Manila (/məˈnɪlə/; Filipino: Maynilà,
pronounced [majˈnilaʔ] or [majniˈla]), officially the City of
Manila (Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynilà [luŋˈsod nɐŋ majˈnilaʔ],
Spanish: Ciudad de Manila), is the capital of the
Philippines and the
most densely populated city proper in the world. It was the first
chartered City by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July
31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409
or the "Revised Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949. It
is home to many of the Philippines' firsts, including the first
university (1590), water system (1878), hotel (1889), electricity
(1895), oceanarium (1913), stock exchange (1927), flyover (1930s),
zoo (1959), pedestrian underpass (1960), science high school
(1963), city-run university (1965), city-run hospital (1969), and
rapid transit system (1984; also considered as the first rapid transit
system in Southeast Asia).
The Spanish City of
Manila was founded on June 24, 1571, by Spanish
conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, which was regarded as the
official foundation date of the city.
Manila was also the seat of
power for most of the country's colonial rulers. It is the home to
many historic sites, some of which were built during the 16th century.
In 2016, the
Globalization and World Cities Research Network
Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed
Manila as an alpha- global city. The city proper is home to
1,780,148 people in 2015, and is the historic core of a built-up
area that extends well beyond its administrative limits. The term
"Manila" is commonly used to refer to the whole metropolitan area, the
greater metropolitan area or the city proper. The officially defined
metropolitan area called Metro Manila, the capital region of the
Philippines, includes the much larger
Quezon City and the Makati
Central Business District. It is the most populous region of the
country, one of the most populous urban areas in the world, and is
one of the wealthiest regions in Southeast Asia. With about
71,000 people per square kilometer,
Manila is also the most densely
populated city proper in the world. 
The City of
Manila is located on the eastern shores of the
Pasig River flows through the middle of the city, dividing it into
the north and south.
Manila is made up of 16 districts: Binondo,
Ermita, Intramuros, Malate, Paco, Pandacan, Port Area, Quiapo,
Sampaloc, San Andres, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz,
Santa Mesa and Tondo.
Manila is also made up of Six Congressional
Districts that represents the city on the Lower House of the
2.1 Precolonial history
2.2 Spanish period
2.3 American period
2.4 Japanese occupation and World War II
2.5 Contemporary period
3.2 Natural hazards
5.2.2 Other faiths
7.3 Festivities and holidays
8 Law and government
8.2 Barangays and Districts
9.2.1 Water and electricity
12 Sister cities
13 International relations
14 Pending transboundary nominations
15 See also
19 External links
Maynilà, the Filipino name for the city, originated from the word
nilà, referring to a flowering mangrove tree that grew on the delta
Pasig River and the shores of
Manila Bay. The flowers were made
into garlands that, according to folklore, were offered to statues on
religious altars or in churches. As nilà products were
distributed in other places, people came to refer to the area as Sa
may Nilà, Tagalog for "the place where there are nilàs". The word
nilà itself is probably from the
Sanskrit nila (नील), meaning
History of Manila
History of Manila and Timeline of Manila
Laguna Copperplate Inscription
Laguna Copperplate Inscription is the oldest historical record in
the Philippines. It has the first historical reference to Tondo and
dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).
The earliest evidence of human life around present-day
Manila is the
nearby Angono Petroglyphs, dated to around 3000 BC. Negritos, an
Australoid people who became the aboriginal inhabitants of the
Philippines, lived across the island of Luzon, where
located, before the Malayo-Polynesians migrated in and assimilated
The polity of Tondo flourished during the latter half of the Ming
dynasty as a result of direct trade relations with China. The Tondo
district was the traditional capital of the empire, and its rulers
were sovereign kings, not mere chieftains. They were addressed
variously as panginuan in Maranao or panginoón in Tagalog ("lords");
anák banwa ("son of heaven"); or lakandula ("lord of the palace").
The Emperor of
China considered the Lakans—the rulers of ancient
Manila—"王", or kings.
In the 13th century,
Manila consisted of a fortified settlement and
trading quarter on the shore of the
Pasig River. It was then settled
by the Indianized empire of Majapahit, as recorded in the epic eulogy
poem "Nagarakretagama", which described the area's conquest by
Maharaja Hayam Wuruk. Selurong (षेलुरोङ्), a
historical name for Manila, is listed in Canto 14 alongside Sulot,
which is now Sulu, and Kalka.
During the reign of Sultan
Bolkiah from 1485 to 1521, the Sultanate of
Brunei invaded, wanting to take advantage of Tondo's trade with China
by attacking its environs and establishing the Muslim Rajahnate of
Maynilà (كوتا سلودوڠ; Kota Seludong). The rajahnate was
ruled under and gave yearly tribute to the Sultanate of
Brunei as a
satellite state. It established a new dynasty under the local
leader, who accepted
Islam and became Rajah Salalila or Sulaiman I. He
established a trading challenge to the already rich House of Lakan
Dula in Tondo.
Islam was further strengthened by the arrival of Muslim
traders from the
Middle East and Southeast Asia. In 1574, Manila
was temporarily besieged by the Chinese pirate Lim Hong, who was
ultimately thwarted by the local inhabitants. The city then became the
seat of the Spanish colonial government.
The newly rebuilt
Manila Cathedral in 1880 before the earthquake of
July 20, 1880, which knocked down the over-a-century old bell tower.
On June 24, 1571, the conquistador
Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in
Manila and declared it a territory of New Spain, establishing a city
council in what is now the district of Intramuros. López de
Legazpi had the local royalty executed or exiled after the failure of
the Tondo Conspiracy, a plot wherein an alliance between datus,
rajahs, Japanese merchants and the Sultanate of
Brunei would band
together to execute the Spaniards, along with their Latin American
recruits and Visayan allies. The victorious Spaniards made Manila, the
capital of the
Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies and of the Philippines, which their
empire would control for the next three centuries.
Manila became famous during the Manila–
Acapulco galleon trade, which
lasted for three centuries and brought goods from Europe,
Hispanic America across the
Pacific Islands to
Southeast Asia (which
was already an entrepôt for goods coming from India,
China), and vice versa.
Silver that was mined in
exchanged for Chinese silk, Indian gems and the spices of Southeast
Asia. Likewise, wines and olives grown in
Europe and North
Mexico to Manila. The city was captured by Great
Britain in 1762 as part of the European
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War between
France and Great Britain. The city was then occpuied by the
British for almost two years from 1762 to 1764 and remained the
capital of the Philippines. Eventually, the British withdrew in
accordance with the 1763 Treaty of Paris. An unknown number of Indian
soldiers known as sepoys, who came with the British, deserted and
settled in nearby Cainta, Rizal, which explains the uniquely Indian
features of generations of Cainta residents.
The Chinese were then punished for supporting the British invasion,
and the fortress city of Intramuros, initially populated by 1200
Spanish families and garrisoned by 400 Spanish troops, kept its
cannons pointed at Binondo, the world's oldest Chinatown. The
Mexican population was concentrated at the south part of
Manila, and also at Cavite, where ships from Spain's American
colonies docked, and at Ermita, an area so named because of a Mexican
hermit that lived there.
Mexico gained independence in 1821,
Spain began to govern Manila
directly. Under direct Spanish rule, banking, industry and
education flourished more than they had in the previous two
centuries. The opening of the
Suez Canal in 1869 facilitated
direct trade and communications with Spain. The city's growing wealth
and education attracted indigenous people, Chinese, Indians, Latinos,
and Europeans from the surrounding provinces and facilitated the
rise of an ilustrado class that espoused liberal ideas: the
ideological foundations of the Philippine Revolution, which sought
independence from Spain.
Tram running along
Manila during the American period.
After the 1898 Battle of Manila,
Manila to the United
States. The First Philippine Republic, based in nearby Bulacan, fought
against the Americans for control of the city. The Americans
First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic and captured President Emilio
Aguinaldo, who declared allegiance to the
United States on April 1,
Upon drafting a new charter for
Manila in June 1901, the Americans
made official what had long been tacit: that the city of Manila
consisted not of
Intramuros alone but also of the surrounding areas.
The new charter proclaimed that
Manila was composed of eleven
municipal districts: presumably Binondo, Ermita, Intramuros, Malate,
Paco, Pandacan, Sampaloc, San Miguel, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz and Tondo.
In addition, the
Catholic Church recognized five
parishes—Gagalangin, Trozo, Balic-Balic,
Santa Mesa and
Singalong—as part of Manila. Later, two more would be added: Balut
and San Andres.
The Burnham Plan of Manila.
Under American control, a new, civilian-oriented Insular Government
headed by Governor-General
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft invited city planner
Daniel Burnham to adapt
Manila to modern needs. The Burnham Plan
included the development of a road system, the use of waterways for
transportation, and the beautification of
Manila with waterfront
improvements and construction of parks, parkways and
The planned buildings included a government center occupying all of
Wallace Field, which extends from
Rizal Park to the present Taft
Avenue. The Philippine Capitol was to rise at the
Taft Avenue end of
the field, facing toward the sea. Along with buildings for various
government bureaus and departments, it would form a quadrangle with a
lagoon in the center and a monument to
José Rizal at the other end of
the field. Of Burnham's proposed government center, only three
units—the Legislative Building and the buildings of the Finance and
Agricultural Departments—were completed when
World War II
World War II erupted.
Japanese occupation and World War II
The destruction brought about by the Battle of
Manila in 1945
During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, American soldiers
were ordered to withdraw from Manila, and all military installations
were removed on December 24, 1941. General
Douglas MacArthur declared
Manila an open city to prevent further death and destruction, but
Japanese warplanes continued to bomb it.
Manila was occupied by
Japanese forces on January 2, 1942.
From February 3 to March 3, 1945,
Manila was the site of the bloodiest
battle in the Pacific theater of World War II. Some 100,000 civilians
were killed in February. At the end of the battle,
recaptured by joint American and Philippine troops. It was the second
most devastated city in the world, after Warsaw, during the Second
World War. Almost all of the structures in the city, particularly in
Intramuros, were destroyed.
Rizal Avenue in the 1970s before the construction of LRT Line 1
In 1948, President
Elpidio Quirino moved the seat of government of the
Quezon City, a new capital in the suburbs and fields
northeast of Manila, created in 1939 during the administration of
President Manuel L. Quezon. The move ended any implementation of
the Burnham Plan's intent for the government centre to be at Luneta.
With the Visayan-born
Arsenio Lacson as its first elected mayor in
1952 (all mayors were appointed before this),
Manila underwent The
Golden Age, once again earning its status as the "Pearl of the
Orient", a moniker it earned before the Second World War. After
Lacson's term in the 1950s,
Manila was led by
Antonio Villegas for
most of the 1960s.
Ramon Bagatsing (an Indian-Filipino) was mayor for
nearly the entire 1970s until the 1986 People Power Revolution. Mayors
Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are collectively known as the "Big
Three of Manila" for their contribution to the development of the city
and their lasting legacy in improving the quality of life and welfare
of the people of Manila.
