The Info List - Madhya Pradesh

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Madhya Pradesh[6] (MP; /ˈmʌdjə prəˈdɛʃ/ ( listen); meaning Central Province) is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal
and the largest city is Indore
with Jabalpur, Gwalior, and Ujjain
being the other major cities. Nicknamed the "Heart of India" due to its geographical location in India, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
is the second-largest state in the country by area. With over 75 million inhabitants, it is the fifth-largest state in India
by population. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
to the northeast, Chhattisgarh
to the southeast, Maharashtra
to the south, Gujarat
to the west, and Rajasthan
to the northwest. Its total area is 308,252 km2. Before 2000, when Chhattisgarh
was a part of Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India
and the distance between the two furthest points inside the state, Singoli
and Konta, was 1500 km. Konta
is presently in Sukma district of Chattisgarh state. The area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
includes the area of the ancient Avanti Mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain
(also known as Avantika) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar
Central Provinces and Berar
and the Central India
Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
state was created with Nagpur
as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and northeastern portion of today's Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganised and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal
to form the new Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
state, the Marathi-speaking Vidarbha
region was removed and merged with the then Bombay State. This state was the largest in India
by area until 2000, when its southeastern Chhattisgarh
region was made as a separate state. Rich in mineral resources, MP has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under forest cover. Its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010–11.[7] In recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average.[8]


1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Location in India 2.2 Climate 2.3 Ecology 2.4 Flora and fauna

2.4.1 State symbols of Madhya Pradesh

2.5 Rivers 2.6 Regions

2.6.1 Cities

3 Demographics

3.1 Population 3.2 Languages 3.3 Religion 3.4 Culture

4 Economy 5 Infrastructure

5.1 Energy 5.2 Transport

5.2.1 Aviation

5.3 Other 5.4 Media

6 Government and politics 7 Administration 8 Education 9 Tourism 10 Sports 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Madhya Pradesh Isolated remains of Homo erectus
Homo erectus
found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era.[9] Painted pottery dated to the later mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka
rock shelters.[10] Chalcolithic
sites belonging to Kayatha
culture (2100–1800 BCE) and Malwa
culture (1700–1500 BCE) have been discovered in the western part of the state.[11]

rock painting, Bhimbetka, a UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Kandariya Mahadev, Khajuraho

