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Madhva Acharya
Acharya
(ಮಧ್ವಾಚಾರ್ಯರು)(Sanskrit pronunciation: [məd̪ʱʋɑːˈtʃɑːrjə]; CE 1238–1317 [5]), also known as Purna Prajña and Ananda Teertha, was a Hindu philosopher and the chief proponent of the Dvaita
Dvaita
(dualism) school of Vedanta.[1][6] Madhva called his philosophy "Tattvavada" meaning "the realist viewpoint".[6] Madhvācārya was born on the west coast of Karnataka
Karnataka
state in 13th-century India.[7] As a teenager, he became a Sanyasi (monk) joining Brahma-sampradaya guru Achyutapreksha, of the Ekadandi order.[1][3] Madhva studied the classics of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, particularly the Principal Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and the Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
(Prasthanatrayi).[1] He commented on these, and is credited with thirty seven works in Sanskrit.[8] His writing style was of extreme brevity and condensed expression. His greatest work is considered to be the Anuvyakhyana, a philosophical supplement to his bhasya on the Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
composed with a poetic structure.[7] In some of his works, he proclaimed himself to be an avatar of Vayu, the son of god Vishnu.[9][10] He was a critic of Adi Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
teachings.[6][7] He toured India
India
several times, visiting places such as Bengal, Varanasi, Dwarka, Goa and Kanyakumari, engaging in philosophical debates and visiting Hindu centres of learning.[8] Madhva established the Krishna
Krishna
Mutt at Udupi with a murti secured from Dwarka
Dwarka
Gujarat in CE 1285.[7] Madhvācārya's teachings are built on the premise that there is a fundamental difference between Atman (individual soul, self) and the Brahman
Brahman
(ultimate reality, God Vishnu), these are two different unchanging realities, with individual soul dependent on Brahman, never identical.[6] His school's theistic dualism teachings disagreed with the monist[11] teachings of the other two most influential schools of Vedanta
Vedanta
based on Advaita's nondualism and Vishishtadvaita's qualified nondualism.[6][12] Liberation, asserted Madhva, is achievable only through the grace of God.[6][13] The Dvaita
Dvaita
school founded by Madhva influenced Vaishnavism, the Bhakti movement
Bhakti movement
in medieval India, and has been one of the three influential Vedānta philosophies, along with Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta.[14][7][15] Madhva's historical influence in Hinduism, state Kulandran and Kraemer, has been salutary, but not extensive.[10]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Self proclamation as being avatar of Wind god