During the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, the region of Metro
Manila was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of
Presidential Decree No. 824 on November 7, 1975. The area encompassed
four cities and thirteen adjoining towns, as a separate regional unit
of government. On the 405th anniversary of the city's foundation
on June 24, 1976,
Manila was reinstated by Marcos as the capital of
Philippines for its historical significance as the seat of
government since the Spanish Period. Presidential Decree No. 940
Manila has always been to the Filipino people and in the
eyes of the world, the premier city of the
Philippines being the
center of trade, commerce, education and culture.
During the martial law era,
Manila became a hot-bed of resistance
activity as youth and student demonstrators repeatedly clashed with
the police and military which were subservient to the Marcos regime.
After decades of resistance, the non-violent People Power Revolution
(predecessor to the peaceful-revolutions that toppled the iron-curtain
in Europe), ousted the authoritarian Marcos from power.
Alfredo Lim was elected mayor, the first
hold the office. He was known for his anti-crime crusades. Lim was
succeeded by Lito Atienza, who served as his vice mayor. Atienza was
known for his campaign (and city slogan) "Buhayin ang Maynila" (Revive
Manila), which saw the establishment of several parks and the repair
and rehabilitation of the city's deteriorating facilities. He was the
city's mayor for 3 terms (9 years) before being termed out of office.
Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated Atienza's son Ali in the
2007 city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza's
projects claiming Atienza's projects made little contribution to
the improvements of the city. The relationship of both parties turned
bitter, with the two pitting again during the 2010 city elections in
which Lim won against Atienza.
Lim was sued by councilor Dennis Alcoreza on 2008 over human
rights, charged with graft over the rehabilitation of public
schools, and was heavily criticized for his haphazard resolution
Rizal Park hostage taking incident, one of the deadliest
hostage crisis in the Philippines. Later on, Vice Mayor Isko Moreno
and 28 city councilors filed another case against Lim in 2012, stating
that Lim's statement in a meeting were "life-threatening" to them.
The 119th commemoration of
Rizal Day at the
Rizal Park with the
Torre de Manila
Torre de Manila in the background.
DMCI Homes began constructing Torre de Manila, which became
controversial for ruining the sight line of
Rizal Park. The tower
is infamously known as "Terror de Manila" or the "national
Torre de Manila controversy
Torre de Manila controversy is regarded as one
of the most sensationalized heritage issues of the country. In 2017,
the National Historical Commission of the
Philippines erected a
'comfort woman' statue along Roxas Boulevard, which made Japan
expressed regret that such statue was erected in the city despite the
healthy relationship between
Japan and the Philippines.
In the 2013 elections, former President
Joseph Estrada defeated Lim in
the mayoral race. During his term, Estrada has paid more than ₱5
billion in city debts and increased the city's revenues from ₱6.2
billion in 2012 to ₱14.6 billion by 2016, resulting in increased
infrastructure spending and the betterment of the welfare of the
people of Manila.
In 2015, the city became the most competitive city in the Philippines,
making the city the best place for doing business and for living in.
However, despite these achievements, Estrada only narrowly won over
Lim in their electoral rematch in 2016. Recently, the City
Government is planning to revise existing curfew ordinance since the
Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional on August 2017. Out of the
three cities reviewed by the Supreme Court, namely: the City of
Quezon City; only the curfew ordinance of Quezon
City was approved.
Main article: Geography of Manila
Manila Bay sunset
ISS photo of
Manila (just left of center) and surrounding cities
The City of
Manila is situated on the eastern shore of
Manila Bay, on
the western edge of Luzon, 1300 km from mainland Asia. One of
Manila's greatest natural resources is the protected harbor upon which
it sits, regarded as the finest in all of Asia. The
flows through the middle of city, dividing it into the north and
south. The overall grade of the city's central, built-up areas,
is relatively consistent with the natural flatness of its overall
natural geography, generally exhibiting only slight differentiation
otherwise. Almost all of
Manila sits on top of centuries of
prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the
and on some land reclaimed from
Manila Bay. Manila's land has been
altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land
reclamation along the waterfronts since the American colonial times.
Some of the city's natural variations in topography have been evened
out. As of 2013[update],
Manila had a total area of 42.88 square
In 2017, the City Government approved five reclamation projects: the
New Manila Bay–City of Pearl
New Manila Bay–City of Pearl (New
Manila Bay International
Community) (407.43 hectares), Solar City (148 hectares), the Manila
Harbour Center expansion (50 hectares),
Manila Waterfront City (318
hectares) and Horizon
Manila (419 hectares). Once completed, it
will increase the city's total area from 42.88 km2
(4,288 ha) to 58.3 km2 (5,830 ha). Another reclamation
project is possible and when built, it will contain the in-city
housing relocation projects. Reclamation projects have been
criticized by environmental activists and the Philippine Catholic
Church, claiming that these are not sustainable and would put
communities at risk of flooding. In line of the upcoming
reclamation projects, the
Philippines and the
Netherlands forged a
cooperation to craft the ₱250 million
Manila Bay Sustainable
Development Master Plan to guide future decisions on programs and
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification system,
Manila has a tropical
savanna climate (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification Aw). Together with the
rest of the Philippines,
Manila lies entirely within the tropics. Its
proximity to the equator means that temperatures are hot year-round,
rarely going below 21°C or above 39°C. Temperature extremes have
ranged from 17.5°C on January 11, 1914, to 39.6°C on May 7,
Humidity levels are usually very high all year round.
Manila has a
distinct dry season from December through May, and a relatively
lengthy wet season that covers the remaining period with slightly
cooler temperatures. In the wet season, it rarely rains all day, but
rainfall is very heavy during short periods. Typhoons usually occur
from June to September.
Climate data for Port Area, Manila
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.10 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
Source #1: PAGASA
Source #2: Climatemps.com (sunshine)
See also: List of earthquakes in the Philippines
Swiss Re ranked
Manila as the second riskiest capital city to live in,
citing its exposure to natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis,
typhoons and floods. The seismically active
Marikina Valley Fault
System poses a threat of a large-scale earthquake with an estimated
magnitude between 6–7 and as high as 7.6 to
Metro Manila and
Manila has endured several deadly earthquakes,
notably in 1645 and in 1677 which destroyed the stone and brick
medieval city. The
Earthquake Baroque style was used by architects
during the Spanish colonial period in order to adapt to the frequent
Manila is hit with five to seven typhoons yearly. In 2009, Typhoon
Ketsana (Ondoy) struck the Philippines. It led to one of the worst
Metro Manila and several provinces in
Luzon with an
estimated damages worth ₱11 billion ($237 million). The
floodings caused 448 deaths in
Metro Manila alone. Following the
Typhoon Ketsana, the city began to dredge its rivers and
improve its drainage network.
Due to industrial waste and automobiles,
Manila suffers from air
pollution, affecting 98% of the population. Air pollution
alone causes more than 4,000 deaths yearly. On a 1995 report,
Ermita is regarded as Manila's most air polluted district due to open
dump sites and industrial waste. According to a report in 2003,
Pasig River is one of the most polluted rivers in the world with
150 tons of domestic waste and 75 tons of industrial waste dumped
daily. The city is the second biggest waste producer in the
country with 1,151.79 tons (7,500.07 cubic meters) per day, after
Quezon City which yields 1,386.84 tons or 12,730.59 cubic meters per
day. Both cities were cited as having poor management in garbage
collection and disposal.
Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission is in charge of cleaning up
Pasig River and tributaries for transportation, recreation and
tourism purposes. Rehabilitation efforts have resulted in the
creation of parks along the riverside, along with stricter pollution
The bay skyline of
Manila as seen from Harbour Square.
Manila is a planned city. In 1905, American Architect and Urban
Daniel Burnham was commissioned to design the new capital. His
design for the city was based on the City Beautiful movement, which
features broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles. The
city is made up of fourteen city districts, according to Republic Act
No. 409—the Revised Charter of the City of Manila—the basis of
which officially sets the present-day boundary of the city. Two
districts were later created, which are
Santa Mesa (partitioned off
from Sampaloc) and San Andres (partitioned off from Santa Ana).
The Luneta Hotel, an example of
French Renaissance architecture
French Renaissance architecture with
Filipino stylized beaux art
The façade of the
Manila Metropolitan Theater, designed by Juan M.
The façade of the Natividad Building
Manila is known for its eclectic mix of architecture that shows a wide
range of styles spanning different historical and cultural periods.
Architectural styles reflect American, Spanish, Chinese, and Malay
influences. Prominent Filipino architects such as Antonio Toledo,
Juan M. Arellano
Juan M. Arellano and
Tomás Mapúa have designed
significant buildings in
Manila such as churches, government offices,
theaters, mansions, schools and universities.
Manila is also famed for its Art Deco theaters. Some of these were
designed by National Artists for Architecture such as
Juan Nakpil and
Pablo Antonio. Unfortunately most of these theaters were neglected,
and some of it have been demolished. The historic
Escolta Street in
Binondo features many buildings of Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts
architectural style, many of which were designed by prominent Filipino
architects during the American Rule in the 1920s to the late 1930s.
Many architects, artists, historians and heritage advocacy groups are
pushing for the rehabilitation of Escolta Street, which was once the
premier street of the Philippines.
Almost all of Manila's prewar and Spanish colonial architecture were
destroyed during its battle for liberation by the intensive
bombardment of the
United States Air Force during World War II.
Reconstruction took place afterwards, replacing the destroyed historic
Spanish-era buildings with modern ones, erasing much of the city's
character. Some buildings destroyed by the war have been
reconstructed, such as the Old Legislative Building (now the National
Museum of Fine Arts),
Ayuntamiento de Manila (now the Bureau of the
Treasury) and the currently under construction San Ignacio Church and
Convent (as the Museo de Intramuros). There are plans to rehabilitate
and/or restore several neglected historic buildings and places such as
Plaza Del Carmen, San Sebastian Church and the
Theater. Spanish-era shops and houses in the districts of Binondo,
Quiapo, and San Nicolas are also planned to be restored, as a part of
a movement to restore the city to its former glory and its beautiful
Manila is prone to earthquakes, the Spanish colonial architects
invented the style called
Earthquake Baroque which the churches and
government buildings during the Spanish colonial period adopted.
As a result, succeeding earthquakes of the 18th and 19th centuries
barely affected Manila, although it did periodically level the
surrounding area. Modern buildings in and around
Manila are designed
or have been retrofitted to withstand an 8.2 magnitude quake in
accordance to the country's building code.
Population Census of Manila
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority
Binondo, established in 1594, is the world's oldest Chinatown.
People flocking the street market at Plaza Miranda.
According to the 2015 census, the population of the city was
1,780,148, making it the second most populous city in the
Manila is the most densely populated city in the
world, with 71,263 inhabitants per km2 in 2015. District 6 is
listed as being the most dense with 68,266 inhabitants per km2,
followed by District 1 with 64,936 and District 2 with 64,710,
respectively. District 5 is the least densely populated area with
19,235. In the 2016 electoral roll, it had 974,479 registered
Manila's population density dwarfs that of
Kolkata (24,252 inhabitants
Mumbai (20,482 inhabitants per km2),
inhabitants per km2),
Dhaka (29,069 inhabitants per km2), Shanghai
(16,364 inhabitants per km2, with its most dense district, Nanshi,
having a density of 56,785 inhabitants per km2), and
inhabitants per km2).