Bateshwar temple complex, Padavli, Morena

Chausath Yogini Temple, Mitavli, Morena

Sahastra-bahu Temple, Gwalior

Teli Ka Mandir, Gwalior

Shiva Temple in Bhojpur

Lakshmi Temple, Orchha

Ancient temples, Amarkantak

Fort, Gwalior

The city of Ujjain
arose as a major centre in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti kingdom. Other kingdoms mentioned in ancient epics—Malava, Karusha, Dasarna and Nishada—have also been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh. Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
united northern India
around 320 BCE, establishing the Mauryan Empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. Ashoka
the greatest of Mauryan rulers brought the region under firmer control. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, and several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. Heliodorus, the Greek Ambassador to the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra erected the Heliodorus pillar
Heliodorus pillar
near Vidisha. Ujjain
emerged as the predominant commercial centre of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges
plain and India's Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
ports. The Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
of the northern Deccan and the Saka
dynasty of the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. The Satavahana
king Gautamiputra Satakarni
Gautamiputra Satakarni
inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Saka
rulers and conquered parts of Malwa
and Gujarat
in the 2nd century CE.[12] Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire
Gupta empire
in the 4th and 5th centuries, and their southern neighbours, the Vakataka's. The rock-cut temples at Bagh Caves
Bagh Caves
in the Kukshi tehsil of the Dhar
district attest to the presence of the Gupta dynasty in the region, supported by the testimony of a Badwani inscription dated to the year of 487 CE.[13] The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states. The king Yasodharman
of Malwa
defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. Later, Harsha
(c. 590–647) ruled the northern parts of the state. Malwa
was ruled by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty
Rashtrakuta Dynasty
from the late 8th century to the 10th century.[14] When the south Indian Emperor Govinda III
Govinda III
of the Rashtrakuta dynasty annexed Malwa, he set up the family of one of his subordinates there, who took the name of Paramara.[15] The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput
clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa
and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. The Chandellas built the majestic Hindu- Jain
temples at Khajuraho, which represent the culmination of Hindu temple architecture in Central India. The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty also held sway in northern and western Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
at this time. It also left some monuments of architectural value in Gwalior. Southern parts of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
like Malwa
were several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire which imposed its rule on the Paramara
kingdom of Malwa.[16] The Paramara
king Bhoja
(c. 1010–1060) was a renowned polymath. The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Gondwana
and Mahakoshal
regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
was conquered by the Turkic Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms re-emerged, including the Tomara kingdom of Gwalior
and the Muslim
Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu. The Malwa
Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of Gujarat
in 1531. In the 1540s, most parts of the state fell to Sher Shah Suri, and subsequently to the Hindu king Hemu. Hemu, who had earlier served as the General of the Suri dynasty, operated from the Gwalior
Fort during 1553–56 and became the ruler of Delhi
as a Vikramaditya king winning 22 battles continuously from Bengal to Gujrat and defeating Akbar's forces in the Battle of Delhi
on 7 October 1556. However, he chose Delhi
as his capital after his formal Coronation and left Gwalior. After Hemu's defeat by Akbar
at the Second Battle of Panipat
Second Battle of Panipat
in 1556, most of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
came under the Mughal rule. Gondwana
and Mahakoshal
remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy. The Mughal control weakened considerably after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb
in 1707. Between 1720 and 1760, the Marathas
took control of most of Madhya Pradesh, resulting in the establishment of semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Peshwa
of Pune: the Holkars of Indore
ruled much of Malwa, Puars ruled Dewas and Dhar, the Bhonsles of Nagpur
dominated Mahakoshal- Gondwana
area, while the Scindias of Gwalior
controlled the northern parts of the state. The most notable Maratha
rulers of the region were Mahadji Shinde, Ahilyabai Holkar
and Yashwantrao Holkar. Besides these, there were several other small states, including Bhopal, Orchha, and Rewa. The Bhopal
state, which paid tribute to both the Marathas
and the Nizam of Hyderabad, was founded by Dost Mohammed Khan, a former General in the Mughal army. After the Third Anglo- Maratha
War, the British took control of the entire region. All the sovereign states in the region became princely states of British India, governed by the Central India
Agency. The Mahakoshal
region became a British province: the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1861, the British merged the Nagpur
Province with the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories
Saugor and Nerbudda Territories
to form the Central Provinces. During the 1857 uprising, rebellions happened in the northern parts of the state, led by leaders like Tatya Tope. However, these were crushed by the British and the princes loyal to them. The state witnessed a number of anti-British activities and protests during the Indian independence movement.[17] Several notable leaders such as Chandra Shekhar Azad, B. R. Ambedkar, Shankar Dayal Sharma
Shankar Dayal Sharma
and Atal Bihari Vajpayee were born in what is now Madhya Pradesh. After the independence of India, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar
Central Provinces and Berar
and the princely states of Makrai
and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur
as the capital of the state. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya
Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India
Agency. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya
Pradesh, and Bhopal
were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Jabalpur
was chosen to be the capital of the state but at the last moment, due to some political pressure, Bhopal
was made the state capital.[18] In November 2000, as part of the Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Reorganization Act, the southeastern portion of the state split off to form the new state of Chhattisgarh. Geography[edit] Location in India[edit] Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
literally means "Central Province", and is located in the geographic heart of India, between latitude 21.2°N-26.87°N and longitude 74°59'-82°06' E. The state straddles the Narmada River, which runs east and west between the Vindhya
and Satpura
ranges; these ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundary between the north and south of India. The highest point in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
is Dhupgarh, with an elevation of 1,350 m (4,429 ft).[19] The state is bordered on the west by Gujarat, on the northwest by Rajasthan, on the northeast by Uttar Pradesh, on the east by Chhattisgarh, and on the south by Maharashtra.

Places adjacent to Madhya Pradesh

Rajasthan Rajasthan
- Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh


Madhya Pradesh


Maharashtra Maharashtra Chhattisgarh

Physical map of Madhya Pradesh

Climate[edit] Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
has a subtropical climate. Like most of north India, it has a hot dry summer (April–June), followed by monsoon rains (July–September) and a cool and relatively dry winter. The average rainfall is about 1,371 mm (54.0 in). The southeastern districts have the heaviest rainfall, some places receiving as much as 2,150 mm (84.6 in), while the western and northwestern districts receive 1,000 mm (39.4 in) or less. Ecology[edit] According to the 2011 figures, the recorded forest area of the state is 94,689 km2 (36,560 sq mi) constituting 30.72% of the geographical area of the state.[20] It constitutes 12.30% of the forest area of India. Legally this area has been classified into "Reserved Forest" (65.3%), "Protected Forest" (32.84%) and "Unclassified Forest" (0.18%). Per capita forest area is 2,400 m2 (0.59 acres) as against the national average of 700 m2 (0.17 acres). The forest cover is less dense in the northern and western parts of the state, which contain the major urban centres. Variability in climatic and edaphic conditions brings about significant difference in the forest types of the state. The major types of soils found in the state are:

Black soil, most predominantly in the Malwa
region, Mahakoshal
and in southern Bundelkhand Red and yellow soil, in the Baghelkhand
region Alluvial soil, in Northern Madhya Pradesh Laterite
soil, in highland areas Mixed soil, in parts of the Gwalior
and Chambal divisions

Flora and fauna[edit] Main article: Flora and fauna of Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
is home to ten National Parks; Bandhavgarh
National Park, Kanha National Park, Satpura
National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park, Mandla
Plant Fossils National Park, Panna National Park, Pench National Park
Pench National Park
and Dinosaur National Park, Dhar.[21] [22] There are also a number of nature reserves, including Amarkantak, Bagh Caves, Balaghat, Bori Natural Reserve, Ken Gharial, Ghatigaon, Kuno Palpur, Narwar, Chambal, Kukdeshwar, Narsinghgarh, Nora Dehi, Pachmarhi, Panpatha, Shikarganj, Patalkot, and Tamia. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve in Satpura
Range, Amarkantak
biosphere reserve and Panna National Park
Panna National Park
are three of the 18 biosphere reserves in India. Most of them are located in the Eastern Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
near Jabalpur.

