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The Macintosh
Macintosh
(/ˈmækɪnˌtɒʃ/ MAK-in-tosh; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
since January 1984. The original Macintosh
Macintosh
was the company's first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse.[1] Apple sold the Macintosh
Macintosh
alongside its popular Apple II
Apple II
family of computers for almost ten years before the latter was cancelled in 1993. Early Macintosh
Macintosh
models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market already dominated by the Commodore 64
Commodore 64
for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer
IBM Personal Computer
and its accompanying clone market for businesses.[2] Macintosh
Macintosh
systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II
Macintosh LC II
and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1
Windows 3.1
and Intel's Pentium
Pentium
processor (which beat the Motorola 68040
Motorola 68040
in most benchmarks) gradually took market share from Apple, and by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq
Compaq
became the top PC manufacturer. Even after the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh
Power Macintosh
line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh
Macintosh
Performa, and the release of Windows 95
Windows 95
saw the Macintosh
Macintosh
user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh
Macintosh
line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 (including models made for specific regions) down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh
Power Macintosh
G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook
PowerBook
G3, and 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, and helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh
Macintosh
name in favor of "Mac", a nickname that had been in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel
Intel
processors in 2006, the complete lineup is entirely based on said processors and associated systems. Its current lineup includes four desktops (the all-in-one iMac
iMac
and iMac
iMac
Pro, and the desktop Mac Mini
Mac Mini
and Mac Pro), and three laptops (the MacBook, MacBook
MacBook
Air, and MacBook
MacBook
Pro). Its Xserve
Xserve
server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mini
Mac Mini
and Mac Pro. Apple has also developed a series of Macintosh
Macintosh
operating systems; initially this operating system had no name, but came to be known as the Macintosh
Macintosh
System Software in 1988, Mac OS
Mac OS
in 1997, Mac OS X
OS X
in 2001, OS X
OS X
in 2012, and macOS in 2016. The current version is macOS High Sierra. Intel-based Macs
Intel-based Macs
are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, and Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple also produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh
Macintosh
called A/UX
A/UX
from 1988 to 1995, which closely resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, though it did license previous versions of the classic Mac OS through their Macintosh clone
Macintosh clone
program from 1995 to 1997.

Contents

1 Naming 2 History

2.1 1979–84: Development and introduction 2.2 1984: Debut 2.3 1984–90: Desktop publishing 2.4 1990–98: Decline and transition to PowerPC 2.5 1998–2005: Revival 2.6 2005–present: Switch to Intel
Intel
x86

3 Timeline of Macintosh
Macintosh
models 4 Product line 5 Hardware 6 Software 7 Market share and user demographics

7.1 1984–97: Success and decline 7.2 1997–2007: Comeback 7.3 2007–present: "Post-PC" era

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Naming[edit] The Macintosh
Macintosh
project was begun in 1979 by Jef Raskin, an Apple employee who envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer. He wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh,[3] but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc., the audio equipment manufacturer.[4] Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
requested that McIntosh Laboratory
McIntosh Laboratory
give Apple a release for the name with its changed spelling so that Apple could use it, but the request was denied, forcing Apple to eventually buy the rights to use the name.[5] (A 1984 Byte Magazine
Byte Magazine
article suggested Apple changed the spelling only after "early users" misspelled "McIntosh".[6] However, Jef Raskin
Jef Raskin
had adopted the "Macintosh" spelling by 1981,[7] when the Macintosh
Macintosh
computer was still a single prototype machine in the lab. This explanation further clashes with the first explanation given above that the change was made for "legal reasons.") History[edit]

The original Macintosh
Macintosh
128k

See also: History of Apple Inc.

1979–84: Development and introduction[edit]

A prototype of the Macintosh
Macintosh
from 1981 (at the Computer History Museum)

The original Macintosh
Macintosh
featured a radically new graphical user interface. Users interacted with the computer using a metaphorical desktop that included icons of real life items, instead of abstract textual commands.