2 Works of Madhvacharya 3 Madhva's philosophy

3.1 Epistemology 3.2 Metaphysics

3.2.1 Nature of the Brahman 3.2.2 Atat tvam asi

3.3 Soteriology 3.4 Ethics

4 Views on other schools 5 Influence

5.1 Hindu-Christian controversies 5.2 Monasteries

6 Film 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Biography[edit]

Udupi, Sri Krishna
Krishna
Temple established by Madhvacharya

The biography of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
is unclear.[16] Many sources date him to 1238–1317 period,[14][17] but some place him about the 1199-1278 period.[16][18] Madhvācārya was born in Pajaka
Pajaka
near Udupi, a coastal Malabar region of south-west India
India
in the state of Karnataka.[19] Traditionally it is believed that Naddantillaya (Sanskrit: Madhyageha, Madhyamandira) was the name of his father and Vedavati was Madhvācārya's mother.[19] Born in a Vaishnavite Brahmin
Brahmin
household, he was named Vāsudeva.[19] Later he became famous by the names Purnaprajna, Anandatirtha and Madhvacarya (or just Madhva).[7] Pūrnaprajña was the name given to him at the time of his initiation into sannyasa (renunciation), as a teenager.[19] The name conferred on him when he became the head of his monastery was "Ānanda Tīrtha".[19] All three of his later names are found in his works.[1] Madhvācārya or Madhva are names most commonly found in modern literature on him, or Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
related literature.[7][6] Madhva began his school after his Upanayana
Upanayana
at age seven, became a monk or Sannyasi in his teenage.[19] He joined an Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta monastery in Dwarka
Dwarka
(Gujarat),[3] accepted his guru to be Achyutrapreksha,[16] who is also referred to as Achyutraprajna in some sources.[1] Madhva studied the Upanishads
Upanishads
and the Advaita
Advaita
literature, but was unconvinced by its nondualism philosophy of oneness of human soul and god, had frequent disagreements with his guru,[19] left the monastery, and began his own Dvaita
Dvaita
movement based on dualism premises of Dvi – asserting that human soul and god (as Vishnu) are two different things.[16] Madhva never acknowledged Achyutrapreksha as his guru or his monastic lineage in his writings.[3] According to Dehsen, perhaps there were two individuals named Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
in 13th century India, with Anandatirtha – the younger Madhva being the most important early disciple of the elder Madhvacharya, and their works and life overlapped in Udupi, Tattvavada being the name adopted for Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
by Anandatirtha.[16] Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
established a matha (monastery) dedicated to Dvaita philosophy, and this became the sanctuary for a series of Dvaita scholars such as Jayatirtha, Vyasatirtha, Vadiraja Tirtha
Vadiraja Tirtha
and Raghavendra Tirtha
Raghavendra Tirtha
who followed in footsteps of Madhva.[16][20] A number of hagiographies have been written by Madhva's disciples and followers. Of these, the most referred to is the sixteen cantos Sanskrit
Sanskrit
biography Madhvavijaya by Nārāyana Panditācārya – son of Trivikrama Pandita, who himself was a disciple of Madhva.[7] Self proclamation as being avatar of Wind god[edit] In several of his texts, state Sarma and other scholars, "Madhvacharya proclaims himself to be the third avatar or incarnation of Vayu, wind god, the son of Vishnu".[9][21] He, thus, asserted himself to be like Hanuman
Hanuman
– the first avatar of Vayu, and Bhima
Bhima
– a Pandava in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the second avatar of Vayu.[9] In one of his bhasya on the Brahma
Brahma
Sutras, he asserts that the authority of the text is from his personal encounter with Vishnu.[22] Madhva, states Sarma, believed himself to be an intermediary between Vishnu
Vishnu
and Dvaita
Dvaita
devotees, guiding the latter in their journey towards Vishnu.[9][10] Works of Madhvacharya[edit] Main article: List of works by Madhvacharya Thirty seven Dvaita
Dvaita
texts are attributed to Madhvacharya.[23] Of these, thirteen are bhasya (review and commentary) on earliest Principal Upanishads,[18] a Madhva-bhasya on the foundational text of Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hinduism
Hinduism
Brahma
Brahma
Sutras,[18] another Gita-bhasya on Bhagavad Gita,[18][23] a commentary on forty hymns of the Rigveda, a review of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
in poetic style, a commentary called Bhagavata-tatparya-nirnaya on Bhagavata Purana,[23] plus stotras, poems and texts on bhakti of Vishnu
Vishnu
and his avatars.[24][25][6] The Anu-Vyakhyana, a supplement to Madhvacharya's commentary on Brahma Sutras, is his masterpiece, states Sharma.[24] While being a profusely productive writer, Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
restricted the access to and distribution of his works to outsiders who were not part of Dvaita
Dvaita
school, according to Sarma.[note 1] However, Bartley disagrees and states that this is inconsistent with the known history of extensive medieval Vedantic debates on religious ideas in India which included Dvaita
Dvaita
school's ideas.[26] Madhva's philosophy[edit]

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v t e

The premises and foundations of Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta, also known as Dvaitavada and Tattvavada, are credited to Madhvacharya. His philosophy championed unqualified dualism.[23] Madhva's work is classically placed in contrast with monist[11] ideas of Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta.[23] Epistemology[edit] Madhva calls epistemology as Anu pramana.[27] It accepts three pramāna, that is three correct means of knowledge, in contrast to one of Charvaka and six of Advaita
Advaita
schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophies:[28][29]