Manila has been presumed to be the Philippines' largest city since the
establishment of a permanent Spanish settlement with the city
eventually becoming the political, commercial and ecclesiastical
capital of the country. Its population increased dramatically
since the 1903 census as the population tended to move from rural
areas to towns and cities. In the 1960 census,
Manila became the first
Philippine city to breach the one million mark (more than 5 times of
its 1903 population). The city continued to grow until the population
somehow "stabilized" at 1.6 million and experienced alternating
increase and decrease starting the 1990 census year. This phenomenon
may be attributed to the higher growth experience by suburbs and the
already very high population density of city. As such, Manila
exhibited a decreasing percentage share to the metropolitan
population from as high as 63% in the 1950s to 27.5% in 1980
and then to 13.8% in 2015. The much larger
Quezon City marginally
surpassed the population of
Manila in 1990 and by the 2015 census
already has 1.1 million people more. Nationally, the population of
Manila is expected to be overtaken by cities with larger territories
Davao City by 2020.
The vernacular language is Filipino, based mostly on the Tagalog
language of surrounding areas, and this
Manila form of spoken Tagalog
has essentially become the lingua franca of the Philippines, having
spread throughout the archipelago through mass media and
entertainment. English is the language most widely used in education,
business, and heavily in everyday usage throughout
Metro Manila and
A number of older residents can still speak basic Spanish, which used
to be a mandatory subject in the curriculum of Philippine universities
and colleges, and many children of Japanese Filipino, Korean Filipino,
Indian Filipino, and other migrants or expatriates also speak their
parents' languages at home, aside from English and/or Filipino for
everyday use. A variant of Southern Min, Hokkien (locally known as
Lan'nang-oe) is mainly spoken by the city's Chinese-Filipino
Toyota Vios of the
Manila Police District
Manila is concentrated in areas associated with poverty, drug
abuse, and gangs. Crime in the city is also directly related to the
city's changing demographics and unique criminal justice system.
Illegal drug trade is a major problem in the city. In Metro Manila
alone, 92% of the barangays are affected by illegal drugs.
From 2010 to 2015, the city had the second highest index crime rates
in the Philippines, with 54,689 cases. By October 2017, the
Manila Police District
Manila Police District (MPD) reported a 38.7% decrease in index
crimes, from as a high of 5,474 cases in 2016 to only 3,393 in 2017.
MPD's crime solution efficiency also improved, wherein six to seven
out of 10 crimes have been solved by the city police force. MPD
was cited was the Best Police District in
Metro Manila in 2017 for
registering the highest crime solution efficiency.
Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide
Jesus Is Lord Church Worldwide celebrating its anniversary in Quirino
Grandstand, Burnham Green,
As a result of Spanish cultural influence,
Manila is a predominantly
Christian city. As of 2010[update], Roman Catholics were 93.5% of the
population, followed by adherents of the Philippine Independent Church
Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo (1.9%); various Protestant churches (1.8%);
and Buddhists (1.1%). Members of
Islam and other religions make up the
remaining 1.4% of the city's population.
Manila is the site of prominent Catholic churches and institutions.
There are 113 Catholic churches within the city limits; 63 are
considered as major shrines, basilicas, or a cathedral. The
Manila Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of
Manila and the oldest established church in the country. Aside
Manila Cathedral, there are also three other basilicas in the
city: Quiapo Church,
Binondo Church, and the Minor Basilica of San
Sebastián. The San Agustín Church in
Intramuros is a
Heritage Site and is one of the two fully air-conditioned Catholic
churches in the city.
Manila also has other parishes located
throughout the city, with some of them dating back to the Spanish
Colonial Period when the city serves as the base for numerous Catholic
missions both within the
Philippines and to
Mainline Protestant denominations are headquartered in the
city. St. Stephen's Parish pro-cathedral in the Sta. Cruz district is
the see of the Episcopal Church in the Philippines' Diocese of Central
Philippines, while align
Taft Avenue are the main cathedral and
central offices of the
Iglesia Filipina Independiente
Iglesia Filipina Independiente (also called the
Aglipayan Church, a national church that was a product of the
Philippine Revolution). Other faiths like The Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) has several churches in the city.
Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo has several locales (akin to
parishes) in the city, including its very first chapel (now a museum)
in Punta, Sta. Ana. Evangelical,
Pentecostal and Seventh-day Adventist
denominations also thrive within the city. The headquarters of the
Philippine Bible Society is in Manila. Also, the main campus of the
Cathedral of Praise
Cathedral of Praise is located along Taft Avenue. Jesus Is Lord Church
Worldwide also has several branches and campuses in Manila, and
celebrates its anniversary yearly at the Burnham Green and Quirino
Manila Cathedral is the seat of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
The Minor Basilica of San Sebastián is the only all-steel church in
San Agustín Church in Intramuros, a
UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Binondo Church serves the Roman Catholic Chinese community
Quiapo Church is the home to the iconic
Black Nazarene which
celebrates its feasts every January 9
There are many Buddhist and
Taoist temples in the city serving the
Chinese Filipino community. Quiapo is home to a sizable Muslim
population which worships at Masjid Al-Dahab. Members of the Indian
expatriate population have the option of worshiping at the large Hindu
temple in the city, or at the Sikh gurdwara along United Nations
Avenue. The National
Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the
Philippines, the governing body of the Filipino Bahá'í community, is
headquartered near Manila's eastern border with Makati.
The Port of Manila, the chief port of the Philippines.
Aerial view of Binondo, the city's
Chinatown and business district.
Manila is a major center for commerce, banking and finance, retailing,
transportation, tourism, real estate, new media as well as traditional
media, advertising, legal services, accounting, insurance, theater,
fashion, and the arts in the Philippines. Around 60,000 establishments
operates in the city.
The National Competitiveness Council of the
Philippines which annually
publishes the Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index (CMCI),
ranks the cities, municipalities and provinces of the country
according to their economic dynamism, government efficiency and
infrastructure. According to the 2016 CMCI,
Manila was the second most
competitive city in the Philippines.
Manila placed third in the
Highly Urbanized City (HUC) category.
Manila held the title
country's most competitive city in 2015, and since then has been
making it to the top 3, assuring that the city is consistently one of
the best place to live in and do business. Lars Wittig, the
country manager of Regus Philippines, hailed
Manila as the third best
city in the country to launch a start-up business.
Port of Manila
Port of Manila is the largest seaport in the Philippines, making
it the premier international shipping gateway to the country. The
Philippine Ports Authority
Philippine Ports Authority is the government agency responsible to
oversee the operation and management of the ports. The International
Container Terminal Services Inc. cited by the Asian Development Bank
as one of the top five major maritime terminal operators in the
world has its headquarters and main operations on the ports
of Manila. Another port operator, the Asian Terminal Incorporated, has
its corporate office and main operations in the
Manila South Harbor
and its container depository located in Santa Mesa.
Binondo, the oldest and one of the largest Chinatowns in the world,
was the center of commerce and business activities in the city.
Numerous residential and office skyscrapers are found within its
medieval streets. Plans to make the
Chinatown area into a business
process outsourcing (BPO) hub progresses and is aggressively pursued
by the city government of Manila. 30 buildings are already identified
to be converted into BPO offices. These buildings are mostly located
Escolta Street of Binondo, which are all unoccupied and can
be converted into offices.
Divisoria in Tondo is known as the "shopping mecca of the
Philippines". Numerous shopping malls are located in this place, which
sells products and goods at bargain price. Small vendors occupy
several roads that causes pedestrian and vehicular traffic. A famous
Divisoria is the Tutuban Center, a large shopping mall
that is a part of the Philippine National Railways' Main Station. It
attracts 1 million people every month, but is expected to add another
400,000 people when the LRT Line 2 West Extension is constructed,
which is set to make it as Manila's busiest transfer station.
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the central bank of the Philippines
Diverse manufacturers within the city produce industrial-related
products such as chemicals, textiles, clothing, and electronic goods.
Food and beverages and tobacco products also produced. Local
entrepreneurs continue to process primary commodities for export,
including rope, plywood, refined sugar, copra, and coconut oil. The
food-processing industry is one of the most stable major manufacturing
sector in the city.
Pandacan Oil Depot houses the storage facilities and distribution
terminals of the three major players in the country's petroleum
industry, namely Caltex Philippines, Pilipinas Shell and Petron
Corporation. The oil depot has been a subject of various concerns,
including its environmental and health impact to the residents of
Manila. The Supreme Court has ordered that the oil depot to be
relocated outside the city by July 2015, but it failed to
meet this deadline. Most of the oil depot facility inside the 33
hectare compound have been demolished, and plans are put into place to
transform it into a transport hub or even a food park.
Manila is a major publishing center in the Philippines. Manila
Bulletin, the Philippines' largest broadsheet newspaper by
circulation, is headquartered in Intramuros. Other major
publishing companies in the country like The
Manila Times, The
Philippine Star and
Manila Standard Today
Manila Standard Today are headquartered in the
Port Area. The Chinese Commercial News, the Philippines' oldest
existing Chinese-language newspaper, and the country's third-oldest
existing newspaper is headquartered in Binondo.
Manila serves as the headquarters of the Central Bank of the
Philippines which is located along Roxas Boulevard. Some
universal banks in the
Philippines that has its headquarters in the
city are the Landbank of the
Philippines and Philippine Trust Company.
Philippines has its corporate office along United Nations
Avenue in Paco. Toyota, a company listed in the
2000, also has its regional office along UN Avenue.
Main article: Tourism in Manila
Fort Santiago in Intramuros.
Manila welcomes over 1 million tourists each year. Major tourist
destinations include the historic Walled City of Intramuros, the
Cultural Center of the
Philippines Complex,[note 1]
Manila Ocean Park,
Binondo (Chinatown), Ermita,
Malate, Manila Zoo, the National Museum
Rizal Park. Both the historic Walled City of Intramuros
Rizal Park were designated as flagship destinations and as a
tourism enterprise zones in the Tourism Act of 2009.
Rizal Park, also known as Luneta Park, is the national park and the
largest urban park in Asia with an area of 58 hectares (140
acres), The park was constructed as an honor and dedication to
the country's national hero José Rizal, who was executed by the
Spaniards on charges of subversion. The flagpole west of the Rizal
Monument is the Kilometer Zero marker for distances to the rest of the
country. The park was managed by the National Parks and Development
The 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 sq mi) Walled City of
Intramuros is the historic center of Manila. It is administered by the
Intramuros Administration, an attached agency of the Department of
Tourism. It contains the famed
Manila Cathedral and the 18th Century
San Agustin Church, a
UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Kalesa is a popular
mode of transportation for tourists in
Intramuros and nearby places
Rizal Park. Known as the oldest
chinatown in the world,
Binondo was established on 1521 and it was
already a hub of Chinese commerce even before the Spaniards colonized
the Philippines. Its main attractions are
Filipino-Chinese Friendship Arch, Seng Guan Buddhist temple and
authentic Chinese restaurants.