In 1978 Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa
Apple Lisa
project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced [[ Apple II
Apple II
]] or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces (GUI) taking place at Xerox PARC. He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action.[8] The Apple Lisa
Apple Lisa
project was immediately redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities; the Xerox Alto required a custom processor that spanned several circuit boards in a case which was the size of a small refrigerator. Things had changed dramatically with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000
Motorola 68000
in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, and made a software GUI
GUI
machine a practical possibility. The basic layout of the Lisa was largely complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project.[9] At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI
GUI
machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh
Macintosh
project. The design at that time was for a low-cost, easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. Instead of a GUI, it intended to use a text-based user interface that allowed several programs to be running and easily switched between, and special command keys on the keyboard that accessed standardized commands in the programs. Raskin was authorized to start hiring for the project in September 1979,[10] and he immediately asked his long-time colleague, Brian Howard, to join him.[11] His initial team would eventually consist of himself, Howard, Joanna Hoffman, Burrell Smith, and Bud Tribble.[12] The rest of the original Mac team would include Bill Atkinson, Bob Belleville, Steve Capps, George Crow, Donn Denman, Chris Espinosa, Andy Hertzfeld, Bruce Horn, Susan Kare, Larry Kenyon, and Caroline Rose with Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
leading the project.[13] In a 2013 interview, Steve Wozniak
Steve Wozniak
insinuated that he had been leading the initial design and development phase of the Macintosh
Macintosh
project until 1981 when he experienced a traumatic airplane crash and temporarily left the company, in which case Jobs took over. In that same interview, Wozniak said that the original Macintosh
Macintosh
"failed" under Jobs, and that it was not until Jobs left that it became a success. He attributed the eventual success of the Macintosh
Macintosh
to people like John Sculley
John Sculley
"who worked to build a Macintosh
Macintosh
market when the Apple II
Apple II
went away".[14] Smith's first Macintosh
Macintosh
board was built to Raskin's design specifications: it had 64 kilobytes (kB) of RAM, used the 8-bit Motorola
Motorola
6809E microprocessor, and was capable of supporting a 256×256-pixel black-and-white bitmap display. Bud Tribble, a member of the Mac team, was interested in running the Apple Lisa's graphical programs on the Macintosh, and asked Smith whether he could incorporate the Lisa's Motorola 68000
Motorola 68000
microprocessor into the Mac while still keeping the production cost down. By December 1980, Smith had succeeded in designing a board that not only used the 68000, but increased its speed from the Lisa's 5 MHz to 8 MHz; this board also had the capacity to support a 384×256-pixel display. Smith's design used fewer RAM
RAM
chips than the Lisa, which made production of the board significantly more cost-efficient. The final Mac design was self-contained and had the complete QuickDraw picture language and interpreter in 64 KB of ROM – far more than most other computers which typically had around 4 to 8 KB of ROM; it had 128 kB of RAM, in the form of sixteen 64-kilobit (kb) RAM chips soldered to the logicboard. Though there were no memory slots, its RAM
RAM
was expandable to 512 kB by means of soldering sixteen IC sockets to accept 256 kb RAM
RAM
chips in place of the factory-installed chips. The final product's screen was a 9-inch (230 mm), 512x342 pixel monochrome display, exceeding the size of the planned screen.[15] Burrell's innovative design, combining the low production cost of an Apple II
Apple II
with the computing power of Lisa's Motorola 68000
Motorola 68000
CPU, began to receive Jobs's attentions.[16] Realizing that the Macintosh
Macintosh
was more marketable than the Lisa, he began to focus his attention on the project. Raskin left the team in 1981 over a personality conflict with Jobs. After development had completed, team member Andy Hertzfeld
Andy Hertzfeld
said that the final Macintosh
Macintosh
design is closer to Jobs's ideas than Raskin's.[10] When Jobs was forced out of the Lisa team in 1982, he devoted his entire attentions to the Macintosh. Jobs's leadership at the Macintosh
Macintosh
project did not last. Following an internal power struggle with then-new Apple CEO John Sculley, Jobs resigned from Apple in 1985.[17] He went on to found NeXT, another computer company which targeted the education market,[18] and did not return until 1997, when Apple acquired NeXT.[19] Jobs commissioned industrial designer Hartmut Esslinger to work on the Macintosh
Macintosh
line, resulting in the "Snow White" design language; although it came too late for the earliest Macs, it was implemented in most other mid- to late-1980s Apple computers.[20] 1984: Debut[edit] In 1982, Regis McKenna was brought in to shape the marketing and launch of the Macintosh.[21] Later the Regis McKenna team grew to include Jane Anderson, Katie Cadigan and Andy Cunningham,[22] who eventually led the Apple account for the agency.[23] Cunningham and Anderson were the primary authors of the Macintosh
Macintosh
launch plan.[24][25][26] The launch of the Macintosh
Macintosh
pioneered many different tactics that are used today in launching technology products, including the "multiple exclusive," event marketing (credited to John Sculley, who brought the concept over from Pepsi), creating a mystique around a product and giving an inside look into a product's creation.[27] After the Lisa's announcement, John Dvorak
John Dvorak
discussed rumors of a mysterious "MacIntosh" project at Apple in February 1983.[28] The company announced the Macintosh
Macintosh
128K—manufactured at an Apple factory in Fremont, California—in October 1983, followed by an 18-page brochure included with various magazines in December.[29][30] The Macintosh
Macintosh
was introduced by a US$1.5 million Ridley Scott television commercial, "1984".[31] It most notably aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII
Super Bowl XVIII
on January 22, 1984, and is now considered a "watershed event"[32] and a "masterpiece."[33] McKenna called the ad "more successful than the Mac itself."[34] "1984" used an unnamed heroine to represent the coming of the Macintosh
Macintosh
(indicated by a Picasso-style picture of the computer on her white tank top) as a means of saving humanity from the "conformity" of IBM's attempts to dominate the computer industry. The ad alludes to George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four
Nineteen Eighty-Four
which described a dystopian future ruled by a televised "Big Brother."[35][36] Two days after "1984" aired, the Macintosh
Macintosh
went on sale, and came bundled with two applications designed to show off its interface: MacWrite
MacWrite
and MacPaint. It was first demonstrated by Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
in the first of his famous Mac keynote speeches, and though the Mac garnered an immediate, enthusiastic following, some labeled it a mere "toy."[37] Because the operating system was designed largely around the GUI, existing text-mode and command-driven applications had to be redesigned and the programming code rewritten. This was a time-consuming task that many software developers chose not to undertake, and could be regarded as a reason for an initial lack of software for the new system. In April 1984, Microsoft's MultiPlan migrated over from MS-DOS, with Microsoft
Microsoft
Word following in January 1985.[38] In 1985, Lotus Software
Lotus Software
introduced Lotus Jazz
Lotus Jazz
for the Macintosh
Macintosh
platform after the success of Lotus 1-2-3
Lotus 1-2-3
for the IBM PC, although it was largely a flop.[39] Apple introduced the Macintosh Office suite
Office suite
the same year with the "Lemmings" ad. Infamous for insulting its own potential customers, the ad was not successful.[40] Apple spent $2.5 million purchasing all 39 advertising pages in a special, post-election issue of Newsweek,[41] and ran a "Test Drive a Macintosh" promotion, in which potential buyers with a credit card could take home a Macintosh
Macintosh
for 24 hours and return it to a dealer afterwards. While 200,000 people participated, dealers disliked the promotion, the supply of computers was insufficient for demand, and many were returned in such a bad condition that they could no longer be sold. This marketing campaign caused CEO John Sculley
John Sculley
to raise the price from US$1,995 to US$2,495 (about $5,200 when adjusted for inflation in 2010).[40][42] The computer sold well, nonetheless, reportedly outselling the IBM PCjr
IBM PCjr
which also began shipping early that year.[43] By April 1984 the company sold 50,000 Macintoshes, and hoped for 70,000 by early May and almost 250,000 by the end of the year.[44] 1984–90: Desktop publishing[edit] Most Apple II
Apple II
sales had once been to companies, but the IBM PC
IBM PC
caused small businesses, schools, and some homes to become Apple's main customers.[45] Jobs stated during the Macintosh's introduction "we expect Macintosh
Macintosh
to become the third industry standard", after the Apple II
Apple II
and IBM PC. Although outselling every other computer, it did not meet expectations during the first year, especially among business customers. Only about ten applications including MacWrite
MacWrite
and MacPaint were widely available,[46] although many non-Apple software developers participated in the introduction and Apple promised that 79 companies including Lotus, Digital Research, and Ashton-Tate were creating products for the new computer. After one year for each computer, the Macintosh
Macintosh
had less than one quarter of the PC's software selection—including only one word processor, two databases, and one spreadsheet—although Apple had sold 280,000 Macintoshes compared to IBM's first year sales of fewer than 100,000 PCs.[47] Developers were required to learn how to write software that used the Macintosh's graphic user interface,[47] and early in the computer's history needed a Lisa 2 or Unix
Unix
system to write Macintosh software.[48] Infocom
Infocom
had developed the only third-party games for the Mac's launch by replacing the buggy early operating system with the company's own minimal bootable game platform.[49] Despite standardizing on Pascal for software development Apple did not release a native-code Pascal compiler. Until third-party Pascal compilers appeared, developers had to write software in other languages while still learning enough Pascal to understand Inside Macintosh.[50] MacWrite's inclusion with the Macintosh
Macintosh
discouraged developers from creating other word processing software.[51] In 1985, the combination of the Mac, Apple's LaserWriter
LaserWriter
printer, and Mac-specific software like Boston Software's MacPublisher and Aldus PageMaker enabled users to design, preview, and print page layouts complete with text and graphics—an activity to become known as desktop publishing. Initially, desktop publishing was unique to the Macintosh, but eventually became available for other platforms.[52] Later, applications such as Macromedia FreeHand, QuarkXPress, and Adobe's Photoshop
Photoshop
and Illustrator strengthened the Mac's position as a graphics computer and helped to expand the emerging desktop publishing market.