Langur monkey (Semnopithecus dussumieri), Orchha

Tigress with cubs in Kanha Tiger Reserve

Tickell's blue flycatcher, Bandhavgarh
National Park

Vultures in the nest, Orchha

Male nilgais fighting, Lakeshwari, Gwalior

Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Pench, Panna, and Satpura
National Parks are managed as Project Tiger
Project Tiger
areas. The National Chambal Sanctuary
National Chambal Sanctuary
is managed for conservation of gharial and mugger, river dolphin, smooth-coated otter and a number of turtle species. Ken-gharial and Son-gharial sanctuaries are managed for conservation of gharial and mugger. The barasingha is the state animal and the dudhraj is the state bird of Madhya Pradesh. Based on composition, the teak and sal forests are the important forest formations in the state. Bamboo-bearing areas are widely distributed. State symbols of Madhya Pradesh[edit]

Title Symbol Image

State animal Barasingha[23][24] (Rucervus duvaucelii)

State bird Indian paradise flycatcher
Indian paradise flycatcher
(Terpsiphone paradisi)[25]

State tree banyan tree (ficus bengalensis)[26]

State fish Mahasheer (Tor tor)[25]

State Flower Madonna lily ( Lilium


Narmada River

Son River, Umaria district, MP, India

Ken River
Ken River

The River Narmada flows through a gorge of marble rocks in Bhedaghat, Jabalpur

The Shri Ram Ghat on the Shipra River
Shipra River
in Ujjain

Betwa in the Ashoknagar District of Madhya Pradesh

The Narmada is the longest river in Madhya Pradesh. It flows westward through a rift valley, with the Vindhya
ranges sprawling along its northern bank and the Satpura
range of mountains along the southern. Its tributaries include the Banjar, the Tawa, the Machna, the Shakkar, the Denwa
and the Sonbhardra rivers. The Tapti River
Tapti River
runs parallel to Narmada, and also flows through a rift valley. The Narmada–Tapti systems carry an enormous volume of water and provide drainage for almost a quarter of the land area of Madhya Pradesh. The Narmada river is considered very sacred and is worshipped throughout the region. It is the main source of water and acts as a lifeline to the state. The Vindhyas
form the southern boundary of the Ganges
basin, with the western part of the Ganges
basin draining into the Yamuna
and the eastern part directly into the Ganges
itself. All the rivers, which drain into the Ganges, flow from south to north, with the Chambal, Shipra, Kali Sindh, Parbati, Kuno, Sind, Betwa, Dhasan and Ken rivers being the main tributaries of the Yamuna. Shipra River
Shipra River
is one of the most sacred rivers of Hinduism. It is the site of the Simhastha Kumbh Mela, which is held every 12 years. The land drained by these rivers is agriculturally rich, with the natural vegetation largely consisting of grass and dry deciduous forest types, largely thorny. The eastern part of the Ganges
basin consists of the Son, the Tons and the Rihand Rivers. Son, which arises in the Maikal hills around Amarkantak, is the largest tributary that goes into the Ganges
on the south bank and that does not arise from the Himalayas. Son and its tributaries contribute the bulk of the monsoon flow into the Ganges, because the north bank tributaries are all snow fed. The forests in their basins are much richer than the thorn forests of the northwestern part of Madhya Pradesh. After the formation of Chhattisgarh
State, the major portion of Mahanadi
basin now lies in Chhattisgarh. Presently, only 154 km2 basin area of Hasdeo River in Anuppur District lies in Madhya Pradesh. The Satpuras, in the Gawilgarh
and Mahadeo Hills, also contain a watershed, which is south facing. The Wainganga, the Wardha, the Pench, the Kanhan rivers, discharge an enormous volume of water into the Godavari river system. The Godavari basin consists of sub-tropical, semi-moist forests, mainly in the valley of the Indrawati. There are many important multi-state irrigation projects in development, including the Godavari River
Godavari River
Basin Irrigation Projects. Regions[edit] Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
is divided into the following agro-climatic zones:

Kaimur Plateau and Satpura
Hills Vindhyan Plateau (Hills) Narmada valley Wainganga
valley Gird (Gwalior) Region Bundelkhand
Region Satpura
Plateau (Hills) Malwa
Plateau Nimar Plateau Jhabua
Hills Leeshiv Gidaila

Cities[edit] Main article: List of cities in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
by population Demographics[edit] Population[edit]


Census Pop.