Manila is designated as the country's pioneer of medical tourism,
expecting it to generate $1 billion in revenue annually. However,
lack of progressive health system, inadequate infrastructure and the
unstable political environment are seen as hindrances for its
Divisoria is a popular flea market for locals and tourists.
Manila is regarded as one of the best shopping destinations in
Asia. Major shopping malls, department stores, markets,
supermarkets and bazaars thrives within the city.
One of the city's famous shopping destinations is Divisoria, home to
numerous shopping malls in the city, including the famed Tutuban
Center and the Lucky
Chinatown Mall. It is also dubbed as the shopping
mecca of the
Philippines where everything is sold at bargain price.
There are almost 1 million shoppers in
Divisoria according to the
Manila Police District. Binondo, the oldest
Chinatown in the
world, is the city's center of commerce and trade for all types of
businesses run by
Filipino-Chinese merchants with a wide variety of
Chinese and Filipino shops and restaurants. Quiapo is referred to as
the "Old Downtown", where tiangges, markets, boutique shops, music and
electronics stores are common. C.M.
Recto Avenue is where lots of
department stores are located.
Robinsons Place Manila
Robinsons Place Manila is the largest shopping mall in the city.
The mall was the second and the largest
Robinsons Malls built. SM
Supermall operates two shopping malls in the city which are the SM
Manila and SM City San Lazaro. SM City
Manila is located on the
former grounds of YMCA
Manila beside the
Manila City Hall
Manila City Hall in Ermita,
SM City San Lazaro
SM City San Lazaro is built on the site of the former San Lazaro
Hippodrome in Sta. Cruz. The building of the former
Manila Royal Hotel
in Quiapo, which is famed for its revolving restaurant atop, is now
the SM Clearance Center that was established in 1972. The site of
the first SM Store is located at Carlos Palanca Sr. (formerly Echague)
Street in San Miguel.
The National Museum of Fine Arts.
As the cultural center of the Philippines,
Manila is the home to a
number of museums. The National Museum Complex of the National Museum
of the Philippines, located in
Rizal Park, is composed of the National
Museum of Fine Arts, the National Museum of Anthropology and the
National Museum of Natural History. The famous painting Juan Luna, the
Spoliarium, can be found in the complex. The city also hosts the
repository of the country's printed and recorded cultural heritage and
other literary and information resources, the National Library.
Museums established or run by educational institutions are the Mabini
Shrine, the DLS-CSB Museum of Contemporary Art and Design, UST Museum
of Arts and Sciences, and the UP Museum of a History of Ideas.
The National Museum of Natural History at Agrifina Circle,
Bahay Tsinoy, one of Manila's most prominent museums, documents the
Chinese lives and contributions in the history of the Philippines. The
Intramuros Light and Sound Museum chronicles the Filipinos desire for
freedom during the revolution under Rizal's leadership and other
revolutionary leaders. The
Metropolitan Museum of Manila
Metropolitan Museum of Manila is a museum
of modern and contemporary visual arts exhibits the Filipino arts and
Other museums in the city are the Museum of Manila, the city-owned
museum that exhibits the city's culture and history, Museo Pambata, a
children's museum and a place of hands-on discovery and fun learning,
the Museum of Philippine Political History, which exhibits notable
political events in the country, and Plaza San Luis, an outdoor
heritage public museum that contains a collection of nine Spanish
Bahay na Bató houses. Ecclesiastical museums in the located in the
city are the Parish of the Our Lady of the Abandoned in Santa Ana, the
San Agustin Church Museum and the upcoming Museo de
was housed in the reconstructed San Ignacio Church and Convent.
Children playing basketball at the ruins of San Ignacio Church in
Intramuros Golf Club
Manila have a long and distinguished history. The city's,
and in general the country's main sport is basketball, and most
barangays have a basketball court or at least a makeshift basketball
court, with court markings drawn on the streets. Larger barangays have
covered courts where inter-barangay leagues are held every summer
(April to May).
Manila has many sports venues, such as the Rizal
Memorial Sports Complex and San Andres Gym, the home of the now
Manila Metrostars. The
Rizal Memorial Sports Complex
Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium, the Baseball
Stadium, Tennis Courts, Memorial Coliseum and the Ninoy Aquino Stadium
(the latter two are indoor arenas). The
Rizal complex had hosted
several multi-sport events, such as the
1954 Asian Games
1954 Asian Games and the 1934
Far Eastern Games. Whenever the country hosts the Southeast Asian
Games, most of the events are held at the complex, but in the 2005
Games, most events were held elsewhere. The
1960 ABC Championship
1960 ABC Championship and
the 1973 ABC Championship, forerunners of the FIBA
was hosted by the complex, with the national basketball team winning
on both tournaments. The
1978 FIBA World Championship
1978 FIBA World Championship was held at the
complex although the latter stages were held in the Araneta Coliseum
Quezon City, Southeast Asia's largest indoor arena at that time.
Manila also hosts several well-known sports facilities such as the
Enrique M. Razon Sports Center
Enrique M. Razon Sports Center and the University of Santo Tomas
Sports Complex, both of which are private venues owned by a
university; collegiate sports are also held, with the University
Athletic Association of the
Philippines and the National Collegiate
Athletic Association basketball games held at
Rizal Memorial Coliseum
and Ninoy Aquino Stadium, although basketball events had transferred
to San Juan's
Filoil Flying V Arena
Filoil Flying V Arena and the
Araneta Coliseum in Quezon
City. Other collegiate sports are still held at the
Sports Complex. Professional basketball also used to play at the city,
but the Philippine
Basketball Association now holds their games at
Araneta Coliseum and
Cuneta Astrodome at Pasay; the now defunct
Basketball League played some of their games at the Rizal
Memorial Sports Complex.
Manila Storm are the city's rugby league team training at Rizal
Park (Luneta Park) and playing their matches at Southern Plains Field,
Calamba, Laguna. Previously a widely played sport in the city, Manila
is now the home of the only sizable baseball stadium in the country,
Baseball Stadium. The stadium hosts games of
Lou Gehrig and
Babe Ruth were the first players
to score a home run at the stadium at their tour of the country on
December 2, 1934. Another popular sport in the city are cue
sports, and billiard halls are a feature in most barangays. The 2010
World Cup of Pool was held at Robinsons Place Manila.
Rizal Memorial Track and Football Stadium hosted the first FIFA
World Cup qualifier in decades when the
Philippines hosted Sri Lanka
in July 2011. The stadium, which was previously unfit for
international matches, had undergone a major renovation program before
the match. The Football Stadium now regularly hosts matches of
the United Football League. The stadium also hosted its first rugby
test when it hosted the 2012 Asian Five Nations Division I
Festivities and holidays
Further information: Public holidays in the Philippines
Catholic devotees during the Feast of the
Black Nazarene (Traslacíon)
Manila celebrates civic and national holidays. Since most of the
city's citizens are Roman Catholics as a result of the Spanish
colonization, most of the festivities are religious in nature.
Manila Day, which celebrates the city's founding on June 24, 1571 by
Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, was first proclaimed by
Herminio A. Astorga (then Vice Mayor of Manila) on June 24, 1962. It
has been annually commemorated under the patronage of John the
Baptist, and has always been declared by the national government as a
special non-working holiday through Presidential Proclamations. Each
of the city's 897 barangays also have their own festivities guided by
their own patron saint.
The city is also the host to the Procession of the Feast of the Black
Nazarene (Traslacíon), held every January 9, which draws millions of
Catholic devotees. Other religious festivities held in
Manila are the
Feast of Santo Niño in Tondo and
Pandacan held on the third Sunday of
January, the Feast of the Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados de
Manila (Our Lady of the Abandoned), the patron saint of Santa Ana
which was held every May 12, and the Flores de Mayo. Non-religious
holidays include the New Year's Day, National Heroes' Day, Bonifacio
Law and government
Manila City Hall, the seat of city government.
Malacañang Palace is the official residence and office of the
President of the Philippines.
Palacio del Gobernador in
Intramuros is home to the Philippine
Commission on Elections and
The Supreme Court of the Philippines.
Manila—officially known as the City of Manila—is the national
capital of the
Philippines and is classified as a
(according to its income) and a Highly Urbanized City (HUC).
The mayor is the chief executive, and is assisted by the vice mayor,
the 36-member City Council, six Congressmen, the President of the
Barangay Captains, and the President of the Sangguniang
Kabataan. The members of the City Council are elected as
representatives of specific congressional districts within the city.
The city, however, have no control over
Intramuros and the Manila
North Harbor. The historic Walled City is administered by the
Intramuros Administration, while the
Manila North Harbor is managed by
the Philippine Ports Authority. Both are national government agencies.
The barangays that have jurisdictions over these places only oversee
the welfare of the city's constituents and cannot exercise their
The current mayor is Joseph Estrada, who served as the President of
Philippines from 1998 to 2001. He is currently on his second term
in serving as the city mayor. The current vice mayor is Dr. Maria
Shielah "Honey" Lacuna-Pangan, daughter of former
Manila Vice Mayor
Danny Lacuna. The mayor and the vice mayor are term-limited by up to 3
terms, with each term lasting for 3 years.
Manila, being the seat of political power of the Philippines, has
several national government offices headquartered at the city.
Planning for the development for being the center of government
started during the early years of American colonization when they
envisioned a well-designed city outside the walls of Intramuros. The
strategic location chosen was Bagumbayan, a former town which is now
Rizal Park to become the center of government and a design
commission was given to
Daniel Burnham to create a master plan for the
city patterned after
Washington, D.C. These improvements were
eventually abandoned under the Commonwealth Government of Manuel L.
A new government center was to be built on the hills northeast of
Manila, or what is now
Quezon City. Several government agencies have
set up their headquarters in
Quezon City but several key government
offices still reside in Manila. However, many of the plans were
substantially altered after the devastation of
Manila during World War
II and by subsequent administrations.
The city, as the capital, still hosts the Office of the President, as
well as the president's official residence. Aside from these,
important government agencies and institutions such as the Supreme
Court, the Court of Appeals, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the
Departments of Budget and Management, Finance, Health, Justice, Labor
and Employment and Public Works and Highways still call the city home.
Manila also hosts important national institutions such as the National
Library, National Archives, National Museum and the Philippine General
Congress previously held office at the Old Congress Building. In 1972,
due to declaration of martial law, Congress was dissolved; its
successor, the unicameral Batasang Pambansa, held office at the new
Batasang Pambansa Complex. When a new constitution restored the
bicameral Congress, the House of Representatives stayed at the
Batasang Pambansa Complex, while the Senate remained at the Old
Congress Building. In May 1997, the Senate transferred to a new
building it shares with the
Government Service Insurance System
Government Service Insurance System at
reclaimed land at Pasay. The Supreme Court will also transfer to its
new campus at Bonifacio Global City,
Taguig in 2019.
In the 2016 Annual Financial Report for Local Government published by
the Commission on Audit, it is stated that the City of Manila's total
income was ₱12.8 billion. It is one of the cities with the
highest tax collection and internal revenue allotment. Tax
collection alone accounts for ₱8.6 billion out of the total ₱12.8
billion city income in 2016, while the city's total Internal Revenue
Allotment from the National Treasury amounts to ₱2.086 billion. Its
total asset was worth ₱36.1 billion in 2016. The City of Manila
has the highest budget allocation to healthcare among all the cities
and municipalities in the Philippines.
