HOME
The Info List - Marathi People


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The MARATHI PEOPLE (Marathi : मराठी लोक) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group that speak the Marathi language and inhabit the state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
as well as districts bordering the state such as Belgaon and Karwar
Karwar
of Karnataka
Karnataka
and Madgaon
Madgaon
of Goa
Goa
states in western India
India
. Their language, Marathi , is part of the group of Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
. The community came in to political prominence in the 17th century when Maratha
Maratha
warriors under Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj established the Maratha
Maratha
Empire , which is credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 History from ancient to Medieval Period

* 1.2 Maratha
Maratha
Empire

* 1.2.1 political history * 1.2.2 Social history

* 1.3 British colonial rule * 1.4 Modern Period since Indian Independence in 1947

* 2 Castes and communities

* 2.1 Hindu
Hindu
castes * 2.2 Non- Hindu
Hindu
communities

* 3 Marathi Diaspora

* 3.1 In other Indian states * 3.2 Outside India
India

* 4 Culture

* 4.1 Religion * 4.2 Hindu
Hindu
Festivals

* 4.3 Festivals observed by Other Communities

* 4.3.1 Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din * 4.3.2 Christmas
Christmas
or Naataal (Marathi:नाताळ)

* 4.4 Food * 4.5 Attire

* 4.6 Literature

* 4.6.1 Ancient Marathi Inscriptions

* 4.6.1.1 Classical Literature * 4.6.1.2 Modern Marathi Literature

* 5 Martial tradition * 6 See also * 7 Footnotes * 8 References * 9 External links

HISTORY

HISTORY FROM ANCIENT TO MEDIEVAL PERIOD

This section CONTAINS INFORMATION OF UNCLEAR OR QUESTIONABLE IMPORTANCE OR RELEVANCE TO THE ARTICLE\'S SUBJECT MATTER. Please help improve this section by clarifying or removing superfluous information . If importance cannot be established, the section is likely to be moved to another article, pseudo-redirected , or removed. Find sources: "Marathi people" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR
JSTOR
(March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Maratha
Maratha
Armory Signature Maratha
Maratha
helmet with curved back. Maratha
Maratha
Armour from Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, Russia.

During ancient period around 230 BC Maharashtra
Maharashtra
came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
which ruled the region for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautami putra Satakarni . The Vakataka dynasty
Vakataka dynasty
ruled Maharashtra
Maharashtra
from the 3rd century to the 5th century. The Chalukya dynasty ruled Maharashtra
Maharashtra
from the 6th century to the 8th century and the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II , who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsh and Vikramaditya II
Vikramaditya II
, who defeated the Arab invaders in the 8th century. The Rashtra kuta Dynasty ruled Maharashtra
Maharashtra
from the 8th to the 10th century. The Arab traveler Sulaiman called the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty ( Amoghavarsha
Amoghavarsha
) as "one of the 4 great kings of the world". From the early 11th century to the 12th century the Deccan Plateau was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
. The Seuna dynasty , also known as the Yadav dynasty ruled Maharashtra
Maharashtra
from the 13th century to the 14th century. The Yadavas were defeated by the Khiljis in 1321. After the Yadav defeat, the area was ruled for the next 300 years by a succession of Muslim
Muslim
rulers including (in chronological order): the Khiljis , the Tughlaqs , the Bahamani Sultanate and its successor states such as Adilshahi and Nizamshahi and the Mughal Empire. Territory under Maratha
Maratha
control in 1760 (yellow), without its vassals.

MARATHA EMPIRE

political History

In the mid-17th century, Shivaji Maharaj
Shivaji Maharaj
(1630–1680) founded the Maratha
Maratha
Empire by conquering the Desh and the Konkan
Konkan
region from the Adilshahi , and established Hindavi Swaraj ("self-rule of Hindu people" ). The Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India. After Shivaji's death, the Mughals, who had lost significant ground to the Marathas under Shivaji, invaded Maharashtra
Maharashtra
in 1681. Shivaji's son Sambhaji and successor as Chhatrapati led the Marathas valiantly against the much stronger Mughal opponent but in 1689, after being betrayed, he was captured, and then tortured and killed by Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
. The war against the Mughals was then led by the Sambhaji's younger brother and successor Rajaram Chhatrapati . Upon Rajaram's death in 1700, his widow Tarabai
Tarabai
took command of Maratha
Maratha
forces and won many battles against the Mughals. In 1707, upon the death of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
, the War of 27 years between the much weakened Mughals and Marathas came to an end.

Shahu, the grandson of Shivaji, with the help of capable Maratha administrators and generals such as the Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath and his descendents saw the greatest expansion of Maratha
Maratha
power.After Shahu's death in 1749, the Peshwa Nanasaheb and his successors became the virtual rulers of the empire. The empire was expanded by many chieftains including Peshwa Bajirao Ballal I and his descendants, the Shindes , Gaekwad
Gaekwad
, Pawar , Bhonsale of Nagpur
Nagpur
and the Holkars . The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
in the south, to Peshawar (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
) in the north, and Bengal in the east. Pune
Pune
under the Peshwa became the imperial seat with envoys, ambassadors and royals coming in from far and near. However, after the Third battle of Panipat
Third battle of Panipat
in which the Marathas were defeated by Ahmed Shah Abdali , the Empire broke up into many independent kingdoms. Due to the efforts of Mahadji Shinde
Mahadji Shinde
, it remained a confederacy until the British East India
India
Company defeated Peshwa Bajirao II . Nevertheless, several Maratha
Maratha
states remained as vassals of the British until 1947 when they acceded to the Dominion of India
India
.

The Marathas also developed a potent Navy circa 1660s which, at its peak, dominated the territorial waters of the western coast of India from Mumbai
Mumbai
to Savantwadi . It would engage in attacking the British , Portuguese , Dutch , and Siddi Naval ships and kept a check on their naval ambitions. The Maratha
Maratha
Navy dominated until around the 1730s, was in a state of decline by the 1770s, and ceased to exist by 1818.

Social History

Before the British rule, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
region was divided in many revenue divisions.The lowest administrative one was the village. Village society in Marathi areas included the Patil or the head of the village,collector of revenue, and Kulkarni , the village record keeper.These were hereditary positions.The Patil usually came from the Maratha
Maratha
community.The Kulkarni was usually from Brahhmin or CKP caste. The village also used to have twelve hereditary servants called the Balutedar.The Balutedar system was supportive to the agriculture sector. The servants under this system provided services to the farmer and economic system of village. The base of this system was caste. The servant used to get job, according to their castes. There were 12 kinds of servants, called Bara Balutedar; such as Sonar
Sonar
(Goldsmith), Gurav(temple priest), Nhawi(Barber), Parit(washerman), Kumbhar(Potter), Sutar(Carpenter, Lohar(Blacksmith), Chambar(Cobbler), Dhor, Koli(fisherman), Chougula(Assistant to Patil), Mang and Mahar. In this list of Balutedar;Dhor, Mang, Mahar and Chambhar were untouchables

The medieval equivalent of county or district was the Pargana .The chief of the Pargana were called Deshmukh and record keepers were called Deshpande. Again most Deshmukh were from the elite Maratha families. The Deshpande belonged to Brahmin
Brahmin
or CKP communities

BRITISH COLONIAL RULE

British rule over more than a century saw huge changes for Marathi people in every aspect of their lives. Areas that correspond to present day Maharashtra
Maharashtra
were under direct or indirect British rule, first under the East India
India
company and then under British crown from 1858. Marathi people
Marathi people
during this era resided in the Bombay presidency , Berar , Central provinces , Hyderabad state
Hyderabad state
and in various princely states that are currently part of the present day Maharashtra. Significant Marathi population also resided in Maratha
Maratha
princely states far from Maharashtra
Maharashtra
such as Baroda , Gwalior , Indore , and Tanjore
Tanjore
.