The Apple Macintosh Plus
Macintosh Plus
at the Design Museum in Gothenburg, Sweden

The Macintosh's minimal memory became apparent, even compared with other personal computers in 1984, and could not be expanded easily. It also lacked a hard disk drive or the means to easily attach one. Many small companies sprang up to address the memory issue. Suggestions revolved around either upgrading the memory to 512 KB or removing the computer's 16 memory chips and replacing them with larger-capacity chips, a tedious and difficult operation. In October 1984, Apple introduced the Macintosh
Macintosh
512K, with quadruple the memory of the original, at a price of US$3,195.[53] It also offered an upgrade for 128k Macs that involved replacing the logic board. Apple released the Macintosh Plus
Macintosh Plus
on January 10, 1986, for a price of US$2,600. It offered one megabyte of RAM, easily expandable to four megabytes by the use of socketed RAM
RAM
boards. It also featured a SCSI parallel interface, allowing up to seven peripherals—such as hard drives and scanners—to be attached to the machine. Its floppy drive was increased to an 800 kB capacity. The Mac Plus was an immediate success and remained in production, unchanged, until October 15, 1990; on sale for just over four years and ten months, it was the longest-lived Macintosh
Macintosh
in Apple's history.[54] In September 1986, Apple introduced the Macintosh
Macintosh
Programmer's Workshop, or MPW, an application that allowed software developers to create software for Macintosh
Macintosh
on Macintosh, rather than cross compiling from a Lisa. In August 1987, Apple unveiled HyperCard
HyperCard
and MultiFinder, which added cooperative multitasking to the Macintosh. Apple began bundling both with every Macintosh.

The Macintosh
Macintosh
II, the first Macintosh
Macintosh
model with color graphics

Updated Motorola
Motorola
CPUs made a faster machine possible, and in 1987 Apple took advantage of the new Motorola
Motorola
technology and introduced the Macintosh II
Macintosh II
at $5500, powered by a 16 MHz Motorola
Motorola
68020 processor.[55] The primary improvement in the Macintosh II
Macintosh II
was Color QuickDraw in ROM, a color version of the graphics language which was the heart of the machine. Among the many innovations in Color QuickDraw were the ability to handle any display size, any color depth, and multiple monitors. The Macintosh II
Macintosh II
marked the start of a new direction for the Macintosh, as now for the first time it had an open architecture with several NuBus
NuBus
expansion slots, support for color graphics and external monitors, and a modular design similar to that of the IBM PC. It had an internal hard drive and a power supply with a fan, which was initially fairly loud.[56] One third-party developer sold a device to regulate fan speed based on a heat sensor, but it voided the warranty.[57] Later Macintosh
Macintosh
computers had quieter power supplies and hard drives.

The Macintosh
Macintosh
SE, updated Compact Macintosh
Compact Macintosh
design using Snow White design language

The Macintosh SE
Macintosh SE
was released at the same time as the Macintosh II
Macintosh II
for $2900 (or $3900 with hard drive), as the first compact Mac with a 20 MB internal hard drive and an expansion slot.[58] The SE's expansion slot was located inside the case along with the CRT, potentially exposing an upgrader to high voltage. For this reason, Apple recommended users bring their SE to an authorized Apple dealer to have upgrades performed.[59] The SE also updated Jerry Manock and Terry Oyama's original design and shared the Macintosh
Macintosh
II's Snow White design language, as well as the new Apple Desktop Bus
Apple Desktop Bus
(ADB) mouse and keyboard that had first appeared on the Apple IIGS
Apple IIGS
some months earlier. In 1987, Apple spun off its software business as Claris. It was given the code and rights to several applications, most notably MacWrite, MacPaint, and MacProject. In the late 1980s, Claris released a number of revamped software titles; the result was the "Pro" series, including MacDraw Pro, MacWrite
MacWrite
Pro, and FileMaker Pro. To provide a complete office suite, Claris purchased the rights to the Informix Wingz spreadsheet program on the Mac, renaming it Claris Resolve, and added the new presentation software Claris Impact. By the early 1990s, Claris applications were shipping with the majority of consumer-level Macintoshes and were extremely popular. In 1991, Claris released ClarisWorks, which soon became their second best-selling application. When Claris was reincorporated back into Apple in 1998, ClarisWorks was renamed AppleWorks
AppleWorks
beginning with version 5.0.[60]