Manila has a total of 14,586
personnel complement by the end of 2015.
Barangays and Districts
Barangay Map of the City of
Manila produced by the City
Planning and Development Office
Manila produced by the City Planning and Development Office.
Manila is divided into 6 Congressional Districts as shown in the map.
District Map of
Manila that shows its 16 districts.
Manila is made up of 897 barangays, which are grouped into 100
Zones for statistical convenience.
Manila has the most number of
barangays in the Philippines. Attempts at reducing its number
have not prospered despite local legislation—Ordinance 7907, passed
on April 23, 1996—reducing the number from 897 to 150 by merging
existing barangays, because of the failure to hold a plebiscite.
District I (2015 population: 415,906) covers the western part of
Tondo and is the most densely populated Congressional District. It is
the home to one of the biggest urban poor communities. The Smokey
Mountain in Balut Island is once known as the largest landfill where
thousands of impoverished people lives in the slums. After the closure
of the landfill in 1995, mid-rise housing buildings were built in
place. This district also contains the
Manila North Harbour Centre,
Manila North Harbor, and the
Manila International Container
Terminal of the Port of Manila.
District II (2015 population: 215,457) covers the eastern part of
Tondo known as Gagalangin. It contains Divisoria, a popular shopping
place in the
Philippines and the site of the Main Terminal Station of
the Philippine National Railways.
District III (2015 population: 221,780) covers Binondo, Quiapo,
San Nicolas and Santa Cruz. It encompasses the so-called "Downtown
Manila" or traditional business district of the city and the oldest
Chinatown in the world.
District IV (2015 population: 265,046) covers Sampaloc and some
parts of Santa Mesa. It contains the University of Santo Tomas, the
oldest existing university in Asia.
District V (2015 population: 366,714) covers Ermita, Malate,
Paco, Port Area, Intramuros, San Andres Bukid, and a portion of Santa
Ana. The historic Walled City is located here, along with Manila
Cathedral and San Agustin Church, a
UNESCO World Heritage Site.
District VI (2007 population: 295,245) covers Pandacan, San
Miguel, Santa Ana,
Santa Mesa and a portion of Paco. Santa Ana
district is known for its 18th Century
Santa Ana Church
Santa Ana Church and historic
ancestral houses. Polytechnic University of the
Philippines is located
here, the most populous university in the Philippines.
5 & 6
1 & 2
Main articles: Transportation in Metro Manila, Public transport in
Manila, and Major roads in Metro Manila
Jeepney is one of the most popular modes of transportation in Manila.
People waiting at the platform of Recto Terminal Station, the western
terminus of LRT Line 2.
Blumentritt Station of the LRT-1
One of the more famous modes of transportation in
Manila is the
jeepney. Patterned after U.S. Army jeeps, these have been in use since
the years immediately following World War II. The Tamaraw FX, the
Toyota Kijang, which competed directly with jeepneys
and followed fixed routes for a set price, once plied the streets of
Manila. All types of public road transport plying
Manila are privately
owned and operated under government franchise.
On a for-hire basis, the city is served by numerous taxicabs,
"tricycles" (motorcycles with sidecars, the Philippine version of the
auto rickshaw), and "trisikads" or "sikads", which are also known as
"kuligligs" (bicycles with a sidecars, the Philippine version of
pedicabs). In some areas, especially in Divisoria, motorized pedicabs
are popular. Spanish-era horse-drawn calesas are still a popular
tourist attraction and mode of transportation in the streets of
Binondo and Intramuros.
Manila will phase out all gasoline-run
tricycles and pedicabs and replace them with electric tricycles
(e-trikes), and plans to distribute 10,000 e-trikes to qualified
tricycle drivers from the city. As of January 2018, the city
has already distributed e-trikes to a number of drivers and operators
in Binondo, Ermita, Malate and Santa Cruz.
The city is serviced by the LRT Line 1 and Line 2, which form the
Manila Light Rail Transit System. Development of the railway system
began in the 1970s under the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos, when Line
1 was built, making it the first light rail transport in Southeast
Asia. These systems are currently undergoing a multibillion-dollar
expansion. Line 1 runs along the length of
Taft Avenue (N170/R-2)
Rizal Avenue (N150/R-9), and Line 2 runs along Claro M. Recto
Avenue (N145/C-1) and Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard (N180/R-6) from Santa
Quezon City, up to Masinag in Antipolo, Rizal.
The main terminal of the
Philippine National Railways
Philippine National Railways lies within the
city. One commuter railway within
Metro Manila is in operation. The
line runs in a general north-south direction from Tutuban (Tondo)
toward the province of Laguna. The Port of Manila, located at the
western section of the city at the vicinity of
Manila Bay, is the
chief seaport of the Philippines. The
Pasig River Ferry Service which
runs on the
Pasig River is another form of transportation. The city is
also served by the
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Ninoy Aquino International Airport and Clark
Forbes magazine ranked
Manila the world's most congested
city. According to Waze's 2015 "Global Driver Satisfaction Index",
Manila is the town with the worst traffic worldwide.
notorious for its frequent traffic jams and high densities. The
government has undertaken several projects to alleviate the traffic in
the city. Some of the projects include: the proposed construction of a
new viaduct or underpass at the intersection of
España Boulevard and
Lacson Avenue, the construction of the
Metro Manila Skyway Stage
3, the proposed LRT Line 2 West Extension Project from
Recto Avenue to
Pier 4 of the
Manila North Harbor, the proposed construction of
the PNR East-West line which will run through
España Boulevard up to
Quezon City, and the expansion and widening of several national and
local roads. However, such projects have yet to make any meaningful
impact, and the traffic jams and congestion continue unabated.
Metro Manila Dream Plan seeks to address these urban transport
problems. It consists of a list of short term priority projects and
medium to long term infrastructure projects that will last up to
Water and electricity
Water services used to be provided by the Metropolitan Waterworks and
Sewerage System, which served 30% of the city with most other sewage
being directly dumped into storm drains, septic tanks, or open
canals. MWSS was privatized in 1997, which split the water
concession into the east and west zones. The Maynilad Water Services
took over the west zone of which
Manila is a part. It now provides the
supply and delivery of potable water and sewerage system in
Manila, but it does not provide service to the southeastern part
of the city which belongs to the east zone that is served by Manila
Water. Electric services are provided by Meralco, the sole electric
power distributor in Metro Manila.
See also: List of hospitals in Metro Manila
The Philippine General Hospital, the largest medical center and the
national referral center for health in the Philippines.
Manila Health Department is responsible for the planning and
implementation of the health care programs provided by the city
government. It operates 59 health centers and six city-run hospitals,
which are free of charge for the city's constituents. The six public
city-run hospitals are the Ospital ng Maynila Medical Center, Ospital
ng Sampaloc, Gat Andres Bonifacio Memorial Medical Center, Ospital ng
Tondo, Sta. Ana Hospital, and Justice Jose Abad Santos General
Manila is also the site of the Philippine General
Hospital, the tertiary state-owned hospital administered and operated
by the University of the
Philippines Manila. The city is also planning
to put up an education, research and hospital facility for
Manila's healthcare is also provided by private corporations. Private
hospitals that operates in the city are the
Manila Doctors Hospital,
Chinese General Hospital and Medical Center, Dr. José R. Reyes
Memorial Medical Center, Metropolitan Medical Center, Our Lady of
Lourdes Hospital, and the
University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas Hospital.
The Department of Health has its main office in Manila. The national
health department also operates the San Lazaro Hospital, a special
referral tertiary hospital.
Manila is also the home to the
headquarters of the World Health Organization's Regional Office for
the Western Pacific and Country Office for the Philippines.
The city has free immunization programs for children, specifically
targeted against the seven major diseases – smallpox, diphtheria,
tetanus, yellow fever, whooping cough, polio, and measles. As of 2016,
a total of 31,115 children age one and below has been “fully
Manila Dialysis Center that provides free
services for the poor has been cited by the United Nations Committee
on Innovation, Competitiveness and Public-Private Partnerships as a
model for public-private partnership (PPP) projects.
List of universities and colleges in Manila and
Division of City Schools–Manila
De La Salle University
De La Salle University is a Lasallian educational institution
established in 1911.
The campus of the
University of the City of Manila
University of the City of Manila and Baluarte de San
Diego in Intramuros.
University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas is the oldest existing university in
Asia, established in 1611.
The center of education since the colonial period, Manila —
particularly Intramuros — is home to several Philippine
universities and colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as the
home of the
University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de
Ateneo de Manila University
Ateneo de Manila University (1859), Lyceum of the
Philippines University and the Mapua Institute of Technology. Only
Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620) remains at Intramuros; the
University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in
1927, and Ateneo left
Intramuros for Loyola Heights,
(while still retaining "de Manila" in its name) in 1952.
University of the City of Manila
University of the City of Manila (Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng
Maynila) located at Intramuros, and
Universidad de Manila
Universidad de Manila located just
outside the walled city, are both owned and operated by the Manila
The University of the
Philippines (1908), the premier state
university, was established in Ermita, Manila. It moved its central
administrative offices from
Manila to Diliman in 1949 and eventually
made the original campus the University of the
the oldest of the University of the
universities and the center of health sciences education in the
country. The city is also the site of the main campus of the
Polytechnic University of the Philippines, the largest university in
the country in terms of student population.
University Belt refers to the area where there is a high
concentration or a cluster of colleges and universities in the city
and it is commonly understood as the one where the San Miguel, Quiapo
and Sampaloc districts meet. Generally, it includes the western end of
España Boulevard, Nicanor Reyes St. (formerly Morayta St.), the
eastern end of Claro M.
Recto Avenue (formerly Azcarraga), Legarda
Avenue, Mendiola Street, and the different side streets. Each of the
colleges and universities found here are at a short walking distance
of each other. Another cluster of colleges lies along the southern
bank of the
Pasig River, mostly at the
Intramuros and Ermita
districts, and still a smaller cluster is found at the southernmost
part of Malate near the city limits such as the private co-educational
institution of De La Salle University, the largest of all De La Salle
University System of schools.
The Division of the City Schools of Manila, a branch of the Department
of Education, refers to the city's three-tier public education system.
It governs the 71 public elementary schools, 32 public high
schools. The city also contains the
Manila Science High School,
the pilot science high school of the Philippines.
See also: List of sister cities in the Philippines
Dili, East Timor
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Incheon, South Korea
Nantan, Kyoto, Japan
Japan (Business Partner)
Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands
Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan
Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
Maui County, Hawaii, United States
Mexico City, Mexico
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
New York City, New York,
United States (Global Partner)
Panama City, Panama
Sacramento, California, United States
San Francisco, California, United States
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
The Russian Federation
Pending transboundary nominations
Acapulco Galleon Memorial at Plaza
Mexico in Intramuros.