1951 18,615,000

1961 23,218,000


1971 30,017,000


1981 38,169,000


1991 48,566,000


2001 60,348,000


2011 72,597,565


Source:Census of India[28]

The population of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
consists of a number of ethnic groups and tribes, castes and communities, including the indigenous tribals and relatively more recent migrants from other states. The scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes constitute a significant portion of the population of the State. The main tribal groups in Madhya Pradesh are Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhadia (or Bhariya), Halba, Kaul, Mariya, Malto and Sahariya. Dhar, Jhabua
and Mandla
districts have more than 50 percent tribal population. In Khargone, Chhindwara, Seoni, Sidhi, Singrauli
and Shahdol
districts 30–50 percent population is of tribes. According to the 2011 census, the adivasi population in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
was 73.34 million, constituting 21.1% of the total population. There were 46 recognised Scheduled Tribes and three of them have been identified as " Special
Primitive Tribal Groups" in the State.[29] Due to the different linguistic, cultural and geographical environment, and its peculiar complications, the diverse tribal world of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
has been largely cut off from the mainstream of development. Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
ranks very low on the Human Development Index value of 0.375 (2011), which is below the national average.[30] According to the India
State Hunger Index (2008) compiled by the International Food Policy Research Institute, the malnutrition situation in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
was "extremely alarming", receiving a severity rating between Ethiopia
and Chad.[31] The state ranks is also the worst performer in India, when it comes to female foeticides.[32] The state's per-capita gross state domestic product (nominal GDP) is the fourth lowest in the country (2010–11).[33] MP is also the lowest-ranked state on the India
State Hunger Index. Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
is one of the worst-affected states as far as malnutrition is concerned. The recent National Family Health Survey 2015–16 points out that Panna has 43.1 per cent stunted children, 24.7 per cent wasted and 40.3 per cent underweight children. Similar was the case in rural Chhatarpur where 44.4 per cent children are stunted, 17.8 per cent wasted and 41.2 per cent underweight, as per the report. See also: Tribals in Madhya Pradesh

Children in Raisen district, Bhil

Shepherds in Chambal

A young farmer in Umaria district

Young Baiga women


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The official language of the state is Hindi[34]. In addition Marathi is spoken by a substantial number of the population since the state was home to several important and prestigious Maratha
states. The state in fact has the highest concentration of Marathi people
Marathi people
outside Maharashtra. Several regional variants are spoken, which are considered by some[according to whom?] to be dialects of Hindi, and by others[according to whom?] to be distinct but related languages. Among these dialects are Malvi in Malwa, Nimadi in Nimar, Bundeli in Bundelkhand, and Bagheli in Bagelkhand
and the southeast, and Rajasthani in the area near to Rajasthan. Each of these languages has dialects of its own. Other languages include Telugu, Bhilodi (Bhili), Gondi, Korku, Kalto (Nahali), and Nihali (Nahali), all spoken by tribal groups. The following languages are taught in schools in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
under the Three Language Formula:[35] First Language: Hindi, Urdu, English, Oriya, Marathi, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Punjabi, Bengali, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada Second Language: Hindi, Urdu, English Third Language: Hindi, English, Sanskrit, Marathi, Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu, Tamil, Arabic, Malayalam, Persian, French, Russian, Oriya, Kannada Religion[edit] According to the census of 2011, 90.9% of the MP residents followed Hinduism, while others are Muslim
(6.6%), Jain
(0.8%), Buddhists (0.3%), Christians (0.3%), and Sikhs

Religion in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
(2011)[37]    Hinduism
(90.89%)    Islam
(6.57%)   Other religion (0.83%)    Jainism
(0.78%)    Buddhism
(0.30%)    Christianity
(0.29%)   No religion (0.13%)    Sikhism


Bagh Print
Bagh Print
Traditional hand block print craft in Bagh

A man playing flute in Orchha, with a white tilak on his forehead, and holy saffron-coloured clothes.

Sand sculpture by Sudarshan Pattnaik
Sudarshan Pattnaik
at Bandrabhan near Hoshangabad