The Macintosh
Macintosh
Portable, Apple's first battery-powered Macintosh

In 1988, Apple sued Microsoft
Microsoft
and Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
on the grounds that they infringed Apple's copyrighted GUI, citing (among other things) the use of rectangular, overlapping, and resizable windows. After four years, the case was decided against Apple, as were later appeals. Apple's actions were criticized by some in the software community, including the Free Software Foundation
Free Software Foundation
(FSF), who felt Apple was trying to monopolize on GUIs in general, and boycotted GNU software for the Macintosh
Macintosh
platform for seven years.[61][62] With the new Motorola 68030
Motorola 68030
processor came the Macintosh IIx
Macintosh IIx
in 1988, which had benefited from internal improvements, including an on-board MMU.[63] It was followed in 1989 by the Macintosh
Macintosh
IIcx, a more compact version with fewer slots [64] and a version of the Mac SE powered by the 16 MHz 68030, the Macintosh
Macintosh
SE/30.[65] Later that year, the Macintosh
Macintosh
IIci, running at 25 MHz, was the first Mac to be "32-bit clean." This allowed it to natively support more than 8 MB of RAM,[66] unlike its predecessors, which had "32-bit dirty" ROMs (8 of the 32 bits available for addressing were used for OS-level flags). System 7
System 7
was the first Macintosh
Macintosh
operating system to support 32-bit addressing.[67] The following year, the Macintosh IIfx, starting at US$9,900, was unveiled. Apart from its fast 40 MHz 68030 processor, it had significant internal architectural improvements, including faster memory and two Apple II
Apple II
CPUs (6502s) dedicated to I/O processing.[68] 1990–98: Decline and transition to PowerPC[edit] Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
3.0 was released in May 1990, and according to a common saying at the time "Windows was not as good as Macintosh, but it was good enough for the average user". Though still a graphical wrapper that relied upon MS-DOS, 3.0 was the first iteration of Windows which had a feature set and performance comparable to the much more expensive Macintosh
Macintosh
platform. It also did not help matters that during the previous year Jean-Louis Gassée had steadfastly refused to lower the profit margins on Mac computers. Finally, there was a component shortage that rocked the exponentially-expanding PC industry in 1989, forcing Apple USA head Allan Loren to cut prices, which dropped Apple's margins.[69]

The Macintosh LC II
Macintosh LC II
with a Macintosh
Macintosh
12" RGB Display.

In response, Apple introduced a range of relatively inexpensive Macs in October 1990. The Macintosh
Macintosh
Classic, essentially a less expensive version of the Macintosh
Macintosh
SE, was the least expensive Mac offered until early 2001.[70] The 68020-powered Macintosh
Macintosh
LC, in its distinctive "pizza box" case, offered color graphics and was accompanied by a new, low-cost 512×384 pixel monitor.[71] The Macintosh IIsi
Macintosh IIsi
was essentially a 20 MHz IIci with only one expansion slot.[72] All three machines sold well,[73] although Apple's profit margin on them was considerably lower than that on earlier models.[70] Apple improved Macintosh
Macintosh
computers by introducing models equipped with newly available processors from the 68k lineup. The Macintosh
Macintosh
Classic II[74] and Macintosh LC
Macintosh LC
II, which used a 16 MHz 68030 CPU,[75] were joined in 1991 by the Macintosh Quadra
Macintosh Quadra
700[76] and 900,[77] the first Macs to employ the faster Motorola 68040
Motorola 68040
processor.

The PowerBook
PowerBook
100

Apple released their first portable computer, the Macintosh
Macintosh
Portable in 1989. Although due to considerable design issues, it was soon replaced in 1991 with the first of the PowerBook
PowerBook
line: the PowerBook 100, a miniaturized portable; the 16 MHz 68030 PowerBook
PowerBook
140; and the 25 MHz 68030 PowerBook
PowerBook
170.[78] They were the first portable computers with the keyboard behind a palm rest and a built-in pointing device (a trackball) in front of the keyboard.[79] The 1993 PowerBook 165c was Apple's first portable computer to feature a color screen, displaying 256 colors with 640 × 400-pixel resolution.[80] The second generation of PowerBooks, the 68040-equipped 500 series, introduced trackpads, integrated stereo speakers, and built-in Ethernet
Ethernet
to the laptop form factor in 1994.[81] As for Mac OS, System 7
System 7
introduced a form of virtual memory, improved the performance of color graphics, and gained standard co-operative multitasking. Also during this time, the Macintosh
Macintosh
began to shed the "Snow White" design language, along with the expensive consulting fees they were paying to Frogdesign. Apple instead brought the design work in-house by establishing the Apple Industrial Design Group, becoming responsible for crafting a new look for all Apple products.[82] Intel
Intel
had tried unsuccessfully to push Apple to migrate the Macintosh platform to Intel
Intel
chips. Apple concluded that Intel's CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) architecture ultimately would not be able to compete against RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processors.[83] While the Motorola 68040
Motorola 68040
offered the same features as the Intel
Intel
80486 and could on a clock-for-clock basis significantly outperform the Intel
Intel
chip, the 486 had the ability to be clocked significantly faster without suffering from overheating problems, especially the clock-doubled i486DX2 which ran the CPU logic at twice the external bus speed, giving such equipped IBM compatible systems a significant performance lead over their Macintosh
Macintosh
equivalents.[84][85] Apple's product design and engineering did not help matters as they restricted the use of the '040 to their expensive Quadras for a time while the 486 was readily available to OEMs as well as enthusiasts who put together their own machines. In late 1991, as the higher-end Macintosh
Macintosh
desktop lineup transitioned to the '040, Apple was unable to offer the '040 in their top-of-the-line PowerBooks until early 1994 with the PowerBook
PowerBook
500 series, several years after the first 486-powered IBM compatible laptops hit the market which cost Apple considerable sales. In 1993 Intel
Intel
rolled out the Pentium
Pentium
processors as the successor to the 486, while the Motorola
Motorola
68050 was never released, leaving the Macintosh
Macintosh
platform a generation behind IBM compatibles in the latest CPU technology. In 1994, Apple abandoned Motorola
Motorola
CPUs for the RISC PowerPC
PowerPC
architecture developed by the AIM alliance of Apple Computer, IBM, and Motorola.[86] The Power Macintosh
Power Macintosh
line, the first to use the new chips, proved to be highly successful, with over a million PowerPC
PowerPC
units sold in nine months.[87] However, in the long run, spurning Intel
Intel
for the PowerPC
PowerPC
was a mistake as the commoditization of Intel-architecture chips meant Apple couldn't compete on price against "the Dells of the world".[83] Notwithstanding these technical and commercial successes on the Macintosh, the falling costs of components made IBM PC
IBM PC
compatibles cheaper and accelerated their adoption, over Macintosh
Macintosh
systems that remained fairly expensive. A successful price war initiated by Compaq vaulted them from third place to first among PC manufacturers in 1994, overtaking a struggling IBM and relegating Apple to third place.[88][89][90] Furthermore, Apple had created too many similar models that confused potential buyers. At one point, its product lineup was subdivided into Classic, LC, II, Quadra, Performa, and Centris models, with essentially the same computer being sold under a number of different names.[91] These models competed against Macintosh
Macintosh
clones, hardware manufactured by third parties to whom Apple had licensed System 7. This succeeded in increasing the Macintosh's market share somewhat, and provided cheaper hardware for consumers, but hurt Apple financially as existing Apple customers began to buy cheaper clones which cannibalized the sales of Apple's higher-margin Macintosh systems, while Apple continued to bear the burden of developing Mac OS. Apple's market share further struggled due to the release of the Windows 95
Windows 95
operating system, which unified Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and Windows products. Windows 95
Windows 95
significantly enhanced the multimedia capability and performance of IBM PC compatible computers, and brought the capabilities of Windows substantially nearer to parity with Mac OS. When Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
returned to Apple in 1997 following the company's purchase of NeXT, he ordered that the OS that had been previewed as System 7.7 be branded Mac OS
Mac OS
8, a name Apple had previously wished to preserve for the never-to-appear next generation Copland OS. This maneuver effectively ended the clone lines, as Apple had only licensed System 7
System 7
to clone manufacturers, not Mac OS
Mac OS
8. The decision caused significant financial losses for companies like Motorola, who produced the StarMax; Umax, who produced the SuperMac;[92] and Power Computing, who offered several lines of Mac clones, including the PowerWave, PowerTower, and PowerTower Pro.[93] These companies had invested substantial resources in creating their own Mac-compatible hardware.[94] Apple bought out Power Computing's license, but allowed Umax to continue selling Mac clones until their license expired, as they had a sizeable presence in the lower-end segment that Apple did not. In September 1997 Apple extended Umax' license allowing them to sell clones with Mac OS
Mac OS
8, the only clone maker to do so, but with the restriction that they only sell low-end systems. Without the higher profit margins of high-end systems, however, Umax judged this would not be profitable and exited the Mac clone market in May 1998, having lost USD$36 million on the program.[95][96][97] 1998–2005: Revival[edit]