Pratyaksha (प्रत्यक्ष) means perception. It is of two types in Dvaita
Dvaita
and other Hindu
Hindu
schools: external and internal. External perception is described as that arising from the interaction of five senses and worldly objects, while internal perception is described as that of inner sense, the mind.[30][31] Anumāna (अनुमान) means inference. It is described as reaching a new conclusion and truth from one or more observations and previous truths by applying reason.[32] Observing smoke and inferring fire is an example of Anumana. This method of inference consists of three parts: pratijna (hypothesis), hetu (a reason), and drshtanta (examples).[33][34] Śabda (शब्द) means relying on word, testimony of past or present reliable experts.[35][27] It is also known as Agama in Madhva's Dvaita
Dvaita
tradition, and incorporates all the Vedas. Hiriyanna explains Sabda-pramana as a concept which means reliable expert testimony. The schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
which consider it epistemically valid suggest that a human being needs to know numerous facts, and with the limited time and energy available, he can learn only a fraction of those facts and truths directly.[36]

Madhva and his followers introduced kevala-pramana as the "knowledge of an object as it is", separate from anu-pramana described above.[37] Madhva's Dvaita
Dvaita
school holds that Vishnu
Vishnu
as God, who is also Hari, Krishna, Vasudeva
Vasudeva
and Narayana, can only be known through the proper samanvaya (connection) and pramana of the Vedic scriptural teachings.[38][39] Vishnu, according to Madhvacharya, is not the creator of the Vedas, but the teacher of the Vedas.[38] Knowledge is intrinsically valid, states Madhva's school, and the knower and the known are independently real.[38] Both the ritual part (karma-kanda, Mimamsa) and the knowledge part (jnana-kanda, Upanishadic Vedanta) in the Vedas, asserted Madhvacharya, are equally valid and interconnected whole.[38] As asserted by the Mimamsa
Mimamsa
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
held that the Vedas
Vedas
are author-less, and that their truth is in all of its parts (i.e. the saṃhitas, brāhmaņas, āraņyakās and upanișads).[38] Metaphysics[edit] The metaphysical reality is plural, stated Madhvacharya.[6] There are primarily two tattvas or categories of reality — svatantra tattva (independent reality) and asvatantra tattva (dependent reality).[39] Ishvara
Ishvara
(as God Vishnu
Vishnu
or Krishna) is the cause of the universe and the only independent reality, in Madhvacharya's view.[39] The created universe is the dependent reality, consisting of Jīva (individual souls) and Jada (matter, material things).[6] Individual souls are plural, different and distinct realities. Jīvas are sentient and matter is non-sentient, according to Madhvacharya.[6][40] Madhva further enumerates the difference between dependent and independent reality as a fivefold division between God, souls and material things.[23] These differences are:[6][13] (1) Between material things; (2) Between material thing and soul; (3) Between material thing and God; (4) Between souls; and (5) Between soul and God. This difference is neither temporary nor merely practical; it is an invariable and natural property of everything. Madhva calls it Taratamya (gradation in pluralism).[39] There is no object like another, according to Madhvacharya. There is no soul like another. All souls are unique, reflected in individual personalities. The sea is full; the tank is full; a pot is full; everything is full, yet each fullness is different, asserted Madhvacharya.[39][41] Even in liberation (moksha), states Madhvacharya, the bliss is different for each person, based on each's degree of knowledge and spiritual perfection.[41][40] This liberation, according to him, is only achievable with grace of God Krishna.[18] Nature of the Brahman[edit] Madhva conceptualised Brahman
Brahman
as a being who enjoys His own bliss, while the entire universe evolves through a nebulous chaos.[42] He manifests, every now and then, to help the evolution process. The four primary manifestation of Him as the Brahman
Brahman
are, according to Madhva, Vasudeva, Pradyumna, Aniruddha
Aniruddha
and Sankarasana, which are respectively responsible for the redemptive, creative, sustaining and destructive aspects in the universe.[42] His secondary manifestations are many, and all manifestations are at par with each other, it is the same infinite no matter how He manifests.[43] Brahman
Brahman
is the creator of the universe, perfect in knowledge, perfect in knowing, perfect in its power, and distinct from souls, distinct from matter.[43] For liberation, mere intellectual conceptualization of Brahman
Brahman
as creator is not enough, the individual soul must feel attraction, love, attachment and devotional surrender to Him, and only His grace leads to redemption and liberation, according to Madhva.[18][44][45] The Vishnu
Vishnu
as Brahman
Brahman
concept of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
