Islamic treatise on syphilis, one influenced by European medical thought. Kashmar rug is a type of Persian rug
Persian rug
indigenous to this region.

Mashhad
Mashhad
active galleries include: Mirak Gallery, Parse Gallery, Rezvan Gallery, Soroush Gallery, and the Narvan Gallery.

During the recent years, Mashhad
Mashhad
has been a clerical base to monitor the affairs and decisions of state. In 2015, Mashhad's clerics publicly criticized the performance of concert in Mashhad, which led to the order of cancellation of concerts in the city by Ali Jannati , the minister of culture , and then the his resignation on 19 October 2016.

NEWSPAPERS

There are two influential newspapers in Mashhad, Khorasan (خراسان)and Qods (قدس), which have been considered "conservative newspapers" They are two Mashhad-based daily published by and representing the views of their current and old owners: Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs and Astan Quds Razavi
Astan Quds Razavi
, respectively.

CAPITAL OF ISLAMIC CULTURE

Logo of Mashhad
Mashhad
as capital of Islamic culture in 2017

The Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization named Mashhad
Mashhad
2017's "cultural capital of the Muslim world" in Asia on 24 January 2017.

MAIN SITES

Khayam Street

Apart from Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine , there are a number of large parks, the tombs of historical celebrities in nearby Tus and Nishapur
Nishapur
, the tomb of Nader Shah
Nader Shah
and Kooh Sangi park. The Koohestan Park-e-Shadi Complex includes a zoo, where many wild animals are kept and which attracts many visitors to Mashhad. It is also home to the Mashhad
Mashhad
Airbase (formerly Imam Reza
Imam Reza
airbase), jointly a military installation housing Mirage aircraft, and a civilian international airport.

Some points of interest lie outside the city: the tomb of Khajeh Morad , along the road to Tehran; the tomb of Khajeh Rabi\' located 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) north of the city where there are some inscriptions by the renowned Safavid
Safavid
calligrapher Reza Abbasi
Reza Abbasi
; and the tomb of Khajeh Abasalt , a distance of 20 kilometres (12 miles) from Mashhad
Mashhad
along the road to Neishabur . (The three were all disciples of Imam Reza
Imam Reza
).

Among the other sights are the tomb of the poet Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
in Tus, 24 kilometres (15 miles) distance, and the summer resorts at Torghabeh , Torogh , Akhlamad, Zoshk
Zoshk
, and Shandiz
Shandiz
.

The Shah
Shah
Public Bath, built during the Safavid
Safavid
era in 1648, is an outstanding example of the architecture of that period. It was recently restored, and is to be turned into a museum.

TRANSPORTATION

Cable Intersection at Imam Hossein square

AIRPORT

Mashhad International Airport

Mashhad
Mashhad
is served by the Mashhad International Airport , which handles domestic flights to Iranian cities and international flights, mostly to neighbouring Arab countries. The airport is the country's second busiest after Tehran
Tehran
Mehrabad Airport and above the famous Tehran's Imam Khomeini International Airport.

It is connected to 57 destinations and has frequent flights to 30 cities within Iran
Iran
and 27 destinations in the Central Asia, the Middle East, East Asia and Europe.

The airport has been under a USD45.7 ml vast expansion project which has been finished by opening a new Haj Terminal with 10,000 m area on 24 May 2010 and followed by opening a new international terminal with 30000 m2 area with a new parking building, a new custom storage and cargo terminal, new safety and fire fighting buildings and upgrades to taxiways and equipment. Another USD26.5 ml development project for construction of new hangar for aircraft repair facilities and expansion of the west side of the domestic terminal is underway using a BOT contract with the private sector.

METRO

Main article: Mashhad Light Rail Mashhad Metro 's Khayam Station

Mashhad Urban Railway Corporation (MURCO) is constructing metro and light rail system for the city of Mashhad
Mashhad
which includes four lines with 85 kilometres (53 miles) length. Mashhad Urban Railway Operation Company(MUROC) is responsible for the operation of the lines. Railway Operation Company The first line (LRT) has been exploited since 21 Feb 2011 with 19.5 kilometres (12.1 miles) length and 22 stations and connected to Mashhad International Airport in early 2016 and total length of line 1 increased to 24 kilometers and 24 stations. The second line with 14.5 km length and 13 stations is under construction and is projected to be finished by early 2016. First phase of line 2 with 8 kilometers and 7 station(skipping 1) is started since 21 Feb 2017.

RAIL

Mashhad
Mashhad
is connected to three major rail lines: Tehran
Tehran
-Mashhad, Mashhad-Bafgh (running south), and Mashhad- Sarakhs at the border with Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
. Some freight trains continue from Sarakhs towards Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and to Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, but have to change bogies because of the difference in Rail gauge
Rail gauge
. A rail line is being constructed off the Mashhad-Bafgh line to connect Mashhad
Mashhad
to Herat
Herat
in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, but has not yet been completed and one is planned to connect to the Gorgan
Gorgan
railhead and the port of Bandar Torkaman on the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the west. Passenger rail services are provided by Raja Passenger Trains Company and all trains are operated by R.A.I., Rah-Ahan (Railway) of Iran, the national railway company.