The iMac
iMac
G3, introduced in 1998. While it led Apple's return to profitability, its associated mouse was one of consumers' least favorite products.[98]

In 1998, Apple introduced its new iMac
iMac
which, like the original 128K Mac, was an all-in-one computer. Its translucent plastic case, originally Bondi blue
Bondi blue
and later various additional colors, is considered an industrial design landmark of the late 1990s. The iMac did away with most of Apple's standard (and usually proprietary) connections, such as SCSI
SCSI
and ADB, in favor of two USB ports.[99] It replaced a floppy disk drive with a CD-ROM
CD-ROM
drive for installing software,[100][101] but was incapable of writing to CDs or other media without external third-party hardware. The iMac
iMac
proved to be phenomenally successful, with 800,000 units sold in 139 days.[102] It made the company an annual profit of US$309 million, Apple's first profitable year since Michael Spindler took over as CEO in 1995.[103] This aesthetic was applied to the Power Macintosh
Power Macintosh
and later the iBook, Apple's first consumer-level laptop computer, filling the missing quadrant of Apple's "four-square product matrix" (desktop and portable products for both consumers and professionals).[104] More than 140,000 pre-orders were placed before it started shipping in September,[105] and by October proved to be a large success.[106] The iMac
iMac
also marked Apple's transition from the "Macintosh" name to the more simplistic "Mac". Apple completed elimination of the Macintosh
Macintosh
product name in 1999, when "Power Macintosh" was retired with the introduction of the Power Mac G4. In early 2001, Apple began shipping computers with CD-RW
CD-RW
drives and emphasized the Mac's ability to play DVDs by including DVD-ROM
DVD-ROM
and DVD-RAM
DVD-RAM
drives as standard.[107] Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
admitted that Apple had been "late to the party" on writable CD technology, but felt that Macs could become a "digital hub" that linked and enabled an "emerging digital lifestyle".[108] Apple would later introduce an update to its iTunes music player software that enabled it to burn CDs, along with a controversial "Rip, Mix, Burn" advertising campaign that some[109] felt encouraged media piracy.[110] This accompanied the release of the iPod, Apple's first successful handheld device. Apple continued to launch products, such as the unsuccessful Power Mac G4
Power Mac G4
Cube,[111] the education-oriented eMac, and the titanium (and later aluminium) PowerBook
PowerBook
G4 laptop for professionals. The original iMac
iMac
used a PowerPC
PowerPC
G3 processor, but G4 and G5 chips were soon added, both accompanied by complete case redesigns that dropped the array of colors in favor of white plastic. As of 2007, all iMacs use aluminium cases. On January 11, 2005, Apple announced the Mac Mini, priced at US$499, making it the cheapest Mac.[112][113] Mac OS
Mac OS
continued to evolve up to version 9.2.2, including retrofits such as the addition of a nanokernel and support for Multiprocessing Services 2.0 in Mac OS
Mac OS
8.6, though its dated architecture made replacement necessary.[114] From its beginnings on an 8 MHz machine with 128 KB of RAM, it had grown to support Apple's latest 1 GHz G4-equipped Macs. Since its architecture was laid down, features that were already common on Apple's competition, like preemptive multitasking and protected memory, had become feasible on the kind of hardware Apple manufactured. As such, Apple introduced Mac OS X, a fully overhauled Unix-based successor to Mac OS
Mac OS
9. OS X
OS X
uses Darwin, XNU, and Mach as foundations, and is based on NeXTSTEP. It was released to the public in September 2000, as the Mac OS X
OS X
Public Beta, featuring a revamped user interface called "Aqua". At US$29.99, it allowed adventurous Mac users to sample Apple's new operating system and provide feedback for the actual release.[115] The initial version of Mac OS
Mac OS
X, 10.0 "Cheetah", was released on March 24, 2001. Older Mac OS applications could still run under early Mac OS X
OS X
versions, using an environment called "Classic". Subsequent releases of Mac OS
Mac OS
X included 10.1 "Puma" (2001), 10.2 "Jaguar" (2002), 10.3 "Panther" (2003) and 10.4 "Tiger" (2005). 2005–present: Switch to Intel
Intel
x86[edit] Apple discontinued the use of PowerPC
PowerPC
microprocessors in 2006. At WWDC 2005, Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
announced this transition, revealing that Mac OS
Mac OS
X was always developed to run on both the Intel
Intel
and PowerPC architectures.[116] This was done in order to modernize the company's computers, keeping pace with Intel's low power Pentium
Pentium
M chips, especially for heat-sensitive laptops.[117] The PowerPC
PowerPC
G5 chip's heavy power consumption and heat output (the Power Mac G5
Power Mac G5
had to be liquid-cooled) also prevented its use in Mac notebook computers (as well as the original Mac mini), which were forced to use the older and slower PowerPC
PowerPC
G4 chip. These shortcomings of the PowerPC
PowerPC
chips were the main reasons behind Apple's transition to Intel
Intel
processors, and the brand was revitalised by the subsequent boost in processing power available due to greater efficiency and the ability to implement multiple cores in Mac CPUs. All new Macs now use x86 processors made by Intel, and some were renamed as a result.[118] Intel-based Macs
Intel-based Macs
running OS X
OS X
10.6 and below (support has been discontinued since 10.7) can run pre-existing software developed for PowerPC
PowerPC
using an emulator called Rosetta,[119] although at noticeably slower speeds than native programs. However, the Classic environment is unavailable on the Intel
Intel
architecture. Intel
Intel
chips introduced the potential to run the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows operating system natively on Apple hardware, without emulation software such as Virtual PC. In March 2006, a group of hackers announced that they were able to run Windows XP
Windows XP
on an Intel-based Mac. The group released their software as open source and has posted it for download on their website.[120] On April 5, 2006, Apple announced the availability of the public beta of Boot Camp, software that allows owners of Intel-based Macs
Intel-based Macs
to install Windows XP
Windows XP
on their machines; later versions added support for Windows Vista
Windows Vista
and Windows 7. Classic was discontinued in Mac OS X
OS X
10.5, and Boot Camp became a standard feature on Intel-based Macs.[121][122] Starting in 2006, Apple's industrial design shifted to favor aluminum, which was used in the construction of the first MacBook
MacBook
Pro. Glass was added in 2008 with the introduction of the unibody MacBook
MacBook
Pro. These materials are billed as environmentally friendly.[123] The iMac, MacBook
MacBook
Pro, MacBook
MacBook
Air, and Mac Mini
Mac Mini
lines currently all use aluminum enclosures, and are now made of a single unibody.[124][125][126] Chief designer Jonathan Ive
Jonathan Ive
continues to guide products towards a minimalist and simple feel,[127][128] including eliminating of replaceable batteries in notebooks.[129] Multi-touch gestures from the iPhone's interface have been applied to the Mac line in the form of touch pads on notebooks and the Magic Mouse
Magic Mouse
and Magic Trackpad
Trackpad
for desktops. On February 24, 2011, Apple became the first company to bring to market a computer that utilized Intel's new Thunderbolt (codename Light Peak) I/O interface. Using the same physical interface as a Mini DisplayPort, and backwards compatible with that standard, Thunderbolt boasts two-way transfer speeds of 10 Gbit/s.[130] Timeline of Macintosh
Macintosh
models Main article: Timeline of Macintosh
Macintosh
models