In 2014, the idea to nominate the Manila-
Acapulco Galleon Trade Route
was initiated by the Mexican ambassador to
UNESCO with the Filipino
ambassador to UNESCO. An Experts' Roundtable Meeting was held at the
University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas on April 23, 2015 as part of the preparation
Philippines for the possible transnational nomination of the
Acapulco Galleon Trade Route to the World Heritage List. The
nomination will be made jointly with Mexico.
The following are the experts and the topics they discussed during the
roundtable meeting: Dr. Celestina Boncan on the Tornaviaje; Dr. Mary
Jane A. Bolunia on Shipyards in the Bicol Region; Mr. Sheldon Clyde
Jago-on, Bobby Orillaneda, and Ligaya Lacsina on Underwater
Archaeology; Dr. Leovino Garcia on Maps and Cartography; Fr. Rene
Javellana, S.J. on Fortifications in the Philippines; Felice Sta.
Maria on Food; Dr. Fernando Zialcita on Textile; and Regalado Trota
Jose on Historical Dimension. The papers presented and discussed
during the roundtable meeting will be synthesized into a working
document to establish the route's Outstanding Universal Value.
The Mexican side reiterated that they will also follow suit with the
preparations for the route's nomination.
Spain has also backed the
nomination of the Manila-
Acapulco Trade Route Route in the UNESCO
World Heritage List
World Heritage List and has also suggested the Archives of the
Acapulco Galleons to be nominated as part of a separate UNESCO
UNESCO Memory of the World Register.
The Historic Manila‑
Acapulco Galleon Trade Route
Philippines and Mexico
White represents the route of the
Manila Galleons in the Pacific
Manila – book
Cities of the Philippines
Rajahnate of Maynila
List of cities in the Philippines
List of people from Manila
SM Mall of Asia
^ The city limits was at Vicente Sotto Street. The rest of the place
south of the street belongs to Pasay. Buildings and structures in CCP
that falls under the jurisdiction of
Manila includes the National
^ "'PEARL OF ORIENT' STRIPPED OF FOOD; Manila, Before Pearl Harbor,
Had Been Prosperous—Its Harbor One, of Best Focus for Two Attacks
Osmeña Succeeded Quezon". New York Times. February 5, 1945. Retrieved
March 3, 2014. Manila, modernized and elevated to the status of a
metropolis by American engineering skill, was before Pearl Harbor a
city of 623,000 population, contained in an area of fourteen square
Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and
Local Government. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013.
Retrieved November 30, 2012.
^ a b c d "An Update on the
Earthquake Hazards and Risk Assessment of
Manila Area" (PDF). Philippine Institute of
Volcanology and Seismology. November 14, 2013. Archived from the
original (PDF) on June 24, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
^ a b c "Enhancing Risk Analysis Capacities for Flood, Tropical
Cyclone Severe Wind and
Earthquake for the Greater
Metro Manila Area
Component 5 –
Earthquake Risk Analysis" (PDF). Philippine Institute
of Volcanology and Seismology and Geoscience Australia. Retrieved May
^ "Demographia World Urban Areas PDF (March 2013)" (PDF). Demographia.
Retrieved November 24, 2013.
^ a b c d Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine
Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 20 June
^ a b c "Philippine Population Density (Based on the 2015 Census of
Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved November 2,
^ This is the original Spanish, even used by
José Rizal in El
^ "Annual Audit Report: City of Manila". 2014. Retrieved November 4,
^ Cruz, Isagani (December 17, 2009). "The first university". The
Philippine Star. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
^ "22 Things We No Longer See in Manila". FilipiKnow.net. July 14,
2014. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
^ "Quiapo underpass for pedestrians, not business". Concept News
Central. December 23, 2016. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
^ "A Brief
History of Manila
History of Manila Science High School".
Manila Science High
School. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
^ "Railway Operations". Light Rail Transit Authority. Archived from
the original on January 9, 2018. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2016". www.lboro.ac.uk.
Retrieved April 24, 2017.
^ "Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population".
Philippine Statistics Authority. May 19, 2016. Retrieved April 12,
^ "Global Metro Monitor". Brookings Institution. January 22, 2015.
Retrieved April 12, 2017.
^ "GRDP Tables 2015 (as of July 2016)". Philippine Statistics
Authority. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
^ "The Folklore on How
Manila Got Its Name".
Retrieved August 5, 2016.
^ E.M. Pospelov, Geograficheskie nazvanie mira
(Географические название мира) (Moscow
^ Mijares, Armand Salvador B. (2006). .The Early Austronesian
Migration To Luzon: Perspectives From The Peñablanca Cave Sites
Archived July 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Bulletin of the
Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 26: 72–78.
^ a b c Gerini, G. E. (1905). "The
Nagarakretagama List of Countries
on the Indo-Chinese Mainland (Circâ 1380 A.D.)". The Journal of the
Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic
Society of Great Britain and Ireland (July 1905): 485–511.
^ "Pusat Sejarah Brunei" (in Malay). Government of
Archived from the original on April 15, 2015. Retrieved March 3,
^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 22
^ Wright, Hamilton M. (1907). "A Handbook of the Philippines", p. 143.
A.C. McClurcg & Co., Chicago.
^ Kane, Herb Kawainui (1996). "The
Manila Galleons". In Bob Dye.
Hawaiʻ Chronicles: Island History from the Pages of Honolulu
Magazine. I. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 25–32.
Manila (Philippines)". Britannica. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
^ Backhouse, Thomas (1765). The Secretary at War to Mr. Secretary
Conway. London: British Library. pp. v. 40.
^ Fish 2003, p. 158
^ "Wars and Battles: Treaty of
^ Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg
Free Online E-books. 1: 179. Within the walls, there were some six
hundred houses of a private nature, most of them built of stone and
tile, and an equal number outside in the suburbs, or "arrabales," all
occupied by Spaniards ("todos son vivienda y poblacion de los
Españoles"). This gives some twelve hundred Spanish families or
establishments, exclusive of the religious, who in
Manila numbered at
least one hundred and fifty, the garrison, at certain times, about
four hundred trained Spanish soldiers who had seen service in Holland
and the Low Countries, and the official classes.
^ a b Raitisoja, Geni "
Chinatown Manila: Oldest in the world"
Archived April 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., Tradio86.com, July 8,
2006, accessed March 19, 2011.
^ "In 1637 the military force maintained in the islands consisted of
one thousand seven hundred and two Spaniards and one hundred and forty
Indians." ~Memorial de D. Juan Grau y Monfalcon, Procurador General de
las Islas Filipinas, Docs. Inéditos del Archivo de Indias, vi, p.
425. "In 1787 the garrison at
Manila consisted of one regiment of
Mexicans comprising one thousand three hundred men, two artillery
companies of eighty men each, three cavalry companies of fifty men
each." La Pérouse, ii, p. 368.
^ Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg
Free Online E-books. 1: 229. Reforms under General Arandía.—The
demoralization and misery with which Obando's rule closed were
relieved somewhat by the capable government of Arandía, who succeeded
him. Arandía was one of the few men of talent, energy, and integrity
who stood at the head of affairs in these islands during two
centuries. He reformed the greatly disorganized military force,
establishing what was known as the "Regiment of the King," made up
very largely of Mexican soldiers. He also formed a corps of
artillerists composed of Filipinos. These were regular troops, who
received from Arandía sufficient pay to enable them to live decently
and like an army.
^ "Living in the Philippines: Living, Retiring, Travelling and Doing
^ Fundación Santa María (Madrid) 1994, p. 508
^ John Bowring, "Travels in the Philippines", p. 18, London, 1875
^ Olsen, Rosalinda N. "Semantics of Colonization and Revolution".
www.bulatlat.com. Retrieved January 8, 2011.
^ The text of the amended version published by General Otis is quoted
in its entirety in José Roca de Togores y Saravia; Remigio Garcia;
National Historical Institute (Philippines) (2003), Blockade and siege
of Manila, National Historical Institute, pp. 148–150,
See also s:Letter from E.S. Otis to the inhabitants of the Philippine
Islands, January 4, 1899.
^ Joaquin, Nick (1990).
Manila My Manila. Vera-Reyes, Inc. p. 137,
^ Moore 1921, p. 162.
^ Moore 1921, p. 162B.
^ Moore 1921, p. 180.
^ White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th
Century". Retrieved August 1, 2007.
^ "Milestone in History".
Quezon City Official Website. Retrieved
April 22, 2013.
^ Hancock 2000, p. 16
^ "Presidential Decree No. 824 November 7, 1975". The LawPhil Project.
Retrieved April 22, 2013.
^ "Presidential Decree No. 940 June 24, 1976". Chan C. Robles Virtual
Law Library. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
^ "Edsa people Power 1 Philippines". Angela Stuart-Santiago. Retrieved
December 3, 2007.
^ Mundo, Sheryl (December 1, 2009). "It's Atienza vs. Lim Part 2 in
ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Archived from the
original on December 3, 2009. Retrieved March 3, 2014. Environment
Secretary Jose 'Lito' Atienza will get to tangle again with incumbent
Alfredo Lim in the coming 2010 elections.
^ Legaspi, Amita (July 17, 2008). "Councilor files raps vs Lim, Manila
execs before CHR". GMA News. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^ "Mayor Lim charged anew with graft over rehabilitation of public
schools". The Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on June 11,
2011. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
^ "Isko Moreno, 28 councilors file complaint vs Lim".
ABS-CBN News and
Current Affairs. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
^ Ranada, Pia (August 4, 2014). "Pia Cayetano to look into Torre de
Manila violations". Rappler. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
^ Dario, Dethan (April 28, 2017). "Timeline: Tracking the Torre De
Manila case". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on April
28, 2017. Retrieved April 28, 2017.
^ "Duterte says 'comfort woman' statue a 'constitutional right'".
ABS-CBN News. January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
Japan voices regret to Duterte over 'comfort women' statue".
ABS-CBN News. January 10, 2018. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
^ Lopez, Tony (June 10, 2016). "Erap's hairline victory". The Standard
Philippines. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
^ Caliwan, Christopher Lloyd (September 25, 2017). "SC okays curfew
for minors in QC, but not in Manila, Navotas". News5. Retrieved
September 27, 2017.
^ Aberia, Jaimie Rose (September 27, 2017). "
Manila city council
planning to revise existing curfew ordinance". The
Retrieved September 27, 2017.
^ "Geography of Manila". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^ "Environment — Manila". City-Data. Retrieved February 26,
^ Cabuenas, Jon Viktor D. (October 26, 2017). "Waterfront
develop man-made island in
Manila Bay". GMA News Online. Retrieved
October 26, 2017.
^ Talabong, Rambo (May 12, 2017). "
Manila to relocate 7,000 families
in esteros". Rappler. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
^ Rambo Talabong (June 6, 2017). "Estrada approves building 3 islands
Manila Bay for new commercial district". Rappler. Retrieved June
^ See, Aie Balagtas (June 7, 2017). "Erap OKs fourth reclamation
Manila Bay". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 12,
^ "PHILIPPINES, NETHERLANDS SIGN MOU ON MANILA BAY DEVELOPMENT".
National Economic and Development Authority. January 22, 2018.
Retrieved January 29, 2018.
^ "Temperatures drop further in Baguio, MM". Philippine Star. Archived
from the original on October 25, 2014. Retrieved October 12,
Metro Manila temperature soars to 36.2C". ABS-CBN. Retrieved
October 12, 2014.