A new service from Nakhchivan , Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to Mashad , Iran
Iran
was launched in December 2016.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT

Mashhad's current members of parliament are described as politician with fundamentalist conservative tendencies, who are mostly the members of Front of Islamic Revolution Stability , an Iranian principlist political group. They were elected to the Parliament on 26 February 2016.

MEMBERS OF ASSEMBLY OF EXPERTS

Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
and Ahmad Alamolhoda are two members of the Iranian Assembly of Experts from Mashhad. Hashemi Shahroudi is currently First Vice-Chairman of the Iranian Assembly of Experts . He was the Head of Iran's Judiciary from 1999 until 2009 who upon accepting his position, appointed Saeed Mortazavi , a well known fundamentalist and controversial figure during President Mahmud Ahmadinejad's reelection, prosecutor general of Iran. Interestingly, he was supported by Mashhad's reformists as the candidate of the Fifth Assembly on 26 February 2016.

CITY COUNCIL AND MAYOR

In 2013, an Iranian principlist political group, Front of Islamic Revolution Stability (which is partly made up of former ministers of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
and Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi ), gained a landslide victory in Mashhad
Mashhad
City Council, which on September 23, 2013, elected Seyed Sowlat Mortazavi as mayor, who was former governor of the province of South Khorasan and the city of Birjand. The municipality's budget amounted to 9600 billion Toman in 2015.

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES

Commemoration Ceremony of Mashhad's foreign graduates

UNIVERSITIES

* Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad * Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad
Mashhad
- International Campus * Golbahar University of Science
Science
and New Technology * Imam Reza
Imam Reza
International University * Islamic Azad University of Khorasan - Golbahar International Campus * Islamic Azad University of Mashhad * Khayyam University * Mashhad
Mashhad
University of Medical Sciences * Payame Noor University of Mashhad * Razavi University of Islamic Sciences * Sadjad University of Technology * Sama Technical and Vocational Training Center (Islamic Azad University of Mashhad) * Sport Sciences Research Institute of Iran
Iran

COLLEGES Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad
Mashhad

* Al Mustafa International University * Alzahra Girls Technical and Vocational College of Mashhad (Technical and Vocational University) * Arman Razavi Girls Institute of Higher Education * Asrar Institute of Higher Education * Attar Institute of Higher Education * Bahar Institute of Higher Education * Binalood Institute of Higher Education * Cultural Heritage, Hand Crafts, and Tourism
Tourism
Higher Education Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Eqbal Lahoori Institute of Higher Education * Ferdows Institute of Higher Education * Hakim Toos Institute of Higher Education * Hekmat Razavi Institute of Higher Education * Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Mashhad
Mashhad
Branch (Jahad Daneshgahi of Mashhad) * Jahad Keshavarzi Higher Education Center of Khorasan Razavi (Shahid Hashemi Nejad) * Kavian Institute of Higher Education * Kharazmi Azad Institute of Higher Education of Khorasan * Khavaran Institute of Higher Education * Kheradgarayan Motahar Institute of higher education * Khorasan Institute of Higher Education * Khorasan Razavi Judiciary Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Khorasan Razavi Municipalities\' Institute of Research, Education, and Consultation of (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Mashhad
Mashhad
Aviation Industry Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Mashhad
Mashhad
Aviation Training Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Mashhad
Mashhad
Culture and Art Center 1 (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Mashhad
Mashhad
Koran Reciters Society * Mashhad
Mashhad
Prisons Organization Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Mashhad
Mashhad
Tax center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Navvab Higher Clerical School * Part Tyre Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Red Crescent Society of Khorasan Razavi (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Salman Institute of Higher Education * Samen Teacher Training Center of Mashhad
Mashhad
(Farhangian University) * Samen Training Center of Mashhad
Mashhad
(Technical and Vocational University) * Sanabad Golbahar Institute of Higher Education * Shahid Beheshti Teacher Training College (Farhangian University) * Shahid Hashemi Nejad Teacher Training College (Farhangian University) * Shahid Kamyab Teacher Training Center * Shahid Montazari Technical Faculty (Technical and Vocational University) * Shandiz
Shandiz
Institute of Higher Education * Khorasan Razavi Taavon Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Tabaran Institute of Higher Education * Toos Institute of Higher Education * Toos Porcelain Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Varastegan Medical Sciences Institute of Higher Education * Khorasan Water and Electricity Industry Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) * Workers\' House; Mashhad
Mashhad
Branch (University of Science
Science
and Technology)