See also: Timeline of Apple II
Apple II
Family and Timeline of Apple Inc. products Source: Glen Sanford, Apple History, apple-history.com Product line[edit] Main article: Comparison of Macintosh
Macintosh
models

v t e

Main product line Other products

Portables MacBook

12" (retina) model; uses Intel
Intel
Core M processors MacBook
MacBook
Pro

13.3" (retina P3) and 15.4" (retina and retina P3) models; uses Intel Core i5 or Intel
Intel
Core i7 processors MacBook
MacBook
Air

13.3" (non-retina) model; uses Intel
Intel
Core i5 or Intel
Intel
Core i7 processors

Desktops iMac

21.5" (non-retina and 4K P3) and 27" (5K P3) models; uses Intel
Intel
Core i5 or Intel
Intel
Core i7 processors iMac
iMac
Pro

27" (5K P3) model; uses Intel
Intel
Xeon W processors Mac Mini

Entry-level desktop; uses Intel
Intel
Core i5 or Intel
Intel
Core i7 processors Mac Pro

Customizable workstation desktop; uses Intel
Intel
Xeon E5 processors

Hardware[edit]

An iMac G5
iMac G5
with its back panel removed

Main article: Macintosh
Macintosh
hardware Apple contracts hardware production to Asian original equipment manufacturers such as Foxconn
Foxconn
and Pegatron, maintaining a high degree of control over the end product. By contrast, most other companies (including Microsoft) create software that can be run on hardware produced by a variety of third parties such as Dell, HP Inc./Hewlett-Packard/Compaq, and Lenovo. Consequently, the Macintosh buyer has comparably fewer options, but has superior integration compared to a Microsoft
Microsoft
buyer. The current Mac product family uses Intel
Intel
x86-64 processors. Apple introduced an emulator during the transition from PowerPC
PowerPC
chips (called Rosetta), much as it did during the transition from Motorola 68000 architecture a decade earlier. The Macintosh
Macintosh
is the only mainstream computer platform to have successfully transitioned to a new CPU architecture,[131] and has done so twice. All current Mac models ship with at least 8 GB of RAM
RAM
as standard other than the 1.4 GHz Mac Mini, MacBook Pro
MacBook Pro
(without Retina Display), and MacBook
MacBook
Air. Current Mac computers use ATI/AMD Radeon
Radeon
or Nvidia GeForce
GeForce
graphics cards as well as Intel
Intel
graphics built into the main CPU. All current Macs (except for the MacBook Pro
MacBook Pro
without Retina Display) do not ship with an optical media drive that includes a dual-function DVD/CD burner. Apple refers to this as a SuperDrive. Current Macs include two standard data transfer ports: USB and Thunderbolt (except for the Retina MacBook, which only has a USB-C port and headphone port). MacBook
MacBook
Pro, iMac, MacBook
MacBook
Air, and Mac Mini computers now also feature the "Thunderbolt" port, which Apple says can transfer data at speeds up to 10 gigabits per second.[132] USB was introduced in the 1998 iMac
iMac
G3 and is ubiquitous today,[100] while FireWire was mainly reserved for high-performance devices such as hard drives or video cameras. Starting with the then-new iMac
iMac
G5, released in October 2005, Apple started to include built-in iSight cameras on appropriate models, and a media center interface called Front Row that can be operated by an Apple Remote
Apple Remote
or keyboard for accessing media stored on the computer. Front Row has been discontinued as of 2011, however, and the Apple Remote
Apple Remote
is no longer bundled with new Macs.[133][134] Apple was initially reluctant to embrace mice with multiple buttons and scroll wheels. Macs did not natively support pointing devices that featured multiple buttons, even from third parties, until Mac OS
Mac OS
X arrived in 2001.[135] Apple continued to offer only single button mice, in both wired and Bluetooth
Bluetooth
wireless versions, until August 2005, when it introduced the Mighty Mouse. While it looked like a traditional one-button mouse, it actually had four buttons and a scroll ball, capable of independent x- and y-axis movement.[136] A Bluetooth
Bluetooth
version followed in July 2006.[137] In October 2009, Apple introduced the Magic Mouse, which uses multi-touch gesture recognition (similar to that of the iPhone) instead of a physical scroll wheel or ball.[138] It is available only in a wireless configuration, but the wired Mighty Mouse (re-branded as "Apple Mouse") is still available as an alternative. Since 2010, Apple has also offered the Magic Trackpad as a means to control Macintosh
Macintosh
desktop computers in a way similar to laptops. Software[edit] Main article: Macintosh
Macintosh
operating systems Further information: Classic Mac OS and macOS The original Macintosh
Macintosh
was the first successful personal computer to use a graphical user interface devoid of a command line. It uses a desktop metaphor, depicting real-world objects like documents and a trash can as icons on-screen. Now known as the classic Mac OS, the System software was introduced in 1984 with the first Macintosh, renamed Mac OS
Mac OS
in 1997, and continued to evolve until version 9.2.2. Originally, the hardware architecture was so closely tied to the classic Mac OS
Mac OS
system that it was impossible to boot an alternative operating system. The most common workaround, is to boot into Mac OS and then to hand over control to a Mac OS-based bootloader application. Used even by Apple for A/UX
A/UX
and MkLinux, this technique is no longer necessary since the introduction of Open Firmware-based PCI Macs, though it was formerly used for convenience on many Old World ROM systems due to bugs in the firmware implementation. Since then, Mac hardware boots directly from Open Firmware
Open Firmware
in most PowerPC-based Macs or EFI in all Intel-based Macs.[citation needed] In 2001, Apple introduced Mac OS X
OS X
(renamed OS X
OS X
in 2012 and macOS in 2016), based on Darwin and NeXTSTEP; its new features included the Dock and the Aqua user interface. During the transition, Apple included a virtual machine subsystem known as Classic, allowing users to run Mac OS 9
Mac OS 9
applications under Mac OS X
OS X
10.4 and earlier on PowerPC
PowerPC
machines. Because macOS is a Unix
Unix
operating system that borrows heavily from FreeBSD, many applications written for Linux
Linux
or BSD run on it, often using X11. There are many popular Macintosh software applications; many of those from large developers, such as Microsoft
Microsoft
Office and Adobe Photoshop
Photoshop
are actively developed for both macOS and Windows. A large amount of open-source software applications, such as the Firefox
Firefox
web browser and the LibreOffice office suite, are cross-platform, and thereby also run natively on macOS. Following the release of Intel-based Macs, third-party platform virtualization software such as Parallels Desktop, VMware Fusion, and VirtualBox
VirtualBox