is a concept similar to God in major world religions.[46][47] His writings led some early colonial-era Indologists such as George Abraham Grierson
George Abraham Grierson
to suggest the 13th-century Madhva was influenced by Christianity,[10] but later scholarship has rejected this theory.[18][48] Atat tvam asi[edit] One of the Mahavakyas (great sayings) in Hinduism
Hinduism
is Tat tvam asi, or "Thou art That", found in verse 6.8.7 of the ~700 BCE text Chandogya Upanishad.[49][50] This section of Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
is credited to sage Uddalaka and the text considered central in Vedanta
Vedanta
and the Brahma
Brahma
Sutras, interpreted to mean that there is no difference between the soul within (Thou) and the Brahman
Brahman
(That).[50] The Dvaita
Dvaita
school led by Madhva reinterpreted this section, by parsing the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text as Atat tvam asi or "Thou are not That", asserting that there is no Sanskrit
Sanskrit
rule which does not allow such parsing.[51] He accepted that the tradition and prior scholars had all interpreted the text to be "Tat tvam asi", but then asserted that there is no metaphysical or logical requirement that he should too.[52] Soteriology[edit] Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
considered Jnana Yoga
Yoga
and Karma
Karma
Yoga
Yoga
to be insufficient to the path of liberation without Bhakti.[53][54] Narayana
Narayana
or Vishnu was the supreme God to Madhva, who can only be reached through Vayu – the son of God; further, states Madhva, faith leads to the grace of God, and grace leads to the liberation of soul.[53] The knowledge of God, for Madhvacharya, is not a matter of intellectual acceptance of the concept, but an attraction, affection, constant attachment, loving devotion and complete surrender to the grace of God.[55] He rejects monist theories that knowledge liberates, asserting instead that it is Divine grace through Bhakti
Bhakti
that liberates.[56] To Madhva, God obscures reality by creating Maya and Prakriti, which causes bondage and suffering; and only God can be the source of soul's release.[57] Liberation occurs when, with the grace of God, one knows the true nature of self and the true nature of God.[58] Ethics[edit] Evil and suffering in the world, according to Madhvacharya, originates in man, and not God.[59] Every Jiva
Jiva
(individual soul) is the agent of actions, not Jada (matter), and not Ishvara
Ishvara
(God).[60] While Madhva asserts each individual self is the Kartritva (real agency), the self is not an absolutely independent agent to him.[61] This is because, states Madhva, the soul is influenced by sensory organs, one's physical body and such material things which he calls as gifts of God.[61] Man has free will, but is influenced by his innate nature, inclinations and past karma.[61] Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
asserts, Yathecchasi tatha kuru, which Sharma translates and explains as "one has the right to choose between right and wrong, a choice each individual makes out of his own responsibility and his own risk".[61] Madhva does not address the problem of evil, that is how can evil exist with that of a God who is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent.[62][63] According to Sharma, "Madhva's tripartite classification of souls makes it unnecessary to answer the problem of evil".[64] According to David Buchta, this does not address the problem of evil, because the omnipotent God "could change the system, but chooses not to" and thus sustains the evil in the world.[62] This view of self's agency of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
was, states Buchta, an outlier in Vedanta
Vedanta
school and Indian philosophies in general.[62] Moral laws and ethics exist, according to Madhva, and are necessary for the grace of God and for liberation.[65] Views on other schools[edit] Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
was a fierce critic of competing Vedanta
Vedanta
schools,[66] and other schools of Indian philosophies such as Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism.[67][68][69] He wrote up arguments against twenty one ancient and medieval era Indian scholars to help establish the foundations of his own school of thought.[18] Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
was fiercest critic of Advaita
Advaita
Vedanta, accusing Shankara and Advaitins for example, as "deceitful demons" teaching Buddhism under the cover of Vedanta.[23] Advaita's nondualism asserts that Atman (soul) and Brahman
Brahman
are blissful and identical, unchanging transcendent Reality, there is interconnected oneness of all souls and Brahman, and there are no pluralities.[6][15] Madhva in contrast asserts that Atman (soul) and Brahman
Brahman
are different, only Vishnu
Vishnu
is the Lord (Brahman), individual souls are also different and depend on Vishnu, and there are pluralities.[6][15] Madhva criticized Advaita
Advaita
as being a version of Mahayana Buddhism, which he regarded as nihilistic.[70] Of all schools, Madhva focussed his criticism on Advaita