SPORTS

MAJOR SPORT TEAMS

CLUB LEAGUE SPORT VENUE ESTABLISHED

PADIDEH F.C. Iran
Iran
Pro League Football Samen Stadium 2007

FC MASHHAD Iran
Iran
Pro League Football Takhti Stadium 1970

SAMEN MASHHAD BC Iranian Basketball Super League Basketball
Basketball
Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex 2011

MIZAN KHORASAN VC Iranian Volleyball Super League Volleyball
Volleyball
Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex 2010

FARSH ARA MASHHAD FSC Iranian Futsal Super League Futsal
Futsal
Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex 1994

FERDOSI MASHHAD FSC Iranian Futsal Super League Futsal
Futsal
Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex 2011

RAHAHAN KHORASAN W.C. Iranian Premier Wrestling League Freestyle wrestling
Freestyle wrestling
Mohammad Ali Sahraei Hall 1995

OTHER SPORTS

City was host to 2009 Junior World Championships in sitting volleyball where Iran\'s junior team won Gold.

GALLERY

* Some photos of Mashhad
Mashhad
(The City of Paradise)

*

Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine *

Proma Hypermarket
Hypermarket
*

Mashhad
Mashhad
is the major trade center of saffron in Iran. *

Many beautiful handicraft products are sold in Shandiz
Shandiz
and Torghabeh . *

Some Iranian Handicrafts (metalwork) in Torghabeh *

Front façade of the Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
's mausoleum in Tous *

Haruniyeh
Haruniyeh
Dome in Tous *

Malek's House in Mashhad
Mashhad
*

St. Mesrop Armenian church in Mashhad
Mashhad
*

Tous Museum
Museum
near Mashhad
Mashhad
*

Shandiz
Shandiz
a tourist town near Mashhad
Mashhad
*

Homa Hotel
Hotel
, Branch of Homa Hotel
Hotel
Group *

Mashhad's countryside *

Shashlik
Shashlik
, one of the Iranian tasty foods in Mashhad
Mashhad
*

Pistols from Afsharid Empire era at Naderi Museum
Museum
*

Faculty of Science
Science
, Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad
Mashhad
*

Faculty of Engineering
Engineering
, Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad
Mashhad
*

Mashhad Urban Railway *

Almas Shargh (East Diamond) Shopping Center *

Mashhad Metro (LRT ) Station *

Mashhad Metro (LRT ) network sign *

Mashhad Metro Entrance and Urban Design *

City Signpost *

Imam Hussein
Imam Hussein
Square *

Mashhad
Mashhad
Firefighter
Firefighter
's Parade *

Mashhad
Mashhad
Firefighter
Firefighter
's Parade *

Mashhad
Mashhad
Firefighter
Firefighter
's Parade *

A mosque in Mashhad
Mashhad
*

Goharshad Mosque
Mosque
, Abbasid
Abbasid
Ivan in Atiq yard *

An old photo of Goharshad Mosque
Mosque
*

Lost girl sculpture *

Oven of Rastgar Moqaddam *

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
tomb *

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
tomb *

A Masterpiece in Mashhad
Mashhad
metro station *

Padideh Shandiz Tourism
Tourism
Center *

Shandiz
Shandiz
Restaurant, serving traditional Iranian cuisine
Iranian cuisine
*

Kang countryside *

Kang countryside * * * *

Panoramic view of Mashhad
Mashhad
from Koohsangi

MASHHAD AS CAPITAL OF PERSIA AND INDEPENDENT KHORASAN

The following Shahanshahs had Mashhad
Mashhad
as their capital :

* Kianid Dynasty * Malek Mahmoud Sistani 1722–1726 * Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
* Nader Shah
Nader Shah
* Adil Shah
Shah
* Ebrahim Afshar * Shahrukh Afshar * Nadir Mirza of Khorasan * Safavid
Safavid
Dynasty * Soleyman II * Autonomous Government of Khorasan * Colonel Mohammad Taghi Khan Pessyan

FAMOUS PEOPLE FROM MASHHAD AND TUS

See also: Category:People from Mashhad
Mashhad

*

Mohammad-Reza Shajarian , Singer-songwriter
Singer-songwriter
received the Picasso Award , UNESCO Mozart Medal and National Order of Merit (France)
National Order of Merit (France)
*

Mahmoud Khayami , Businessman , philanthropist and Industrialist
Industrialist
an Honorary CBE , KSS , GCFO *

Mohammad-Taqi Bahar
Mohammad-Taqi Bahar
, Poet
Poet
, Politician
Politician
and Journalist
Journalist
*

Manouchehr Eghbal , 65th Prime Minister of Iran
Iran
*

Abdolhossein Teymourtash , politician and statesman, the first Minister of Court of Iran
Iran
*

Abu\'l-Fadl Bayhaqi , Persian secretary, historian and author *

Nizam al-Mulk , Scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire *

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
, Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem *

Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei , a Marja and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran
Iran
*