Four sites in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO: the Khajuraho Group of Monuments
Khajuraho Group of Monuments
(1986) including Devi Jagadambi temple, Khajuraho, Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi
(1989) and the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka
(2003). Other architecturally significant or scenic sites include Ajaigarh, Amarkantak, Asirgarh, Bandhavgarh, Bawangaja, Bhopal, Vidisha, Chanderi, Chitrakuta, Dhar, Gwalior, Indore, Namavar Jabalpur, Burhanpur, Maheshwar, Mandleshwar, Mandu, Omkareshwar, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Shivpuri, Sonagiri, Mandla
and Ujjain. Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
is noted for its classical and folk music. Some of the noted Hindustani classical music
Hindustani classical music
gharanas in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
include the Maihar gharana, the Gwalior
gharana and Senia gharana. Two of the medieval India's most noted singers, Tansen
and Baiju Bawra, were born near Gwalior
in present-day Madhya Pradesh. Noted Dhrupad
exponents Aminuddin Dagar (Indore), Gundecha Brothers
Gundecha Brothers
(Ujjain) and Uday Bhawalkar (Ujjain) were also born in present-day Madhya Pradesh.[38] The birthplaces of noted playback singers Kishore Kumar
Kishore Kumar
(Khandwa) and Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar
(Indore) and singer and composer Aadesh Shrivastava (Jabalpur) are also located in MP. The local styles of folk singing include Faga, Bhartahari, Sanja geet, Bhopa, Kalbelia, Bhat/Bhand/Charan, Vasdeva, Videsia, Kalgi Turra, Nirgunia, Alha, Pandwani Gayan and Garba Garbi Govalan.[39] The major folk dances of MP are Rai,Karma,Saila, Matki, Gangaur, Badhai, Baredi, Naurata, Ahiri and Bhagoria.[40] Economy[edit]

Woman harvesting wheat, Raisen district

Main article: Economy of Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh's gross state domestic product (nominal GDP) for 2013-14 was ₹ 4,509 billion (approximately US$ 72,726,000,000). The per-capita figure was US$ 871.45 in 2013-14, the sixth-lowest in the country.[41] Between 1999 and 2008, the annualised growth rate of the state was very low: 3.5%.[42] Subsequently, the state's GDP growth rate has improved significantly, rising to 8% during 2010–11 and 12% during 2011–12.[43] Madhya pradesh is also famous for honey production in district Morena. The state has an agrarian economy.[43] The major crops of Madhya Pradesh are wheat, soybean, gram, sugarcane, rice, maize, cotton, rapeseed, mustard and arhar.[44] Minor Forest Produce (MFP), such as tendu leaves used to roll beedi, sal seed, teak seed, and lak also contribute to state's rural economy. Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
has 5 Special Economic Zones
Special Economic Zones
(SEZs): 3 IT/ITeS (Indore, Gwalior), 1 mineral-based (Jabalpur) and 1 agro-based (Jabalpur). In October 2011, approval was given to 14 proposed SEZs, out of which 10 were IT/ITeS-based.[44] Indore
is the major commercial centre of the state. Because of the state's central location, a number of consumer goods companies have established manufacturing bases in MP.[44] The state has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India. Other major mineral reserves include those of coal, coalbed methane, manganese and dolomite.[44] Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
has six Ordnance Factories, four of which are located at Jabalpur
(Vehicle Factory, Grey Iron Foundry, Gun Carriage Factory, Ordnance Factory Khamaria) and one each at Katni and Itarsi. The factories are run by the Ordnance Factories
Ordnance Factories
Board, and manufacture a variety of products for the Indian Armed Forces. Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
won the 10th National Award for excellent work in Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005. The state's tourism industry is growing, fuelled by wildlife tourism and a number of places of historical and religious significance. Sanchi
and Khajuraho
are frequented by external tourists. Besides the major cities, Bhedaghat, Bhimbetka, Bhojpur, Maheshwar, Mandu, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Kanha, Jabalpur
and Ujjain, Tumen Vindhyavasini temple ancient temple. This south facing Ashok Nagar district located in Tuman (Tumvn). Yho digging in the release of the ancient statues it is known as the city of Raja Mordwaj Yho Vlram temple in ancient Dashnik destinations, Hazarmuki Mahadev Mandir, Triveni Sangam, Voddh statues, Lakhavnjara Wakr, caves etc. popular are the other popular tourist destinations. Infrastructure[edit] Energy[edit]

Power generation in MP (31 Dec 2017)[45]

Power Capacity (MW)









The state has a total installed power generation capacity of 20119.32 MW (31 Dec 2017). The Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Electric Board is located at Jabalpur. Transport[edit]

Road network of Madhya Pradesh[44]

Road type Length (in km)