began to emerge. These programs allow users to run Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
or previously Windows-only software on Macs at near native speed. Apple also released Boot Camp and Mac-specific Windows drivers that help users to install Windows XP
Windows XP
or Vista and natively dual boot between Mac OS X
OS X
and Windows. Though not condoned by Apple, it is possible to run the Linux
Linux
operating system using Boot camp or other virtualization workarounds.[139][140] Unlike most PCs, however, Macs are unable to run many legacy PC operating systems. In particular, Intel-based Macs
Intel-based Macs
lack the A20 gate.[citation needed] Market share and user demographics[edit] 1984–97: Success and decline[edit] Since the introduction of the Macintosh, Apple has struggled to gain a significant share of the personal computer market. At first, the Macintosh 128K
Macintosh 128K
suffered from a dearth of available software compared to IBM's PC, resulting in disappointing sales in 1984 and 1985. It took 74 days for 50,000 units to sell.[141] Although Apple was not able to overcome the tidal wave of IBM PCs and its clones,[2][142][143][144][145][145] Macintosh
Macintosh
systems found success in education and desktop publishing. Notwithstanding these technical and commercial successes on the Macintosh
Macintosh
platform, their systems remained fairly expensive, making them less competitive in light of the falling costs of components that made IBM PC
IBM PC
compatibles cheaper and accelerated their adoption. In 1989, Jean-Louis Gassée had steadfastly refused to lower the profit margins on Mac computers, then there was a component shortage that rocked the exponentially-expanding PC industry that year, forcing Apple USA head Allan Loren to cut prices which dropped Apple's margins. Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
3.0 was released in May 1990, the first iteration of Windows which had a feature set and performance comparable to the significantly costlier Macintosh.[69] Furthermore, Apple had created too many similar models that confused potential buyers; at one point the product lineup was subdivided into Classic, LC, II, Quadra, Performa, and Centris models, with essentially the same computer being sold under a number of different names.[91] Compaq, who had previously held the third place spot among PC manufacturers during the 1980s and early/mid-1990s, initiated a successful price war in 1994 that vaulted them to the biggest by the year end, overtaking a struggling IBM and relegating Apple to third place.[88][89][90] Apple's market share further struggled due to the release of the Windows 95
Windows 95
operating system, which unified Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and Windows products. Windows 95 significantly enhanced the multimedia capability and performance of IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
computers, and brought the capabilities of Windows to parity with the Mac OS
Mac OS
GUI. 1997–2007: Comeback[edit] In 1997, upon return to Apple as interim CEO, Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
terminated the Macintosh clone
Macintosh clone
program while simplifying the computer product lines. If measuring market share by installed base, there were more than 20 million Mac users by 1997, compared to an installed base of around 340 million Windows PCs.[146][147] In 1998, the release of the iMac
iMac
G3 all-in-one was a great success, selling 800,000 units in 139 days, providing a much needed boost to the ailing Macintosh
Macintosh
platform.[102][103] The introduction of the Power Macintosh
Macintosh
and iBook
iBook
laptop completed "four-square product matrix" (desktop and portable products for both consumers and professionals), with the iBook
iBook
ranking as the most popular laptop in the U.S. market for 1999.[104][105][106] In 2000, Apple released the Power Mac G4
Power Mac G4
Cube, their first desktop since the discontinued Power Macintosh
Power Macintosh
G3, to slot between the iMac
iMac
G3 and the Power Mac G4. Even with its innovative design, it was initially priced US$200 higher than the comparably-equipped and more-expandable base Power Mac G4, while also not including a monitor, making it too expensive and resulting in slow sales.[148] Apple sold just 29,000 Cubes in Q4 of 2000 which was one third of expectations, compared to 308,000 Macs during that same quarter, and Cube sales dropped to 12,000 units in Q1 of 2001.[149] A price drop and hardware upgrades could not offset the earlier perception of the Cube's reduced value compared to the iMac
iMac
and Power Mac G4
Power Mac G4
lineup, and it was discontinued in July 2001.[150] Starting in 2002, Apple moved to eliminate CRT displays from its product line as part of aesthetic design and space-saving measures with the iMac
iMac
G4. However, the new iMac
iMac
with its flexible LCD flat-panel monitor was considerably more expensive on its debut than the preceding iMac
iMac
G3, largely due to the higher cost of the LCD technology at the time. In order to keep the Macintosh
Macintosh
affordable for the education market and due to obsolescence of the iMac
iMac
G3, Apple created the eMac
eMac
in April 2002 as the intended successor; however the eMac's CRT made it relatively bulky and somewhat outdated, while its all-in-one construction meant it could not be expanded to meet consumer demand for larger monitors. The iMac
iMac
G4's relatively high prices were approaching that of laptops which were portable and had higher resolution LCD screens. Meanwhile, Windows PC manufacturers could offer desktop configurations with LCD flat panel monitors at prices comparable to the eMac
eMac
and at much lower cost than the iMac G4.[151] The flop of the Power Mac G4
Power Mac G4
Cube, along with the more expensive iMac G4
iMac G4
and heavy eMac, meant that Macintosh
Macintosh
desktop sales never reached the market share attained by the previous iMac
iMac
G3. For the next half-decade while Macintosh
Macintosh
sales held steady, it would instead be the iPod
iPod
portable music player and iTunes music download service that would drive Apple's sales growth. Statistics from late 2003 indicate that Apple had 2.06 percent of the desktop share in the United States that had increased to 2.88 percent by Q4 2004.[152] As of October 2006, research firms IDC and Gartner
Gartner
reported that Apple's market share in the U.S. had increased to about 6 percent.[153] Figures from December 2006, showing a market share around 6 percent (IDC) and 6.1 percent (Gartner) are based on a more than 30 percent increase in unit sale from 2005 to 2006. The installed base of Mac computers is hard to determine, with numbers ranging from 5% (estimated in 2009)[154] to 16% (estimated in 2005).[155]

