Madhya Pradesh (MP; /ˈmʌdjə prəˈdɛʃ/ ( listen);
meaning Central Province) is a state in central India. Its capital is
Bhopal and the largest city is
Indore with Jabalpur, Gwalior, and
Ujjain being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India"
due to its geographical location in India,
Madhya Pradesh is the
second-largest state in the country by area. With over 75 million
inhabitants, it is the fifth-largest state in
India by population. It
borders the states of
Uttar Pradesh to the northeast,
Maharashtra to the south,
Gujarat to the west, and
Rajasthan to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before
Chhattisgarh was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
was the largest state in
India and the distance between the two
furthest points inside the state,
Singoli and Konta, was 1500 km.
Konta is presently in Sukma district of Chattisgarh state.
The area covered by the present-day
Madhya Pradesh includes the area
of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital
Ujjain (also known
as Avantika) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian
urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. Subsequently, the region was
ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the
region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by
the British and incorporated into
Central Provinces and Berar
Central Provinces and Berar and the
India Agency. After India's independence,
Madhya Pradesh state
was created with
Nagpur as its capital: this state included the
southern parts of the present-day
Madhya Pradesh and northeastern
portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised
and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya
Bhopal to form the new
Madhya Pradesh state, the
Vidarbha region was removed and merged with the then
Bombay State. This state was the largest in
India by area until 2000,
when its southeastern
Chhattisgarh region was made as a separate
Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of diamond and
copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under forest cover. Its
tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping
the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11. In recent years, the
state's GDP growth has been above the national average.
2.1 Location in India
2.4 Flora and fauna
2.4.1 State symbols of Madhya Pradesh
6 Government and politics
11 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Main article: History of Madhya Pradesh
Isolated remains of
Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada
Valley indicate that
Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited in the
Middle Pleistocene era. Painted pottery dated to the later
mesolithic period has been found in the
Bhimbetka rock shelters.
Chalcolithic sites belonging to
Kayatha culture (2100–1800 BCE) and
Malwa culture (1700–1500 BCE) have been discovered in the western
part of the state.
Mesolithic rock painting, Bhimbetka, a
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Kandariya Mahadev, Khajuraho
Bateshwar temple complex, Padavli, Morena
Chausath Yogini Temple, Mitavli, Morena
Teli Ka Mandir,
Shiva Temple in Bhojpur
Lakshmi Temple, Orchha
Ancient temples, Amarkantak
Gwalior Fort, Gwalior
The city of
Ujjain arose as a major centre in the region, during the
second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served
as the capital of the Avanti kingdom. Other kingdoms mentioned in
ancient epics—Malava, Karusha, Dasarna and Nishada—have also been
identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh.
Chandragupta Maurya united northern
India around 320 BCE, establishing
the Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh.
Ashoka the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer
control. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was
contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, and several
local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. Heliodorus, the
Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected
Heliodorus pillar near Vidisha.
Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India
from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the
Ganges plain and India's
Arabian Sea ports. The
Satavahana dynasty of
the northern Deccan and the
Saka dynasty of the
Western Satraps fought
for the control of
Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.
Gautamiputra Satakarni inflicted a crushing defeat
Saka rulers and conquered parts of
Gujarat in the
2nd century CE.
Subsequently, the region came under the control of the
Gupta empire in
the 4th and 5th centuries, and their southern neighbours, the
Vakataka's. The rock-cut temples at
Bagh Caves in the Kukshi tehsil of
Dhar district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the
region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to
the year of 487 CE. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns
brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into
smaller states. The king
Malwa defeated the Huns in
528, ending their expansion. Later,
Harsha (c. 590–647) ruled the
northern parts of the state.
Malwa was ruled by the south Indian
Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the late 8th century to the 10th century.
When the south Indian Emperor
Govinda III of the Rashtrakuta dynasty
annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there,
who took the name of Paramara.
The Medieval period saw the rise of the
Rajput clans, including the
Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. The Chandellas
built the majestic Hindu-
Jain temples at Khajuraho, which represent
the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The
Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty also held sway in northern and western
Madhya Pradesh at this time. It also left some monuments of
architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of
Madhya Pradesh like
Malwa were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya
Empire which imposed its rule on the
Paramara kingdom of Malwa.
Bhoja (c. 1010–1060) was a renowned polymath. The
small Gond kingdoms emerged in the
Mahakoshal regions of
the state. Northern
Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Turkic Delhi
Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi
Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional
kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of
Gwalior and the
Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu.
Malwa Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of
Gujarat in 1531.
In the 1540s, most parts of the state fell to Sher Shah Suri, and
subsequently to the Hindu king Hemu. Hemu, who had earlier served as
the General of the Suri dynasty, operated from the
Gwalior Fort during
1553–56 and became the ruler of
Delhi as a Vikramaditya king winning
22 battles continuously from Bengal to Gujrat and defeating Akbar's
forces in the Battle of
Delhi on 7 October 1556. However, he chose
Delhi as his capital after his formal Coronation and left Gwalior.
After Hemu's defeat by
Akbar at the
Second Battle of Panipat
Second Battle of Panipat in 1556,
Madhya Pradesh came under the Mughal rule.
Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged
Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy.
The Mughal control weakened considerably after the death of Emperor
Aurangzeb in 1707. Between 1720 and 1760, the
Marathas took control of
most of Madhya Pradesh, resulting in the establishment of
semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the
Pune: the Holkars of
Indore ruled much of Malwa,
Puars ruled Dewas and
Dhar, the Bhonsles of
Nagpur dominated Mahakoshal-
Gondwana area, while
the Scindias of
Gwalior controlled the northern parts of the state.
The most notable
Maratha rulers of the region were Mahadji Shinde,
Holkar and Yashwantrao Holkar. Besides these, there were
several other small states, including Bhopal, Orchha, and Rewa. The
Bhopal state, which paid tribute to both the
Marathas and the Nizam of
Hyderabad, was founded by Dost Mohammed Khan, a former General in the
After the Third Anglo-
Maratha War, the British took control of the
entire region. All the sovereign states in the region became princely
states of British India, governed by the Central
India Agency. The
Mahakoshal region became a British province: the Saugor and Nerbudda
Territories. In 1861, the British merged the
Nagpur Province with the
Saugor and Nerbudda Territories
Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form the Central Provinces.
During the 1857 uprising, rebellions happened in the northern parts of
the state, led by leaders like Tatya Tope. However, these were crushed
by the British and the princes loyal to them. The state witnessed a
number of anti-British activities and protests during the Indian
independence movement. Several notable leaders such as Chandra
Shekhar Azad, B. R. Ambedkar,
Shankar Dayal Sharma
Shankar Dayal Sharma and Atal Bihari
Vajpayee were born in what is now Madhya Pradesh.
After the independence of India,
Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950
from the former British
Central Provinces and Berar
Central Provinces and Berar and the princely
Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with
Nagpur as the capital of the
state. The new states of Madhya Bharat,
Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal
were formed out of the Central
India Agency. In 1956, the states of
Vindhya Pradesh, and
Bhopal were merged into Madhya
Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which
included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state.
Jabalpur was chosen to be
the capital of the state but at the last moment, due to some political
Bhopal was made the state capital. In November 2000, as
part of the
Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, the southeastern
portion of the state split off to form the new state of Chhattisgarh.
Location in India
Madhya Pradesh literally means "Central Province", and is located in
the geographic heart of India, between latitude 21.2°N-26.87°N and
longitude 74°59'-82°06' E. The state straddles the Narmada River,
which runs east and west between the
Satpura ranges; these
ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundary between the north
and south of India. The highest point in
Madhya Pradesh is Dhupgarh,
with an elevation of 1,350 m (4,429 ft).
The state is bordered on the west by Gujarat, on the northwest by
Rajasthan, on the northeast by Uttar Pradesh, on the east by
Chhattisgarh, and on the south by Maharashtra.
Places adjacent to Madhya Pradesh
Rajasthan - Uttar Pradesh
Physical map of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh has a subtropical climate. Like most of north India, it
has a hot dry summer (April–June), followed by monsoon rains
(July–September) and a cool and relatively dry winter. The average
rainfall is about 1,371 mm (54.0 in). The southeastern
districts have the heaviest rainfall, some places receiving as much as
2,150 mm (84.6 in), while the western and northwestern
districts receive 1,000 mm (39.4 in) or less.
According to the 2011 figures, the recorded forest area of the state
is 94,689 km2 (36,560 sq mi) constituting 30.72% of the
geographical area of the state. It constitutes 12.30% of the
forest area of India. Legally this area has been classified into
"Reserved Forest" (65.3%), "Protected Forest" (32.84%) and
"Unclassified Forest" (0.18%). Per capita forest area is 2,400 m2
(0.59 acres) as against the national average of 700 m2 (0.17
acres). The forest cover is less dense in the northern and western
parts of the state, which contain the major urban centres. Variability
in climatic and edaphic conditions brings about significant difference
in the forest types of the state.
The major types of soils found in the state are:
Black soil, most predominantly in the
Mahakoshal and in
Red and yellow soil, in the
Alluvial soil, in Northern Madhya Pradesh
Laterite soil, in highland areas
Mixed soil, in parts of the
Gwalior and Chambal divisions
Flora and fauna
Main article: Flora and fauna of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh is home to ten National Parks;
Park, Kanha National Park,
Satpura National Park, Sanjay National
Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park,
Fossils National Park, Panna National Park,
Pench National Park
Pench National Park and
Dinosaur National Park, Dhar. 
There are also a number of nature reserves, including Amarkantak, Bagh
Caves, Balaghat, Bori Natural Reserve, Ken Gharial, Ghatigaon, Kuno
Palpur, Narwar, Chambal, Kukdeshwar, Narsinghgarh, Nora Dehi,
Pachmarhi, Panpatha, Shikarganj, Patalkot, and Tamia. Pachmarhi
Biosphere Reserve in
Amarkantak biosphere reserve and
Panna National Park
Panna National Park are three of the 18 biosphere reserves in India.
Most of them are located in the Eastern
Madhya Pradesh near Jabalpur.
Langur monkey (Semnopithecus dussumieri), Orchha
Tigress with cubs in Kanha Tiger Reserve
Tickell's blue flycatcher,
Bandhavgarh National Park
Vultures in the nest, Orchha
Male nilgais fighting, Lakeshwari,
Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Pench, Panna, and
Satpura National Parks are
Project Tiger areas. The
National Chambal Sanctuary
National Chambal Sanctuary is
managed for conservation of gharial and mugger, river dolphin,
smooth-coated otter and a number of turtle species. Ken-gharial and
Son-gharial sanctuaries are managed for conservation of gharial and
mugger. The barasingha is the state animal and the dudhraj is the
state bird of Madhya Pradesh.
Based on composition, the teak and sal forests are the important
forest formations in the state. Bamboo-bearing areas are widely
State symbols of Madhya Pradesh
Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii)
Indian paradise flycatcher
Indian paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi)
banyan tree (ficus bengalensis)
Mahasheer (Tor tor)
Madonna lily (
Son River, Umaria district, MP, India
Ken River Gorge
The River Narmada flows through a gorge of marble rocks in Bhedaghat,
The Shri Ram Ghat on the
Shipra River in Ujjain
Betwa in the Ashoknagar District of Madhya Pradesh
The Narmada is the longest river in Madhya Pradesh. It flows westward
through a rift valley, with the
Vindhya ranges sprawling along its
northern bank and the
Satpura range of mountains along the southern.
Its tributaries include the Banjar, the Tawa, the Machna, the Shakkar,
Denwa and the Sonbhardra rivers. The
Tapti River runs parallel to
Narmada, and also flows through a rift valley. The Narmada–Tapti
systems carry an enormous volume of water and provide drainage for
almost a quarter of the land area of Madhya Pradesh. The Narmada river
is considered very sacred and is worshipped throughout the region. It
is the main source of water and acts as a lifeline to the state.
Vindhyas form the southern boundary of the
Ganges basin, with the
western part of the
Ganges basin draining into the
Yamuna and the
eastern part directly into the
Ganges itself. All the rivers, which
drain into the Ganges, flow from south to north, with the Chambal,
Shipra, Kali Sindh, Parbati, Kuno, Sind, Betwa, Dhasan and Ken rivers
being the main tributaries of the Yamuna.
Shipra River is one of the
most sacred rivers of Hinduism. It is the site of the Simhastha Kumbh
Mela, which is held every 12 years. The land drained by these rivers
is agriculturally rich, with the natural vegetation largely consisting
of grass and dry deciduous forest types, largely thorny. The eastern
part of the
Ganges basin consists of the Son, the Tons and the Rihand
Rivers. Son, which arises in the Maikal hills around Amarkantak, is
the largest tributary that goes into the
Ganges on the south bank and
that does not arise from the Himalayas. Son and its tributaries
contribute the bulk of the monsoon flow into the Ganges, because the
north bank tributaries are all snow fed. The forests in their basins
are much richer than the thorn forests of the northwestern part of
After the formation of
Chhattisgarh State, the major portion of
Mahanadi basin now lies in Chhattisgarh. Presently, only 154 km2
basin area of Hasdeo River in Anuppur District lies in Madhya Pradesh.
The Satpuras, in the
Gawilgarh and Mahadeo Hills, also contain a
watershed, which is south facing. The Wainganga, the Wardha, the
Pench, the Kanhan rivers, discharge an enormous volume of water into
the Godavari river system. The Godavari basin consists of
sub-tropical, semi-moist forests, mainly in the valley of the
Indrawati. There are many important multi-state irrigation projects in
development, including the
Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects.
Madhya Pradesh is divided into the following agro-climatic zones:
Kaimur Plateau and
Vindhyan Plateau (Hills)
Gird (Gwalior) Region
Satpura Plateau (Hills)
Main article: List of cities in
Madhya Pradesh by population
Source:Census of India
The population of
Madhya Pradesh consists of a number of ethnic groups
and tribes, castes and communities, including the indigenous tribals
and relatively more recent migrants from other states. The scheduled
castes and the scheduled tribes constitute a significant portion of
the population of the State. The main tribal groups in Madhya Pradesh
are Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhadia (or Bhariya), Halba, Kaul,
Mariya, Malto and Sahariya. Dhar,
Mandla districts have
more than 50 percent tribal population. In Khargone, Chhindwara,
Shahdol districts 30–50 percent
population is of tribes. According to the 2011 census, the adivasi
Madhya Pradesh was 73.34 million, constituting 21.1% of
the total population. There were 46 recognised Scheduled Tribes and
three of them have been identified as "
Special Primitive Tribal
Groups" in the State.
Due to the different linguistic, cultural and geographical
environment, and its peculiar complications, the diverse tribal world
Madhya Pradesh has been largely cut off from the mainstream of
Madhya Pradesh ranks very low on the Human Development
Index value of 0.375 (2011), which is below the national average.
According to the
India State Hunger Index (2008) compiled by the
International Food Policy Research Institute, the malnutrition
Madhya Pradesh was "extremely alarming", receiving a
severity rating between
Ethiopia and Chad. The state ranks is also
the worst performer in India, when it comes to female foeticides.
The state's per-capita gross state domestic product (nominal GDP) is
the fourth lowest in the country (2010–11). MP is also the
lowest-ranked state on the
India State Hunger Index.
Madhya Pradesh is one of the worst-affected states as far as
malnutrition is concerned. The recent National Family Health Survey
2015–16 points out that Panna has 43.1 per cent stunted children,
24.7 per cent wasted and 40.3 per cent underweight children. Similar
was the case in rural Chhatarpur where 44.4 per cent children are
stunted, 17.8 per cent wasted and 41.2 per cent underweight, as per
See also: Tribals in Madhya Pradesh
Children in Raisen district,
Shepherds in Chambal
A young farmer in Umaria district
Young Baiga women
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The official language of the state is Hindi. In addition Marathi
is spoken by a substantial number of the population since the state
was home to several important and prestigious
Maratha states. The
state in fact has the highest concentration of
Marathi people outside
Maharashtra. Several regional variants are spoken, which are
considered by some[according to whom?] to be dialects of Hindi, and by
others[according to whom?] to be distinct but related languages. Among
these dialects are Malvi in Malwa, Nimadi in Nimar, Bundeli in
Bagelkhand and the southeast, and
Rajasthani in the area near to Rajasthan. Each of these languages has
dialects of its own. Other languages include Telugu, Bhilodi (Bhili),
Gondi, Korku, Kalto (Nahali), and Nihali (Nahali), all spoken by
The following languages are taught in schools in
Madhya Pradesh under
the Three Language Formula:
First Language: Hindi, Urdu, English, Oriya, Marathi, Sindhi, Tamil,
Telugu, Punjabi, Bengali, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada
Second Language: Hindi, Urdu, English
Third Language: Hindi, English, Sanskrit, Marathi, Urdu, Punjabi,
Sindhi, Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu, Tamil, Arabic, Malayalam, Persian,
French, Russian, Oriya, Kannada
According to the census of 2011, 90.9% of the MP residents followed
Hinduism, while others are
Jain (0.8%), Buddhists
(0.3%), Christians (0.3%), and
Madhya Pradesh (2011)
Other religion (0.83%)
No religion (0.13%)
Bagh Print Traditional hand block print craft in Bagh
A man playing flute in Orchha, with a white tilak on his forehead, and
holy saffron-coloured clothes.
Sand sculpture by
Sudarshan Pattnaik at Bandrabhan near Hoshangabad
Four sites in
Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage Sites
by UNESCO: the
Khajuraho Group of Monuments
Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986) including Devi
Jagadambi temple, Khajuraho, Buddhist Monuments at
Sanchi (1989) and
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003). Other architecturally
significant or scenic sites include Ajaigarh, Amarkantak, Asirgarh,
Bandhavgarh, Bawangaja, Bhopal, Vidisha, Chanderi, Chitrakuta, Dhar,
Gwalior, Indore, Namavar Jabalpur, Burhanpur, Maheshwar, Mandleshwar,
Mandu, Omkareshwar, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Shivpuri, Sonagiri,
Madhya Pradesh is noted for its classical and folk music. Some of the
Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music gharanas in
Madhya Pradesh include
the Maihar gharana, the
Gwalior gharana and Senia gharana. Two of the
medieval India's most noted singers,
Tansen and Baiju Bawra, were born
Gwalior in present-day Madhya Pradesh. Noted
Aminuddin Dagar (Indore),
Gundecha Brothers (Ujjain) and Uday
Bhawalkar (Ujjain) were also born in present-day Madhya Pradesh.
The birthplaces of noted playback singers
Kishore Kumar (Khandwa) and
Lata Mangeshkar (Indore) and singer and composer Aadesh Shrivastava
(Jabalpur) are also located in MP. The local styles of folk singing
include Faga, Bhartahari, Sanja geet, Bhopa, Kalbelia,
Bhat/Bhand/Charan, Vasdeva, Videsia, Kalgi Turra, Nirgunia, Alha,
Pandwani Gayan and Garba Garbi Govalan.
The major folk dances of MP are Rai,Karma,Saila, Matki, Gangaur,
Badhai, Baredi, Naurata, Ahiri and Bhagoria.
Woman harvesting wheat, Raisen district
Main article: Economy of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh's gross state domestic product (nominal GDP) for
2013-14 was ₹ 4,509 billion (approximately US$ 72,726,000,000).
The per-capita figure was US$ 871.45 in 2013-14, the sixth-lowest in
the country. Between 1999 and 2008, the annualised growth rate of
the state was very low: 3.5%. Subsequently, the state's GDP growth
rate has improved significantly, rising to 8% during 2010–11 and 12%
Madhya pradesh is also famous for honey production in district Morena.
The state has an agrarian economy. The major crops of Madhya
Pradesh are wheat, soybean, gram, sugarcane, rice, maize, cotton,
rapeseed, mustard and arhar. Minor Forest Produce (MFP), such as
tendu leaves used to roll beedi, sal seed, teak seed, and lak also
contribute to state's rural economy.
Madhya Pradesh has 5
Special Economic Zones
Special Economic Zones (SEZs): 3 IT/ITeS (Indore,
Gwalior), 1 mineral-based (Jabalpur) and 1 agro-based (Jabalpur). In
October 2011, approval was given to 14 proposed SEZs, out of which 10
Indore is the major commercial centre of the
state. Because of the state's central location, a number of consumer
goods companies have established manufacturing bases in MP.
The state has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India.
Other major mineral reserves include those of coal, coalbed methane,
manganese and dolomite.
Madhya Pradesh has six Ordnance Factories, four of which are located
Jabalpur (Vehicle Factory, Grey Iron Foundry, Gun Carriage Factory,
Ordnance Factory Khamaria) and one each at Katni and Itarsi. The
factories are run by the
Ordnance Factories Board, and manufacture a
variety of products for the Indian Armed Forces.
Madhya Pradesh won the 10th National Award for excellent work in
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005.
The state's tourism industry is growing, fuelled by wildlife tourism
and a number of places of historical and religious significance.
Khajuraho are frequented by external tourists. Besides the
major cities, Bhedaghat, Bhimbetka, Bhojpur, Maheshwar, Mandu, Orchha,
Jabalpur and Ujjain, Tumen Vindhyavasini temple
ancient temple. This south facing Ashok Nagar district located in
Tuman (Tumvn). Yho digging in the release of the ancient statues it is
known as the city of Raja Mordwaj Yho Vlram temple in ancient Dashnik
destinations, Hazarmuki Mahadev Mandir, Triveni Sangam, Voddh statues,
Lakhavnjara Wakr, caves etc. popular are the other popular tourist
Power generation in MP (31 Dec 2017)
The state has a total installed power generation capacity of 20119.32
MW (31 Dec 2017). The
Madhya Pradesh Electric Board is located at
Road network of Madhya Pradesh
Length (in km)
Major District Roads
Bus and train services cover most of Madhya Pradesh. The
99,043-kilometre-long (61,542 mi) road network of the state
includes 20 national highways. A 4,948-kilometre-long
(3,075 mi) rail network criss-crosses the state, with Jabalpur
serving as headquarters for the
West Central Railway
West Central Railway Zone of the
Indian Railways. The Central Railway and the Western Railway also
cover parts of the state. Most of the western
Madhya Pradesh comes
Ratlam Rail Division
Ratlam Rail Division of Western Railways, including cities like
Indore, Ujjain, Mandsaur, Khandwa, Neemuch and Bairagarh in Bhopal.
The state has a total of 20 major railway junctions. The major
inter-state bus terminals are located in Bhopal, Indore,
Jabalpur. More than 2000 buses are conducted daily from these four
cities. The intra-city transit systems mostly consist of buses,
private autos and taxis.
The state does not have a coastline. Most of the sea trade happens
Jawaharlal Nehru Port
Jawaharlal Nehru Port (Nhava Sheva) in the
neighbouring states, which are well-connected to MP by road and rail
The Devi Ahilyabai
Holkar Airport at
Indore is the busiest airport in
Raja Bhoj International Airport
Raja Bhoj International Airport in Bhopal, Dumna
Airport in Jabalpur,
Gwalior Airport and
Khajuraho Airport also have
scheduled commercial passenger services. Besides these, minor
airstrips are located at Sagar, Ratlam, Mandsaur, Ujjain, Khandwa,
Shivpuri and Satna.
The state has 51 district hospitals, 333 community health centres,
1,155 primary health centres and 8,860 sub-centres.
The urban infrastructure has improved considerably in the past decade.
22 projects costing above $500 million have been sanctioned under the
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission for the development of
Jabalpur and Ujjain.
Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Rashtriya
Hindi Mail, Nava Bharat,
Rajasthan Patrika, raj express, are the leading Hindi
newspapers. Other local newspapers are published in the cities. In
English Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hitavada, Central
Chronicle and Free Press have editions from
Bhopal with The Hitavada
also being in Jabalpur. A Sindhi daily, is published from
the only Sindhi newspaper in state.
Government and politics
Government of Madhya Pradesh and Legislative Assembly
of Madhya Pradesh
See also: List of
Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh
Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh and List of
Governors of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh has a 230-seat state legislative assembly. The state
also sends 40 members to the Parliament of India: 29 are elected to
Lok Sabha (Lower House) and 11 to the
Rajya Sabha (Upper House).
The constitutional head of the state is the Governor, appointed by the
President of India. The executionary powers lie with the Chief
Minister, who is the elected leader of the state legislature. As of
2016[update], the current governor is
Anandiben Patel , and the chief
Shivraj Singh Chouhan
Shivraj Singh Chouhan of the
Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
The dominant political parties in the state are the Bharatiya Janata
Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress. Unlike in many of the
neighbouring states, the small or regional parties have not had much
success in the state elections. In the November 2013 state elections,
the BJP won an absolute majority of 165 seats, defeating Congress
which won 58 seats.
Bahujan Samaj Party
Bahujan Samaj Party is the third major party in
the state legislature, with 4 seats while others won 3 seats.
See also: List of cities in
Madhya Pradesh by population
Madhya Pradesh state is made up of 51 Districts, which are grouped
into 10 divisions. As of 2013, the state has 51 jila (district)
panchayats, 369 tehsil, 313 janpad panchayats/blocks, and 23043 gram
(village) panchayats. The municipalities in the state include 16 Nagar
Nigams, 100 Nagar Palikas and 264 Nagar Panchayats.
See also: List of Engineering Colleges in Madhya Pradesh
Exams at the Mahatma Gandhi Seva Ashram, Jaura
Administration Block Institute Of Engineering & Science IPS
According to the 2011 census,
Madhya Pradesh had a literacy rate of
70.60%. According to the 2009–10 figures, the state had 105,592
primary schools, 6,352 high schools and 5,161 higher secondary
schools. The state has 208 engineering & architecture colleges,
208 management institutes and 12 medical colleges.
The state is home to some of the premier educational and research
India including Indian Institute of Science Education
and Research (IISER) Bhopal, IIM Indore, IIT Indore, NITTTR (Bhopal),
Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology(Bhopal), IIITDM Jabalpur
and IIITM Gwalior, Indian institute of Tourism and Travel
Management(IITTM, Gwalior), SPA Bhopal, IIFM (Bhopal), National Law
Institute University (Bhopal), Institute Of Engineering & Science
IPS Academy Indore, All
India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhopal,
Jabalpur Engineering College and Madhav Institute of Technology and
Science, Gwalior. The state also has a veterinary science university
(Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University) with three constituent
colleges at Jabalpur, Mhow and Rewa. First state private university of
MP is "Jaypee University Of Engineering & Technology, Guna" build
as very beautiful campus on NH-3. JUET is ranked 86 in top 100 as per
Gwalior - A Pioneer in Tourism Education
There are 500-degree colleges, which are affiliated with one of the
universities in the state. These universities include Jawaharlal Nehru
Madhya Pradesh Veterinary Sciences University,
Madhya Pradesh Medical Science University, Rajiv Gandhi Technical
Awadhesh Pratap Singh University (Rewa),
Barkatullah University (
Bhopal University), Devi Ahilya
Rani Durgavati University
Rani Durgavati University (Jabalpur), Vikram
Jiwaji University (Gwalior), Dr Hari Singh Gaur
University (Sagar University), Indira Gandhi National Tribal
University (Amarkantak, Anuppur) and Makhanlal Chaturvedi National
University of Journalism and Communication (Bhopal).
The Professional Examination Board was initialised as Pre Medical Test
Government of Madhya Pradesh in the year 1970. After some
year in 1981, Pre Engineering Board was constituted. Then after, in
the year 1982 both these Boards were amalgamated and named as Madhya
Pradesh Professional Examination Board (M.P.P.E.B.) also known as
Madhya Pradesh Professional Examination board(Old Name was Vyapam).
Main article: Tourism in Madhya Pradesh
In 2013, state govt declared Malkhamb as the state sport.
Cricket, Kabaddi, hockey, football, basketball, volleyball, cycling,
swimming, badminton and table tennis are the popular sports in the
state. Traditional games like kho kho, gilli danda, sitoliya, kanche
and langdi are popular in the rural areas.
Snooker, a cue sport, generally regarded as having been invented in
British Army officers, is popular in many of the
English-speaking and Commonwealth countries, with top professional
players attaining multimillion-pound career earnings from the game.
Cricket is the most popular sport in Madhya Pradesh. There are three
international cricket stadiums in the state – Nehru Stadium
Roop Singh Stadium
Roop Singh Stadium (Gwalior) and
Madhya Pradesh cricket team's best performances in Ranji
Trophy was in 1998–99, when the Chandrakant Pandit-led team ended as
the runner-up. Its predecessor, the Indore-based
Holkar cricket team,
had won the
Ranji Trophy four times.
Aishbagh Stadium in
Bhopal is the home ground for World Series Hockey
Bhopal Badshahs. The state also has a football team that
participates in the Santosh Trophy.
MP United FC is an Indian football that played in the 2nd Division
On 6 December 2017, the
Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh
Chouhan announced that players from the state would be given
government jobs on winning medals in international events.
Madhya Pradesh portal
Outline of Madhya Pradesh
List of people from Madhya Pradesh
Directorate Sports and Youth Welfare
Districts of Madhya Pradesh
^ a b "2011 Census of India" (PDF).
Madhya Pradesh Budget Analysis 2018–19" (PDF). PRS Legislative
Research. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
^ List of Indian states by sex ratio
^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report
(July 2008 to June 2010)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic
Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India.
pp. 122–126. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
^ "MP declares endangered 'Mahasheer' breed as state fish". Deccan
^ "Madhya Pradesh".
Madhya Pradesh topped the National Tourism Awards 2010-11".
jagranjosh.com. 1 January 2012.
Madhya Pradesh topples Bihar, new No 1 in economic growth".
Economic Times. 30 March 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
^ "The Hathnora Skull Fossil from Madhya Pradesh, India" (PDF).
Geological Survey of India. 20 September 2005. Retrieved 8 September
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India by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar: p.134
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Harshavardhana), by Chandra Mauli Mani: p.13
^ A Brief History of
India by Alain Daniélou p.185
^ History of
India by N. Jayapalan p.149–151
^ Dwarka Prasad Misha, ed. (1956). The History of freedom movement in
Madhya Pradesh. Govt. Print., Madhya Pradesh.
^ "जबलपुर के हाथ से बस इसलिए
निकल गई राजधानी की प्रबल
Madhya Pradesh for sight-seeing and shikar. Directorate of
Information and Publicity, Madhya Pradesh. 1964.
^ State of Forest Report (PDF). Forest Survey of
India (Ministry of
Environment & Forests). 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
^ Wild Life. Forest Department, Madhya Pradesh.
^ IANS. "MP Govt. to set up National Dinosaur Fossil Park in Dhar
district - ummid.com". www.ummid.com.
^ "Symbols of Madya Pradesh". knowindia.gov.in. Archived from the
original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
^ "Symbols of Madya Pradesh". Archived from the original on 19 October
2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
^ a b "State Symbols of MP".
Madhya Pradesh State Biodivesity Board.
Retrieved 25 June 2016.
^ "Madhya Pradesh" (PDF). ENVIS Centre on Floral Diversity. Retrieved
16 February 2016.
^ "State Animals, Birds, Trees and Flowers of India". ENVIS Centre on
Forestry. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance
India. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
^ Scheduled Castes & Scheduled
Tribe Welfare Department,
Government of Madhya Pradesh[permanent dead link]
^ Madhya Pradesh: Economic and Human Development Indicators, UNDP
^ "Hunger in
India states 'alarming'". BBC News. 14 October 2008.
Retrieved 12 May 2010.
^ "Yet again,
Madhya Pradesh tops in cases of feticide". The Times of
^ Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) at Current Prices (as on
15-03-2012), Planning Commission of India. Archived 16 May 2012 at the
Rajasthan Patrika. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
^ "51st REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA"
(PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. 15 July 2015.
p. 64. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
Madhya Pradesh Religion Census 2011". Office of the Registrar
General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2015-11-29.
^ "Census 2011 India". www.census2011.co.in.
^ Simon Broughton; Mark Ellingham; Richard Trillo (2000). World Music:
Latin and North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific. Rough
Guides. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-1-85828-636-5. Retrieved 13
^ "Folk Songs - govt-of-mp-india". Government of Madhya Pradesh.
Retrieved 14 August 2017.
^ "Folk Dances - govt-of-mp-india". Government of Madhya Pradesh.
Retrieved 14 August 2017.
^ "Per Capita Net State Domestic Product at Current Prices"
^ A special report on India: Ruled by Lakshmi 11 Dec 2008 from The
Economist print edition
^ a b Lemuel Lall (29 June 2012). "Madhya Pradesh's GDP goes up to 12
per cent". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
^ a b c d e f g h Madhya Pradesh:
India Brand Equity Foundation
^ "Madhya Pradesh: The Land of Diamonds" (PDF).
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^ Singhi, Ramendra. "State sport status to malkhamb". The Times of
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Gyanendra Singh. Farm Mechanization in Madhya Pradesh. Bhopal: Central
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Madhya Pradesh Human Development Report
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Madhya Pradesh, 2002].
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