National Highways


State Highways


Major District Roads


Bus and train services cover most of Madhya Pradesh. The 99,043-kilometre-long (61,542 mi) road network of the state includes 20 national highways.[44] A 4,948-kilometre-long (3,075 mi) rail network criss-crosses the state, with Jabalpur serving as headquarters for the West Central Railway
West Central Railway
Zone of the Indian Railways. The Central Railway and the Western Railway also cover parts of the state. Most of the western Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
comes under Ratlam Rail Division
Ratlam Rail Division
of Western Railways, including cities like Indore, Ujjain, Mandsaur, Khandwa, Neemuch and Bairagarh in Bhopal. The state has a total of 20 major railway junctions. The major inter-state bus terminals are located in Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior
and Jabalpur. More than 2000 buses are conducted daily from these four cities. The intra-city transit systems mostly consist of buses, private autos and taxis. The state does not have a coastline. Most of the sea trade happens through the Kandla
and Jawaharlal Nehru Port
Jawaharlal Nehru Port
(Nhava Sheva) in the neighbouring states, which are well-connected to MP by road and rail networks. Aviation[edit] The Devi Ahilyabai Holkar
Airport at Indore
is the busiest airport in Madhya Pradesh. Raja Bhoj International Airport
Raja Bhoj International Airport
in Bhopal, Dumna Airport in Jabalpur, Gwalior
Airport and Khajuraho
Airport also have scheduled commercial passenger services. Besides these, minor airstrips are located at Sagar, Ratlam, Mandsaur, Ujjain, Khandwa, Rewa, Shivpuri
and Satna. Other[edit] The state has 51 district hospitals, 333 community health centres, 1,155 primary health centres and 8,860 sub-centres.[46] The urban infrastructure has improved considerably in the past decade. 22 projects costing above $500 million have been sanctioned under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
for the development of Bhopal, Indore, Jabalpur
and Ujjain.[44] Media[edit] Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Rashtriya Hindi
Mail[47], Nava Bharat, Nai Duniya, Rajasthan
Patrika, raj express, are the leading Hindi newspapers. Other local newspapers are published in the cities. In English Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Hitavada, Central Chronicle and Free Press have editions from Bhopal
with The Hitavada also being in Jabalpur. A Sindhi daily, is published from Bhopal
is the only Sindhi newspaper in state. Government and politics[edit] Main articles: Government of Madhya Pradesh and Legislative Assembly of Madhya Pradesh See also: List of Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh
Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh
and List of Governors of Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
has a 230-seat state legislative assembly. The state also sends 40 members to the Parliament of India: 29 are elected to the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(Lower House) and 11 to the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
(Upper House). The constitutional head of the state is the Governor, appointed by the President of India. The executionary powers lie with the Chief Minister, who is the elected leader of the state legislature. As of 2016[update], the current governor is Anandiben Patel
Anandiben Patel
, and the chief minister is Shivraj Singh Chouhan
Shivraj Singh Chouhan
of the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP). The dominant political parties in the state are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress. Unlike in many of the neighbouring states, the small or regional parties have not had much success in the state elections. In the November 2013 state elections, the BJP won an absolute majority of 165 seats, defeating Congress which won 58 seats. Bahujan Samaj Party
Bahujan Samaj Party
is the third major party in the state legislature, with 4 seats while others won 3 seats. Administration[edit] See also: List of cities in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
by population Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
state is made up of 51 Districts, which are grouped into 10 divisions. As of 2013, the state has 51 jila (district) panchayats, 369 tehsil, 313 janpad panchayats/blocks, and 23043 gram (village) panchayats. The municipalities in the state include 16 Nagar Nigams, 100 Nagar Palikas and 264 Nagar Panchayats.[48] Education[edit] See also: List of Engineering Colleges in Madhya Pradesh

Exams at the Mahatma Gandhi Seva Ashram, Jaura

IIITDM Jabalpur

Administration Block Institute Of Engineering & Science IPS Academy

According to the 2011 census, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
had a literacy rate of 70.60%. According to the 2009–10 figures, the state had 105,592 primary schools, 6,352 high schools and 5,161 higher secondary schools. The state has 208 engineering & architecture colleges, 208 management institutes and 12 medical colleges.[44] The state is home to some of the premier educational and research institutions of India
including Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Bhopal, IIM Indore, IIT Indore, NITTTR (Bhopal), Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology(Bhopal), IIITDM Jabalpur and IIITM Gwalior, Indian institute of Tourism and Travel Management(IITTM, Gwalior), SPA Bhopal, IIFM (Bhopal), National Law Institute University (Bhopal), Institute Of Engineering & Science IPS Academy Indore, All India
Institute of Medical Sciences Bhopal, Jabalpur
Engineering College and Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior. The state also has a veterinary science university (Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University) with three constituent colleges at Jabalpur, Mhow and Rewa. First state private university of MP is "Jaypee University Of Engineering & Technology, Guna" build as very beautiful campus on NH-3. JUET is ranked 86 in top 100 as per NIRF.