^ "Manila". Jeepneyguide. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^ "Climatological Normals of the
Philippines (1951–1985) (PAGASA
1987)" (PDF). PAGASA. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
Luzon Climate & Temperature". Climatemps.com. Retrieved
December 29, 2014.
^ Lozada, Bong (March 27, 2014). "
Metro Manila is world's second
riskiest capital to live in–poll". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
Retrieved April 9, 2014.
^ Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Rimando, Rolly E.;
Punongbayan, Raymundo S.; Tungol, Norman; Mirabueno, Hannah; Rasdas,
Ariel (2000). "Multiple Large Earthquakes in the Past 1500 Years on a
Fault in Metropolitan Manila, the Philippines". Bulletin of the
Seismological Society of America. Seismological Society of America. 90
(1): 84. doi:10.1785/0119990002.
^ Rimando, Rolly; Rolly E. Rimando; Peter L.K. Knuepfer (February 10,
2004). "Neotectonics of the
Marikina Valley fault system (MVFS) and
tectonic framework of structures in northern and central Luzon,
Philippines". ScienceDirect. pp. 17–38. Retrieved March 4,
^ "Fire and Quake in the construction of old Manila" Archived February
3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. The Frequency of Earthquakes in
Manila. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
^ a b "The City of God: Churches, Convents and Monasteries"
Discovering Philippines. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane
Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: What are the upcoming
tropical cyclone names?". NOAA. Retrieved December 11, 2006.
^ Tharoor, Ishaan (September 29, 2009). "The
Manila Floods: Why Wasn't
the City Prepared?". TIME. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^ "Situation Report: Ondoy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
May 30, 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
^ "City Profiles:Manila, Philippines". United Nations. Archived from
the original on August 15, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2010.
^ Alave, Kristine L. (August 18, 2004). "METRO MANILA AIR POLLUTED
BEYOND ACCEPTABLE LEVELS". Clean Air Initiative – Asia. Manila:
Cleanairnet.org. Archived from the original on December 3, 2005.
Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^ "POLLUTION ADVERSELY AFFECTS 98% OF METRO MANILA RESIDENTS". Hong
Kong: Cleanairnet.org. January 31, 2005. Archived from the original on
April 27, 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
Air pollution is killing Manila". GetRealPhilippines. Retrieved
June 18, 2010.
^ Fajardo, Feliciano (1995). Economics. Philippines: Rex Bookstore,
Inc. p. 357. ISBN 978-971-23-1794-1. Retrieved May 6,
^ de Guzman, Lawrence (November 11, 2006). "
Pasig now one of world's
most polluted rivers". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the
original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
^ Badilla, Nelson (December 28, 2017). "
Quezon City, Manila, Caloocan
biggest waste producers". The
Manila Times. Retrieved December 28,
^ "Presidential Decree Number 274, Pertaining to the Preservation,
Beautification, Improvement, and Gainful Utilization of the Pasig
River, Providing for the Regulation and Control of the Pollution of
the River and Its Banks In Order to Enhance Its Development, Thereby
Maximizing Its Utilization for Socio-Economic Purposes". Archived from
the original on May 3, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^ Santelices, Menchit. "A dying river comes back to life". Philippine
Information Agency. Archived from the original on March 16,
^ "Estero de San Miguel: The great transformation". Yahoo!
Philippines. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
^ "Republic Act No. 409". Official Gazette of the Republic of the
Philippines. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
^ "Manila : : Architecture". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Retrieved January 29, 2015.
Escolta Street tour shows retro architecture and why it's worth
reviving as a gimmick place". News5. Archived from the original on
March 2, 2015. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
^ Jenny F. Manongdo (June 13, 2016). "Culture agency moves to restore
Paris of the East' image".
Manila Bulletin. Retrieved July 6,
^ "Let's bring back the glory days of
Manila with the rehabilitation
of the Met!". Coconuts Manila. June 17, 2016. Retrieved July 6,
^ Lila Ramos Shahani (May 11, 2015). "Living on a Fault Line: Manila
in a 7.2 Earthquake". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original
on May 18, 2015. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
^ Census of Population (2015). "National Capital Region (NCR)". Total
Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA.
Retrieved 20 June 2016.
^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "National Capital Region
(NCR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay.
NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
^ Censuses of Population (1903 – 2007). "National Capital Region
(NCR)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by
Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
^ "Province of Metro Manila, 1st (Not a Province)". Municipality
Local Water Utilities Administration
Local Water Utilities Administration Research
Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
^ a b "Manila – The city, History, Sister cities" (PDF).
Cambridge Encyclopedia. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 11,
2006. Retrieved April 4, 2010. (from
^ "2016 National and Local Elections Statistics". Commission on
^ "Area, population, decennial growth rate and density for 2001 and
2011 at a glance for West Bengal and the districts: provisional
population totals paper 1 of 2011: West Bengal". Registrar General
& Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved January 26, 2012.
^ "The Philippines: The Spanish Period". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Retrieved April 8, 2017.
^ "Population estimates for Metro Manila, Philippines,
^ "Profile of
Makati City" (PDF).
Makati City Government.
^ Mercurio, Richmond S. "Philippine cities with over 1M population to
nearly triple by 2025". Philippine Star. Retrieved April 8,
^ Ranada, Pia (January 5, 2016). "A look at the state of crime, drugs
in the Philippines". Rappler. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
^ "Top 15 cities with highest index crimes".
ABS-CBN News. April 1,
2016. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
^ Aberia, Jaimie Rose (October 2, 2017). "Crime rate in
by 38% for past 12 months".
Manila Bulletin. Retrieved December 5,
^ Casas, Bill (August 22, 2017). "MPD is top NCR police district".
Manila Standard. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
Manila ("Maynila")" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
January 25, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
Manila churches under tight guard". The
Manila Times. December 15,
2016. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
^ "Wow Philippines: Manila-Cosmopolitan City of the Philippines".
Department of Tourism. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008.
Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^ "World Heritage: San Sebastian Church". Tentative List for the World
Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
^ Tony Macapagal (February 8, 2017). "
Manila dads hail fast CTO
service". The Standard. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
^ "Rankings". Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index.
Retrieved January 9, 2017.
^ Richmond Mercurio (July 15, 2016). "
Quezon City emerges as most
Philippine Star official website. Archived from the
original on August 29, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
^ Rex Remitio (July 17, 2015). "
Manila is Philippines' most
competitive city – NCC". CNN Philippines. Retrieved July 19,
^ "Five best PH cities to launch a start-up business". Manila
Bulletin. March 2, 2017. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
^ "International Container Terminal Services Inc". Philippine Stock
Exchange. Archived from the original on February 29, 2008. Retrieved
October 22, 2008.
^ "Asia's 200 Best Under A Billion: International Container Terminal
Services". Forbes. September 27, 2007. Retrieved October 22,
^ "Plan to turn
Chinatown into BPO hub gains ground".
Retrieved March 1, 2013.
^ "Tutuban Center may become Manila's busiest transfer station".
ABS-CBN News. Retrieved March 21, 2015.
^ "Estrada: Oil depot closed by July 15". The Philippine Daily
Inquirer. December 16, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
Pandacan oil depot 'decontamination' pushed after Big 3 exit". The
Philippine Daily Inquirer. December 21, 2014. Retrieved February 5,
^ a b MSN Encarta: Manila. MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on
November 1, 2009. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^ "MB Website".
^ Andrade, Jeannette (December 1, 2007). "Lino Brocka, 3 others
installed on remembrance wall". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived
from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
^ "BSP Website". Central Bank of the Phils.
Unilever Philippines". Unilever.
^ "REPUBLIC ACT No. 9593 otherwise known as Tourism Act of 2009 and
Its Implementing Rules and Regulations" (PDF). Department of Tourism.
Archived from the original (PDF) on April 30, 2015. Retrieved March 8,
^ Gwen de la Cruz (January 12, 2015). "FAST FACTS:
Rappler. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
Rizal Park". WordTravels. Archived from the original on April 20,
2009. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^ Jovic Lee (July 20, 2014). "
Intramuros cocheros: Hooves, history and
hope for a fare hike". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
^ "Medical Tourism, Treatments and Surgery in Manila". World Guides.
Retrieved October 27, 2014.
^ Edgardo S. Tugade (June 1, 2014). "Challenges to PH medical
Manila Times. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
Manila 11th most attractive shopping destination in Asia
Pacific –study — Yahoo! News Philippines".
Ph.news.yahoo.com. November 1, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
^ Arveen, Kim (October 30, 2012). "
Manila outperforms 15 Asian cities
in 'shopping' index — Yahoo! News Philippines".
Ph.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
^ "More cops on
Manila streets". Tempo. November 27, 2017. Retrieved
November 28, 2017.
^ "Manila". Robinsons Malls. Archived from the original on March 8,
2013. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
^ "Miss Earth candidates visits 100 Revolving Restaurant". Retrieved
January 12, 2012.
^ "Manila: Sports". Retrieved January 15, 2010.
^ Talao, Tito (March 10, 2004). "
Baseball loses no time in preparing
Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on September
13, 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^ "World Cup of Pool begins". ABS-CBNnews.com. September 7, 2010.
Retrieved July 4, 2011.
^ Fenix, Ryan (June 4, 2011). "All systems go for Azkals' World Cup
Rizal Memorial". Interaksyon.com. Archived from the
original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2011.
^ "Teams ready for RWC Qualifiers in Manila". Rugbyworldcup.com. April
14, 2012. Archived from the original on April 17, 2012. Retrieved
April 14, 2012.
^ "Living in Manila". InterNations. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
^ "Income Classification Per DOF Order No. 23-08, dated July 29, 2008"
(PDF). Bureau of Local Government Finance. Retrieved December 31,
^ "Position Classification and Compensation Scheme in Local Government
Units" (PDF). Department of Budget and Management.
^ Lopez, Virgil (April 25, 2017). "SC picks PHL flag-inspired design
for new 'green' building in Taguig". GMA News. Retrieved April 27,
^ a b "2016 Annual Financial Report of Local Government Units (Volume
I)" (PDF). Commission on Audit. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
Makati richest cities in RP". Philippine Today US.
Archived from the original on October 24, 2011. Retrieved April 18,
^ "2015 Annual Financial Report of Local Government Units". Commission
on Audit. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
^ "2015 Annual Financial Reports for Local Government Units (Volume
III)". Commission on Audit. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
^ Santos, Reynaldo Jr. (October 24, 2013). "
Barangay in numbers".
Rappler. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
^ Macairan, Evelyn (2007-08-15). "
Manila councilor wants fewer
barangays". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2016-04-27.
^ a b c d e f "Population Counts by Legislative District (Based on the
2015 Census of Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority.
Retrieved November 2, 2017. [permanent dead link]
^ "Transportation in the Philippines". AsianInfo.org. Retrieved April
^ Clapano, Jose Rodel (September 18, 2016). "Manila: No more trikes,
pedicabs next month". The Philippine Star. Retrieved September 19,
Manila (September 18, 2016). "
Manila will say goodbye to
old school tricycles and pedicabs on Oct 15". Retrieved September 19,
^ "City of
Manila to remove old, rusty tricycles from city streets".