Jabir ibn Hayyan
Jabir ibn Hayyan
, was a prominent polymath , a chemist and alchemist , astronomer and astrologer , engineer , geographer , philosopher , physicist , and pharmacist and physician *

Rafi Pitts , Iranian film director *

Ali Shirazinia known as Dubfire , Iranian American house and techno DJ and producer *

Anousheh Ansari
Anousheh Ansari
Iranian-American engineer , co-founder and chairwoman of Prodea Systems, co-founder and CEO of Telecom Technologies, Inc. (TTI), sponsor of the Ansari X Prize *

Heshmat Mohajerani
Heshmat Mohajerani
, footballer and former football manager *

Reza Ghoochannejhad , footballer *

Mehdi Akhavan-Sales , Free verse Poet
Poet

Religious and political figures

* Abbas Vaez-Tabasi , 25 June 1935 - 4 March 2016; Grand Imam and Chairman of the Astan Quds Razavi
Astan Quds Razavi
board * Abdolhossein Teymourtash , prominent Iraninan statesman and first minister of justice under the Pahlavis * Abdolreza Rahmani Fazli
Abdolreza Rahmani Fazli
, born 1959 in Shirvan; Interior Minister of President Hassan Rouhani
Hassan Rouhani
* Abu Muslim Khorasani , c. 700–755; Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khorasani, Abbasid
Abbasid
general of Persian origin * Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
, 1058–1111; Islamic theologian, jurist, philosopher, cosmologist, psychologist and mystic of Persian origin * Al-Hurr al-Aamili
Al-Hurr al-Aamili
, Shia scholar and muhaddith * Ali al-Sistani , born approximately August 4, 1930; Twelver Shi'a marja residing in Iraq
Iraq
since 1951 * Amirteymour Kalali , prominent Iraninan statesman * Goharshad Begum , Persian noble and wife of Shāh Rukh, the emperor of the Timurid Dynasty of Herāt * Hadi Khamenei
Hadi Khamenei
, b. 1947; mid-ranking cleric who is a member of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics * ], born 21 March 1959 in Fariman ; Minister of Health and Medical Education of President Hassan Rouhani
Hassan Rouhani
* Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi , Conservative political strategist and popular television personality in the Islamic Republic of Iran * Hossein Vahid Khorasani
Hossein Vahid Khorasani
, born in 1924; Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja * Manouchehr Eghbal , 14 October 1909 – 25 November 1977, a Prime Minister of Iran * Mohammad-Ali Abtahi , born January 27, 1958; former Vice President of Iran
Iran
and a close associate of former reformist President Mohammad Khatami * Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf , born 23 August 1961 in Torghabeh, near Mashhad; the current Mayor of Tehran, Iran * Mohammad-Kazem Khorasani , 1839–1911; Twelver Shi'a Marja, Persian (Iranian) politician, philosopher, reformer * Morteza Motahhari , 31 January 1919 in Fariman - 1 May 1979; an Iranian cleric, philosopher, lecturer, and politician * Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
, born February 1201 in Tūs, Khorasan – 26 June 1274 in al-Kāżimiyyah near Baghdad; Persian of the Ismaili and subsequently Twelver Shī‘ah Islamic belief * Nizam al-Mulk , 1018 – 14 October 1092; celebrated Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire * Saeed Jalili
Saeed Jalili
, born 1965 in Mashhad; Iranian politician and the present secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council * Seyed Hassan Firuzabadi , current major general, Islamic Republic of Iran * Seyyed Ali Khamenei
Ali Khamenei
, born 17 July 1939; former president and current supreme leader of Iran * Shahrukh (Timurid dynasty) , August 20, 1377 – March 12, 1447; ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by the Central Asian warlord Timur
Timur
(Tamerlane) * Shaykh Tusi
Shaykh Tusi
, 385–460 A.H.; prominent Persian scholar of the Shi'a Twelver Islamic belief * Sheikh Ali Tehrani , brother-in-law of Seyyed Ali Khamenei, currently living in Iran. He is one of the oppositions of current Iranian government. * Timur
Timur
Shah
Shah
Durrani , Emir of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
1772-1793

Writers and scientists

* Abolfazl Beyhaqi , 995–1077; a Persian historian and author * Abū al-Wafā\' Būzjānī , 10 June 940 – 1 July 998; Persian mathematician and astronomer * Abū Ja\'far al-Khāzin , 900–971; Persian astronomer and mathematician from Khorasan * Abu-Mansur Daqiqi , 935/942–976/980 * Abusa\'id Abolkhayr , December 7, 967 – January 12, 1049 / Muharram ul Haram 1, 357 – Sha'aban 4, 440 AH; famous Persian Sufi who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi tradition * Amir Ghavidel (fa), March 1947 - November 2009; an Iranian director and script writer * Anvari , 1126–1189, one of the greatest Persian poets * Arion Golmakani (fa); an American author of Iranian origin. His award-winning memoir Solacers details his childhood in Mashhad. * Asadi Tusi , born in Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan, died 1072 Tabriz, Iran; Persian poet of Iranian national epics * Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
, 935–1020 in Tus; a Persian poet * Jābir ibn Hayyān
Jābir ibn Hayyān
, c. 721 in Tus – c. 815 in Kufa; prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician * Mehdi Akhavan-Sales , 1928, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
– 1990, Tehran, Iran; a Persian poet * Mohammad Mokhtari (writer) , Iranian writer who was murdered on the outskirts of Tehran
Tehran
in the course of the Chain Murders of Iran
Iran
. * Mohammad-Taghi Bahar , November 6, 1884, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
– April 22, 1951; Tehran, Iran * Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī , 1135–1213; Persian mathematician and astronomer of the Islamic Golden Age (during the Middle Ages)

Artists

* 25band , both singers born in Mashhad; Pop Group formed in 2010 * Abdi Behravanfar
Abdi Behravanfar
, born June 1975 in Mashhad; an Iranian Singer, guitar player and singer-songwriter * Ali "Dubfire" Shirazinia , born 19 April 1971; musician/dj (co-founder of Deep Dish) * Anoushirvan Arjmand , Iranian actor * Borzoo Arjmand (fa), born 1975 in Mashhad; Iranian Cinema, Theatre, and Television actor * Dariush Arjmand , Iranian actor * Darya Dadvar , born 1971 in Mashhad; an accomplished Iranian soprano soloist and composer * Hamed Behdad , born 17 November 1973 in Mashhad; Iranian actor * Hamid Motebassem , born 1958 in Mashhad; Iranian musician and tar and setar player * Ho3ein Eblis (fa), is considered as one of pioneers of "Persian Rap" along with Hichkas and Reza Pishro (fa) * Homayoun Shajarian , Mohammad-Reza Shajarian 's son, born 21 May 1975; renowned Persian classical music vocalist, as well as a Tombak and Kamancheh player * Iran
Iran
Darroudi , born 2 September 1936 in Mashhad; Iranian artist * Javad Jalali , born 30 May 1977 in Mashhad; Iranian Photographer and Cinematographer * Mahdi Bemani Naeini , born 3 November 1968; Iranian film director, cinematographer, TV cameraman and photographer * Marshall Manesh , born 16 August 1950 in Mashhad; Iranian-American actor * Mitra Hajjar , born February 4, 1977; Iranian actress * Mohammad-Reza Shajarian , born 23 September 1940 in Mashhad; internationally and critically acclaimed Persian traditional singer, composer and Master (Ostad) of Persian music * Mohsen Namjoo , born 1976 in Torbat-e-Jaam; Iranian singer-songwriter, author, musician, and setar player * Navid Negahban , born 2 June 1968 in Mashhad; Iranian-American actor * Noureddin Zarrinkelk , born 1937 in Mashhad; renowned Iranian animator, concept artist, editor, graphic designer, illustrator, layout artist, photographer, script writer and sculptor * Ovanes Ohanian , ?–1961 Tehran; Armenian-Iranian filmmaker who established the first film school in Iran * Pouran Jinchi , born 1959 in Mashhad; Iranian-American artist * Rafi Pitts , born 1967 in Mashhad; internationally acclaimed Iranian film director * Reza Attaran , born 31 March 1968 in Mashhad; Iranian actor and director * Reza Kianian , born July 17 1951 in Mashhad; Iranian actor * Valy Hedjasi ]] (fa), born June 1986 in Mashhad; Afghan
Afghan
Pop Singer * Zohreh Jooya , born in Mashhad; Iranian- Afghan
Afghan
Classical Singer

Scientists

* Abū al-Wafā\' al-Būzjānī , 10 June 940 – 1 July 998; Persian mathematician and astronomer * Anousheh Ansari
Anousheh Ansari
, born 12 September 1966; the Iranian-American co-founder and chairman of Prodea Systems, Inc and a spaceflight participant with the Russian space program

Sports figures

* Abbas Chamanyan , Iranian football coach, manager, and former player * Abbas Golmakani , World's wrestling champion during the 1950s * Abolfazl Safavi , Iran
Iran
professional football player for Aboumoslem team in Takhte Jamshid League; He was later executed in prison by the Iranian regime in 1982 for his affiliation with Iranian opposition, the MEK * Ali Baghbanbashi , athlete * Alireza Vahedi Nikbakht , born June 30, 1980 in Mashhad; Iranian professional football player * Amir Ghaseminejad , judoka * Amir Reza Khadem , born February 10, 1970 in Mashhad, wrestler * Amir Tavakkolian , wrestler * Farbod Farman , basketballer * Farhad Zarif , born March 3, 1983, Volleyballer * Ghodrat Bahadori , Iranian Futsaler/Indoor soccer player * Hamed Afagh , basketballer * Hamid Reza Mobarez , swimmer * Hasan Kamranifar , Iranian football referee * Heshmat Mohajerani
Heshmat Mohajerani
, born January, 1936 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian football coach, manager, and former player * Hossein Badamaki , Iranian professional football player * Hossein Ghadam , Iran
Iran
professional football player for Aboumoslem team * Hossein Sokhandan , Iranian football referee * Hossein Tayyebi , Iranian Futsaler/Indoor soccer player * Javad Mahjoub , judoka * Kamia Yousufi , Afghani female sprinter born in Mashhad
Mashhad
to Afghani parents * Khodadad Azizi , born June 22, 1971 in Mashhad, Iran; retired professional football striker * Kia Zolgharnain , Iranian-American former Futsaler/Indoor soccer player * Mahdi Javid
Mahdi Javid
, Iranian Futsaler/Indoor soccer player * Majid Khodaei , wrestler * Maryam Sedarati
Maryam Sedarati
, athlete, Iran
Iran
record holder in women high jump for three decades * Masoud Haji Akhondzadeh , judoka * Mohammad Khadem , wrestler * Mohammad Mansouri , Iranian professional football player * Mohsen Ghahramani , Iranian football referee * Mohsen Torki , Iranian football referee * Rasoul Khadem , born February 17, 1972 in Mashhad, wrestler * Reza Enayati , Iranian professional football player * Reza Ghoochannejhad , Iranian-Dutch professional football player * Rouzbeh Arghavan , basketballer

Others

* Ali Akbar Fayyaz , a renowned historian of early Islam and literary critic, founder of the School of Letters and Humanities at the Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad * Hesam Kolahan , World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). * Hossein Sabet , Iranian businessman and Persian carpet dealer who owns Sabet International Trading Co. * Mahmoud Khayami , born 1930 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian born industrialist and philanthropist, of French nationality * Maryam Monsef , Afghan-Canadian Minister of Democratic Institutions , MP for Peterborough-Kawartha .

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Mashhad
Mashhad
is twinned with:

* Karachi
Karachi
, Pakistan
Pakistan
(May 2012) * Lahore
Lahore
, Pakistan
Pakistan
(2006) * Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Malaysia
Malaysia
(2006) * Ürümqi
Ürümqi
, China
China
* Mazari Sharif , Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey

CONSULATES

Afghan
Afghan
Consul General met with the Mayor of Mashhad
Mashhad

ACTIVE

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1921–) * Iraq
Iraq
(2007–) * Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(1996–) * Pakistan
Pakistan
(1975–) * Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(EMBASSY REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE: 1995–) * Turkey
Turkey
(1919-?,1930–?, 2014–) * Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(1995–)

FORMER

* United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1889–1975) * Russia
Russia
(1889–1917) * USSR (1917–1937,1941–1979) * China
China
(1941-?) * USA (1949–?) * Poland
Poland
* India
India
* Japan
Japan
* Jordan
Jordan
* Lebanon
Lebanon
* West Germany
West Germany
(c. 1984) * Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(1995–2009) * Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(2004–2016)

SEE ALSO

* Iran
Iran
portal

* The National Library of Astan Quds Razavi
Astan Quds Razavi
* Mashadi Jewish Community * Sport Sciences Research Institute of Iran
Iran

FOOTNOTES

* ^ "Local Government Profile". United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Retrieved 4 February 2014. * ^ A B C D "Sacred Sites: Mashhad, Iran". sacredsites.com. Retrieved 2006-03-13. * ^ "Razavi Khorasan (Iran): Counties & Cities - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". www.citypopulation.de. * ^ "مشهد، پایتخت معنوی ایران اعلام شد" (in Persian). Khorasan newspaper. 9 Aban 1388. Retrieved Persian date Khordad 23 1394. Check date values in: access-date=, date= (help ) * ^ "نام‌گذاري مشهد به عنوان پايتخت معنوي "Nombramiento de Mashhad
Mashhad
como capital espiritual de Irán"" (in Persian). Shahr.ir. 1 November 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2013. * ^ E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936 p. 127 * ^ The Shias: A Short Gistory, Heinz Halm, p. 26 * ^ " Iran
Iran
travel Information". persiatours.com. * ^ Zabeth (1999) pp. 12–13. * ^ Zabeth (1999) pp. 13–16. * ^ موسوي 1370, p. 40 * ^ A B Zabeth (1999) pp. 14–15. * ^ http://www.greentravelpioneers.com/tabid/261/Default.aspx * ^ "زبان و ادبیات ترکان خراسان - غذاهای سنتی گریوان". salariyan.blogfa.com. * ^ نوایی، عبدالحسین. کریم خان زند * ^ Cyrus Ghani (6 January 2001). Iran
Iran
and the Rise of the Reza Shah: From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power. I.B.Tauris. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-86064-629-4 . Retrieved 4 November 2012. * ^ A B "تاریخجه شهر مشهد, "Historia de la ciudad de Mashhad"". Portal
Portal
de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Mashhad (in persa). Retrieved October 27, 2013. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link ) * ^ Firuz Kazemzadeh (10 April 2013). Russia
Russia
and Britain in Persia: Imperial Ambitions in Qajar Iran. I.B.Tauris. p. 663. ISBN 978-0-85772-173-0 . * ^ Ervand, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p.94 * ^ Bakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs : Iran
Iran
and the Islamic Revolution by Shaul, Bakhash, Basic Books, c1984, p.22 * ^ "ABC Evening News for Monday, Jun 20, 1994". Tvnews.vanderbilt.edu. 1994-06-20. Retrieved 2009-06-19. * ^ "Explosive circles: Iran. ( Mashhad
Mashhad
bombing)". Highbeam.com. 1994-06-25. Retrieved 2009-06-19. * ^ "Context of \'Mid-1994: Ramzi Yousef
Ramzi Yousef
Works Closely with Al-Qaeda Leaders". Historycommons.org. Retrieved March 25, 2010. * ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-03. Retrieved 2008-02-27.

* ^

* "Highest record temperature in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. * "Lowest record temperature in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015.

* ^

* "Average Maximum temperature in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. * "Average Mean Daily temperature in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. * "Average Minimum temperature in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015.

* ^ "Monthly Total Precipitation
Precipitation
in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. * ^ "Average relative humidity in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. * ^ "No. Of days with precipitation equal to or greater than 1 mm in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. * ^ "No. Of days with snow in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. * ^ "Monthly total sunshine hours in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. * ^ Iran
Iran
Foreign Policy & Government Guide (World Business Law Handbook Library), Usa Ibp, Intl Business Pubn., 2006, p. 149 * ^ Glazebrook & Abbasi-Shavazi 2007 , p. 189 * ^ Abbas Hajimohammadi and Shaminder Dulai, eds. (6 November 2014). "Photos: The Life of Afghan
Afghan
Refugees in Tehran". Newsweek. Retrieved 2014-11-07. * ^ Koepke, Bruce (4 February 2011), "The Situation of Afghans in the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
Nine Years After the Overthrow of the Taliban Regime in Afghanistan", Middle East Institute, retrieved 2014-11-07 * ^ "مهاجرت افغان‌ها برای همسایه دردسرساز شد/ سرنوشت خاکستری اتباع خارجی در مشهد". خبرگزاری مهر - اخبار ایران و جهان - Mehr News Agency. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2016. * ^ http://news.mashhad.ir/news/47876-ماندگاری-زائران-مشهد-نصف-اقامت-مسافران-یزد-کاشان-کاهش-یافت.html * ^ http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13910923000693 * ^ The double lives of Mashhadi Jews, Jerusalem Post, 12 augustus 2007. * ^ correspondent, Tehran
Tehran
Bureau (7 May 2015). "Prayer, food, sex and water parks in Iran\'s holy city of Mashhad" – via The Guardian.

* ^ "تور مشهد - نقد و اقساط (شروع از 200,000 تومان)". irandehkadeh.com. * ^ "افزایش 35درصدی طلاق در مشهد". پایگاه خبری تحلیلی قاصد نیوز. Retrieved 31 December 2016. * ^ "مسائل جنسی عامل 60 درصد طلاق ها در مشهد است/راه های افزایش کیفیت رابطه جنسی". سلامت نیوز. Retrieved 31 December 2016. * ^ "بعد از اعتیاد و طلاق، خشونت، سومین آسیب عمده‌ اجتماعی در مشهد". پایگاه خبری تحلیلی قاصد نیوز. Retrieved 31 December 2016. * ^ A B Andrew Higgins (2 June 2007). "Inside Iran\'s Holy Money Machine". WSJ . Retrieved 13 January 2016. * ^ A B Christopher de Bellaigue, The Struggle for Iran, New York Review of Books, 2007, p.15 * ^ Iran: Order Out of Chaos Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Kamdar, Nazanin (January 6, 2015). "پدیده شاندیز؛". Rooz Online . Retrieved March 7, 2015. * ^ "پیشرفت های جدید در ساماندهی مؤسسات اعتباری/ ثامن الحجج در کدام مرحله دریافت مجوز است؟". Retrieved 31 December 2016. * ^ «مجوز تغییر نام موسسه اعتباری عسکریه به موسسه ملل صادر شد». کانون بانک ها و موسسات خصوصی. بازبینی‌شده در ۱۳۹۵/۰۴/۱۰. * ^ "مردم گول نخورند / موسسات ثامن‌الحجج و ثامن مجوز ندارند". Jamejam Online. Retrieved 31 December 2016. * ^ "Overlooking dialect associated with forgetting identity: academic". 23 August 2008. * ^ Area Handbook for Afghanistan, page 77, Harvey Henry Smith, American University
American University
( Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
) Foreign Area Studies * ^ "روزنامه مردم مشهد ، شهرآرا". shahrara.com. * ^ مرکز مدیریت حوزهٔ علمیهٔ خراسان، کارنمای عملکرد سال ۱۳۸۶ مرکز مدیریت حوزهٔ علمیهٔ خراسان، ج ۱، ص ۹–۱۱ * ^ "Guide to Iranian Media and Broadcast" (PDF). BBC Monitoring. March 2007. Retrieved 12 September 2014. * ^ " Mashhad
Mashhad
named cultural capital of Muslim world". Press TV. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017. * ^ "Photos: Airplane Overhaul Facility in Mashhad, Eastern Iran". www.payvand.com. * ^ Photos: Airplane Overhaul Facility in Mashhad, Eastern Iran Archived 15 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. Payvand.com. * ^ https://metro.mashhad.ir * ^ "قطار شهري مشهد به صورت آزمايشي به بهره‌برداري رسيد" (in Persian). Fars News Agency. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011. * ^ "حفاري خط 2 قطارشهري مشهد آغاز شد" (in Persian). Fars News Agency. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011. * ^ http://raja.ir/ * ^ http://www.rai.ir/eng/Site.aspx * ^ http://hakimiyyet.az/eng/index.php/2017/01/06/nakhchivan-mashhad-train-schedule-to-be-optimized-azerbaijan/ * ^ "Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
(First vice chairman)". Official website of the Assembly of Experts - Management Committee of Assembly of Experts. Retrieved 9 June 2016. * ^ ".:Middle East Online::Feared Iranian prosecutor falls from grace:.". www.middle-east-online.com. * ^ Bozorgmehr, Najmeh (February 23, 2012). "Hardline group emerges as Iran
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Kuala Lumpur
Become Sister Cities". Mircea Birca. Eurasia Press and News. 2006-10-14. * ^ http://www.jamejamonline.ir/newstext.aspx?newsnum=100853786536 * ^ "golbaharnews.com". www.golbaharnews.com. * ^ http://edition.presstv.ir/detail/11198.html * ^ http://www.mofa.gov.pk/Consulates/Mashhad/contents.aspx?type=statements&id=2 * ^ "دفتر سفارت جمهوری تاجیکستان در مشهد". www.tajik-em-mashhad.ir. * ^ User, Super. "CONTACTS - Tajik Embassy in Iran". www.tajembiran.tj. * ^ " Tajikistan
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REFERENCES

See also: Bibliography of the history of Mashhad
Mashhad

* Zabeth, Hyder Reza (1999). Landmarks of Mashhad. Mashhad, Iran: Islamic Research Foundation. ISBN 964-444-221-0 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to MASHHAD .

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for MASHHAD .

* Municipality of Mashhad
Mashhad
Official website (in Persian) * Astan Quds Razavi * e- Mashhad
Mashhad
Mashhad
Mashhad
Portal
Portal
Official website (in Persian)

Preceded by Isfahan
Isfahan
CAPITAL OF IRAN (PERSIA) 1736-1747 Succeeded by Shiraz
Shiraz

Preceded by - CAPITAL OF AFSHARID DYNASTY 1736-1796 Succeeded by -

* v * t * e

Razavi Khorasan Province
Razavi Khorasan Province

CAPITAL

* Mashhad

COUNTIES (A-Q) AND CITIES

BAJESTAN COUNTY

* Bajestan * Yunesi

BAKHARZ COUNTY

* Bakharz

BARDASKAN COUNTY

* Bardaskan
Bardaskan
* Anabad * Shahrabad

CHENARAN COUNTY

* Chenaran

DARGAZ COUNTY

* Dargaz * Chapeshlu * Lotfabad
Lotfabad
* Now Khandan
Now Khandan

DAVARZAN COUNTY

* Davarzan
Davarzan

FARIMAN COUNTY

* Fariman * Farhadgerd
Farhadgerd
* Qalandarabad
Qalandarabad
* Sefid Sang
Sefid Sang

FIRUZEH COUNTY

* Firuzeh * Hemmatabad

GONABAD COUNTY

* Gonabad
Gonabad
* Bidokht
Bidokht
* Kakhk
Kakhk

JOGHATAI COUNTY

* Joghatai
Joghatai

JOWAYIN COUNTY

* Neqab
Neqab

KALAT COUNTY

* Kalat * Shahr-e Zow
Shahr-e Zow

KASHMAR COUNTY

* Kashmar * Rivash

KHALILABAD COUNTY

* Khalilabad * Kondor

KHOSHAB COUNTY

* Soltanabad

KHVAF COUNTY

* Khvaf * Nashtifan * Qasemabad * Salami * Sangan

MAHVELAT COUNTY

* Feyzabad * Shadmehr

MASHHAD COUNTY

* Mashhad * Malekabad * Razaviyeh
Razaviyeh

NISHAPUR COUNTY

*

.