IITTM, Gwalior
- A Pioneer in Tourism Education

There are 500-degree colleges, which are affiliated with one of the universities in the state. These universities include Jawaharlal Nehru Agriculture University, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Veterinary Sciences University, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Medical Science University, Rajiv Gandhi Technical University (Bhopal), Awadhesh Pratap Singh University (Rewa), Barkatullah University
Barkatullah University
( Bhopal
University), Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya (Indore), Rani Durgavati University
Rani Durgavati University
(Jabalpur), Vikram University (Ujjain), Jiwaji University
Jiwaji University
(Gwalior), Dr Hari Singh Gaur University (Sagar University), Indira Gandhi National Tribal University (Amarkantak, Anuppur) and Makhanlal Chaturvedi National University of Journalism and Communication (Bhopal). The Professional Examination Board was initialised as Pre Medical Test Board by Government of Madhya Pradesh in the year 1970. After some year in 1981, Pre Engineering Board was constituted. Then after, in the year 1982 both these Boards were amalgamated and named as Madhya Pradesh Professional Examination Board (M.P.P.E.B.) also known as Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Professional Examination board(Old Name was Vyapam). Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Madhya Pradesh Sports[edit] In 2013, state govt declared Malkhamb as the state sport.[49] Cricket, Kabaddi, hockey, football, basketball, volleyball, cycling, swimming, badminton and table tennis are the popular sports in the state. Traditional games like kho kho, gilli danda, sitoliya, kanche and langdi are popular in the rural areas. Snooker, a cue sport, generally regarded as having been invented in Jabalpur
by British Army
British Army
officers, is popular in many of the English-speaking and Commonwealth countries, with top professional players attaining multimillion-pound career earnings from the game. Cricket
is the most popular sport in Madhya Pradesh. There are three international cricket stadiums in the state – Nehru Stadium (Indore), Roop Singh Stadium
Roop Singh Stadium
(Gwalior) and Holkar
Stadium (Indore). Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
cricket team's best performances in Ranji Trophy was in 1998–99, when the Chandrakant Pandit-led team ended as the runner-up. Its predecessor, the Indore-based Holkar
cricket team, had won the Ranji Trophy
Ranji Trophy
four times. Aishbagh Stadium in Bhopal
is the home ground for World Series Hockey team Bhopal
Badshahs. The state also has a football team that participates in the Santosh Trophy. MP United FC is an Indian football that played in the 2nd Division I-League. On 6 December 2017, the Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan announced that players from the state would be given government jobs on winning medals in international events. See also[edit]

Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh

Outline of Madhya Pradesh List of people from Madhya Pradesh Directorate Sports and Youth Welfare Districts of Madhya Pradesh Bagh Prints