The British colonial period saw standardisation of Marathi grammar through the efforts of the Christian
Christian
missionary William Carey . Carey also published the first dictionary of Marathi in devanagari script.The most comprehensive Marathi-English dictionary was compiled by Captain James Thomas Molesworth and Major Thomas Candy in 1831. The book is still in print nearly two centuries after its publication. Molesworth also worked on standardizing Marathi.He used Brahmins of Pune
Pune
for this task and adopted the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dominated dialect spoken by this caste in the city as the standard dialect for Marathi.,

The Marathi community played an important part in the social and religious reform movements as well as the nationalist movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Notable Civil society
Civil society
bodies founded by Marathi leaders during 19th century include the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha , the Prarthana samaj , the Arya Mahila Samaj and the Satya Shodhak Samaj .The Sarvajanik sabha took active part in relief efforts during the famine of 1875-76. The Sabha is considered the forerunner of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
established in 1885. The most prominent personalities of Indian Nationalism in the late 19th and early 20th century, Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Gopal Krishna Gokhale
and Bal Gangadhar Tilak on opposite side of political spectrum were both Marathi.Tilak was instrumental in using Shivaji
Shivaji
and Ganesh worship in forging a collective Maharashtrian identity for Marathi people
Marathi people
The Marathi social reformers of the colonial era include Mahatma Jyotirao Phule , and his wife Savitribai Phule , Justice Ranade , feminist Tarabai Shinde , Dhondo Keshav Karve , Vitthal Ramji Shinde , and Pandita Ramabai . Jyotirao Phule was the pioneer in opening schools for girls and Marathi dalits castes.

The non- Brahmin
Brahmin
Hindu
Hindu
castes started organizing at beginning of 20th century with the blessing of Chhatrapati Shahu of Kolhapur
Shahu of Kolhapur
.The campaign took off in the early 1920s under the leadership of Keshavrao Jedhe and Baburao javalkar. Both belonged to the Non-Brahmin party.Capturing the Ganpati and Shivaji
Shivaji
festivals from Brahmin domination were their early goals. They combined nationalism with anti-casteism as the party's aims. Later on in the 1930s, Jedhe merged the non- Brahmin
Brahmin
party with the Congress party and changed that party from an upper-caste dominated body to a more broadly based but also Maratha
Maratha
-dominated party. Early 20th century also saw the rise of Dr Ambedkar who led the campaign for the rights of Dalits caste that included his own Mahar caste.

Although the British originally regarded India
India
a place for supply of raw materials for the factories of England, by the end of 19th century modern manufacturing industry was developing in the city of Mumbai. The main product was cotton and the bulk of work force in these mills was of Marathi origin from Western Maharashtra
Maharashtra
but more specifically from the coastal Konkan
Konkan
region The census recorded for the city in the first half of the 20th century showed nearly half of the population of city listed Marathi as their mother tongue,

During the period of 1835-1907, a large number of Indians including Marathi people
Marathi people
were taken to the island of Mauritius
Mauritius
as indentured labourers to work on sugarcane plantations.The Marathi people
Marathi people
on the island form the oldest diaspora of Marathi people
Marathi people
outside India
India

MODERN PERIOD SINCE INDIAN INDEPENDENCE IN 1947

After India's independence in 1947, all Princely states lying within the borders of Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
acceded to Indian Union and were integrated into the newly created Bombay State
Bombay State
in 1950.

The small community of Marathi Jews started in emigrating to the newly created country of Israel
Israel
in late 1940 and early 1950s The number of Bene Israel
Israel
remaining in India
India
was estimated to be around 5,000 in 1988

In 1956, the States Reorganisation Act reorganised the Indian states along linguistic lines, and Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
State was enlarged by the addition of the predominantly Marathi -speaking regions of Marathwada
Marathwada
( Aurangabad Division
Aurangabad Division
) from erstwhile Hyderabad state
Hyderabad state
and Vidarbha
Vidarbha
region from the Central Provinces and Berar .The enlarged state also included Gujarati speaking areas. The southernmost part of Bombay State
Bombay State
was ceded to Mysore . From 1954 to 1955 the people of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
strongly protested against bilingual Bombay state
Bombay state
and Samyukta Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Samiti , was formed. The Mahagujarat Movement was started, seeking a separate Gujarat
Gujarat
state. A number of mainly Pune based leaders such as Keshavrao Jedhe , S.M. Joshi , Shripad Amrit Dange , and Pralhad Keshav Atre formed Samyukta Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Movement with Vidarbha-based leaders such as Gopalrao Khedkar to fight for a separate state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
with Mumbai
Mumbai
as its state capital. Mass protests, 105 deaths, and heavy losses in the Marathi speaking areas by the ruling Congress party in the 1957 election, led the government under prime minister Nehru to change their policy and agree to the protesters' demands. On 1 May 1960, the separate Marathi-speaking state was formed by dividing earlier Bombay State
Bombay State
into the new states of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Gujarat. The city of Mumbai
Mumbai
was declared the capital of the new state The state continues to have a dispute with Karnataka
Karnataka
regarding the districts of Belgaum
Belgaum
and Karwar
Karwar
with large population of Marathi people.

The creation of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
for the first time brought most Marathi people under one state with the mainly rural Kunbi- Maratha
Maratha
community as the largest social group.This group has dominated rural economy and politics of the state since 1960., The community accounts for 31% of the population of Maharashtra. They dominate the cooperative institutions and with the resultant economic power, control politics from the village level up to the Assembly and Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
seats., Since the 1980s, this group has also been active in setting up private educational institutions. Major past political figures of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
have been from this group.

After the Maratha- Kunbi cluster, the scheduled caste (SC) Mahars are numerically the second biggest community among Marathi people
Marathi people
in Maharashtra. Most of them embraced Buddhism
Buddhism
in 1956 with their leader, the late Dr. Ambedkar . Writers from this group in 1950s and '60s were pioneers of Dalit Literature

The Portuguese occupied enclave of Goa
Goa
was liberated in 1962. The main political party immediately formed after liberation was the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party . The party wanted Goa
Goa
to merge with Maharashtra
Maharashtra
because of affinity between Goan Hindus and Marathi people. However, the referendum held on this issue rejected the merger. Later, Konkani was made the official language of Goa
Goa
but Marathi is also allowed in any government correspondence.

The 1960s also saw the establishment by Bal Thackeray
Bal Thackeray
of Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
, a populist sectarian party advocating the rights of Marathi people
Marathi people
in the heterogeneous city of Mumbai
Mumbai
. Early campaigns by Shiv sena advocated for more jobs for Marathi people
Marathi people
in government jobs. The party also led a campaign against the city's South India
India
population. By 1980s the party captured power on Mumbai
Mumbai
Corporation and in the 1990s it led the government of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
in coalition with the BJP. During this transition from founding to capturing power, the party toned down its rhetoric against Non-marathi people and adopted a more Hindu
Hindu
nationalist stance.

CASTES AND COMMUNITIES

Marathi people
Marathi people
form an ethno-linguistic group that is distinct from others in terms of its language, history, cultural and religious practices, social structure, literature and art.

HINDU CASTES

* Artisan castes. There are several artisan castes such as Lohar (Iron-smith), Aare kshatriya known as Arya kshatriya (Aare, Aare maratha) in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, Sutar (carpenters), Mali ( florists/vegetable farmers 10,000 at the turn of the 20th century; and in 1948—their peak in India—they numbered 20,000. At present, they number around 60,000 in Israel,. The number of Bene Israel
Israel
remaining in India
India
was estimated to be around 5,000 in 1988

MARATHI DIASPORA

See also: Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Mandal

IN OTHER INDIAN STATES

As the Maratha
Maratha
Empire expanded across India, the Marathi population started migrating out of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
alongside their rulers. Peshwa , Holkars , Scindia
Scindia
and Gaekwad
Gaekwad
dynastic leaders took with them a considerable population of priests, clerks, clergymen, army men, businessmen and workers when they emigrated. These people have settled in various parts of India
India
along with their rulers since the 1700s. Many families belonging to these groups still follow typical Marathi traditions even though they have lived more than 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) from Maharashtra
Maharashtra
for more than 100 years.

Other people have migrated in modern times in search of jobs outside Maharashtra. These people have also settled in almost all parts of the country. They have set up Community organizations called Maharashtra Mandals in many cities across the country. A national level central organization, the Brihan Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Mandal was formed in 1958 to promote Marathi culture outside Maharasthtra. Several sister organizations of the Brihan Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Mandal have also been formed outside India.

OUTSIDE INDIA

In the 1800s, a large number of Indian people were taken to Mauritius , Fiji
Fiji
, South Africa
South Africa
, Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
, Guyana
Guyana
, Suriname
Suriname
, Jamaica
Jamaica
, and other places in the Caribbean
Caribbean
to as indentured laborers to work on sugarcane plantations. The majority of these migrants were from the Hindustani speaking areas or from Southern India
India
, however, the migrants to Mauritius
Mauritius
included a significant number of Marathis.

Since the state of Israel
Israel
was established in 1948, around 25,000-30,000 Jews have emigrated there, of which around 20,000 were from the Marathi speaking Bene Israel
Israel
community of Konkan.

Indians including Marathi People have migrated to Europe and particularly Great Britain for more than a century. The Maharashtra Mandal of London was founded in 1932 A small number of Marathi people also settled in British East Africa during the colonial era. After the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
countries of Kenya
Kenya
, Uganda
Uganda
and Tanganyka gained independence from Britain, most of the South Asian
South Asian
population residing there, including Marathi people, migrated to the United Kingdom, or India.