Advaita
most, and he wrote four major texts, including Upadhikhandana and Tattvadyota, primarily dedicated to criticizing Advaita.[70] Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
disagreed with aspects of Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita.[66] Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
school, a realist system of thought like Madhvacharya's Dvaita
Dvaita
school, also asserts that Jiva
Jiva
(human souls) and Brahman
Brahman
(as Vishnu) are different, a difference that is never transcended.[15][71] God Vishnu
Vishnu
alone is independent, all other gods and beings are dependent on Him, according to both Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
and Ramanuja.[45] However, in contrast to Madhvacharya's views, Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
school asserts "qualified non-dualism",[6] that souls share the same essential nature of Brahman,[6] and that there is a universal sameness in the quality and degree of bliss possible for human souls, and every soul can reach the bliss state of God Himself.[15][72] While the older school of Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
asserted "qualitative monism and quantitative pluralism of souls", states Sharma, Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
asserted both "qualitative and quantitative pluralism of souls".[73] Shankara's Advaita
Advaita
school and Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
school are premised on the assumption that all souls can hope for and achieve the state of blissful liberation; in contrast, Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
believed that some souls are eternally doomed and damned.[74][75] Madhvacharya's style of criticism of other schools of Indian philosophy was part of the ancient and medieval Indian tradition. He was part of the Vedanta
Vedanta
school, which emerged in post-Vedic period as the most influential of the six schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, and his targeting of Advaita
Advaita
tradition, states Bryant, reflects it being the most influential of Vedanta
Vedanta
schools.[76] Influence[edit] Main article: Haridasa Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
views represent a subschool of Vaishnavism, just like Ramanuja's.[41] Both championed Vishnu, often in the saguna form of Vishnu's avatar Krishna.[77] However, 11th-century Ramanuja's ideas have been most influential in Vaishnavism.[78] Madhvacharya's ideas led to the founding of Haridasa
Haridasa
sect of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
in Karnataka, also referred to as Vyasakuta, Dasakuta or Dasa Dasapantha,[79] known for their devotional songs and music during the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement.[80] Other influential subschools of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
competed with the ideas of Madhvacharya, such as the Chaitanya subschool, whose Jiva
Jiva
Gosvami asserts only Krishna
Krishna
is "Svayam Bhagavan" (original form of God), in contrast to Madhva who asserts that all Vishnu
Vishnu
avatars are equal and identical, with both sharing the belief that emotional devotion to God is the means to spiritual liberation.[81] According to Sharma, the influence of Madhva's Dvaita
Dvaita
ideas have been most prominent on the Chaitanya school of Bengal
Bengal
Vaishnavism,[82] and in Assam.[79] A subsect of Gaudiya Vaishnavas from Orissa and West Bengal
Bengal
claim to be followers of Madhvacharya. Madhva established in Udupi
Udupi
Krishna Matha attached to a god Krishna
Krishna
temple. Gaudiya Vaishnavas also worship Krishna, who is in the mode of Vrindavana.[citation needed] Hindu-Christian controversies[edit] Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
was misperceived and misrepresented by both Christian missionaries and Hindu
Hindu
writers during the colonial era scholarship.[83][84] The similarities in the primacy of one God, dualism and distinction between man and God, devotion to God, the son of God as the intermediary, predestination, the role of grace in salvation, as well as the similarities in the legends of miracles in Christianity
Christianity
and Madhvacharya's Dvaita
Dvaita
tradition fed these stories.[83][84] Among Christian writers, GA Grierson creatively asserted that Madhva's ideas evidently were "borrowed from Christianity, quite possibly promulgated as a rival to the central doctrine of that faith".[85] Among Hindu
Hindu
writers, according to Sarma, SC Vasu creatively translated Madhvacharya's works to identify Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
with Christ, rather than compare their ideas.[86] Modern scholarship rules out the influence of Christianity
Christianity
on Madhvacharya,[10][18] as there is no evidence that there ever was a Christian settlement where Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
grew up and lived, or that there was a sharing or discussion of ideas between someone with knowledge of the Bible and Christian legends, and him.[84][87] Monasteries[edit] See also: Ashta Mathas
Mathas
of Udupi

The Entrance to Sri Krishna
Krishna
Matha at Udupi

Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
established eight mathas (monasteries) in Udupi. These are referred to as Madhva mathas, or Udupi
Udupi
ashta matha, and include Palimaru
Palimaru
matha, Adamaru
Adamaru
matha, Krishnapura matha, Puttige matha, Shirur matha, Sodhe
Sodhe
matha, Kaniyooru
Kaniyooru
matha and Pejavara
Pejavara
matha.[88] These eight surround the Anantheswara Krishna
Krishna
Hindu
Hindu
temple.[88] The matha are laid out in a rectangle, the temples on a square grid pattern.[88] The monks in the matha are sannyasis, and the tradition of their studies and succession ( Paryaya system) were established by Madhvacharya.[88] There are Madhva mathas set up all over India. Including those in Udupi, there are twenty four Madhva mathas in India.[89] The main center of Madhva's tradition is in Karnataka.[89] The monastery has a pontiff system, that rotates after a fixed period of time. The pontiff is called Swamiji, and he leads daily Krishna
Krishna
prayers according to Madhva tradition,[89] as well as annual festivals.[90] The process and Vedic mantra rituals for Krishna
Krishna
worship in Dvaita
Dvaita
monasteries follow the procedure written by Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
in Tantrasara.[90] The Krishna worship neither involves bali (sacrifice) nor any fire rituals.[90] The succession ceremony in Dvaita
Dvaita
school involves the outgoing Swamiji welcoming the incoming one, then walking together to the icon of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
at the entrance of Krishna
Krishna
temple in Udupi, offering water to him, expressing reverence then handing over the same vessel with water that Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
used when he handed over the leadership of the monastery he founded.[89] The monastery include kitchens, bhojan-shala, run by monks and volunteers.[91] These serve food daily to nearly 3,000 to 4,000 monks, students and visiting pilgrims without social discrimination.[91] During succession ceremonies, over 10,000 people are served a vegetarian meal by Udupi
Udupi
bhojan-shalas.[91] Film[edit] In 1986 a film directed by G. V. Iyer
G. V. Iyer
named Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
was premiered, it was one of the films made entirely in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in which all of Jagadguru
Jagadguru
Madhvacharya's works were compiled.[92][93] See also[edit]

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal Indian religions portal India
India
portal

Brahma
Brahma
Sampradaya Madhwa Brahmins Dvaita
Dvaita
literature Ashta Mathas
Mathas
of Udupi

Notes[edit]

^ Quote from Bartley: Madhvacharya, the founder, prohibited outsiders from reading certain texts and from learning from teachers. These restrictions on eligibility, it is claimed, ‘‘insulated his position from criticism and evaluation.’’[26]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g Sharma 1962, p. xv. ^ Bryant 2007, p. 357. ^ a b c d Sheridan 1991, p. 117. ^ Bryant 2007, p. 361. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 103. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Stoker 2011. ^ a b c d e f g h Sharma 1962, pp. xv-xvii. ^ a b Sharma 1962, p. xv-xvi. ^ a b c d Sarma 2000, p. 20 with footnotes 3 and 4. ^ a b c d e Sabapathy Kulandran and Hendrik Kraemer (2004), Grace in Christianity
Christianity
and Hinduism, James Clarke, ISBN 978-0227172360, pages 177-179 ^ a b Sharma 1962, p. 36-37. ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 315, 358-361. ^ a b James Lochtefeld (2002), Madhva, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0823931798, page 396 ^ a b Bryant 2007, pp. 12-13, 359-361. ^ a b c d e Stafford Betty (2010), Dvaita, Advaita, and Viśiṣṭādvaita: Contrasting Views of Mokṣa, Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 215-224 ^ a b c d e f Dehsen 1999, p. 118. ^ Sharma 2000, pp. 77-78. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jones & Ryan 2006, p. 266. ^ a b c d e f g Sharma 2000, pp. 79-80. ^ Stoker 2011, p. see Canonical Sources section. ^ Sheridan 1991, pp. 117-118; Quote: "Madhva refers frequently to the fact that Vyasa
Vyasa
was his guru, and that Madhva himself was the third avatara of Vayu
Vayu
after Hanuman
Hanuman
and Bhima.. ^ Sheridan 1991, p. 118. ^ a b c d e f g Sharma 1994, p. 372. ^ a b Sharma 1962, p. xvi. ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 358-361. ^ a b Christopher Bartley (2007), Review: Epistemologies and the Limitations of Philosophical Enquiry: Doctrine in Madhva Vedanta
Vedanta
by Deepak Sarma, Philosophy East & West Volume 57, Number 1, pages 126–128 ^ a b

Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245-248; John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675, page 238

^ Karl Potter and Sibajiban Bhattacharya (1994), Epistemology, in The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 6, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691073842, pages 53-68 ^ Howard Coward et al, Epistemology, in Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 5, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0426-0, pages 51-62 ^ B Matilal (1992), Perception: An Essay in Indian Theories of Knowledge, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198239765 ^ Karl Potter (1977), Meaning and Truth, in Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 2, Princeton University Press, Reprinted in 1995 by Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0309-4, pages 160-168 ^ W Halbfass (1991), Tradition and Reflection, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-0362-9, page 26-27 ^ James Lochtefeld, "Anumana" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A-M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 46-47 ^ John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675, pages 41-42 ^ DPS Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality and Indian Psychology (Editor: Anthony Marsella), Springer, ISBN 978-1-4419-8109-7, page 172 ^ M. Hiriyanna (2000), The Essentials of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120813304, page 43 ^ John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675, page 238 ^ a b c d e Sharma 1994, pp. 372–373. ^ a b c d e Bryant 2007, p. 358. ^ a b Bryant 2007, pp. 361-363. ^ a b c Sharma 1994, pp. 372-375. ^ a b Sharma 1962, p. 353. ^ a b Sharma 1962, pp. 353-354. ^ Sharma 1962, pp. 417-424. ^ a b Sharma 1994, p. 373. ^ Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712571, pages 124-127 ^ Sharma 1962, p. 7. ^ Sarma 2000, pp. 19-21. ^ Sanskrit: छान्दोग्योपनिषद् १.२ ॥षष्ठोऽध्यायः॥ Wikisource English Translation:Robert Hume, Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
6.8, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pages 246-250 ^ a b AS Gupta, The Meanings of "That Thou Art", Philosophy East and West, Vol. 12, No. 2, pages 125-134 ^ Sharma 1962, pp. 368-374. ^ Sharma 1962, pp. 373-374. ^ a b Sabapathy Kulandran and Hendrik Kraemer (2004), Grace in Christianity
Christianity
and Hinduism, James Clarke, ISBN 978-0227172360, pages 178-179 ^ Sharma 1962, p. 12, 135-136, 183. ^ Sharma 1962, p. 417. ^ Sharma 1962, pp. 418-419. ^ Sharma 1962, pp. 422-423. ^ Sharma 1962, pp. 423-424. ^ Sharma 1962, p. 359. ^ Sharma 1962, p. 360. ^ a b c d Sharma 1962, p. 361. ^ a b c David Buchta (2014). Matthew R. Dasti and Edwin F. Bryant, ed. Free Will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 270–276. ISBN 978-0199922758.  ^ Sharma 1962, p. 270, 370-371. ^ Sharma 1962, p. 270, 370-371, Quote: The problem of evil and suffering in the world is the most difficult one in Theism. We have explained Madhva's attitude to the allied problem of freedom and freewill, on the basis of the doctrine of natural selection of good or bad and of the tripartite classification of souls. It is not therefore necessary for Madhva to answer the question of the consistency of evil with Divine goodness.. ^ Sharma 1962, p. 363, 368, 370-373. ^ a b Sharma 1994, p. 11-17, 372. ^ Sharma 1962, pp. 128-129, 180-181. ^ Sharma 1994, p. 150-151, 372, 433-434. ^ Sharma 2000, pp. 80-81. ^ a b SMS Chari (1999), Advaita
Advaita
and Visistadvaita, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120815353, pages 5-7 ^ Edward Craig (2000), Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415223645, pages 517-518 ^ Sharma 1994, pp. 373-374. ^ Sharma 1994, p. 374. ^ Sharma 1994, pp. 374-375. ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 361-362. ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 13, 16 with note 2. ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 359-360. ^ Roshen Dalal (2011), The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths, Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0143415176, page 380 ^ a b Sharma 2000, pp. xxxii-xxxiii, 514-516. ^ Bruno Nettl (1992), The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Routledge, ISBN 978-0824049461, page 262 ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 381-387. ^ Sharma 1962, pp. 22-23. ^ a b Sarma 2000, pp. 19-25. ^ a b c Sharma 2000, pp. 609-611. ^ Sarma 2000, p. 20. ^ Sarma 2000, pp. 22-24. ^ A History of Indian Philosophy Vol 4, pg 93 ^ a b c d V Rao (2002), Living Traditions in Contemporary Contexts: The Madhva Matha of Udupi, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 978-8125022978, pages 27-32 ^ a b c d V Rao (2002), Living Traditions in Contemporary Contexts: The Madhva Matha of Udupi, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 978-8125022978, pages 33-37 ^ a b c V Rao (2002), Living Traditions in Contemporary Contexts: The Madhva Matha of Udupi, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 978-8125022978, page 43-49 ^ a b c K Ray and T Srinivas (2012), Curried Cultures: Globalization, Food, and South Asia, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520270121, pages 97-98 ^ "Madhavacharya (film)". http://www.vedanta.com/. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ " Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
(film)". nytimes.com. Retrieved 16 April 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

Dehsen, Christian von (1999). Philosophers and Religious Leaders. Routledge. ISBN 978-1573561525.  Bryant, Edwin (2007). Krishna : A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195148923.  Flood, Gavin (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. p. 251. ISBN 0-631-21535-2.  Goswami, S.D. (1976). Readings in Vedic Literature: The Tradition Speaks for Itself. S.l.: Assoc Publishing Group. pp. 240 pages. ISBN 0-912776-88-9.  Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase  New Zealand Hare Krishna
Krishna
Spiritual Resource Network. "Padmanabha Tirtha". New Zealand Hare Krishna
Krishna
Spiritual Resource Network. Retrieved 14 December 2012.  Padmanabhachar, C.M. The Life and Teachings of Sri Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
(PDF). Retrieved 28 July 2011.  Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (1962). Philosophy of Śrī Madhvācārya. Motilal Banarsidass (2014 Reprint). ISBN 978-8120800687.  Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (2000). A History of the Dvaita
Dvaita
School of Vedānta and Its Literature, 3rd Edition. Motilal Banarsidass (2008 Reprint). ISBN 978-8120815759.  Sharma, Chandradhar (1994). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0365-5.  Sarma, Deepak (2000). "Is Jesus a Hindu? S.C. Vasu and Multiple Madhva Misrepresentations". Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies. 13. doi:10.7825/2164-6279.1228.  Sarma, Deepak (2005). Epistemologies and the Limitations of Philosophical Enquiry: Doctrine in Madhva Vedanta. Routledge.  Sheridan, Daniel (1991). Texts in Context: Traditional Hermeneutics in South Asia (Editor: Jeffrey Timm). State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791407967.  Stoker, Valerie (2011). "Madhva (1238-1317)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2 February 2016.  Tapasyananda (1991). Bhakti
Bhakti
Schools of Vedanta. Madras (Chennai): Sri Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Math. ISBN 81-7120-226-8. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Madhvacharya

Bibliography of Madhvacharya's works, Item 751, Karl Potter, University of Washington "Madhva" article in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy The Life And Teachings of Sri Madhvacharyar by C.M. Padmanabha Char - at archive.org Philosophy of Sri Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
by Dr. B.N.K. Sharma - at archive.org S. Srikanta Sastri
S. Srikanta Sastri
- "Logical system of Madvacharya", published in Poona Oriental Series - No. 75, "A Volume of Studies in Indology", presented to Prof P. V. Kane Brahmasutra Bhasya of Sri Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
with Glosses in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
- at archive.org Tattva-Sankhyan of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
with the Tika of Jayatirtha (Sanskrit-English) - at archive.org Dvaita
Dvaita
Philosophy Resource Centre, Department of European Studies, Manipal University, Karnataka

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