^ a b "2011 Census of India" (PDF).  ^ " Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Budget Analysis 2018–19" (PDF). PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 5 March 2018.  ^ List of Indian states by sex ratio ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126. Retrieved 16 February 2012.  ^ "MP declares endangered 'Mahasheer' breed as state fish". Deccan Herald.  ^ "Madhya Pradesh".  ^ " Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
topped the National Tourism Awards 2010-11". jagranjosh.com. 1 January 2012.  ^ " Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
topples Bihar, new No 1 in economic growth". Economic Times. 30 March 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.  ^ "The Hathnora Skull Fossil from Madhya Pradesh, India" (PDF). Geological Survey of India. 20 September 2005. Retrieved 8 September 2012.  ^ Kenneth A. R. Kennedy (8 September 2000). God-Apes and Fossil Men: Paleoanthropology of South Asia. University of Michigan Press. pp. 206–. ISBN 978-0-472-11013-1. Retrieved 8 September 2012.  ^ Vinod Chandra Srivastava (2 January 2008). History of Agriculture in India, Up to C. 1200 A.D. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 309–317. ISBN 978-81-8069-521-6. Retrieved 8 September 2012.  ^ Ancient India
by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar: p.134 ^ Verma, Archana (2007). Cultural and Visual Flux at Early Historical Bagh in Central India, Oxford: Archaeopress, ISBN 978-1-4073-0151-8, p.19 ^ A Journey through India's Past (Great Hindu Kings after Harshavardhana), by Chandra Mauli Mani: p.13 ^ A Brief History of India
by Alain Daniélou p.185 ^ History of India
by N. Jayapalan p.149–151 ^ Dwarka Prasad Misha, ed. (1956). The History of freedom movement in Madhya Pradesh. Govt. Print., Madhya Pradesh.  ^ "जबलपुर के हाथ से बस इसलिए निकल गई राजधानी की प्रबल दावेदारी".  ^ Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
for sight-seeing and shikar. Directorate of Information and Publicity, Madhya Pradesh. 1964. OCLC 8112689.  ^ State of Forest Report (PDF). Forest Survey of India
(Ministry of Environment & Forests). 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2012.  ^ Wild Life. Forest Department, Madhya Pradesh. ^ IANS. "MP Govt. to set up National Dinosaur Fossil Park in Dhar district - ummid.com". www.ummid.com.  ^ "Symbols of Madya Pradesh". knowindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013.  ^ "Symbols of Madya Pradesh". Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013.  ^ a b "State Symbols of MP". Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
State Biodivesity Board. Retrieved 25 June 2016.  ^ "Madhya Pradesh" (PDF). ENVIS Centre on Floral Diversity. Retrieved 16 February 2016.  ^ "State Animals, Birds, Trees and Flowers of India". ENVIS Centre on Forestry. Retrieved 10 January 2017.  ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 18 December 2008.  ^ Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribe
Welfare Department, Government of Madhya Pradesh[permanent dead link] ^ Madhya Pradesh: Economic and Human Development Indicators, UNDP (2011) ^ "Hunger in India
states 'alarming'". BBC News. 14 October 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2010.  ^ "Yet again, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
tops in cases of feticide". The Times of India.  ^ Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) at Current Prices (as on 15-03-2012), Planning Commission of India. Archived 16 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Hindi
News". Rajasthan
Patrika. Retrieved 8 December 2017.  ^ "51st REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. 15 July 2015. p. 64. Retrieved 15 February 2018.  ^ " Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Religion Census 2011". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2015-11-29.  ^ "Census 2011 India". www.census2011.co.in.  ^ Simon Broughton; Mark Ellingham; Richard Trillo (2000). World Music: Latin and North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific. Rough Guides. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-1-85828-636-5. Retrieved 13 September 2012.  ^ "Folk Songs - govt-of-mp-india". Government of Madhya Pradesh. Retrieved 14 August 2017.  ^ "Folk Dances - govt-of-mp-india". Government of Madhya Pradesh. Retrieved 14 August 2017.  ^ "Per Capita Net State Domestic Product at Current Prices" (PDF).  ^ A special report on India: Ruled by Lakshmi 11 Dec 2008 from The Economist print edition ^ a b Lemuel Lall (29 June 2012). "Madhya Pradesh's GDP goes up to 12 per cent". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 September 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h Madhya Pradesh: India
Brand Equity Foundation ^ http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/installedcapacity/2017/installed_capacity-12.pdf ^ "Madhya Pradesh: The Land of Diamonds" (PDF). India
Brand Equity Foundation. March 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.  ^ https://www.nseindia.com/emerge/corporates/content/Surevin_RHP.pdf ^ " Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
State Biodiversity Board".  ^ Singhi, Ramendra. "State sport status to malkhamb". The Times of India. Retrieved 24 December 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Gyanendra Singh. Farm Mechanization in Madhya Pradesh. Bhopal: Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 2000. Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
(India). The Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Human Development Report 2002: Using the Power of Democracy for Development. [Bhopal: Govt. of Madhya Pradesh, 2002]. Guru Radha Kishan Swatantrata Sangraam Senani from Madhya Pradesh: Archives Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, New Delhi. Rag, Pankaj. Vintage, Madhya Pradesh: A Collection of Old Photographs. Bhopal: Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhyam jointly with the Directorate of Archaeology, Archives, and Museums, 2005. ISBN 81-902702-7-3 Parmar, Shyam. Folk Tales of Madhya Pradesh. Folk tales of India series, 12". New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1973. Rag, Pankaj, and O. P. Misra. Masterpieces of Madhya Pradesh. Bhopal: Directorate of Archaeology, Archives & Museums, Government of Madhya Pradesh, 2005. Sampath, M. D., H. V. Trivedi, and Mandan Trivedi. Epigraphs of Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 2001. Sati, Vishwambhar Prasad. Madhya Pradesh, a Geo-Economic Appraisal. Delhi: Abhijeet, 2004. ISBN 81-88683-43-4 Shah, Shampa, and Aashi Manohar. Tribal Arts and Crafts of Madhya Pradesh. Living traditions of India. Ahmedabad: Mapin Pub./in Association with Vanya Prakashan, Bhopal, 1996. ISBN 0-944142-71-0 Shrivastava, Divya. The Development of Scheduled Tribes in Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Gyan Pub. House, 2000. ISBN 81-212-0698-7 Singh, R. V. Dairy Co-Operatives and Development: A Study of Tribal Dairy Co-Operatives in Madhya Pradesh. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, 2006. ISBN 81-7835-331-8

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v t e

State of Madhya Pradesh

Capital: Bhopal

State symbols

Animal: Barasingha Bird: Dudhraj Fish: Mahseer Flower: Lily River: Narmada Tree: Banyan Highest point: Dhupgarh




Governors Chief Ministers Legislative Assembly High Court Police


Bhopal Morena Gwalior Indore Jabalpur Narmadapuram Rewa Sagar Shahdol Ujjain


Agar Malwa Alirajpur Anuppur Ashoknagar Balaghat Barwani Betul Bhind Bhopal Burhanpur Chhatarpur Chhindwara Damoh Datia Dewas Dhar Dindori Guna Gwalior Harda Hoshangabad Indore Jabalpur Jhabua Katni Khandwa Khargone Mandla Mandsaur Morena Narsinghpur Neemuch Panna Raisen Rajgarh Ratlam Rewa Sagar Satna Sehore Seoni Shahdol Sidhi Singrauli Shajapur Sheopur Shivpuri Tikamgarh Ujjain Umaria Vidisha

Major cities

Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur Ujjain Sagar Rewa Morena

v t e

States and union territories of India


Arunachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Telangana Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal

Union Territories

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli National Capital Territory of Delhi Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Puducherry

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 240892345 GND: 4234626-5 BNF: