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Mashhad
Mashhad
(Persian: مشهد‎, Mašhad IPA: [mæʃˈhæd] ( listen)), also spelled Mashad
Mashad
or Meshad[3][4][5], is the second most populous city in Iran
Iran
and capital of Razavi Khorasan
Razavi Khorasan
Province. It is located in the northeast of the country, near the borders with Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and Afghanistan. It has a population of 3,001,184 inhabitants (2016 census), which includes the areas of Mashhad
Mashhad
Taman and Torqabeh.[6] It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road
Silk Road
connecting with Merv
Merv
to the East. The city is named after Imam Reza, the eighth Shia Imam. The Imam was buried in a village in Khorasan, which afterwards gained the name Mashhad, meaning the place of martyrdom. Every year, millions of pilgrims visit the Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine. The Abbasid
Abbasid
caliph Harun al-Rashid is also buried within the shrine. Mashhad
Mashhad
has been governed by different ethnic groups over the course of its history. Arab, Turkic, Mongolian, and Afghan tribes have greatly influenced the language, ethnicity and culture of the city. The city enjoyed relative prosperity in the Mongol period. Mashhad
Mashhad
is also known colloquially as the city of Ferdowsi, after the Iranian poet who composed the Shahnameh. The city is the hometown of some of the most significant Iranian literary figures and artists, such as the poet Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, and Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, the traditional Iranian singer and composer. Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
and Akhavan Sales are both buried in Tus, an ancient city that is considered to be the main origin of the current city of Mashhad. On 30 October 2009 (the anniversary of the death of Imam Reza), Iran's then-President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
declared Mashhad
Mashhad
to be "Iran's spiritual capital".[7][8]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Etymology and Early History 1.2 Mongolian invasion: Ilkhanates 1.3 Timurid Empire 1.4 Safavid
Safavid
dynasty 1.5 Afsharid dynasty 1.6 Qajar dynasty 1.7 Pahlavi dynasty

1.7.1 Modernization under Reza Shah 1.7.2 1912 Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine bombardment 1.7.3 1935 Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine rebellion 1.7.4 1941–1979 reforms 1.7.5 1994 Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine bombing

1.8 Mashhad
Mashhad
after the Revolution

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Ethnic Groups

3.1.1 Afghan Population

3.2 Religion

4 Economy

4.1 Astan Quds Razavi 4.2 Padideh Shandiz 4.3 Credit Institutions 4.4 Others

5 Language 6 Culture

6.1 Religious Seminaries 6.2 Newspapers 6.3 Capital of Islamic Culture

7 Main sites 8 Transportation

8.1 Airport 8.2 Metro 8.3 Rail 8.4 Road

9 Government and politics

9.1 Members of Parliament 9.2 Members of Assembly of Experts 9.3 City Council and Mayor

10 Universities and Colleges 11 Sports

11.1 Major sport teams 11.2 Other sports

12 Gallery 13 Mashhad
Mashhad
as capital of Persia and Independent Khorasan 14 Famous people from Mashhad
Mashhad
and Tus 15 Twin towns – sister cities 16 Consulates

16.1 Active 16.2 Former

17 See also 18 Footnotes 19 References 20 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Mashhad Etymology and Early History[edit] The name Mashhad
Mashhad
comes from Arabic, meaning a shrine or the place of martyrdom.[9][10] It is also known as the place where Ali ar-Ridha (Persian, Imam Reza), the eighth Imam of Shia Muslims, died (according to the Shias, was martyred). Reza's shrine was placed there.[11]

Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
receiving a delegation sent by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
at his court.

The ancient Parthian city of Patigrabanâ, mentioned in the Behistun inscription (520 BCE) of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Emperor Darius I, may have been located at the present-day Mashhad.[12] At the beginning of the 9th century (3rd century AH), Mashhad
Mashhad
was a small village called Sanabad, which was situated 24 kilometres (15 miles) away from Tus. There was a summer palace of Humayd ibn Qahtaba, the governor of Khurasan. In 808, when Harun al-Rashid, Abbasid caliph, was passing through there to quell the insurrection of Rafi ibn al-Layth in Transoxania, he became ill and died. He was buried under the palace of Humayd ibn Qahtaba. Due to this historical event, the Dar al-Imarah was known as the Mausoleum of Haruniyyeh. Several years later in 818 Ali al-Ridha was martyred by al-Ma'mun and was buried beside the grave of Harun.[13] Although Mashhad
Mashhad
is considered as the owner of cultural heritage of Tus (including its figures like Nizam al-Mulk, Al-Ghazali, Ahmad Ghazali, Ferdowsi, Asadi Tusi and Shaykh Tusi), the earlier Arab geographers have correctly identified Mashhad
Mashhad
and Tus as two separate cities, which are now located about 19 kilometres (12 miles) from each other.[citation needed] Mongolian invasion: Ilkhanates[edit] Although some believe that after this event, the city was called Mashhad
Mashhad
al-Ridha (the place of martyrdom of al-Ridha), it seems that Mashhad, as a place-name, first appears in al-Maqdisi, i.e. in the last third of the 10th century. About the middle of the 14th century, the traveller Ibn Battuta uses the expression "town of Mashhad al-Rida". Towards the end of the Middle Ages, the name Nuqan, which is still found on coins in the first half of the 14th century under the Il-Khanids, seems to have been gradually ousted by al- Mashhad
Mashhad
or Mashhad.[citation needed]

Terken Khatun, Empress of the Khwarazmian Empire, known as "the Queen of the Turks", held captive by Mongol army.

Shias
Shias
started visiting there for pilgrimage of his grave. By the end of the 9th century, a dome was built on the grave and many buildings and bazaars sprang up around it. During more than a millennium it has been devastated and reconstructed several times.[14] In 1161 however, the Ghuzz Turks succeeded in taking the place, but they spared the sacred area in their pillaging.[citation needed] It was not considered a great city until Mongol raids
Mongol raids
in 1220, which caused the destruction of many large cities in Khurasan, leaving Mashhad
Mashhad
relatively intact in the hands of Mongolian commanders because of the cemetery of Ali Al-Rezza and Harun al-Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
(the latter was stolen).[15] Thus the survivors of the massacres migrated to Mashhad.[16] The only well-known food in Mashhad, "sholeh Mashhadi" (شله مشهدی) or "Sholeh", dates back to the era of the Mongolian invasion when it is thought to be cooked with any food available (the main ingredients are meat, grains and abundant spices) and be a Mongolian word.[17][18] When the traveller Ibn Battuta visited the town in 1333, he reported that it was a large town with abundant fruit trees, streams and mills. A great dome of elegant construction surmounts the noble mausoleum, the walls being decorated with colored tiles.[2] Timurid Empire[edit]

The map of the Persian Empire in 1747 at the time of Afsharid Dynasty. The name of Mashhad
Mashhad
is seen belong Tous

It seems that the importance of Sanabad- Mashhad
Mashhad
continually increased with the growing fame of its sanctuary and the decline of Tus, which received its death blow in 1389 from Miran Shah, a son of Timur. When the Mongol noble who governed the place rebelled and attempted to make himself independent, Miran Shah
Miran Shah
was sent against him by his father. Tus was stormed after a siege of several months, sacked and left a heap of ruins; 10,000 inhabitants were massacred. Those who escaped the holocaust settled in the shelter of the 'Alid sanctuary. Tus was henceforth abandoned and Mashhad
Mashhad
took its place as the capital of the district.[citation needed] Later on, during the reign of the Timurid Shahrukh Mirza, Mashhad became one of the main cities of the realm. In 1418, his wife Goharshad
Goharshad
funded the construction of an outstanding mosque beside the shrine, which is known as the Goharshad
Goharshad
Mosque.[16] The mosque remains relatively intact to this date, its great size an indicator to the status the city held in the 15th century. Safavid
Safavid
dynasty[edit] Shah
Shah
Ismail I, founder of the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty, conquered Mashhad
Mashhad
after the death of Husayn Bayqarah
Husayn Bayqarah
and the decline of the Timurid dynasty. He was later captured by the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
during the reign of Shah
Shah
Abbas I. In the 16th century the town suffered considerably from the repeated raids of the Özbegs (Uzbeks). In 1507, it was taken by the troops of the Shaybani or Shabani Khan. After two decades, Shah
Shah
Tahmasp I succeeded in repelling the enemy from the town again in 1528. But in 1544, the Özbegs again succeeded in entering the town and plundering and murdering there. The year 1589 was a disastrous one for Mashhad. The Shaybanid 'Abd al-Mu'min after a four months’ siege forced the town to surrender. Shah
Shah
Abbas I, who lived in Mashhad
Mashhad
from 1585 till his official ascent of the throne in Qazwin in 1587, was not able to retake Mashhad
Mashhad
from the Özbegs till 1598.[citation needed] Mashhad was retaken by the Shah
Shah
Abbas after a long and hard struggle, defeating the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
in a great battle near Herat
Herat
as well as managing to drive them beyond the Oxus River. Shah
Shah
Abbas I wanted to encourage Iranians to go to Mashhad
Mashhad
for pilgrimage. He is said to have walked from Isfahan
Isfahan
to Mashhad. During the Safavid
Safavid
era, Mashhad
Mashhad
gained even more religious recognition, becoming the most important city of Greater Khorasan, as several madrasah and other structures were built besides the Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine. Besides its religious significance, Mashhad
Mashhad
has played an important political role as well. The Safavid dynasty has been criticized in a book (Red Shi'sm vs. Black Shi'ism on the perceived dual aspects of the Shi'a religion throughout history) as a period in which although the dynasty didn't form the idea of Black Shi'ism, but this idea was formed after the defeat of Shah Ismail against the Ottoman leader Sultan Yavuz Selim. Black Shi'ism is a product of the Post-Safavid-Period. Under Tahmasp II, in 1722, the Abdalis Afghans invaded Khorasan and seized Mashhad. After three years, Persians besieged them for two months and retook the city in 1726. Afsharid dynasty[edit] It saw its greatest glory under Nader Shah, ruler of Iran
Iran
from 1736 to 1747 and also a great benefactor of the shrine of Imam Reza, who made the city his capital. Nearly the whole eastern part of the kingdom of Nadir Shah
Shah
passed in this period of Persian impotence under the rule of the vigorous Afghan Ahmad Shah
Shah
Durrani . Ahmad defeated the Persians and took Mashhad
Mashhad
after an eight months’ siege in 1753. Ahmad Shah
Shah
and his successor Timur
Timur
Shah
Shah
left Shah
Shah
Rukh in possession of Khurasan
Khurasan
as their vassal, making Khurasan
Khurasan
a kind of buffer state between them and Persia. As the real rulers, however, both these Afghan rulers struck coins in Mashhad. Otherwise, the reign of the blind Shah
Shah
Rukh, which with repeated short interruptions lasted for nearly half a century, passed without any events of special note. It was only after the death of Timur
Timur
Shah
Shah
(1792) that Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, the founder of the Qajar dynasty, succeeded in taking Shah Rukh's domains and putting him to death in 1795, thus ending the separation of Khurasan
Khurasan
from the rest of Persia.[citation needed] Qajar dynasty[edit]

Mashhad
Mashhad
in 1858

Some believe that Mashhad
Mashhad
was ruled by Shahrukh Afshar
Shahrukh Afshar
and remained the capital of the Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
during Zand dynasty[19] until Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar conquered the then larger region of Khorasan in 1796.[20] Pahlavi dynasty[edit] Modernization under Reza Shah[edit] The modern development of the city accelerated under the regime of Reza Shah
Shah
(1925-1941). Shah
Shah
Reza Hospital (currently Imam Reza Hospital, affiliated to the Basij
Basij
organization) was founded in 1934, the sugar factory of Abkuh in 1935 and the Faculty of Medicine of Mashhad
Mashhad
in 1939. The first power station was installed in 1936 and in 1939 the first urban transport service began with two buses. In this year the first population census was performed, with a result of 76471 inhabitants.[21] 1912 Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine bombardment[edit] In 1911 Yusuf Khan of Herat
Herat
was declared independent in Mashhad
Mashhad
as Muhammad Ali Shah
Shah
and brought together a large group of reactionaries opposed to the revolution, and keep stirring for some time. This gave Russia
Russia
the excuse to intervene and 29 March 1912 bombed the city; this bombing killed several people and pilgrims; action against a Muslim shrine caused a great shock to all Islamic countries. On March 29, 1912, the sanctuary of Imam Reza
Imam Reza
was bombed by the Russian artillery fire, causing some damage, including to the golden dome, resulting in a widespread and persisting resentment in the Shiite Muslim world as well as British India. This bombing was orchestrated by Prince Dabizha (a Georgian who was the Russian Consul in Mashhad) and General Radko (a Bulgarian who was commander of the Russian Cossacks in the city).[22] Yusuf Khan ended captured by the Persians and executed. 1935 Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine rebellion[edit] Main article: Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine rebellion In 1935, a backlash against the modernizing, anti-religious policies of Reza Shah
Shah
erupted in the Mashhad
Mashhad
shrine. Responding to a cleric who denounced the Shah's heretical innovations, corruption and heavy consumer taxes, many bazaaris and villagers took refuge in the shrine, chanted slogans such as "The Shah
Shah
is a new Yazid." For four days local police and army refused to violate the shrine and the standoff was ended when troops from Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
arrived and broke into the shrine,[23] killing dozens and injuring hundreds, and marking a final rupture between Shi'ite
Shi'ite
clergy and the Shah.[24] Interestingly, according to some Mashhadi historians, the Goharshad
Goharshad
Mosque
Mosque
uprising, which took place in 1935, is an uprising against Reza Shah's decree banning all veils (headscarf and chador) on 8 January 1936.[citation needed] 1941–1979 reforms[edit]

Comprehensive planning of Mashhad
Mashhad
in 1974

Mashhad
Mashhad
experienced population growth after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran
Iran
in 1941 because of relative insecurity in rural areas, the 1948 drought, and the establishment of Mashhad
Mashhad
University in 1949. At the same time, public transport vehicles increased to 77 buses and 200 taxis and the railway link with the capital Tehran
Tehran
was established in 1957. The 1956 census reflected a population of 241,989 people. The increase in population continued in the following years thanks to the increase in Iranian oil revenues, the decline of the feudal social model, the agrarian reform of 1963, the founding of the city's airport, the creation of new factories and the development of the health system. In 1966, the population reached 409,616 inhabitants, and 667,770 in 1976 . The extension of the city was expanded from 16 to 33 square kilometres (170,000,000 to 360,000,000 square feet).

1968, Aerial view of the model for the Mashhad
Mashhad
city center urban renewal, designed by the renowned architect and urban designer Dariush Borbor[25]

1968, Model of Mashhad
Mashhad
city center urban renewal, designed by the architect and urban designer Dariush Borbor

In 1965 an important urban renewal development project for the surroundings of the shrine of Imam Reza
Imam Reza
was proposed by the famous Iranian architect and urban designer Dariush Borbor to replace the dilapidated slum conditions which surrounded the historic monuments. The project was officially approved in 1968. In 1977 the surrounding areas were demolished to make way for the implementation of this project. In order to relocate the demolished businesses, a new bazaar was designed and constructed in Meydan-e Ab square (in Persian, میدان آب")[21] by Dariush Borbor. After the revolution the urban renewal project was abandoned. 1994 Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine bombing[edit] On June 20, 1994, a bomb exploded in a prayer hall of the shrine of the Imam Reza[26] The bomb that killed at least 25 people on June 20 in Mashhad
Mashhad
exploded on Ashura.[27] The Baluch terrorist, Ramzi Yousef, a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim turned Wahhabi, one of the main perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was found to be behind the plot.[28] However, official state media blamed Mehdi Nahvi, a supposed member of the People's Mujahedin of Iran
Iran
(MKO), a fundamentally Marxist organization, in order to prevent sectarian violence. Mashhad
Mashhad
after the Revolution[edit] In 1998 and 2003 there were student disturbances after the same events in Tehran. Geography[edit] The city is located at 36.20º North latitude and 59.35º East longitude, in the valley of the Kashafrud River near Turkmenistan, between the two mountain ranges of Binalood and Hezar Masjed Mountains. The city benefits from the proximity of the mountains, having cool winters, pleasant springs, mild summers, and beautiful autumns. It is only about 250 km (160 mi) from Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. The city is the administrative center of Mashhad
Mashhad
County
County
(or the Shahrestan of Mashhad) as well as the somewhat smaller district (Bakhsh) of Mashhad. The city itself, excluding parts of the surrounding Bakhsh and Shahrestan, is divided into 13 smaller administrative units, with a total population of more than 3 million.[29] Climate[edit] Mashhad
Mashhad
features a steppe climate (Köppen BSk) with hot summers and cool winters. The city only sees about 250 millimetres (9.8 inches) of precipitation per year, some of which occasionally falls in the form of snow. Mashhad
Mashhad
also has wetter and drier periods with the bulk of the annual precipitation falling between the months of December and May. Summers are typically hot and dry, with high temperatures sometimes exceeding 35 °C (95 °F). Winters are typically cool to cold and somewhat damper, with overnight lows routinely dropping below freezing. Mashhad
Mashhad
enjoys on average just above 2900 hours of sunshine per year.

Climate data for Mashhad
Mashhad
(1951–2010, extremes 1951–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 24.0 (75.2) 26.0 (78.8) 32.0 (89.6) 35.4 (95.7) 39.2 (102.6) 41.6 (106.9) 43.8 (110.8) 42.4 (108.3) 42.0 (107.6) 35.8 (96.4) 29.4 (84.9) 28.2 (82.8) 43.8 (110.8)

Average high °C (°F) 7.1 (44.8) 9.3 (48.7) 14.2 (57.6) 20.9 (69.6) 26.8 (80.2) 32.3 (90.1) 34.4 (93.9) 33.1 (91.6) 28.9 (84) 22.5 (72.5) 15.5 (59.9) 9.8 (49.6) 21.2 (70.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.7 (35.1) 3.7 (38.7) 8.5 (47.3) 14.7 (58.5) 19.6 (67.3) 24.4 (75.9) 26.6 (79.9) 24.8 (76.6) 20.3 (68.5) 14.5 (58.1) 8.7 (47.7) 4.0 (39.2) 14.3 (57.7)

Average low °C (°F) −3.8 (25.2) −1.8 (28.8) 2.9 (37.2) 8.4 (47.1) 12.4 (54.3) 16.4 (61.5) 18.7 (65.7) 16.5 (61.7) 11.7 (53.1) 6.4 (43.5) 1.9 (35.4) −1.7 (28.9) 7.3 (45.1)

Record low °C (°F) −27.0 (−16.6) −28.0 (−18.4) −13.0 (8.6) −7.0 (19.4) −1.0 (30.2) 4.0 (39.2) 10.0 (50) 5.0 (41) −1.0 (30.2) −8.0 (17.6) −16.0 (3.2) −25.0 (−13) −28.0 (−18.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 32.6 (1.283) 34.5 (1.358) 55.5 (2.185) 45.4 (1.787) 27.2 (1.071) 4.0 (0.157) 1.1 (0.043) 0.7 (0.028) 2.1 (0.083) 8.0 (0.315) 16.1 (0.634) 24.3 (0.957) 251.5 (9.902)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.6 5.8 8.2 6.8 4.5 1.1 0.3 0.2 0.5 1.5 2.9 4.2 41.6

Average snowy days 5.6 5.8 4.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.2 3.8 20.9

Average relative humidity (%) 75 73 69 62 50 37 34 33 37 49 63 73 54

Mean monthly sunshine hours 148.3 147.5 163.3 200.4 280.4 343.2 366.9 359.7 305.2 249.5 188.3 151.6 2,904.3

Source: Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization (records),[30] (temperatures),[31] (precipitation),[32] (humidity),[33] (days with precipitation),[34] [35] (sunshine)[36]

Demographics[edit] There are also over 20 million pilgrims who visit the city every year.[2] Ethnic Groups[edit] The vast majority of Mashhadi people are ethnic Persians, who form the majority of the city's population. Other ethnic groups include Kurdish and Turkmen people
Turkmen people
who have emigrated recently to the city from the North Khorasan province. There is also a significant community of non- Arabic
Arabic
speakers of Arabian descent who have retained a distinct Arabian culture, cuisine and religious practices.[citation needed] The people from Mashhad
Mashhad
who look East Asian are Persians of Hazara Turkmen, or Uyghur ancestry or indeed a combination of all other ethnic groups, including Persians, as racial mixing has been widely practiced in this region. Among the non-Iranians, there are many immigrants from Afghanistan, Iraq
Iraq
and Pakistan.

Ethnic Groups

Persians

92.5%

Khorasani Hazara Persians

7.0%

Khorasani Turks

.05%

Khorasani Kurds

.05%

Arabs

0.1%

Others

0.5%

Afghan Population[edit] As neighbouring areas with cultural ties,[37] there has been a long history of population movements between Khorasan and Afghanistan.[38] Like the other areas in Khorasan province where there is an Afghan community due to the influx of Afghan refugees coming from Afghanistan in recent years, the demographic explosion of Mashhad
Mashhad
continued with the addition of some 296 000 Afghans Refugees to Mashhad, following the communist revolution of 1978. In many cases, they are no longer refugees but should be mentioned as locals (Iran's Ministry of Interior estimates that the total number of Afghans in Iran
Iran
is now around 3 million.[39][40] Considering that there were 296000 Afghans Refugees to Mashhad
Mashhad
(from 2.5 million in the whole Iran) following the communist revolution of 1978, the number of Afghans in Mashhad
Mashhad
cannot be lesser that 296000 people - and so a rate more than 10.8% should be considered). Afghan refugees originate up to 90% from the provinces of Herat, Farah and Nimruz Province, speak in Dari Farsi and familiar with the culture in Mashhad. Even before the political frontier between Iran
Iran
and Afghanistan, the Persian-speaking inhabitants from the provinces of Herat
Herat
and Farah in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
had had kinship, as well as ethnical, religious, or economic relations with the Iranian province of Khorasan (especially Mashhad, where people speak a dialect akin with Harat dialect). According to Khorasan Razavi's General Administration of Nationals and Immigrants, there are 142,000 registered Afghan citizens living in Khorasan, 95 percent of which were identified in Mashhad.[41] The Afghan immigrants have several neighborhoods around the city, especially in a new quarter to the northeast of Mashhad. This new Afghan quarter evokes the traditional relations of Mashhad
Mashhad
with the Herat
Herat
region and Central Asia.[citation needed]One of the districts inhabited by Afghan immigrants is Golshahr. Religion[edit] See also: Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine Today, the holy shrine and its museum hold one of the most extensive cultural and artistic treasuries of Iran, in particular manuscript books and paintings. Several important theological schools are associated with the shrine of the Eighth Imam. The second-largest holy city in the world, Mashhad
Mashhad
attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year, many of whom come to pay homage to the Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine (the eighth Shi'ite
Shi'ite
Imam). It has been a magnet for travellers since medieval times.[2] Thus, even as those who complete the pilgrimage to Mecca receive the title of Haji, those who make the pilgrimage to Mashhad—and especially to the Imam Reza shrine—are known as Mashtee, a term employed also of its inhabitants. As an important problem, the duration when new passengers stay in Mashhad
Mashhad
has been considerably reduced to 2 days nowadays and they prefer to finish their trip immediately after doing pilgrimage and shopping in the markets.[42] There are about 3000-5000 unauthorized residential units in Mashhad,[43] which, as a unique statistic worldwide, has caused various problems in the city.[citation needed] Although mainly inhabited by Muslims, there were in the past some religious minorities in Mashhad, mainly Jews who were forcibly converted to Islam in 1839 after the Allahdad incident took place for Mashhadi Jews in 1839.[44] They became known as Jadid al-Islam ("Newcomers in Islam"). On the outside, they adapted to the Islamic way of life, but often secretly kept their faith and traditions. Economy[edit]

Bazar-e-Raza, a popular market with spice shops and boutiques designed by the famous Iranian architect, Dariush Borbor in 1976

Mashhad
Mashhad
is Iran's second largest automobile production hub. The city's economy is based mainly on dry fruits, salted nuts, saffron, Iranian sweets like gaz and sohaan, precious stones like agates, turquoise, intricately designed silver jewelry studded with rubies and emeralds, eighteen carat gold jewelry, perfumes, religious souvenirs, trench coats, scarves, termeh, carpets and rugs.

Turquoise, one of the products of Mashhad

According to the writings and documents, the oldest existing carpet attributed to the city belongs to the reign of Shah
Shah
Abbas (Abbas I of Persia). Also, there is a type of carpet, classified as Mashhad turkbâf, which, as its name suggests, is made with Turkish knot by craftsmen who emigrated from Tabriz
Tabriz
to Mashhad
Mashhad
in the nineteenth century. Among the major industries in the city, there is nutrition industries, clothing, leather, textiles, chemicals, steel and non-metallic mineral industries, construction materials factories, handicraft industry and metal industries. With more than 55% of hotels in Iran, Mashhad
Mashhad
is the hub of tourism in Iran. In the geography of tourism, religious places known as the most powerful hub to attract travelers around the world, every year 20 to 30 million pilgrims from Iran
Iran
and more than 2 million pilgrims and tourists from around the world come to Mashhad, despite some problems.[45] Mashhad
Mashhad
is one of the main producers of leather products in the region. However, unemployment, poverty, drug addiction, theft and sexual exploitation are the most important social problems of the city.[citation needed] In Mashhad
Mashhad
tour[46] The divorce rate in Mashhad
Mashhad
has increased by 35 percent in 2014.[47][48] Khorasan and Mashhad
Mashhad
ranked the second in violence across the country in 2013.[49] Astan Quds Razavi[edit]

AQR Imam Reza
Imam Reza
Stadium

At the same time, the city has kept its character as a goal of pilgrimage, dominated by the strength of the economic and political authority of the Astan Quds Razavi, the administration of the Shrine waqf, probably the most important in the Muslim world[citation needed]and the largest active bonyad in Iran.[50] The Astan Quds Razavi is a major player in the economy of the city of Mashhad.[51] The land occupied by the shrine has grown fourfold since 1979 according to the head of the foundation's international relations department. The Shrine of Imam Reza
Imam Reza
is vaster than Vatican City.[50] The foundation owns most of the real estate in Mashhad
Mashhad
and rents out shop space to bazaaris and hoteliers.[51] The main resource of the institution is endowments, estimated to have annual revenue of $210 billion.[52] Ebrahim Raisi
Ebrahim Raisi
is the current Custodian of Astan Quds Razavi.[2]

Mall at Mashhad

Padideh Shandiz[edit]

Mashhad
Mashhad
Carpet

Padideh Shandiz
Padideh Shandiz
International Tourism
Tourism
Development Company, an Iranian private joint-stock holding company, behaves like a public company by selling stocks despite being a joint-stock in the field of restaurants, tourism and construction,[citation needed] with a footbal club (Padideh F.C.; formerly named Azadegan League
Azadegan League
club Mes Sarcheshmeh). In January 2015, the company was accused of a "fraud" worth $34.3 billion, which is one eighth of Iran
Iran
budget.[53] Credit Institutions[edit] Several credit institutions have been established in Mashhad, including Samenolhojaj (مؤسسه مالی و اعتباری ثامن الحجج), Samenola'emmeh (مؤسسه اعتباری ثامن) and Melal (formerly Askariye, مؤسسه اعتباری عسکریه). The depositors of the first institution have faced problem in receiving cash from the institution.[54][55][56] Others[edit] The city's International Exhibition Center is the second most active exhibition center after Tehran, which due to proximity to Central Asian countries hosts dozens of international exhibitions each year. Companies such as Smart-innovators in Mashhad
Mashhad
are pioneers in electrical and computer technology.[citation needed] Language[edit] The language mainly spoken in Mashhad
Mashhad
is Persian with a variating Mashhadi accent, which can at times, prove itself as a sort of dialect. The Mashhadi Persian dialect is somewhat different from the standard Persian dialect in some of its tones and stresses.[57] For instance, the Mashhadi dialect shares vocabulary and phonology with Dari Persian. Likewise, the dialect of Herati in Western Afghanistan is quite similar to the Persian dialect in Mashhad
Mashhad
and is akin to the Persian dialects of Khorasan Province, notably those of Mashhad. Hazaragi is another dialect spoken by Hazara people
Hazara people
who live as a diaspora community in Mashhad.[58] Today, the Mashhadi dialect is rarely spoken by young people of Mashhad, most of them perceive it as a humiliation. This is thought to be related to the non-positive performance of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
Broadcasting (IRIB).[59] Culture[edit]

Tomb
Tomb
of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
in Tous.

Religious Seminaries[edit]

Relief in Tous depicting popular stories of Persian mythology, from the book of Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ferdowsi.

Long a center of secular and religious learning, Mashhad
Mashhad
has been a center for the Islamic arts and sciences as well as piety and pilgrimage. Mashhad
Mashhad
was an educational centre, with a considerable number of Islamic schools (madrasas, the majority of them, however, dating from the later afavid period.[citation needed] Mashhad
Mashhad
Hawza (Persian: حوزه علمیه مشهد) is one of the largest seminaries of traditional Islamic school of higher learning in Mashhad, which was headed by Abbas Vaez-Tabasi
Abbas Vaez-Tabasi
(who was Chairman of the Astan Quds Razavi
Astan Quds Razavi
board from 1979) after the revolution and in which Iranian politician and clerics such as Ali Khamenei, Ahmad Alamolhoda, Abolghasem Khazali, Mohammad Reyshahri, Morteza Motahhari, Abbas Vaez-Tabasi, Madmoud Halabi (the founder of Hojjatieh and Mohammad Hadi Abd-e Khodaee learned Islamic studies. The number of seminary schools in Mashhad
Mashhad
is now thirty nine and there are an estimated 2300 seminarians in the city.[60] The Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad, named after the great Iranian poet, is located here and is regarded as the third institution in attracting foreign students, mainly from Afghanistan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, Central Asian republics. The Madrassa
Madrassa
of Ayatollah Al-Khoei, originally built in the seventeenth century and recently replaced with modern facilities, is the city's foremost traditional centre for religious learning. The Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, founded in 1984, stands at the centre of town, within the shrine complex. The prestige of traditional religious education at Mashhad
Mashhad
attracts students, known as Talabeh, or "Mollah" internationally.

Tomb
Tomb
of Nader Shah

Mashhad
Mashhad
is also home to one of the oldest libraries of the Middle-East called the Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi
Astan Quds Razavi
with a history of over six centuries. There are some six million historical documents in the foundation's central library. A museum is also home to over 70,000 rare manuscripts from various historical eras The Astan Quds Razavi
Astan Quds Razavi
Central Museum, which is part of the Astan-e Quds Razavi Complex, contains Islamic art
Islamic art
and historical artifacts. In 1976, a new edifice was designed and constructed by the well-known Iranian architect Dariush Borbor to house the museum and the ancient manuscripts.

1976, Museum
Museum
and Library, designed by architect, urban planner Dariush Borbor

In 1569 (977 H), 'Imad al-Din Mas'ud Shirazi, a physician at the Mashhad
Mashhad
hospital, wrote the earliest Islamic treatise on syphilis, one influenced by European medical thought. Kashmar
Kashmar
rug is a type of Persian rug
Persian rug
indigenous to this region. Mashhad
Mashhad
active galleries include: Mirak Gallery, Parse Gallery, Rezvan Gallery, Soroush Gallery, and the Narvan Gallery. During the recent years, Mashhad
Mashhad
has been a clerical base to monitor the affairs and decisions of state. In 2015, Mashhad's clerics publicly criticized the performance of concert in Mashhad, which led to the order of cancellation of concerts in the city by Ali Jannati, the minister of culture, and then the his resignation on 19 October 2016. Newspapers[edit] There are two influential newspapers in Mashhad, Khorasan (خراسان)and Qods (قدس), which have been considered "conservative newspapers" They are two Mashhad-based daily published by and representing the views of their current and old owners: Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs and Astan Quds Razavi, respectively.[61] Capital of Islamic Culture[edit]

Logo of Mashhad
Mashhad
as capital of Islamic culture in 2017

The Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
named Mashhad
Mashhad
2017's "cultural capital of the Muslim world" in Asia on 24 January 2017.[62] Main sites[edit]

Khayam Street

Apart from Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine, there are a number of large parks, the tombs of historical celebrities in nearby Tus and Nishapur, the tomb of Nader Shah
Nader Shah
and Kooh Sangi park. The Koohestan Park-e-Shadi Complex includes a zoo, where many wild animals are kept and which attracts many visitors to Mashhad. It is also home to the Mashhad
Mashhad
Airbase (formerly Imam Reza
Imam Reza
airbase), jointly a military installation housing Mirage aircraft, and a civilian international airport. Some points of interest lie outside the city: the tomb of Khajeh Morad, along the road to Tehran; the tomb of Khajeh Rabi' located 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) north of the city where there are some inscriptions by the renowned Safavid
Safavid
calligrapher Reza Abbasi; and the tomb of Khajeh Abasalt, a distance of 20 kilometres (12 miles) from Mashhad
Mashhad
along the road to Neishabur. (The three were all disciples of Imam Reza). Among the other sights are the tomb of the poet Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
in Tus, 24 kilometres (15 miles) distance, and the summer resorts at Torghabeh, Torogh, Akhlamad, Zoshk, and Shandiz. The Shah
Shah
Public Bath, built during the Safavid
Safavid
era in 1648, is an outstanding example of the architecture of that period. It was recently restored, and is to be turned into a museum. Transportation[edit]

Cable Intersection at Imam Hossein square

Airport[edit] Mashhad
Mashhad
is served by the Mashhad
Mashhad
International Airport, which handles domestic flights to Iranian cities and international flights, mostly to neighbouring Arab countries. The airport is the country's second busiest after Tehran
Tehran
Mehrabad Airport and above the famous Tehran's Imam Khomeini International Airport.[63] It is connected to 57 destinations and has frequent flights to 30 cities within Iran
Iran
and 27 destinations in the Central Asia, the Middle East, East Asia and Europe.[64]

A man walks inside Mashhad
Mashhad
International Airport

The airport has been under a USD45.7 ml vast expansion project which has been finished by opening a new Haj Terminal with 10,000 m area on 24 May 2010 and followed by opening a new international terminal with 30000 m2 area with a new parking building, a new custom storage and cargo terminal, new safety and fire fighting buildings and upgrades to taxiways and equipment. Another USD26.5 ml development project for construction of new hangar for aircraft repair facilities and expansion of the west side of the domestic terminal is underway using a BOT contract with the private sector[citation needed]. Metro[edit]

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Main article: Mashhad
Mashhad
Light Rail Mashhad Urban Railway
Mashhad Urban Railway
Corporation (MURCO) is constructing metro and light rail system for the city of Mashhad
Mashhad
which includes four lines with 84.5 kilometres (52.5 miles) length. Mashhad
Mashhad
Urban Railway Operation Company(MUROC)[65] is responsible for the operation of the lines. The LRT line has been operational since 21 Feb 2011 with 19.5 kilometres (12.1 miles) length and 22 stations[66] and is connected to Mashhad International Airport
Mashhad International Airport
from early 2016. Total length of line 1 is 24 kilometers and has 24 stations. the current headway in peak hours is 5 minutes. The second line which is a metro line with 14.5 km length and 13 stations is under construction and is estimated to be finished by the ebnd of 2018.[67].First phase of line 2 with 8 kilometers and 7 station is started since 21 Feb 2017. In 20th March two station were added to the network in test operational mode and the first interchange station was added to the network. Rail[edit] Mashhad
Mashhad
is connected to three major rail lines: Tehran-Mashhad, Mashhad-Bafgh (running south), and Mashhad- Sarakhs
Sarakhs
at the border with Turkmenistan. Some freight trains continue from Sarakhs
Sarakhs
towards Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and to Kazakhstan, but have to change bogies because of the difference in Rail gauge. A rail line is being constructed off the Mashhad-Bafgh line to connect Mashhad
Mashhad
to Herat
Herat
in Afghanistan, but has not yet been completed and one is planned to connect to the Gorgan railhead and the port of Bandar Torkaman
Bandar Torkaman
on the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the west. Passenger rail services are provided by Raja Passenger Trains Company[68] and all trains are operated by R.A.I.,[69] Rah-Ahan (Railway) of Iran, the national railway company. A new service from Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to Mashad, Iran
Iran
was launched in December 2016.[70] Road[edit] Road 95 links Mashhad
Mashhad
south to Torbat-e Heydarieh
Torbat-e Heydarieh
and Birjand. Road 44 goes west towards Shahrud and Tehran. Road 22 travels northwest towards Bojnurd. Ashgabat
Ashgabat
in Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
is 220 km away and is accessible via Road 22 (AH78). Herat
Herat
in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is 310 km away and accessible via Road 97 (AH1). Government and politics[edit] Members of Parliament[edit] Mashhad's current members of parliament are described as politician with fundamentalist conservative tendencies, who are mostly the members of Front of Islamic Revolution Stability, an Iranian principlist political group. They were elected to the Parliament on 26 February 2016. Members of Assembly of Experts[edit] Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
and Ahmad Alamolhoda
Ahmad Alamolhoda
are two members of the Iranian Assembly of Experts
Iranian Assembly of Experts
from Mashhad. Hashemi Shahroudi is currently First Vice-Chairman of the Iranian Assembly of Experts.[71] He was the Head of Iran's Judiciary from 1999 until 2009 who upon accepting his position, appointed Saeed Mortazavi, a well known fundamentalist and controversial figure during President Mahmud Ahmadinejad's reelection, prosecutor general of Iran.[72] Interestingly, he was supported by Mashhad's reformists as the candidate of the Fifth Assembly on 26 February 2016. City Council and Mayor[edit] Main article: Islamic City Council of Mashhad In 2013, an Iranian principlist political group, Front of Islamic Revolution Stability (which is partly made up of former ministers of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
and Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi),[73] gained a landslide victory in Mashhad
Mashhad
City Council,[74] which on September 23, 2013, elected Seyed Sowlat Mortazavi
Sowlat Mortazavi
as mayor, who was former governor of the province of South Khorasan and the city of Birjand.[75] The municipality's budget amounted to 9600 billion Toman in 2015.[76] Universities and Colleges[edit]

Commemoration Ceremony of Mashhad's foreign graduates

Universities

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad
Mashhad
- International Campus Golbahar University of Science
Science
and New Technology Imam Reza
Imam Reza
International University Islamic Azad University of Khorasan - Golbahar International Campus Islamic Azad University of Mashhad Khayyam University Mashhad
Mashhad
University of Medical Sciences Payame Noor University of Mashhad Razavi University of Islamic Sciences Sadjad University of Technology Sama Technical and Vocational Training Center (Islamic Azad University of Mashhad) Sport Sciences Research Institute of Iran

Colleges

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad

Al Mustafa International University Alzahra Girls Technical and Vocational College of Mashhad
Mashhad
(Technical and Vocational University) Arman Razavi Girls Institute of Higher Education Asrar Institute of Higher Education Attar Institute of Higher Education Bahar Institute of Higher Education Binalood Institute of Higher Education Cultural Heritage, Hand Crafts, and Tourism
Tourism
Higher Education Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Eqbal Lahoori Institute of Higher Education Ferdows Institute of Higher Education Hakim Toos Institute of Higher Education Hekmat Razavi Institute of Higher Education Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Mashhad Branch (Jahad Daneshgahi of Mashhad) Jahad Keshavarzi Higher Education Center of Khorasan Razavi (Shahid Hashemi Nejad) Kavian Institute of Higher Education Kharazmi Azad Institute of Higher Education of Khorasan Khavaran Institute of Higher Education Kheradgarayan Motahar Institute of higher education Khorasan Institute of Higher Education Khorasan Razavi Judiciary Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Khorasan Razavi Municipalities' Institute of Research, Education, and Consultation of (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Mashhad
Mashhad
Aviation Industry Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Mashhad
Mashhad
Aviation Training Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Mashhad
Mashhad
Culture and Art Center 1 (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Mashhad
Mashhad
Koran Reciters Society Mashhad
Mashhad
Prisons Organization Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Mashhad
Mashhad
Tax center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Navvab Higher Clerical School Part Tyre Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Red Crescent Society of Khorasan Razavi (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Salman Institute of Higher Education Samen Teacher Training Center of Mashhad
Mashhad
(Farhangian University) Samen Training Center of Mashhad
Mashhad
(Technical and Vocational University) Sanabad Golbahar Institute of Higher Education Shahid Beheshti Teacher Training College (Farhangian University) Shahid Hashemi Nejad Teacher Training College (Farhangian University) Shahid Kamyab Teacher Training Center Shahid Montazari Technical Faculty (Technical and Vocational University) Shandiz
Shandiz
Institute of Higher Education Khorasan Razavi Taavon Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Tabaran Institute of Higher Education Toos Institute of Higher Education Toos Porcelain Center (University of Science
Science
and Technology) Varastegan Medical Sciences Institute of Higher Education Khorasan Water and Electricity Industry Center (University of Science and Technology) Workers' House; Mashhad
Mashhad
Branch (University of Science
Science
and Technology)

Sports[edit] Major sport teams[edit]

Club League Sport Venue Established

Padideh F.C.

Iran
Iran
Pro League

Football Samen Stadium

2007

FC Mashhad

Iran
Iran
Pro League

Football Takhti Stadium

1970

Samen Mashhad
Mashhad
BC

Iranian Basketball
Basketball
Super League

Basketball Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex

2011

Mizan Khorasan VC

Iranian Volleyball
Volleyball
Super League

Volleyball Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex

2010

Farsh Ara Mashhad
Mashhad
FSC

Iranian Futsal
Futsal
Super League

Futsal Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex

1994

Ferdosi Mashhad
Mashhad
FSC

Iranian Futsal
Futsal
Super League

Futsal Shahid Beheshti Sport Complex

2011

Rahahan Khorasan W.C.

Iranian Premier Wrestling League

Freestyle wrestling Mohammad Ali Sahraei Hall[77]

1995

Other sports[edit] City was host to 2009 Junior World Championships in sitting volleyball where Iran's junior team won Gold. Gallery[edit]

Some photos of Mashhad
Mashhad
(The City of Paradise)

Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine

Proma Hypermarket

Mashhad
Mashhad
is the major trade center of saffron in Iran.

Many beautiful handicraft products are sold in Shandiz
Shandiz
and Torghabeh.

Some Iranian Handicrafts (metalwork) in Torghabeh

Front façade of the Ferdowsi's mausoleum in Tous

Haruniyeh
Haruniyeh
Dome in Tous

Malek's House in Mashhad

St. Mesrop Armenian church in Mashhad

Tous Museum
Museum
near Mashhad

Shandiz
Shandiz
a tourist town near Mashhad

Homa Hotel, Branch of Homa Hotel
Hotel
Group

Mashhad's countryside

Shashlik, one of the Iranian tasty foods in Mashhad

Pistols from Afsharid Empire
Afsharid Empire
era at Naderi Museum

Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad

Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad

Mashhad
Mashhad
Urban Railway

Almas Shargh (East Diamond) Shopping Center

Mashhad
Mashhad
Metro (LRT) Station

Mashhad
Mashhad
Metro (LRT) network sign

Mashhad
Mashhad
Metro Entrance and Urban Design

City Signpost

Imam Hussein
Imam Hussein
Square

Mashhad
Mashhad
Firefighter's Parade

Mashhad
Mashhad
Firefighter's Parade

Mashhad
Mashhad
Firefighter's Parade

A mosque in Mashhad

Goharshad
Goharshad
Mosque, Abbasid
Abbasid
Ivan in Atiq yard

An old photo of Goharshad
Goharshad
Mosque

Lost girl sculpture

Oven of Rastgar Moqaddam

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
tomb

Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
tomb

A Masterpiece in Mashhad
Mashhad
metro station

Padideh Shandiz
Padideh Shandiz
Tourism
Tourism
Center

Shandiz
Shandiz
Restaurant, serving traditional Iranian cuisine

Kang countryside

Kang countryside

Panoramic view of Mashhad
Mashhad
from Koohsangi

Mashhad
Mashhad
as capital of Persia and Independent Khorasan[edit] The following Shahanshahs had Mashhad
Mashhad
as their capital:

Kianid Dynasty Malek Mahmoud Sistani 1722–1726 Afsharid dynasty Nader Shah Adil Shah Ebrahim Afshar Shahrukh Afshar Nadir Mirza of Khorasan Safavid
Safavid
Dynasty Soleyman II Autonomous Government of Khorasan Colonel Mohammad Taghi Khan Pessyan

Famous people from Mashhad
Mashhad
and Tus[edit] See also: Category:People from Mashhad

Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, Singer-songwriter
Singer-songwriter
received the Picasso Award, UNESCO Mozart Medal and National Order of Merit (France)

Mahmoud Khayami, Businessman, philanthropist and Industrialist
Industrialist
an Honorary CBE, KSS, GCFO

Mohammad-Taqi Bahar, Poet, Politician
Politician
and Journalist

Manouchehr Eghbal, 65th Prime Minister of Iran

Abdolhossein Teymourtash, politician and statesman, the first Minister of Court of Iran

Nizam al-Mulk, Scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire

Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei, a Marja and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran

Jabir ibn Hayyan, was a prominent polymath, a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician

Rafi Pitts, Iranian film director

Ali Shirazinia known as Dubfire, Iranian American
Iranian American
house and techno DJ and producer

Anousheh Ansari
Anousheh Ansari
Iranian-American
Iranian-American
engineer, co-founder and chairwoman of Prodea Systems, co-founder and CEO of Telecom Technologies, Inc. (TTI), sponsor of the Ansari X Prize

Heshmat Mohajerani, footballer and former football manager

Reza Ghoochannejhad, footballer

Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, Free verse Poet

Religious and political figures

Abbas Vaez-Tabasi, 25 June 1935 - 4 March 2016; Grand Imam and Chairman of the Astan Quds Razavi
Astan Quds Razavi
board Abdolhossein Teymourtash, prominent Iraninan statesman and first minister of justice under the Pahlavis Abdolreza Rahmani Fazli, born 1959 in Shirvan; Interior Minister of President Hassan Rouhani Abu Muslim Khorasani, c. 700–755; Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khorasani, Abbasid
Abbasid
general of Persian origin Al-Ghazali, 1058–1111; Islamic theologian, jurist, philosopher, cosmologist, psychologist and mystic of Persian origin Al-Hurr al-Aamili, Shia scholar and muhaddith Ali al-Sistani, born approximately August 4, 1930; Twelver Shi'a marja residing in Iraq
Iraq
since 1951 Amirteymour Kalali, prominent Iraninan statesman Goharshad
Goharshad
Begum, Persian noble and wife of Shāh Rukh, the emperor of the Timurid Dynasty of Herāt Hadi Khamenei, b. 1947; mid-ranking cleric who is a member of the reformist Association of Combatant Clerics Hassan Ghazizadeh Hashemi, born 21 March 1959 in Fariman; Minister of Health and Medical Education of President Hassan Rouhani Hassan Rahimpour Azghadi, Conservative political strategist and popular television personality in the Islamic Republic of Iran Hossein Vahid Khorasani, born in 1924; Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja Manouchehr Eghbal, 14 October 1909 – 25 November 1977, a Prime Minister of Iran Mohammad-Ali Abtahi, born January 27, 1958; former Vice President of Iran
Iran
and a close associate of former reformist President Mohammad Khatami Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, born 23 August 1961 in Torghabeh, near Mashhad; the current Mayor of Tehran, Iran Mohammad-Kazem Khorasani, 1839–1911; Twelver Shi'a Marja, Persian (Iranian) politician, philosopher, reformer Morteza Motahhari, 31 January 1919 in Fariman
Fariman
- 1 May 1979; an Iranian cleric, philosopher, lecturer, and politician Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, born February 1201 in Tūs, Khorasan – 26 June 1274 in al-Kāżimiyyah near Baghdad; Persian of the Ismaili and subsequently Twelver Shī‘ah Islamic belief Nizam al-Mulk, 1018 – 14 October 1092; celebrated Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire Saeed Jalili, born 1965 in Mashhad; Iranian politician and the present secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council Seyed Hassan Firuzabadi, current major general, Islamic Republic of Iran Seyyed Ali Khamenei, born 17 July 1939; former president and current supreme leader of Iran Shahrukh (Timurid dynasty), August 20, 1377 – March 12, 1447; ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by the Central Asian warlord Timur
Timur
(Tamerlane) Shaykh Tusi, 385–460 A.H.; prominent Persian scholar of the Shi'a Twelver Islamic belief Sheikh Ali Tehrani, brother-in-law of Seyyed Ali Khamenei, currently living in Iran. He is one of the oppositions of current Iranian government. Timur
Timur
Shah
Shah
Durrani, Emir of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
1772-1793[citation needed]

Writers and scientists

Abolfazl Beyhaqi, 995–1077; a Persian historian and author Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī, 10 June 940 – 1 July 998; Persian mathematician and astronomer Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin, 900–971; Persian astronomer and mathematician from Khorasan Abu-Mansur Daqiqi, 935/942–976/980 Abusa'id Abolkhayr, December 7, 967 – January 12, 1049 / Muharram ul Haram 1, 357 – Sha'aban 4, 440 AH; famous Persian Sufi who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi tradition Amir Ghavidel (fa), March 1947 - November 2009; an Iranian director and script writer Anvari, 1126–1189, one of the greatest Persian poets Arion Golmakani (fa); an American author of Iranian origin. His award-winning memoir Solacers
Solacers
details his childhood in Mashhad. Asadi Tusi, born in Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan, died 1072 Tabriz, Iran; Persian poet of Iranian national epics Ferdowsi, 935–1020 in Tus; a Persian poet Jābir ibn Hayyān, c. 721 in Tus – c. 815 in Kufa; prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, 1928, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
– 1990, Tehran, Iran; a Persian poet Mohammad Mokhtari (writer), Iranian writer who was murdered on the outskirts of Tehran
Tehran
in the course of the Chain Murders of Iran. Mohammad-Taghi Bahar, November 6, 1884, Mashhad, Iran
Iran
– April 22, 1951; Tehran, Iran Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī, 1135–1213; Persian mathematician and astronomer of the Islamic Golden Age (during the Middle Ages)

Artists

25band, both singers born in Mashhad; Pop Group formed in 2010 Abdi Behravanfar, born June 1975 in Mashhad; an Iranian Singer, guitar player and singer-songwriter Ali "Dubfire" Shirazinia, born 19 April 1971; musician/dj (co-founder of Deep Dish) Anoushirvan Arjmand, Iranian actor Borzoo Arjmand (fa), born 1975 in Mashhad; Iranian Cinema, Theatre, and Television actor Dariush Arjmand, Iranian actor Darya Dadvar, born 1971 in Mashhad; an accomplished Iranian soprano soloist and composer Hamed Behdad, born 17 November 1973 in Mashhad; Iranian actor Hamid Motebassem, born 1958 in Mashhad; Iranian musician and tar and setar player Ho3ein Eblis (fa), is considered as one of pioneers of "Persian Rap" along with Hichkas
Hichkas
and Reza Pishro (fa) Homayoun Shajarian, Mohammad-Reza Shajarian's son, born 21 May 1975; renowned Persian classical music vocalist, as well as a Tombak and Kamancheh player Iran
Iran
Darroudi, born 2 September 1936 in Mashhad; Iranian artist Javad Jalali, born 30 May 1977 in Mashhad; Iranian Photographer and Cinematographer Mahdi Bemani Naeini, born 3 November 1968; Iranian film director, cinematographer, TV cameraman and photographer Marshall Manesh, born 16 August 1950 in Mashhad; Iranian-American actor Mitra Hajjar, born February 4, 1977; Iranian actress Mohammad-Reza Shajarian, born 23 September 1940 in Mashhad; internationally and critically acclaimed Persian traditional singer, composer and Master (Ostad) of Persian music Mohsen Namjoo, born 1976 in Torbat-e-Jaam; Iranian singer-songwriter, author, musician, and setar player Navid Negahban, born 2 June 1968 in Mashhad; Iranian-American
Iranian-American
actor Noureddin Zarrinkelk, born 1937 in Mashhad; renowned Iranian animator, concept artist, editor, graphic designer, illustrator, layout artist, photographer, script writer and sculptor Ovanes Ohanian, ?–1961 Tehran; Armenian-Iranian filmmaker who established the first film school in Iran Pouran Jinchi, born 1959 in Mashhad; Iranian-American
Iranian-American
artist Rafi Pitts, born 1967 in Mashhad; internationally acclaimed Iranian film director Reza Attaran, born 31 March 1968 in Mashhad; Iranian actor and director Reza Kianian, born July 17, 1951 in Mashhad; Iranian actor Valy Hedjasi]] (fa), born June 1986 in Mashhad; Afghan Pop Singer Zohreh Jooya, born in Mashhad; Iranian- Afghan Classical Singer

Scientists

Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī, 10 June 940 – 1 July 998; Persian mathematician and astronomer Anousheh Ansari, born 12 September 1966; the Iranian-American co-founder and chairman of Prodea Systems, Inc and a spaceflight participant with the Russian space program

Sports figures

Abbas Chamanyan, Iranian football coach, manager, and former player Abbas Golmakani, World's wrestling champion during the 1950s Abolfazl Safavi, Iran
Iran
professional football player for Aboumoslem team in Takhte Jamshid League; He was later executed in prison by the Iranian regime in 1982 for his affiliation with Iranian opposition, the MEK Ali Baghbanbashi, athlete Alireza Vahedi Nikbakht, born June 30, 1980 in Mashhad; Iranian professional football player Amir Ghaseminejad, judoka Amir Reza Khadem, born February 10, 1970 in Mashhad, wrestler Amir Tavakkolian, wrestler Farbod Farman, basketballer Farhad Zarif, born March 3, 1983, Volleyballer Ghodrat Bahadori, Iranian Futsaler/Indoor soccer player Hamed Afagh, basketballer Hamid Reza Mobarez, swimmer Hasan Kamranifar, Iranian football referee Heshmat Mohajerani, born January, 1936 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian football coach, manager, and former player Hossein Badamaki, Iranian professional football player Hossein Ghadam, Iran
Iran
professional football player for Aboumoslem team Hossein Sokhandan, Iranian football referee Hossein Tayyebi, Iranian Futsaler/Indoor soccer player Javad Mahjoub, judoka Kamia Yousufi, Afghani female sprinter born in Mashhad
Mashhad
to Afghani parents Khodadad Azizi, born June 22, 1971 in Mashhad, Iran; retired professional football striker Kia Zolgharnain, Iranian-American
Iranian-American
former Futsaler/Indoor soccer player Mahdi Javid, Iranian Futsaler/Indoor soccer player Majid Khodaei, wrestler Maryam Sedarati, athlete, Iran
Iran
record holder in women high jump for three decades Masoud Haji Akhondzadeh, judoka Mohammad Khadem, wrestler Mohammad Mansouri, Iranian professional football player Mohsen Ghahramani, Iranian football referee Mohsen Torki, Iranian football referee Rasoul Khadem, born February 17, 1972 in Mashhad, wrestler Reza Enayati, Iranian professional football player Reza Ghoochannejhad, Iranian-Dutch professional football player Rouzbeh Arghavan, basketballer

Others

Ali Akbar Fayyaz, a renowned historian of early Islam and literary critic, founder of the School of Letters and Humanities at the Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
University of Mashhad Hesam Kolahan, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Hossein Sabet, Iranian businessman and Persian carpet dealer who owns Sabet International Trading Co. Mahmoud Khayami, born 1930 in Mashhad, Iran; Iranian born industrialist and philanthropist, of French nationality Maryam Monsef, Afghan-Canadian Minister of Democratic Institutions, MP for Peterborough-Kawartha.

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

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Mashhad
Mashhad
is twinned with:

Karachi, Pakistan[78] (May 2012) Lahore, Pakistan[79] (2006) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia[80] (2006) Ürümqi, China[81] Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan[82] Istanbul, Turkey

Consulates[edit]

Afghan Consul General met with the Mayor of Mashhad

Active[edit]

  Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1921–)   Iraq
Iraq
(2007–)[83]   Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(1996–)   Pakistan
Pakistan
(1975–)[84]   Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(Embassy Representative Office: 1995–)[85][86][87]   Turkey
Turkey
(1919-?,1930–?, 2014–)[88][89]   Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(1995–)

Former[edit]

  United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1889–1975)[90]   Russia
Russia
(1889–1917)   Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(1917–1937,1941–1979) China
China
(1941-?)[91]  USA (1949–?)[92] Poland[93] India Japan Jordan Lebanon   West Germany
West Germany
(c. 1984)   Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(1995–2009)[94]   Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(2004–2016)[95]

See also[edit]

Iran
Iran
portal

The National Library of Astan Quds Razavi Mashadi Jewish Community Sport Sciences Research Institute of Iran

Footnotes[edit]

^ "Local Government Profile". United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. Retrieved 4 February 2014.  ^ a b c d "Sacred Sites: Mashhad, Iran". sacredsites.com. Archived from the original on 2010-11-27. Retrieved 2006-03-13.  ^ "Mashhad". Britannica. Retrieved 6 January 2018.  ^ Editorial, Reuters. "Hundreds protest against high prices in Iran". Retrieved 7 January 2018.  ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. " Iran
Iran
protests: Arab states between trepidation and glee - Middle East - DW - 03.01.2018". DW.COM. Retrieved 7 January 2018.  ^ " Razavi Khorasan
Razavi Khorasan
(Iran): Counties & Cities - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". www.citypopulation.de.  ^ "مشهد، پایتخت معنوی ایران اعلام شد" [Mashhad, Iran's spiritual capital] (in Persian). Khorasan newspaper. 9 Aban 1388. Archived from the original on 2015-07-07. Retrieved Persian date Khordad 23 1394.  Check date values in: access-date=, date= (help) ^ "نام‌گذاري مشهد به عنوان پايتخت معنوي "Nombramiento de Mashhad
Mashhad
como capital espiritual de Irán"" (in Persian). Shahr.ir. 1 November 2009. Archived from the original on 26 October 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013.  ^ E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936 p. 127 ^ The Shias: A Short Gistory, Heinz Halm, p. 26 ^ " Iran
Iran
travel Information". persiatours.com.  ^ "Hystaspes (2) - Livius". www.livius.org. Retrieved 7 January 2018.  ^ Zabeth (1999) pp. 12–13. ^ Zabeth (1999) pp. 13–16. ^ موسوي 1370, p. 40 ^ a b Zabeth (1999) pp. 14–15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-05-11. Retrieved 2016-12-22.  ^ "زبان و ادبیات ترکان خراسان - غذاهای سنتی گریوان". salariyan.blogfa.com.  ^ نوایی، عبدالحسین. کریم خان زند ^ Cyrus Ghani (6 January 2001). Iran
Iran
and the Rise of the Reza Shah: From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power. I.B.Tauris. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-86064-629-4. Retrieved 4 November 2012.  ^ a b "تاریخجه شهر مشهد, "Historia de la ciudad de Mashhad"". Portal
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de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Mashhad (in persa). Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ Firuz Kazemzadeh (10 April 2013). Russia
Russia
and Britain in Persia: Imperial Ambitions in Qajar Iran. I.B.Tauris. p. 663. ISBN 978-0-85772-173-0.  ^ Ervand, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p.94 ^ Bakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs : Iran
Iran
and the Islamic Revolution by Shaul, Bakhash, Basic Books, c1984, p.22 ^ "Manplan 5, Religion Part III: 'has religion a future?'". Retrieved June 17, 2017.  ^ "ABC Evening News for Monday, Jun 20, 1994". Tvnews.vanderbilt.edu. 1994-06-20. Retrieved 2009-06-19.  ^ "Explosive circles: Iran. ( Mashhad
Mashhad
bombing)". Highbeam.com. 1994-06-25. Retrieved 2009-06-19.  ^ "Context of 'Mid-1994: Ramzi Yousef
Ramzi Yousef
Works Closely with Al-Qaeda Leaders". Historycommons.org. Retrieved March 25, 2010.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-03. Retrieved 2008-02-27.  ^

"Highest record temperature in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015.  "Lowest record temperature in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015. 

^

"Average Maximum temperature in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2015.  "Average Mean Daily temperature in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015.  "Average Minimum temperature in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2015. 

^ "Monthly Total Precipitation
Precipitation
in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 8, 2015.  ^ "Average relative humidity in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2015.  ^ "No. Of days with precipitation equal to or greater than 1 mm in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2015.  ^ "No. Of days with snow in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2015.  ^ "Monthly total sunshine hours in Mashhad
Mashhad
by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2015.  ^ Iran
Iran
Foreign Policy & Government Guide (World Business Law Handbook Library), Usa Ibp, Intl Business Pubn., 2006, p. 149 ^ Glazebrook & Abbasi-Shavazi 2007, p. 189 ^ Abbas Hajimohammadi and Shaminder Dulai, eds. (6 November 2014). "Photos: The Life of Afghan Refugees in Tehran". Newsweek. Retrieved 2014-11-07. ^ Koepke, Bruce (4 February 2011), "The Situation of Afghans in the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
Nine Years After the Overthrow of the Taliban Regime in Afghanistan", Middle East Institute, retrieved 2014-11-07 ^ "مهاجرت افغان‌ها برای همسایه دردسرساز شد/ سرنوشت خاکستری اتباع خارجی در مشهد". خبرگزاری مهر - اخبار ایران و جهان - Mehr News Agency. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ http://news.mashhad.ir/news/47876-ماندگاری-زائران-مشهد-نصف-اقامت-مسافران-یزد-کاشان-کاهش-یافت.html ^ http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13910923000693 ^ The double lives of Mashhadi Jews, Jerusalem Post, 12 augustus 2007. ^ correspondent, Tehran
Tehran
Bureau (7 May 2015). "Prayer, food, sex and water parks in Iran's holy city of Mashhad" – via The Guardian.  ^ "تور مشهد - نقد و اقساط (شروع از 200,000 تومان)". irandehkadeh.com.  ^ "افزایش 35درصدی طلاق در مشهد". پایگاه خبری تحلیلی قاصد نیوز. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "مسائل جنسی عامل 60 درصد طلاق ها در مشهد است/راه های افزایش کیفیت رابطه جنسی". سلامت نیوز. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "بعد از اعتیاد و طلاق، خشونت، سومین آسیب عمده‌ اجتماعی در مشهد". پایگاه خبری تحلیلی قاصد نیوز. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ a b Andrew Higgins (2 June 2007). "Inside Iran's Holy Money Machine". WSJ. Retrieved 13 January 2016.  ^ a b Christopher de Bellaigue, The Struggle for Iran, New York Review of Books, 2007, p.15 ^ Iran: Order Out of Chaos Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kamdar, Nazanin (January 6, 2015). "پدیده شاندیز؛". Rooz Online. Retrieved March 7, 2015.  ^ "پیشرفت های جدید در ساماندهی مؤسسات اعتباری/ ثامن الحجج در کدام مرحله دریافت مجوز است؟". Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ «مجوز تغییر نام موسسه اعتباری عسکریه به موسسه ملل صادر شد». کانون بانک ها و موسسات خصوصی. بازبینی‌شده در ۱۳۹۵/۰۴/۱۰. ^ "مردم گول نخورند / موسسات ثامن‌الحجج و ثامن مجوز ندارند". Jamejam Online. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ "Overlooking dialect associated with forgetting identity: academic". 23 August 2008.  ^ Area Handbook for Afghanistan, page 77, Harvey Henry Smith, American University (Washington, D.C.) Foreign Area Studies ^ "روزنامه مردم مشهد ، شهرآرا". shahrara.com.  ^ مرکز مدیریت حوزهٔ علمیهٔ خراسان، کارنمای عملکرد سال ۱۳۸۶ مرکز مدیریت حوزهٔ علمیهٔ خراسان، ج ۱، ص ۹–۱۱ ^ "Guide to Iranian Media and Broadcast" (PDF). BBC Monitoring. March 2007. Retrieved 12 September 2014.  ^ " Mashhad
Mashhad
named cultural capital of Muslim world". Press TV. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.  ^ "Photos: Airplane Overhaul Facility in Mashhad, Eastern Iran". www.payvand.com.  ^ Photos: Airplane Overhaul Facility in Mashhad, Eastern Iran
Iran
Archived 15 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Payvand.com. ^ https://metro.mashhad.ir ^ "قطار شهري مشهد به صورت آزمايشي به بهره‌برداري رسيد" (in Persian). Fars News Agency. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.  ^ "حفاري خط 2 قطارشهري مشهد آغاز شد" (in Persian). Fars News Agency. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.  ^ "شرکت حمل و نقل ریلی رجا". raja.ir. Retrieved 7 January 2018.  ^ http://www.rai.ir/eng/Site.aspx ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2017-01-14.  ^ "Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
(First vice chairman)". Official website of the Assembly of Experts - Management Committee of [the] Assembly of Experts. Retrieved 9 June 2016.  ^ ".:Middle East Online::Feared Iranian prosecutor falls from grace:". www.middle-east-online.com.  ^ Bozorgmehr, Najmeh (February 23, 2012). "Hardline group emerges as Iran
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Declared Sister Cities". Daily Times. 2012-05-12.  ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 2007-03-02. Archived from the original on 2013-09-29. Retrieved 2010-11-12.  ^ "Mashhad- Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Become Sister Cities". Mircea Birca. Eurasia Press and News. 2006-10-14.  ^ جم, Jamejam, جام (10 September 2011). "مشهد و ارومچي خواهرخوانده شدند". Jamejam Online. Retrieved 7 January 2018.  ^ "golbaharnews.com". www.golbaharnews.com.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2012-07-27.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-03-18. Retrieved 2012-07-27.  ^ "دفتر سفارت جمهوری تاجیکستان در مشهد". www.tajik-em-mashhad.ir.  ^ User, Super. "CONTACTS - Tajik Embassy in Iran". www.tajembiran.tj.  ^ " Tajikistan
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Rejects Iran
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Visa Offer". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.  ^ " Turkey
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opens new consulate in Iran". www.iran-daily.com.  ^ "Consulate General of Turkey
Turkey
in Mashhad, Iran". www.embassypages.com.  ^ Onley, James. The Arabian Frontier of the British Raj: Merchants, Rulers, and the British in the Nineteenth-Century Gulf. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 15. ISBN 0-19-922810-8. ^ "کنسولگریهای خارجی در خراسان - نشریه زمانه". zamane.info.  ^ "مرکز تحقیقاتی _ tarikhsazan". tarikhsazan.blogfa.com.  ^ "کنسولگری ها ؛ مستخدمان و مستشاران خارجی در مشهد". http://mashhadenc.ir.  External link in website= (help) ^ "واضح - سركنسولگري جمهوري قزاقستان در گرگان گلستان گشايش يافت".  ^ "Saudi consulate opens in Iranian city of Mashhad". Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. 12 July 2004. 

References[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Mashhad

Zabeth, Hyder Reza (1999). Landmarks of Mashhad. Mashhad, Iran: Islamic Research Foundation. ISBN 964-444-221-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mashhad.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Mashhad.

Municipality of Mashhad
Mashhad
Official website (in Persian) Astan Quds Razavi e- Mashhad
Mashhad
Mashhad
Mashhad
Portal
Portal
Official website (in Persian)

Preceded by Isfahan Capital of Iran
Iran
(Persia) 1736-1747 Succeeded by Shiraz

Preceded by - Capital of Afsharid dynasty 1736-1796 Succeeded by -

v t e

Razavi Khorasan
Razavi Khorasan
Province

Capital

Mashhad

Counties and cities

Bajestan
Bajestan
County

Bajestan Yunesi

Bakharz
Bakharz
County

Bakharz

Bardaskan
Bardaskan
County

Bardaskan Anabad Shahrabad

Chenaran
Chenaran
County

Chenaran

Dargaz
Dargaz
County

Dargaz Chapeshlu Lotfabad Now Khandan

Davarzan
Davarzan
County

Davarzan

Fariman
Fariman
County

Fariman Farhadgerd Qalandarabad Sefid Sang

Firuzeh
Firuzeh
County

Firuzeh Hemmatabad

Gonabad
Gonabad
County

Gonabad Bidokht Kakhk

Joghatai
Joghatai
County

Joghatai

Jowayin County

Neqab

Kalat County

Kalat Shahr-e Zow

Kashmar
Kashmar
County

Kashmar Rivash

Khalilabad County

Khalilabad Kondor

Khoshab County

Soltanabad

Khvaf
Khvaf
County

Khvaf Nashtifan Qasemabad Salami Sangan

Mahvelat County

Feyzabad Shadmehr

Mashhad
Mashhad
County

Mashhad Malekabad Razaviyeh

Nishapur
Nishapur
County

Nishapur Chekneh Darrud Kharv Eshqabad Qadamgah

Quchan
Quchan
County

Quchan Bajgiran

Rashtkhvar
Rashtkhvar
County

Rashtkhvar Jangal

Sabzevar
Sabzevar
County

Sabzevar Rud Ab Sheshtomad

Sarakhs
Sarakhs
County

Sarakhs Mazdavand

Taybad
Taybad
County

Taybad Kariz Mashhad
Mashhad
Rizeh

Torbat-e Heydarieh
Torbat-e Heydarieh
County

Torbat-e Heydarieh Bayg Kadkan Robat-e Sang

Torbat-e Jam
Torbat-e Jam
County

Torbat-e Jam Nasrabad Nilshahr Salehabad

Torqabeh
Torqabeh
and Shandiz
Shandiz
County

Torqabeh Shandiz

Zaveh County

Dowlatabad

Landmarks

Imam Reza
Imam Reza
shrine Goharshad
Goharshad
Mosque Tus citadel Kooh Sangi Akhlamad Mount Binalud Zist-e Khavar Kian Center Azar Barzin Mehr fire temple,Sabzevar Tomb
Tomb
of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
in Tus Haruniyeh
Haruniyeh
Dome in Tus Tomb
Tomb
of Farid ad-Din Attar,Nishapur Kohandezh, Nishapur Tomb
Tomb
of Omar Khayyám, Nishapur

populated places

List of cities, towns and villages in Razavi Khorasan
Razavi Khorasan
Province

v t e

Mashhad
Mashhad
County

Capital

Mashhad

Districts

Central

Cities

Mashhad

Rural Districts and villages

Darzab

Ab Davan Abqad Aghzaghaneh Ahmadabad Amrudak Andad Ardak Barg Chah-e Amiq Sanat Khani Cheshmeh-e Alimva Derangabad Dezq Duleh Fakhrabad Gajvan Gandom Khvab Garmeh Gol Ezqand Govareshk Hesar Jaghneh Hazrati Jahan Kuh Kalateh-ye Cheshmeh Alimva Kharq Khorasanak Kolukhi Marian Mehdiabad Mehrabad Mian Margh Najm Nasrabad Neqab Qaleh Now-e Valiabad Sar Asiab-e Bala Saidabad Shah
Shah
Taqi Shurab Taherabad Talqur Zak

Kardeh

Al Bahreh Bolghur Dar Biaban Firuzabad Gush Jong Kalateh-ye Arabha Kardeh Karimabad Kharkat Khvajeh Hoseynabad Kushkabad Mareshk Panj Maneh Sij

Kenevist

Abbasabad Abeshki Ahmadabad Amarghan-e Sofla Borjabad Borzeshabad Dastgerdan Deh Now-ye Kenar Gusheh Eyshabad-e Nizeh Farrokhabad Halali Halvai Hashemabad Hemmatabad Hendelabad Hesar-e Afghan Hojjatabad Jalalieh Joghri Kaj Derakht Kalateh-ye Chapar Qaleh Kalateh-ye Feyzabad Kalateh-ye Seyyed Sadeq Karimabad Kenar Gusheh Kenevist Kheyrabad Marghesh Mehdiabad Mehrabad-e Shor Shor Namdun Olang-e Asadi Pava Qasemabad Qiasabad-e Olya Sangbar Shahrabad Shir Hesar Shor Shor Shotorak Tabadakan Zeyn ol Din

Miyan Velayat

Abbasabad Abdolabad Akbarabad Asgariyeh Ashk-e Zari Bazeh Kalagh Boshnu Bozmargan Chah Molla Chahchah Chenar Sukhteh Dandaneh Devin Eshqabad Fathabad-e Gorgha Fathabad-e Yazdiha Filian-e Qaem Maqam Filian-e Sofla Gonabad Hasanabad-e Gorji Hoseynabad-e Gusheh Jalali Javadieh Kalateh-ye Ali Kalateh-ye Qorban Kamin Geran Khan Saadat Kharabeh Amin Kurdeh Mesgaran Mohammadabad Nazeriyeh Nurabad Pain Deh Pariabad Qaderabad Reyhan Rezavieh Robatu Rowghan Garan Ruhabad Saghravan Sahl ol Din Sang-e Siah Sarvabad Shah
Shah
Niaz Shah
Shah
Rah Shahin Qaleh Shaqa Shir Hesar Soltanabad Tup Derakht

Tabadkan

Aghal Kali Akhangan Aliabad Andorokh Avazi Bagh-e Farajerd Bahar Barqi Chah Darreh Darabad-e Shahzadeh Deh Mozaffar Deh Rud Deh Sorkh Eslamabad-e Chahar Gavareh Farkhad Faz Gamizdar Garab Gazargan Gazi Gevanduk Gonbadvaz Gorji-ye Olya Gorji-ye Sofla Govareshki Gujgi-ye Bala Hasan Shahab Hemmatabad Hemmatabad Hoseynabad Hoseynabad-e Qorqi Jahiz Khaneh Kalateh-ye Qazi Kalateh-ye Teymuri Kanu Gerd Kazemabad-e Panjshanbeh Kholqabad-e Sofla Khorramabad Khvor-e Olya Khvor-e Sofla Khvor-e Vosta Khvosh Hava Kola Kub Lak Lag Maqsudabad Mashhad
Mashhad
Industrial Estate Mohammadiyeh Moinabad-e Bala Moinabad-e Sofla Now Chah Parmeh Qaleh Now-e Andarekh Qaleh Now-e Faz Qarah Mohammad Qasr Qezel Qayeh Qorqi-ye Olya Qorqi-ye Sofla Rezvan Rud-e Khin Sang-e Atash Sar Tavus Shahid Kamju Shaye Shir Shotor Siasak Sisabad Zirkan

Tus

Ahmadabad-e Moqbel Akbarabad Amerghan-e Tus Aminabad Amirabad Arvand Asheqan Ba Sharik Bagh-e Shalvaran Baghunabad Chahar Borj Chehel Hojreh Deheshk Dujafti Dustabad Esfandian Eslamiyeh Esmailabad Esmailabad Ferizi Hajjiabad Hasan Khordu Hasanabad Jufurush Kal Zarkesh Kalateh-ye Barfi Kalateh-ye Nuri Kalateh-ye Seyyed Ali Kashaf Kazemabad Khatayan Khin-e Arab Khin-e Chomaqi Kushk-e Mehdi Loqmani Manzelabad Mashhad
Mashhad
Qoli Mehdiabad Mesgaran Mohammadabad-e Ilkhani Moqimabad Mordar Keshan Muznan Nazerabad Now Deh Parkandabad Qahqah Qaleh Now-e Avaraz Sar Asiab-e Pain Seyyedabad Shabankareh Shah
Shah
Nil Shahid Hashemi Nizhad Shahrdansh Shamsabad Shurab Suran Takhteh-ye Kazemabad Tus-e Olya Tus-e Sofla Zarkesh

Ahmadabad

Cities

Malekabad

Rural Districts and villages

Piveh Zhan

Abrash Avareshk Bazeh Hur Beyramabad Deh Molla Delbaran Derakht-e Sefidar Dizbad-e Sofla Emam Taqi Eslam Qaleh Esmailabad Fakhr-e Davud Golboqra Gownjuk-e Olya Gownjuk-e Sofla Hajjiabad Hoseynabad Jamal Deh Kaj Olang Masumabad Neyzar Piveh Zhan Qasemabad Razun Robat
Robat
Sefid Seyyedabad Sirzar Soltanabad-e Namak Takruk-e Sofla Zamanabad Ziarat

Sarjam

Abd ol Majid Amirabad Aqanj Baghcheh Balendar Bar Rud Bas Saruq Baz Howz-e Olya Boland Pey Bozveshk Dash Khaneh Deh Sorkh Deh-e Gheybi Estaj Ferezni Hasanabad Janid Deraz Kariz-e Now Kortian Koruj Nazarabad Orfi Owlang-e Amanabad Qasemabad Robat-e Khakestari Robat-e Toroq Sar Ghayeh Sar Nish Sharifabad Toroq

Razaviyeh

Cities

Razaviyeh

Rural Districts and villages

Abravan

Ab Mal Abravan Arreh Biavand Chelmen Sang-e Olya Chelmen Sang-e Sofla Cheshmeh Reza Dom-e Rubah Giami Hasanabad Hoseynabad-e Gazband Jalalabad Jizabad-e Shahan Garmab Kalateh-ye Seyyeda Mashuleh Narimani-ye Olya Narimani-ye Sofla Nasrabad Qorqoruk-e Olya Qorqoruk-e Sofla Senjedak Shurak-e Saburi Soleymani Tappeh Nader Taqiabad Teymurabad

Meyami

Ahmadabad Baz Howz-e Sofla Bidak Chah-e Danash Jowian Chapunak Chelqi Chenarak Ebrahimabad Hasanabad Jimabad Kal Chuquki Khademabad Mazraeh-ye Behzadian Meyami Mir Bankesh Narband Orduluk Qaleh Khiaban Qaleh Now Qazqan Qeshlaq Salarabad Shadisheh Bala Shadisheh Pain Tangal-e Shur-e Olya Tappeh Salam

Pain Velayat

Bereyli Borjmuri Buteh Gaz Buteh Mordeh Chahak Dahaneh-ye Chahal Derakht-e Bid Galleh Chashmeh Gav Borj Hajjiabad Jar Khoshk-e Olya Jar Khoshk-e Sofla Kalateh Menar Kalateh-ye Abdol Kalateh-ye Hajj Ali Kalateh-ye Mirza Jani Kalateh-ye Qadam Kharzar Kuh Sefid-e Sofla Pas Khvori Qaleh Now-e Kalateh Menar Qaleh Pokhtuk Qarneh-ye Sofla Qeychidar Saleh Khani Shurak-e Maleki

 

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Largest cities or towns in Iran 2016 census

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Tehran

Mashhad 1 Tehran Tehran 8,693,706 11 Rasht Gilan 679,995

Isfahan

Karaj

2 Mashhad Razavi Khorasan 3,001,184 12 Zahedan Sistan and Baluchestan 587,730

3 Isfahan Isfahan 1,961,260 13 Hamadan Hamadan 554,406

4 Karaj Alborz 1,592,492 14 Kerman Kerman 537,718

5 Shiraz Fars 1,565,572 15 Yazd Yazd 529,673

6 Tabriz East Azarbaijan 1,558,693 16 Ardabil Ardabil 529,374

7 Qom Qom 1,201,158 17 Bandar Abbas Hormozgan 526,648

8 Ahwaz Khuzestan 1,184,788 18 Arak Markazi 520,944

9 Kermanshah Kermanshah 946,651 19 Eslamshahr Tehran 448,129

10 Urmia West Azarbaijan 736,224 20 Zanjan Zanjan 430,871

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Iranian architecture

Styles

Parsian

Achaemenid pre-Parsian

Parthian

Khorasani Sasanian

Other

Azeri Isfahani Razi

Types

Bazaars Caravanserais Khaneqah Mosques Tekyeh

Elements

Ab anbar Andaruni Biruni Burj Chahartaq Dalan e Vorudi Gonbad Hashti Howz Imamzadeh Iwan Kariz Kucheh Panjdari Persian Garden (hayāt) Qanat Robats Sahn Shabestan Talar Windcatchers Yakhchal

Traditional cities

Amol Andijan Baku Bam Bukhara Ctesiphon Derbent Ganja Gur-e-Amir Hatra Herat Isfahan Kashan Khiva Khorramabad Mashhad Merv Nakhchivan Nishapur Persepolis Qazvin Qom Samarkand Shahrisabz Shiraz Susa Tabriz Takht-e Soleymān Tehran Yazd

Theory and analysis

Islamic architecture Traditional Persian residential architecture Traditional water sources of Persian antiquity

Lists

Architects of Iran Args, castles, and ghal'ehs List of ab anbars of Qazvin List of mosques List of ziyarat-gahs

Authority control

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