Large-scale immigration of Indians into the United States
United States
started when the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 came into effect. Most of the Marathi immigrants who came after 1965 were professionals such as doctors, engineers or scientists. A second wave of immigration took place during the I.T. boom of the 1990s and later.

Since 1990s due to the I.T. boom and because of the general ease of travel, Marathi people
Marathi people
are now found in greater numbers in all corners of the world including The United States, Australia, Canada, Gulf countries, European countries, Japan and China.

CULTURE

RELIGION

The majority of Marathi people
Marathi people
are Hindus . Minorities by religion include Muslims , Buddhists , Jains , Christians and Jews . It has been noted by scholars that a number of Dravidian-like cultural patterns appear among Marathi people
Marathi people

HINDU FESTIVALS

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Marathi Hindu
Hindu
people celebrate most of the all India
India
Hindu
Hindu
festivals like Dasara , Diwali
Diwali
and Raksha Bandhan . These are, however, celebrated with certain Maharashtrian regional variations. Others festivals like Ganeshotsav have a more characteristic Marathi flavour.The Marathi, Kannada and Telugu people
Telugu people
follow the Deccan Shalivahana Hindu
Hindu
calendar , which may have subtle differences with calendars followed by other communities in India. The festivals described below are in a chronological order as they occur during a Shaka year, starting with Shaka new year festival of Gudhi Padwa .

* Gudi Padwa : A Gudhi is erected on Gudhi Padva The first day of the month of Chaitra according to the Hindu
Hindu
Calendar , (usually in March) is celebrated as Marathi new year and also as the Kannada and Telugu new year known as Ugadi . A victory pole or Gudi is erected outside homes on the day. This day is considered one of the three and half most auspicious days of the Hindu
Hindu
calendar and many new ventures and activities such as opening a new business etc. are started on this day. The leaves of Neem or and shrikhand are a part of the cuisine of the day., * Akshaya Tritiya
Akshaya Tritiya
: The third day of Vaishakh is celebrated as Akshaya Tritiya. This is one of the three and a half most auspicious days in the Hindu
Hindu
Calendar and usually occurs in the month of April. In Vidharbha region, this festival is celebrated in remembrance of the departed members of the family. The upper castes feed a Brahmin
Brahmin
and married couple on this day. The Mahars community used to celebrate it by offering food to crows. This marks the end of the Haldi Kumkum festival which is a get-together organised by women for women. Married women invite lady friends, relatives and new acquaintances to meet in an atmosphere of merriment and fun. On such occasions, the hostess distributes bangles, sweets, small novelties, flowers, betel leaves and nuts as well as coconuts. The snacks include kairichi panhe (raw mango juice ) and vatli dal, a dish prepared from crushed chickpeas . * Vat Pournima :This festival is celebrated on Jyeshtha Puounima (full moon day of the Jyeshtha month in the Hindu
Hindu
calendar), around June. On this day, women fast and worship the banyan tree to pray for the growth and strength of their families, like the sprawling tree which lives for centuries. Married women visit a nearby tree and worship it by tying red threads of love around it. They pray for well-being and a long life for their husband. * Ashadhi Ekadashi : Ashadhi Ekadashi (11th day of the month of Ashadha , (falls in July– early August of Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
) is closely associated with the Marathi sant s Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
, Tukaram
Tukaram
and others. Twenty days before this day, thousands of Varkaris start their pilgrimage to Pandharpur
Pandharpur
from the resting places of the saint. For example, in the case of Dynaneshwar, it starts from Alandi
Alandi
with Dynaneshwar's paduka (footwear made out of wood) in a Palakhi. Varkaris carry tals or small cymbals in their hand, wear a Hindu prayer beads made from tulasi around their necks and sing and dance to the devotional hymns and prayers to Vitthala . People all over Maharashtra
Maharashtra
fast on this day and offer prayers in the temples. This day marks the start of Chaturmas
Chaturmas
(The four monsoon months, from Ashadh to Kartik ) according to the Hindu
Hindu
calendar .This is one of the most important fasting day for Marathi Hindu
Hindu
people. * Guru Purnima ::The full moon day of the month of Ashadh is celebrated as Guru Purnima . For Hindus Guru-Shishya (teacher-student) tradition is very important, be it educational or spiritual. Gurus are often equated with God and always regarded as a link between the individual and the immortal. On this day spiritual aspirants and devotees worship Maharshi Vyasa
Vyasa
, who is regarded as Guru
Guru
of Gurus. * Divyanchi Amavasya: The new moon day/last day of the month of Ashadh/आषाढ (falls between June and July of Gregorian Calendar) is celebrated as Divyanchi Amavasya. This new moon signifies the end of the month of Ashadh, and the arrival of the month of Shravan , which is considered the most pious month of the Hindu calendar. On this day, all the traditional lamps of the house are cleaned and fresh wicks are put in. The lamps are then lit and worshiped. People cook a specific item called diva (literally lamp), prepared by steaming sweet wheat dough batter and shaping it like little lamps. They are eaten warm with ghee. * Nag Panchami
Nag Panchami
:One of the many festivals in India
India
during which Marathi people
Marathi people
celebrate and worship nature. Nags (cobras ) are worshiped on the fifth day of the month of Shravan (around August) in the Hindu
Hindu
calendar. On Nagpanchami Day, people draw a nag family depicting the male and female snake and their nine offspring or nagkul. The nag family is worshiped and a bowl of milk and wet chandan (sandalwood powder) offered. It is believed that the nag deity visits the household, enjoys languishing in the moist chandan, drinks the milk offering and blesses the household with good luck. Women put temporary henna tattoos (mehndi ) on their hand on the previous day and buy new bangles on Nagpanchami Day. According to folklore, people refrain from digging the soil, cutting vegetables, frying and roasting on a hot plate on this day while farmers do not harrow their farms to prevent any accidental injury to snakes.In a small village named Battis Shirala in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
a big snake festival is held which attracts thousands of tourists from all over the world. In other parts of Maharashtra, snake charmers are seen sitting by the roadsides or moving from one place to another with their baskets holding snakes. While playing the lingering melodious notes on their pungi , they beckon devotees with their calls – Nagoba-la dudh de Mayi (give milk to the cobra oh mother!). Women offer sweetened milk, popcorn (lahya in Marathi) made out of jwari/dhan/corns to the snakes and pray. Cash and old clothes are also given to the snake-charmers.In Barshi Town in the Solapur district, a big jatra (carnival) is held at Nagoba Mandir in Tilak chowk. * Narali Purnima :

Narali Purnima is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Shravan in the Shaka Hindu
Hindu
calendar (around August). This is the most important festival for the coastal Konkan
Konkan
region because the new season for fishing starts on this day. Fishermen and women offer coconuts to the sea and ask for a peaceful season while praying for the sea to remain calm. The same day is celebrated as Rakhi Pournima to commemorate the abiding ties between brother and sister in Maharashtra as well other parts of Northern India. Narali bhaat (sweet rice with coconut) is the main dish on this day. On this day, Brahmin
Brahmin
men change their sacred thread (Janve; Marathi: जानवे) at a common gathering ceremony called Shraavani (Marathi:श्रावणी). Gukulashtami dahi-hundi celebration

* Gokul Ashtami :The birthday of Krishna
Krishna
is celebrated with great fervour all over India
India
on the 8th day of second fortnight of the month Shravan (usually in the month of August). In Maharashtra, Gokul Ashtami is synonymous with the ceremony of dahi handi . This is a reenactment of Krishna's efforts to steal butter from a matka (earthen pot) suspended from the ceiling. Large earthen pots filled with milk, curds, butter, honey, fruits etc. are suspended at a height of between 20 and 40 feet (6.1 and 12.2 m) in the streets. Teams of young men and boys come forward to claim this prize. They construct a human pyramid by standing on each other's shoulders until the pyramid is tall enough to enable the topmost person to reach the pot and claim the contents after breaking it. Currency notes are often tied to the rope by which the pot is suspended. The prize money is distributed among those who participate in the pyramid building. The dahi-handi draws huge crowd and they support the teams trying to grab these pots by chanting 'Govinda ala re ala'. * Mangala Gaur:Pahili Mangala Gaur (first Mangala Gaur) is one of the most important celebrations for the new brides amongst Marathi Brahmins . On the Tuesday of the month of the Shravan falling within a year after her marriage, the new bride performs Shivling puja for the well-being of her husband and new family. It is also a get-together of all women folk. It includes chatting, playing games, ukhane (married women take their husband's name woven in 2/4 rhyming liners) and sumptuous food. They typically play zimma, fugadi, bhendya (more popularly known as Antakshari in modern India) until the early hours of the following morning. * Bail pola/Pithori Amavasya:

Pola or Bail Pola is celebrated on the new moon day (Pithori Amavasya) of the month of Shravan, which usually falls in August, to pay respect to bulls for their year-long hard work, as India
India
is mostly an agricultural country. The festival is very important for farmers.

* Hartalika :The third day of the month of Bhadrapada (usually around August/September) is celebrated as Hartalika in honour of Harita Gauri or the green and golden goddess of harvests and prosperity. A lavishly decorated form of Parvati, Gauri is venerated as the mother of Ganesha. Women fast on this day and worship Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati
Parvati
in the evening with green leaves. Women wear green bangles and green clothes and stay awake till midnight. Both married and unmarried women may observe this fast.

Ganesha
Ganesha
idol in Pune
Pune
, Maharashtra
Maharashtra

* Ganeshotsav :This 11-day festival starts on Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi
on the fourth day of Bhadrapada in honour of Ganesha, the God of wisdom. Hindu
Hindu
households install in their house, Ganesha
Ganesha
idols made out of clay called shadu and painted in water colours. Early in the morning on this day, the clay idols of Ganesha
Ganesha
are brought home while chanting Ganpati Bappa Morya and installed on decorated platforms.The idol is worshiped in the morning and evening with offerings of flowers, durva (strands of young grass), karanji and modaks . The worship ends with the singing of an aarti in honour of Ganesha, other gods and saints. The worship includes singing the aarti " Sukhakarta Dukhaharta ", composed by the 17th century saint, Samarth Ramdas . Family traditions differ about when to end the celebration. Domestic celebrations end after  1 1⁄2, 3, 5, 7 or 11 days. At that time the idol is ceremoniously brought to a body of water (such as a lake, river or the sea) for immersion. In Maharashtra, Ganeshotsav also incorporates other festivals, namely Hartalika and the Gauri festival, the former is observed with a fast by women on the day before Ganesh Chaturthi whilst the latter by the installation of idols of Gauris. In 1894, Nationalist leader Lokmanya Tilak
Lokmanya Tilak
turned this festival into a public event as means of uniting people towards the common goal of campaigning against British colonial rule. The public festival lasts for 11 days with various cultural programmes including music concerts, orchestra, plays and skits. Some social activities are also undertaken during this period like blood donation, scholarships for the needy or donation to people suffering from any kind of natural calamity.Due to environmental concerns, a number of families now avoid bodies of water and let the clay statue disintegrate in a barrel of water at home. After a few days, the clay is spread in the home garden. In some cities a public, eco-friendly process is used for the immersion. * Gauri / Mahalakshmi: Along with Ganesha, Gauri (also known as Mahalaxmi in the Vidharbha region of Maharashtra) festival is celebrated in Maharashtra. On the first day of the three-day festival, Gauris arrive home, the next day they eat lunch with a variety of sweets and on the third day they return to their home. Gauris arrive in a pair, one as Jyeshta (the Elder one) and another as Kanishta (the Younger one). They are treated with love since they represent the daughters arriving at their parents' home.In many parts of Maharashtra including Marathwada
Marathwada
and Vidarbha, this festival is called Mahalakshmi or Mahalakshmya or simply Lakshmya. * Anant Chaturdashi
Anant Chaturdashi
:The 11th day of the Ganesh festival (14th day of the month of Bhadrapada) is celebrated as Anant Chaturdashi
Anant Chaturdashi
, which marks the end of the celebration. People bid a tearful farewell to the God by immersing the installed idols from home / public places in water and chanting 'Ganapati Bappa Morya, pudhchya warshi Lawakar ya!!' (Ganesha, come early next year.) Some people also keep the traditional wow (Vrata) of Ananta Pooja. This involves the worship of Ananta the coiled snake or Shesha on which Vishnu resides. A delicious mixture of 14 vegetables is prepared as naivedyam on this day. * Navratri and Ghatsthapana :Starting with first day of the month of Ashvin in the Hindu
Hindu
calendar (around the month of October), the nine-day and -night festival immediately preceding the most important festival Dasara is celebrated all over India
India
with different traditions. In Maharashtra
Maharashtra
on the first day of this 10-day festival, idols of the Goddess Durga
Durga
are installed at many homes. This installation of the Goddess is popularly known as Ghatsthapana. During this period, little girls celebrate 'Bhondla/Hadga' as the Sun moves to the thirteenth constellation of the zodiac called "Hasta" (Elephant). During the nine days, Bhondla (also known as 'Bhulabai' in the Vidarbha
Vidarbha
region of Maharashtra) is celebrated in the garden or on the terrace during evening hours by inviting female friends of the daughter in the house. An elephant is drawn either with Rangoli on the soil or with a chalk on a slate and kept in the middle. The girls go around it in a circle, holding each other's hands and singing Bhondla songs. All Bhondla songs are traditional songs passed down through the generations. The last song typically ends with the words '...khirapatila kaay ga?' ('What is the special dish today?'). This 'Khirapat' is a special dish or dishes often made laboriously by the mother of the host girl. The food is served only after the rest of the girls have guessed what the covered dish or dishes are correctly.There are some variations about how the Navratri festival is celebrated. For example, in many Brahmin
Brahmin
families, celebrations include offering lunch for nine days to specially invited group of guests. The guests include a Married Woman (Marathi :सवाष्ण ), a Brahmin
Brahmin
and, a Virgin (Marathi :कुमारिका). In the morning and evening, the head of the family ritually worships to either the goddess Durga
Durga
, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
or Saraswati
Saraswati
. On the eighth day, a special rite is carried out in some families. A statue of goddess Mahalakshmi with the face of a rice mask, is prepared and worshiped by newly married girls. In the evening of that day, women blow into earthen or metallic pots as a form of worship to please the goddess. Everyone in the family accompanies them by chanting verses and Bhajans
Bhajans
. The nine day festival ends with a Yagna
Yagna
or reading of a Hindu
Hindu
Holy book (Marathi :पारायण ).

* Dasara :This festival is celebrated on the tenth day of the Ashvin month (around October) according to the Hindu
Hindu
Calendar. This is one of the three and a half most auspicious days in the Hindu
Hindu
Lunar calendar, when every moment is important. On the last day (Dasara day), the idols installed on the first day of the Navratri are immersed in water. This day also marks the victory of Rama
Rama
over Ravana . People visit each other and exchange sweets. On this day, people worship the Aapta tree and exchange its leaves (known as golden leaves) and wish each other future like gold. There is a legend involving Raghuraja , an ancestor of Rama, the Aapta tree and Kuber . There is also another legend about the Shami tree where the Pandava
Pandava
hid their weapons during their exile. * Kojagari:Written in the short form of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as 'Ko Jagarti (को जागरति) ?' ( Sandhi of "कः जागरति," meaning 'Who is awake?'), Kojagiri is celebrated on the full moon day of the month of Ashwin . It is said that on this Kojagiri night, the Goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
visits every house asking "Ko Jagarti?" and blesses those who are awake with fortune and prosperity. To welcome the Goddess, houses, temples, streets, etc. are illuminated. People get together on this night usually in open spaces (e.g. in gardens or on terraces) and play games until midnight. At that hour, after seeing the reflection of the full moon in milk boiled with saffron and various varieties of dry fruits, they drink the concoction. The eldest child in the household is honoured on this day. * Diwali
Diwali
:Just like most other parts of India, Diwali
Diwali
is one of the most popular Hindu
Hindu
festivals. Houses are illuminated for the festival with rows of clay lamps and decorated with rangoli and aakash kandils (decorative lanterns of different shapes and sizes). Diwali
Diwali
is celebrated with new clothes, firecrackers and a variety of sweets in the company of family and friends. In Maharashtrian tradition, during days of Diwali, family members have a ritual bath before dawn and then sit down for a breakfast of fried sweets and savory snacks. These sweets and snacks are offered to visitors to the house during the multi-day festival and exchanged with neighbors. Typical sweet preparations include Ladu , Anarse , Shankarpali and Karanjya . Popular savory treats include chakli , shev and chiwda . Being high in fat and low in moisture, these snacks can be stored at room temperature for many weeks without spoiling. * Kartiki Ekadashi and Tulsi
Tulsi
Vivah:The 11th day of the month of Kartik marks the end of Chaturmas
Chaturmas
and is called Kartiki Ekadashi (also known as Prabodhini Ekadashi ). On this day, Hindus, particularly the followers of Vishnu, celebrate his awakening after a Yoganidra of four months of Chaturmas
Chaturmas
. People worship him and fast for the entire day.The same evening or the evening of the next day is marked by Tulsi Vivah (Tulshicha Lagna). The Tulsi
Tulsi
(Holy Basil plant) is held sacred by the Hindus as it is regarded as an incarnation of Mahalaxmi who was born as Vrinda. The end of Diwali
Diwali
celebrations marks the beginning of Tulsi-Vivah. Maharashtrians organise the marriage of a sacred Tulsi plant in their house with Krishna
Krishna
. On this day the Tulsi
Tulsi
vrindavan is coloured and decorated as a bride. Sugarcane and branches of tamarind and amla trees are planted along with the tulsi plant. Though a mock marriage, all the ceremonies of an actual Maharashtrian marriage are conducted including chanting of mantras , Mangal Ashtaka and tying of Mangal Sutra to the Tulsi. Families and friends gather for this marriage ceremony which usually takes place in the late evening. Various poha dishes are offered to Krishna
Krishna
and then distributed among family members and friends. This also marks the beginning of marriage season.

The celebration lasts for three days and ends on Kartiki Poornima or Tripurari Poornima. A Marathi household shrine with Khandoba at the forefront

* Khandoba Festival/Champa Shashthi:

This is a six-day festival, from the first to sixth lunar day of the bright fortnight of the Hindu
Hindu
month of Margashirsha .It is celebrated in honour of Khandoba by many Marathi families. Ghatasthapana, similar to navaratri, also takes place in households during this festival. A number of families also hold fast during this period. The fast ends on the sixth day of the festival called Champa Shashthi. Among some Marathi Hindu
Hindu
communities, the Chaturmas
Chaturmas
period ends on Champa Sashthi. As it is customary in these communities not to consume onions, garlic and egg plant (Brinjal / Aubergine) during the Chaturmas, the consumption of these food items resumes with ritual preparation of Bharit ( Baingan Bharta ) and rodga, small round flat breads prepared from jwari (white millet ).

* Bhogi :The eve of the Hindu
Hindu
festival ' Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti
' and the day before is called Bhogi. Bhogi is a festival of happiness and enjoyment and generally takes place on 13 January. It is celebrated in honour of Indra, "the God of Clouds and Rains". Indra is worshiped for the abundance of the harvest, which brings plenty and prosperity to the land. Since it is held in the winter, the main food for Bhogi is mixed vegetable curry made with carrots, lima beans, green capsicums , drumsticks , green beans and peas. Bajra roti (i.e. roti made of Pearl millet ) topped with sesame as well as rice and mung dal khichadi are eaten to keep warm in winter. During this festival people also take baths with sesame seeds.' * Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti
:Sankraman means the passing of the sun from one zodiac sign to the next. This day marks the sun's passage from the Tropic of Dhanu (Sagittarius ) to Makar (Capricorn ). Makar Sankranti falls on 14 January in non-leap years and on 15 January in leap years. It is the only Hindu
Hindu
festival that is based on the solar calendar rather than the Lunar calendar
Lunar calendar
. Maharashtrians exchange tilgul or sweets made of jaggery and sesame seeds along with the customary salutation, Tilgul ghya aani god bola, which means "Accept the Tilgul and be friendly.

Tilgul Poli or gulpoli are the main sweet preparations made on the day in Maharashtra. It is a wheat-based flat bread filled with sesame seeds and jaggery .,

* Maha Shivratri : Maha Shivratri (also known as Maha Sivaratri, Shivaratri or Sivarathri) means Great Night of Shiva
Shiva
or Night of Shiva. It is a Hindu
Hindu
festival celebrated every year on the 13th night and 14th day of Krishna
Krishna
Paksha (waning moon) of the month of Maagha (as per Shalivahana or Gujarati Vikrama) or Phalguna (as per Vikrama) in the Hindu
Hindu
Calendar, that is, the night before and day of the new moon. The festival is principally celebrated by offerings of bael (bilva) leaves to Shiva
Shiva
, all day fasting and an all night long vigil. Per The fasting food on this day includes chutney prepared with pulp of the kavath fruit (Limonia ). * Holi
Holi
and Rangapanchami:The festival of Holi
Holi
falls in Falgun, the last month of the Marathi Shaka calendar. Marathi people
Marathi people
celebrate this festival by lighting a bonfire and offering puran poli to the fire. In North India, Holi
Holi
is celebrated over two days with the second day celebrated with throwing colours. In Maharashtra
Maharashtra
it is known as Dhuli Vandan. However, Maharashtrians celebrate color throwing five days after Holi
Holi
on Rangpanchami. In Maharashtra, people make puran poli as the ritual offering to the holy fire. * Village Urus or Jatra:A large number of villages in Maharashtra hold their annual festivals (village carnivals) or urus in the months of January–May. These may be in the honour of the village Hindu deity (Gram devta) or the tomb (dargah ) of a local Sufi
Sufi
Pir saint. Apart from religious observations, celebrations may include bullock-cart racing, kabbadi , wrestling tournaments, a fair and entertainment such as a lavani /tamasha show by travelling dance troupes. A number of families eat meat preparations only during this period. In some villages, women are given a break from cooking and other household chores by their men folk.

FESTIVALS OBSERVED BY OTHER COMMUNITIES

Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din

On 14 October 1956 at Nagpur
Nagpur
, Maharashtra, India, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar embraced Buddhist religion publicly and gave Deeksha of Buddhist religion to his more than 380,000 followers. The day is celebrated as Dharmacakra Pravartan Din. The grounds in Nagpur
Nagpur
on which the conversion ceremony took place is known as Deekshabhoomi
Deekshabhoomi
. Every year more than million Buddhist people especially Ambedkarite from all over the world visit Deekshabhoomi
Deekshabhoomi
to commemorate Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din.

Christmas
Christmas
Or Naataal (Marathi:नाताळ)

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Christmas
Christmas
is celebrated to mark the birthday of Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
. Like in other parts of India, Christmas
Christmas
is celebrated with zeal by a large number of Marathi people, both Christians and non-Christians. Owing to the Portuguese influence on Maharashtra, Christmas
Christmas
is also known as 'Naataal', a word similar to 'Natal' used in Portuguese.

FOOD

Main articles: Maharashtrian cuisine
Maharashtrian cuisine
and Malvani cuisine
Malvani cuisine

The many communities in Marathi society result in a diverse cuisine. This diversity extends to the family level because each family uses its own unique combination of spices. The majority of Maharashtrians do eat meat and eggs, but the Brahmin
Brahmin
community is mostly lacto-vegetarian . The traditional staple food on Desh (the Deccan plateau) is usually bhakri , spiced cooked vegetables, dal and rice. Bhakri
Bhakri
is an Unleavened bread made using Indian millet (jowar ), bajra or bajri. However, the North Maharashtrians and Urban people prefer roti , which is a plain bread made with Wheat
Wheat
flour. In the coastal Konkan
Konkan
region, rice is the traditional staple food. An aromatic variety of ambemohar rice is more popular amongst Marathi people
Marathi people
than the internationally known basmati rice. Malvani dishes use more wet coconut and coconut milk in their preparation. In the Vidarbha
Vidarbha
region, little coconut is used in daily preparations but dry coconut, along with peanuts, are used in dishes such as spicy savji s or mutton and chicken dishes.

Thalipeeth is a popular traditional breakfast flat bread that is prepared using bhajani, a mixture of many different varieties of roasted lentils.

Marathi Hindu
Hindu
people observe fasting days when traditional staple food like rice and chapatis are avoided. However, milk products and non-native foods such as potatoes, peanuts and sabudana preparations (sabudana khicdi) are allowed, which result in a Carbohydrate rich alternative fasting cuisine.

Some Maharashtrian dishes including sev bhaji, misal pav and patodi are distinctly regional dishes within Maharashtra.

In metropolitan areas including Mumbai
Mumbai
and Pune, the pace of life makes fast food very popular. The most popular forms of fast food amongst Marathi people
Marathi people
in these areas are: bhaji , vada pav , misal pav and pav bhaji . More traditional dishes are sabudana khichdi , pohe , upma , sheera and panipuri . Most Marathi fast food and snacks are purely lacto-vegetarian in nature.

In South Konkan, near Malvan
Malvan
, an independent exotic cuisine has developed called Malvani cuisine
Malvani cuisine
, which is predominantly non-vegetarian. Kombdi vade , fish preparations and baked preparations are more popular here. Kombdi Vade , a recipe from Konkan
Konkan
region. Deep fried flat bread made from spicy rice and urid flour served with chicken curry, more specifically with Malvani chicken curry.

Desserts are an important part of Marathi food and include puran poli , shrikhand , basundi , kheer , gulab jamun , and modak . Traditionally, these desserts were associated with a particular festival, for example, modaks are prepared during the Ganpati Festival .

ATTIRE

Princess Indira Raje (1892-1968) of Baroda as a young girl with her mother, Chimnabai II , wearing a 'Nauvari', a traditional Maharashtrian sari

Traditionally, Marathi women commonly wore the sari , often distinctly designed according to local cultural customs. Most middle aged and young women in urban Maharashtra
Maharashtra
dress in western outfits such as skirts and trousers or salwar kameez with the traditionally nauvari or nine-yard sari , disappearing from the markets due to a lack of demand. Older women wear the five-yard sari. In urban areas, the five-yard sari is worn by younger women for special occasions such as weddings and religious ceremonies. Among men, western dressing has greater acceptance. Men also wear traditional costumes such as the dhoti and pheta on cultural occasions. The Gandhi cap along with a long white shirt and loose pajama style trousers is the popular attire among older men in rural Maharathra. Women wear traditional jewelleries derived from Marathas and Peshwas dynasties. Kolhapuri saaj , a special type of necklace, is also worn by Marathi women. In urban areas, many women and men wear western attire.

LITERATURE

Main article: Marathi literature
Marathi literature

Ancient Marathi Inscriptions

Marathi, also known as Suena at that time, was the court language during the reign of the Yadava Kings . Yadava king Singhania was known for his magnanimous donations. Inscriptions recording these donations are found written in Marathion on stone slabs in the temple at Kolhapur
Kolhapur
in Maharashtra. Composition of noted works of scholars like Hemadri are also found. Hemadri was also responsible for introducing a style of architecture called Hemandpanth. Among the various stone inscriptions are those found at Akshi in the Kolaba district, which are the first known stone inscription in Marathi.An example found at the bottom of the statue of Gomateshwar ( Bahubali ) at Shravanabelagola in Karnataka
Karnataka
bears the inscription "Chamundraye karaviyale, Gangaraye suttale karaviyale" which gives some information regarding the sculptor of the statue and the king who ordered its construction.

Classical Literature

Marathi people
Marathi people
have a long literary tradition which started in the ancient era. It was the 13th-century saint, Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
who produced the first treatise in Marathi on the Geeta. The work called Dnyaneshwari is considered a masterpiece. Along with Dnyaneshwar, his contemporary, Namdev
Namdev
was also responsible for propagating Marathi religious Bhakti literature . Namdev
Namdev
is also important to the Sikh tradition, since several of his compositions were included in the Sikh Holy book, the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib . Eknath , Sant Tukaram
Tukaram
, Mukteshwar and Samarth Ramdas were equally important figures in the 17th century. In the 18th century, writers like Vaman Pandit , Raghunath Pandit , Shridhar Pandit, Mahipati
Mahipati
and Moropant produced some well-known works. All of the above-mentioned writers produced religious literature.

Modern Marathi Literature

The first English book was translated into Marathi in 1817 while the first Marathi newspaper started in 1841. Many books on social reform were written by Baba Padamji (Yamuna Paryatana, 1857), Mahatma Jyotiba Phule , Lokhitawadi , Justice Ranade , and Hari Narayan Apte (1864–1919). Lokmanya Tilak
Lokmanya Tilak
's newspaper Kesari in Marathi was a strong voice in promoting Ganeshotsav or Shivaji
Shivaji
festival.The newspaper also offered criticism of the colonial government excesses, Marathi at this time was efficiently aided by Marathi Drama.Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar
Babasaheb Ambedkar
's newspaper Bahishkrut Bharat set up in 1927, provided a platform for sharing literary views.

In the mid-1950s, the "little magazine movement" gained momentum. It published writings which were non-conformist, radical and experimental. The Dalit
Dalit
literary movement also gained strength due to the little magazine movement. This radical movement was influenced by the philosophy of and challenged the literary establishment, which was largely middle class, urban and upper caste . The little magazine movement threw up many excellent writers including the well-known novelist, critic and poet Bhalchandra Nemade . Dalit
Dalit
writer N. D. Mahanor is well known for his work while Dr. Sharad Rane is a well-known Children's writer.

MARTIAL TRADITION

Although ethnic Marathis have taken up military roles for many centuries, their martial qualities came to prominence in seventeenth century India, under the leadership of the legendary emperor Chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
. Shivaji
Shivaji
carved out his independent Hindu
Hindu
kingdom known as the Maratha
Maratha
Empire , which at some point controlled practically the entire Indian subcontinent, extending over large and distant areas of the country. It was largely an ethnic Marathi polity, with its chiefs and nobles coming from the Marathi ethnicity, such as the Chhatrapatis ( Maratha
Maratha
caste), Maharaja Holkars (Dhangar caste), Peshwas (1713 onwards)(Chitpavan caste), Angres , chief of Maratha
Maratha
Navy (Koli caste)(1698 onwards). The Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India. Further, they were also considered by the British as the most important native power of 18th century India. Today this ethnicity is represented in the Indian Army
Indian Army
, with two regiments deriving their names from Marathi communities —the Maratha
Maratha
Light Infantry and the Mahar Regiment .

SEE ALSO

* Maharashtra
Maharashtra
portal

* List of Maratha
Maratha
dynasties and states * List of Marathi people * Thanjavur Marathi (other) * Western Satraps * Maratha
Maratha
Empire

FOOTNOTES

* ^ There are numerous castes in India
India
categorized as OBC. The Indian government offers many affirmative action schemes for the upliftment of poor OBC by reserving a percentage of public sector jobs and places for students in Government run institutions of Higher learning.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Marathi population figure worldwide". Ethnologue . August 2008. * ^ "Census of India". Archived from the original on 13 May 2010. Retrieved 2008-01-07. * ^ "Marathi People- People of Maharashtra- About Maharashtrians". * ^ Pearson, M. N. (February 1976). " Shivaji
Shivaji
and the Decline of the Mughal Empire". The Journal of Asian Studies. 35 (2): 221–235. JSTOR 2053980 . doi :10.2307/2053980 . (Subscription required (help)). * ^ A B "Delhi, the Capital of India". * ^ An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen p.Introduction-14. The author says: "The victory at Bhopal in 1738 established Maratha
Maratha
dominance at the Mughal court" * ^ India
India
Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic: p.440 * ^ History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. by Sigfried J. de Laet, Joachim Herrmann p.392 * ^ Indian History - page B-57 * ^ A Comprehensive History Of Ancient India
India
(3 Vol. Set): p.203 * ^ The Penguin History of Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300 by Romila Thapar
Romila Thapar
: p.365-366 * ^ People of India: Maharashtra, Part 1 by B. V. Bhanu p.6 * ^ "Kingdoms of South Asia – Indian Bahamani Sultanate". The History Files, United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 September 2014. * ^ Jackson, William Joseph (2005). Vijayanagara voices: exploring South Indian history and Hindu
Hindu
literature. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 9780754639503 . * ^ A B Pearson, M. N. (February 1976). " Shivaji
Shivaji
and the Decline of the Mughal Empire". The Journal of Asian Studies. 35 (2): 221–235. JSTOR
JSTOR
2053980 . doi :10.2307/2053980 . (Subscription required (help)).

* ^ An Advanced History of Modern India
India
By Sailendra Nath Sen p.Introduction-14. The author says: "The victory at Bhopal in 1738 established Maratha
Maratha
dominance at the Mughal court" * ^ "Is the Pakistan army martial?". The Express Tribune. 29 September 2012. * ^ Sambhaji – Patil, Vishwas, Mehta Publishing House, Pune, 2006 * ^ Maharani Tarabai
Tarabai
of Kolhapur, c. 1675–1761 A.D. * ^ "An Advanced History of Modern India". * ^ Andaman & Nicobar Origin Andaman late governor-general of India, governor of Jamaica, and governor-general of Canada"". archive.org. * ^ Sridharan, K. Sea: Our Saviour. New Age International (P) Ltd. ISBN 81-224-1245-9 . * ^ Sharma, Yogesh. Coastal Histories: Society and Ecology in Pre-modern India. Primus Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-93-80607-00-9 . * ^ Deshpande, Arvind M. (1987). John Briggs in Maharashtra: A Study of District Administration Under Early British rule. Delhi: Mittal. pp. 118–119. ISBN 9780836422504 . * ^ Sugandhe, Anand, and Vinod Sen. "SCHEDULED CASTES IN MAHARASHTRA: STRUGGLE AND HURDLES IN THEIR SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT." Journal of Indian Research (ISSN: 2321-4155) 3.3 (2015): 53-64. * ^ Gordon, Stewart (1993). The Marathas 1600-1818 (1. publ. ed.). New York: Cambridge University. pp. 22,xiii. ISBN 978-0521268837 . * ^ B. V. Bhanu (2004). People of India: Maharashtra, Part 3 - Google Books. Popular Prakashan, 2004. p. 2130. ISBN 9788179911020 . * ^ Ruth Vanita (2005). Gandhi\'s Tiger and Sita\'s Smile: Essays on Gender, Sexuality, and Culture - Google Books. Yoda Press, 2005. p. 316. ISBN 9788190227254 . * ^ James, Molesworth, Thomas Candy, Narayan G Kalelkar (1857). Molesworth\'s, Marathi-English dictionary (2nd ed.). Pune: J.C. Furla, Shubhada Saraswat Prakashan. ISBN 81-86411-57-7 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Chavan, Dilip (2013). Language politics under colonialism : caste, class and language pedagogy in western India
India
(first ed.). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars. pp. 136–184. ISBN 978-1443842501 . Retrieved 13 December 2016. , * ^ Natarajan, Nalini (editor); Deo, Shripad D. (1996). Handbook of twentieth century literatures of India
India
(1. publ. ed.). Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0313287787 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Johnson, Gordon (1973). Provincial Politics and Indian nationalism : Bombay and the Indian National Congress, 1880 - 1915. Cambridge: Univ. Press. p. 92. ISBN 0521202590 . Retrieved 20 September 2016. * ^ Roy, edited by Ramashray (2007). India\'s 2004 elections : grass-roots and national perspectives (1. publ. ed.). New Delhi : Sage. p. 87. ISBN 9780761935162 . Retrieved 8 September 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Kosambi, Meera (Editor); Lane, James (Author) (2000). Intersections : socio-cultural trends in Maharashtra, Chapter 3, A Question of Maharashtrian identity. London: Sangam. pp. 59–70. ISBN 9780863118241 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Ramachandra Guha, "The Other Liberal Light," New Republic 22 June 2012 * ^ Hansen, Thomas Blom (2002). Wages of violence : naming and identity in postcolonial Bombay. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0691088402 . Retrieved 10 January 2017. * ^ Omvedt, G., 1973. Non-Brahmans and Communists in Bombay. Economic and Political Weekly, pp.749-759. * ^ Omvedt, Gail (1974). "Non-Brahmans and Nationalists in Poona". Economic and Political Weekly. 9 (6/8): 201–219. Retrieved 18 November 2016. * ^ Majumdar, Sumit K. (2012), India's Late, Late Industrial Revolution: Democratizing Entrepreneurship, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 1-107-01500-6 , retrieved 2013-12-07 * ^ Lacina, Bethany Ann (2017). Rival Claims: Ethnic Violence and Territorial Autonomy Under Indian Federalism. Ann arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan press. p. 129. ISBN 0472130242 . * ^ Morris, David (1965). Emergence of an Industrial Labor Force in India: A Study of the Bombay Cotton Mills, 1854-1947. Universtity of California Press. p. 63. ISBN 9780520008854 . * ^ Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan (2002). The origins of industrial capitalism in India
India
business strategies and the working classes in Bombay, 1900-1940 (1st pbk. ed. ed.). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780521525954 . CS1 maint: Extra text (link ) * ^ Gugler, edited by Josef (2004). World cities beyond the West : globalization, development, and inequality (Repr. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 334. ISBN 9780521830034 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Watson, James L. (Editor); Benedict, Burton (1980). Asian and African systems of slavery. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. p. 151. ISBN 978-0631110118 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ "History of Kolhapur
Kolhapur
City". Kolhapur
Kolhapur
Corporation. Retrieved 12 September 2014. * ^ A B Weil, S. (2012). "The Bene Israel
Israel
Indian Jewish family in Transnational Context." Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 71–80. * ^ A B Shalva Weil, Journal of Comparative Family Studies Vol. 43, No. 1, "The Indian Family: A Revisit" (January–February 2012), pp. 71-80, https://www.academia.edu/3524659/The_Bene_Israel_Indian_Jewish_Family_in_Transnational_Context * ^ A B Katz, N., & Goldberg, E. (1988). "The Last Jews in India and Burma." Jerusalem Letter, 101. * ^ Radheshyam Jadhav (30 April 2010). "Samyukta Maharashtra movement". The Times of India
India
. The Times Group
The Times Group
. Bennet, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 12 September 2014. * ^ "The Samyukta Maharashtra
Maharashtra
movement". Daily News and Analysis
Daily News and Analysis
. Dainik Bhaskar Group. Diligent Media Corporation. 1 May 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014. * ^ Bhagwat, Ramu (3 August 2013). "Linguistic states". The Times of India
India
. The Times Group
The Times Group
. Bennet, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 12 September 2014. * ^ Banerjee, S (1997). "The Saffron
Saffron
Wave: The Eleventh General Elections in Maharashtra". Economic and Political Weekly. 32 (40): 2551. doi :10.2307/4405925 . * ^ Sirsikar, V.M. (1966). Politics in Maharashtra, Problems and Prospects (PDF). Poona: University of Poona. p. 8. * ^ " Belgaum
Belgaum
border dispute". Deccan Chronicle . Deccan Chronicle Holdings Limited. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014. * ^ Mishra, Sumita (2000). Grassroot politics in India. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 27. ISBN 9788170997320 . * ^ Brass, Paul R. (2006). The politics of India
India
since independence (2nd ed.). : Cambridge University Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-0521543057 . Retrieved 1 February 2017. * ^ A B Vora, Rajendra (2009). "Chapter 7 Maharashtra
Maharashtra
or Maratha Rashtra". In Kumar, Sanjay; Jaffrelot, Christophe. Rise of the plebeians? : the changing face of Indian legislative assemblies. New Delhi: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415460927 . * ^ Kulkarni, A.R. (Editor); Wagle, N.K.(Editor); Sirsikar, V.M. (Author) (1999). State intervention and popular response : western India
India
in the nineteenth century. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 9. ISBN 81-7154-835-0 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Dahiwale, S. M. (1995). "Consolidation of Maratha
Maratha
Dominance in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Economic and Political Weekly Vol. 30, No. 6 (Feb. 11, 1995), pp. 336-342 Published by:". Economic and Political Weekly. 30, (6): 336–342. JSTOR
JSTOR
4402382 . * ^ Kurtz, Donald V. (1994). Contradictions and conflict : a dialectical political anthropology of a University in Western India. Leiden : Brill. p. 50. ISBN 978-9004098282 . * ^ Singh, R.; Lele, J.K. (1989). Language and society : steps towards an integrated theory. Leiden: E.J. Brill. pp. 32–42. ISBN 9789004087897 . * ^ Zelliot, Eleanor (2007). " Dalit
Dalit
Literature, Language and Identity". In Kachru, Braj B.; Kachru, Yamuna; Sridhar, S. N. Language in South Asia, Part 9. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 450–454. ISBN 978-0-52178-141-1 . * ^ Changing India: Bourgeois Revolution on the Subcontinent by Robert W. Stern, p. 20 * ^ -Pereira, Andrew (February 12, 2012). "Treasurers of yore, now key to political fortune". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 August 2015. * ^ Shrivastav, P.N. (1971). Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
District Gazetteers: Hoshangabad. Bhopal, India: Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
District Gazetteers. pp. 138–139. Retrieved 19 October 2015. * ^ D. Shyam Babu; Ravindra S. Khare (2011). Caste in Life: Experiencing Inequalities. Pearson Education India. p. 165. ISBN 978-81-317-5439-9 . Retrieved 31 March 2013. * ^ Susan Bayly (22 February 2001). Caste, Society and Politics in India
India
from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge University Press. p. 414. ISBN 978-0-521-79842-6 . Retrieved 12 September 2012. * ^ Fred Clothey (26 February 2007). Religion in India: A Historical Introduction. Psychology Press. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-415-94023-8 . * ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (2005). "The ‘Solution’ of Conversion". Dr Ambedkar and Untouchability: Analysing and Fighting Caste. Orient Blackswan Publisher. pp. 119–131. ISBN 8178241560 . * ^ Zelliott, Eleanor (1978). "Religion and Legitimation in the Mahar Movement". In Smith, Bardwell L. Religion and the Legitimation of Power in South Asia. Leiden: Brill. pp. 88–90. ISBN 9004056742 . * ^ People of India: Maharashtra, Volume 1 By Kumar Suresh Singh, B. V. Bhanu, Anthropological Survey of India, p 463 * ^ A B Gangadhar Ramchandra Pathak, ed. (1978). Gokhale Kulavruttant गोखले कुलवृत्तान्त (IN MARATHI) (2ND ED.). PUNE , INDIA : SADASHIV SHANKAR GOKHALE. PP. 120, 137. * ^ Synques. "Brihan Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Mandal". * ^ "Bruhan Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Mandal of North America - Promote and nurture Marathi culture". * ^ People.http://www.mauritiusmarathi.org/menu/history.php * ^ Archived 10 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ http://indiandiaspora.nic.in/diasporapdf/chapter9.pdf * ^ Archived 19 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Pathak, A.R., 1995. Maharastrian Immigrants in East Africa and Their Leisure. World Leisure & Recreation, 37(3), pp.31-32. * ^ Quest for equality (New Delhi, 1993), p. 99 * ^ Donald Rothchild, `Citizenship and national integration: the non-African crisis in Kenya', in Studies in race and nations (Center on International Race Relations, University of Denver working papers), 1}3 (1969±70), p. 1 * ^ "1972: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda". British Broadcasting Corporation. 7 August 1972. Retrieved 21 August 2011. * ^ "Marathi Sydney, MASI, Maharastrians in Sydney, Marathi Mandal « Marathi Association Sydney Inc (MASI)". Marathi.org.au. Retrieved 2013-05-09. * ^ "Marathi Bhashik Mandal Toronto, Inc". Mbmtoronto.com. 2008-11-15. Retrieved 2013-05-09. * ^ "三菱の車 » Blog Archive » 人気のトラック". * ^ 人気ファンデーションで綺麗に魅せる. "人気ファンデーションで綺麗に魅せる". Ems2008.org. Retrieved 2013-05-09. * ^ A B " Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Religions". * ^ Polomé, Edgar C. Reconstructing Languages and Cultures. Walter de Gruyter. p. 521. * ^ Betham, R.M., 1908. Marathas and Dekhani Musalmans. Asian Educational Services. * ^ Lall, R. Manohar. Among the Hindus: A Study of Hindu
Hindu
Festivals. Asian Educational Services, 1933. * ^ Express News Service 2009 , p. 1. * ^ Ahmadnagar District Gazeteers 1976a . * ^ Lall, R. Manohar (2004). Among the Hindus : a study of Hindu festivals. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-8120618220 . Retrieved 14 November 2016. * ^ Lall, R. Manohar (2004). Among the Hindus : a study of Hindu festivals. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 79–91. ISBN 978-8120618220 . Retrieved 14 November 2016. * ^ Lall, R. Manohar (2004). Among the Hindus : a study of Hindu festivals. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 79–89. ISBN 978-8120618220 . Retrieved 14 November 2016. * ^ "What is the significance of \'durva\' in Ganesh Poojan ?". http://www.sanatan.org/. Retrieved 3 January 2015. External link in website= (help ) * ^ Sharma, Usha (2008). Festivals In Indian Society (2 Vols. Set). New Delhi: Mittal publications. p. 144. ISBN 81-8324-113-1 . * ^ Shanbag, Arun (2007). Prarthana: A Book of Hindu
Hindu
Psalms. Arlington, MA: Arun Shanbag. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-9790081-0-8 . * ^ Pattanaik, Devdutt (2011). 99 thoughts on Ganesha
Ganesha
: . Mumbai: Jaico Pub House. p. 61. ISBN 978-81-8495-152-3 . Retrieved 29 August 2016. * ^ Zha, Bagish K. (20 September 2013). "Eco-friendly \'Ganesh Visarjan\' save water and soil from getting polluted in Indore". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 February 2014. * ^ Edmund W. Lusas; Lloyd W. Rooney (5 June 2001). Snack Foods Processing. CRC Press. pp. 488–. ISBN 978-1-4200-1254-5 . * ^ * ^ Naik*, S.N.; Prakash, Karnika (2014). "Bioactive Constituents as a Potential Agent in Sesame for Functional and Nutritional Application". JOURNAL OF BIORESOURCE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY. 2 (4): 42–60. * ^ Sen, Colleen Taylor (2004). Food culture in India. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood. p. 142. ISBN 978-0313324871 . Retrieved 31 October 2016. * ^ Deshmukh, B. S.; Waghmode, Ahilya (July 2011). "Role of wild edible fruits as a food resource: Traditional knowledge" (PDF). INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES. 2 (7): 919–924. * ^ Taylor Sen, Colleen (2014). Feasts and Fasts A History of Indian Food. London: Reaktion Books. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-78023-352-9 . Retrieved 10 June 2016. * ^ Feldhaus, ed. by Anne (1998). Images of women in Maharashtrian society : . Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press. p. 66. ISBN 9780791436592 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Shodhganga. " Sangli
Sangli
District" (PDF). Shodhganga. Retrieved 17 April 2014. * ^ " Maharashtra
Maharashtra
asks high court to reconsider ban on bullock cart races". Times of india. October 19, 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014. * ^ TALEGAON DASHASAR - The Gazetteers Department. The Gazetteers Department, Maharashtra. * ^ Betham, R. M. (1908). Maráthas and Dekhani Musalmáns. Calcutta. p. 71. ISBN 81-206-1204-3 . * ^ This was Ambedkar's own figure given by him in a letter to Devapriya Valishinha dated 30 October 1956. The Maha Bodhi Vol. 65, p.226, quoted in Dr. Ambedkar and Buddhism
Buddhism
by Sangharakshita
Sangharakshita
. * ^ "Places to Visit". District Collector Office, Nagpur
Nagpur
Official Website. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. * ^ Khatau, Asha (2004). Epicure S Vegetarian CuisinesJOf India. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan ltd. p. 57. ISBN 81-7991-119-5 . * ^ Reejhsinghani, Aroona (2007). Delights From Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(7th ed.). Jaico;. ISBN 978-8172245184 . Retrieved 12 July 2016. * ^ Epicure S Vegetarian Cuisines Of India. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan ltd. p. 63. * ^ "" Vada pav
Vada pav
sandwich recipe"". Guardian News and Media Limited. * ^ ""In search of Mumbai
Mumbai
Vada Pav"". The Hindu. * ^ "SAVOUR MUMBAI: A CULINARY JOURNEY THROUGH INDIA’S MELTING POT". * ^ A B C "Costumes of Maharashtra". Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Tourism. Retrieved 30 May 2014. * ^ Kher 2003 . * ^ Kher, Swati (2003). "Bid farewell to her". Indian Express, Mumbai
Mumbai
Newsline. Archived from the original on 1 March 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010. * ^ Bhanu, B.V (2004). People of India: Maharashtra, Part 2. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. pp. 1033, 1037, 1039. ISBN 81-7991-101-2 . * ^ A B "Traditional costumes of Maharashtra". Marathi Heritage Organization. Retrieved 30 May 2014. * ^ "Sant Eknath Maharaj". Santeknath.org. Retrieved 2013-05-09. * ^ http://www.sankeertanam.com/saints%20texts/Sant%20TukArAm.pdf * ^ "Printing India". Printing India. Retrieved 2013-05-09. * ^ Nagarkar, Kiran (2006). The Language Conflicts: The Politics and Hostilities between English and the Regional Languages in India (PDF). * ^ James B. Minahan (30 August 2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-59884-660-7 . Retrieved 2013-05-09. * ^ Career\'s Indian History. Bright Publications. p. 141. * ^ Ansar Hussain Khan; Ansar Hussain (1 January 1999). Rediscovery of India, The: A New Subcontinent. Orient Blackswan. p. 133. ISBN 978-81-250-1595-6 . * ^ "Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia".

* ^ "Caste, Conflict and Ideology". * ^ "Citpavan - Indian caste". Encyclopædia Britannica. * ^ Bakshi, SR. Contemporary Political Leadership in India. APH Publishing Corporation. p. 41. * ^ "The Marathas". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. * ^ "Bal Gangadhar Tilak". Encyclopædia Britannica. * ^ A History of Modern India, 1480-1950. * ^ Justice System and Mutinies in British India. * ^ "Land Forces Site - The Maratha
Maratha
Light Infantry". Bharat Rakshak. 2003-01-30. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 2013-05-09. * ^ "Land Forces Site - The Mahar Regiment". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-05-09.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Look up MAHARASHTRIAN in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Media related to Marathi people
Marathi people
at Wikimedia Commons

* v * t * e

State of Maharashtra
Maharashtra

Capital: MUMBAI Second capital: NAGPUR

TOPICS

* History * Geography * Economy * Tourism * Highest point * Marathi language * Culture