January 23, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
^ Republic of the Philippines. Office of the President. (July 21,
2005). "SONA 2005 Executive Summary". Archived from the original on
May 13, 2010.
Waze – Official Blog: Global Driver Satisfaction Index".
Retrieved August 12, 2016.
^ "World's Densest Cities". Retrieved October 25, 2012.
^ "Lacson-España flyover takes off despite protests". August 6, 2012.
Retrieved October 25, 2012.
^ Tomas S. Noda III (January 28, 2015). "DMCI gets $51.5m rail
contract in PH". Retrieved February 1, 2015.
^ Rodel Rodis (October 23, 2014). "Manila's traffic jams cost $57
million a day". Retrieved March 20, 2015.
^ (The Philippines)
Mega Manila Infrastructure Roadmap (Long Version).
JICAChannel02: The Official Global Channel of the
Cooperation Agency (JICA).
Japan International Cooperation Agency
(JICA), National Economic Development Authority (NEDA). June 10,
^ Main Points of the Roadmap (PDF) (Report).
Cooperation Agency. September 2014. Archived from the original (PDF)
on October 11, 2014.
^ Orozco, G; Zafaralla, M, (2011), Socio-Economic Study of Two Major
Metro Manila Esteros (PDF), Makati, Philippines: Journal of
Environmental Science and Management, retrieved December 3, 2014
^ Inocencio, A; David, C, (2001), Public-Private-Community
Partnerships in Management and Delivery of Water to Urban Poor: The
Metro Manila (PDF), Makati, Philippines: Philippine Institute
for Development Studies, retrieved December 3, 2014
^ Joel E. Surbano (January 3, 2016). "
Manila hospital going for
upgrade". The Standard. Retrieved January 3, 2016.
^ Jaime Rose R. Aberia (August 6, 2017). "World-class hospital to rise
Manila for cleft lip, palate patients".
Manila Bulletin. Retrieved
August 7, 2017.
^ Rosabell C. Toledo (August 6, 2017). "
Manila mayor eyes founding of
PHL's first 'world-class' cleft-palate facility". BusinessMirror.
Retrieved August 7, 2017.
^ Cris G. Odronia (February 25, 2017). "
Manila intensifies free
Manila Bulletin. Retrieved February 25,
^ Rosabell C. Toledo (July 10, 2017). "UN lauds free dialysis center
in Manila". BusinessMirror. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
^ Dexter Cabalza (July 9, 2017). "Dialysis center for Manila's poor
cited by UN body". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 15,
^ "About UP Manila". University of the
Philippines Manila. Archived
from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved February 5,
^ "PUP: Profile". Polytechnic University of the Philippines. March 30,
2011. Retrieved March 4, 2014.
^ Cabayan, Itchie G. (April 7, 2010). "Good education a right, not
privilege – Lim". City Government of Manila. Retrieved April
24, 2010. NO one should be deprived of a sound education for being
^ a b c d e f g h "About Manila: Sister Cities". City of Manila.
Retrieved November 24, 2016.
^ Jaimie Rose Aberia (August 16, 2017). "Manila,
Bacoor sign sister
Manila Bulletin. Retrieved August 16, 2017.
^ "Relationship with Sister Cities: Manila".
Administration. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
^ "Beijing's Sister Cities". eBeijing. Retrieved January 3,
^ a b "Overview of China-
Philippines Bilateral Relations: III.
Exchanges and Cooperation in the Fields of Culture, Education, Science
and the Military, etc". Embassy of the People's Republic of
the Republic of the Philippines. March 5, 2009. Retrieved February 4,
2015. There are 24 pairs of sister-cities or sister-provinces between
China and the Philippines, namely:
Baguio City, Guangzhou
Shanghai and Metro Manila, Xiamen and
Quezon City, Fushun and Lipa City, Hainan and Cebu
Province, Sanya and Lapu-Lapu City, Shishi and Naya City, Shandong and
Ilocos Norte Province, Zibo and Manduae City, Anhui and Nueva Ecija
Province, Hubei and Leyte Province, Liuzhou and
Hezhou and San Fernando City, Haerbin and
Cagayan de Oro
Cagayan de Oro City, Laibin
Manila City, Jiangxi and
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Davao City, Lanzhou and Albay
Province, Beihai and Puerto Princessa City, Fujian Province and Laguna
Province, Wuxi and Puerto Princessa City.
^ "Sisterhood Agreement With Democratic Republic Of Timor Leste". City
of Manila. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015.
^ "Twin Cities". Hello Haifa. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
^ "Sister Cities – Ho Chi Minh City". Ho Chi Minh City. Retrieved
February 7, 2015.
^ "Sister and Friendship Cities". Archived from the original on
February 6, 2015. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
^ "About Manila: Sister Cities". City of Manila. Retrieved September
^ "Sister cities, towns and villages of
Kyoto Prefecture". Kyoto
Prefecture Website. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
^ "Business Partner Cities (BPC), the official website of
Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved
^ Todeno, Junhan B. (June 17, 2012). "Flores forges sister city ties
with Manila". Marianas Variety. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
Shanghai Foreign Affairs". Shfao.gov.cn. Retrieved November 24,
^ "International Sister Cities".
Taipei City Council. Retrieved June
^ "Manila-Takatsuki sisterpact". City of Manila. Retrieved January 8,
^ a b "List of Sister City Affiliations with
Japan (by country):
Japan Council of Local Authorities for
International Relations (CLAIR, Singapore). February 29, 2012.
Retrieved February 4, 2015.
^ "How the Filipino hero found his samurai wife in Yokohama".
Inquirer.net. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
^ "Hermanamientos y Acuerdos con ciudades". Ayuntamiento de Madrid.
Retrieved November 24, 2016.
^ "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice.
Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved
^ "Sister Cities" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on March 7,
2016. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
^ "Manila, Philippines". Sister Cities International. Retrieved
October 27, 2014.
^ a b c d "US-
Asia Sister Cities by State".
Asia Matters for America.
Honolulu, Hawaii: East West Center. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
^ "Relaciones internacionales" (in Spanish). Intendencia Municipal de
Montevideo. Archived from the original on November 8, 2011. Retrieved
December 12, 2011.
^ Foreign Relations (June 24, 2005). "Manila-
Montreal Sister City
Agreement Holds Potential for Better Cooperation". The Republic of the
Philippines. Archived from the original on December 5, 2009. Retrieved
October 2, 2009.
^ "NYC's Partner Cities".
New York City
New York City Global Partners. Archived from
the original on August 14, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
^ "Declaración de Hermanamiento múltiple y solidario de todas las
Capitales de Iberoamérica (12–10–82)" (PDF). October 12, 1982.
Archived from the original (PDF) on May 10, 2013. Retrieved March 12,
^ "Winnipeg's Sister Cities:
ng Pilipinas)". Retrieved June 2, 2015.
^ Estados Unidos
^ Federación de Rusia
^ Reino Unido
^ a b "PH,
Mexico push to nominate Manila-
Acapulco Galleon Trade Route
to World Heritage List". Official Gazette of the Republic of the
Philippines. April 28, 2015. Archived from the original on October 14,
2016. Retrieved December 14, 2017. This article incorporates
text from this source, which is in the public domain.
^ Galvez, Manny (July 5, 2015). "
Spain backs inclusion of galleon
trade route to World Heritage List". PhilStar Global. Archived from
the original on December 14, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
Moore, Charles (1921). "Daniel H. Burnham: Planner of Cities".
Houghton Mifflin and Co., Boston and New York.
Find more aboutManilaat's sister projects
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Data from Wikidata
Official Website of the City of Manila
Geographic data related to
Manila at OpenStreetMap
Capital of the Philippines
Capital of the Philippines
Places adjacent to Manila
City of Manila
Capital of the Philippines
Seal and coat of arms
Articles related to Manila
Lat. and Long. 14°35′N 121°0′E / 14.583°N 121.000°E /
14.583; 121.000 Manila
National Capital Region of the Philippines
Manila (capital city)
Local Government Units
Laguna de Bay
La Mesa Watershed Reservation
Marikina Valley Fault System
Rivers and esteros
Rajahnate of Maynila
Tondo (historical polity)
Province of Manila
British occupation of Manila
Province of Rizal
Manila Development Authority
City of Man
People Power Revolution
World Youth Day 1995
Pasig River Rehabilitation Commission
Rizal Day bombings
Bonifacio Global City
Philippine Stock Exchange
Manila Commodity Exchange
Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
Public services and utilities
Manila Electric Company (Meralco)
Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System
Manila Water Company
Maynilad Water Services
Universities and colleges
Primary and secondary schools
Theaters and concert halls
Art Deco theaters
Places of worship
Roman Catholic churches
Manila Mass Transit Network
Mega Manila Subway
Metro South Commuter Line
UP Diliman AGT
Manila International Airport Authority
Pasig River Ferry
Road space rationing
Metro Manila Dream Plan
Cities of the Philippines
Cagayan de Oro
San Carlos, Negros Occidental
San Carlos, Pangasinan
San Fernando, La Union
San Fernando, Pampanga
San Jose del Monte
Talisay, Negros Occidental
Largest cities in the Philippines
PSA Census August 2015
National Capital Region
National Capital Region
National Capital Region
National Capital Region
National Capital Region
National Capital Region
National Capital Region
National Capital Region
San Jose del Monte
National Capital Region
Cagayan de Oro
National Capital Region
Administrative divisions of the Philippines
Manila (National Capital Region)
I – Ilocos Region
III – Central Luzon
IV-A – Calabarzon
Mimaropa – Southwestern Tagalog Region
V – Bicol Region
VI – Western Visayas
VII – Central Visayas
VIII – Eastern Visayas
IX – Zamboanga Peninsula
X – Northern Mindanao
XI – Davao Region
XII – Soccsksargen
XIII – Caraga
CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region
NCR – National Capital Region
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
Agusan del Norte
Agusan del Sur
Davao del Norte
Davao del Sur
Lanao del Norte
Lanao del Sur
Surigao del Norte
Surigao del Sur
Zamboanga del Norte
Zamboanga del Sur
List of cities in the Philippines
List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines
Lists of barangays by province
List of primary LGUs
Formally proposed provinces
Negros Island Region
Capitals of Asia
Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in
North and Central Asia
West and Southwest Asia
Hong Kong (China)
Pyongyang, North Korea
Seoul, South Korea
Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK)
Kotte, Sri Lanka
New Delhi, India
Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
Dili, East Timor
Flying Fish Cove,
Christmas Island (Australia)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine †
Kuwait City, Kuwait
North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus*
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia*
† Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.
Host cities of Asian Games
World's fifty most-populous urban areas
Manila (Metro Manila)
New York City
Mexico City (Valley of Mexico)
Greater Buenos Aires
Rio de Janeiro
Ho Chi Minh City
Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley)
National symbols of the Philippines
Coat of arms
"Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"
Barong and Baro't saya
Juan de la Cruz
Marcelo H. del Pilar
Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat
ISNI: 0000 0003 9717 5415
BNF: cb119450586 (d