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2007–present: "Post-PC" era[edit] In recent years, market share of the personal computer market is measured by browser hits, sales and installed base. If using the browser metric, Mac market share increased substantially in 2007.[156] Mac OS
Mac OS
X's share of the OS market increased from 7.31% in December 2007 to 9.63% in December 2008, which is a 32% increase in market share during 2008, compared with a 22% increase during 2007. From 2001 to 2008, Mac sales increased continuously on an annual basis. Apple reported worldwide sales of 3.36 million Macs during the 2009 holiday season.[157] As of Mid-2011, the Macintosh
Macintosh
continues to enjoy rapid market share increase in the US, growing from 7.3% of all computer shipments in 2010 to 9.3% in 2011.[158] According to IDC's quarterly PC tracker, globally, in 3rd quarter of 2014, Apple's PC market share increased 5.7 percent year over year, with record sales of 5.5 million units. Apple now sits in the number five spot, with a global market share of about 6% during 2014, behind Lenovo, HP, Dell
Dell
and Acer.[159] By March 2011, the market share of OS X
OS X
in North America had increased to slightly over 14%.[160] Whether the size of the Mac's market share and installed base is relevant, and to whom, is a hotly debated issue. Industry pundits have often called attention to the Mac's relatively small market share to predict Apple's impending doom, particularly in the early and mid-1990s when the company's future seemed bleakest. Others argue that market share is the wrong way to judge the Mac's success. Apple has positioned the Mac as a higher-end personal computer, and so it may be misleading to compare it to a budget PC.[161] Because the overall market for personal computers has grown rapidly, the Mac's increasing sales numbers are effectively swamped by the industry's expanding sales volume as a whole. Apple's small market share, then, gives the impression that fewer people are using Macs than did ten years ago, when exactly the opposite is true.[162] Soaring sales of the iPhone
iPhone
and iPad
iPad
mean that the portion of Apple's profits represented by the Macintosh
Macintosh
has declined in 2010, dropping to 24% from 46% two years earlier.[163] Others try to de-emphasize market share, citing that it is rarely brought up in other industries.[164] Regardless of the Mac's market share, Apple has remained profitable since Steve Jobs's return and the company's subsequent reorganization.[165] Notably, a report published in the first quarter of 2008 found that Apple had a 14% market share in the personal computer market in the US, with 66% of all computers over $1,000.[166] Market research
Market research
indicates that Apple draws its customer base from a higher-income demographic than the mainstream personal computer market.[167] The sales breakdown of the Macintosh
Macintosh
have seen sales of desktop Macs stayed mostly constant while being surpassed by that of Mac notebooks whose sales rate has grown considerably; seven out of ten Macs sold were laptops in 2009, a ratio projected to rise to three out of four by 2010.[168] The change in sales of form factors is due to the desktop iMac
iMac
moving from affordable ( iMac
iMac
G3) to upscale ( iMac
iMac
G4) and subsequent releases are considered premium all-in-ones. By contrast the MSRP of the MacBook
MacBook
laptop lines have dropped through successive generations such that the MacBook Air
MacBook Air
and MacBook Pro
MacBook Pro
constitute the lowest price of entry to a Mac, with the exception of the even more inexpensive Mac Mini
Mac Mini
(the only sub-$1000 offering from Apple, albeit without a monitor and keyboard), not surprisingly the MacBooks are the top-selling form factors of the Macintosh
Macintosh
platform today.[169] The use of Intel
Intel
microprocessors has helped Macs more directly compete with their Windows counterparts on price and performance, and by the 2010s Apple was receiving Intel's latest CPUs first before other PC manufacturers.[170][171][172] In recent years, Apple has seen a significant boost in sales of Macs.[173] This has been attributed, in part, to the success of the iPod
iPod
and the iPhone, a halo effect whereby satisfied iPod
iPod
or iPhone owners purchase more Apple products, and Apple has since capitalized on that with the iCloud cloud service that allows users to seamlessly sync data between these devices and Macs.[174] Nonetheless, like other personal computer manufacturers, the Macintosh
Macintosh
lines have been hurt by consumer trend towards smartphones and tablet computers (particularly Apple's own iPhone
iPhone
and iPad, respectively) as the computing devices of choice among consumers.[175] Although the PC market declined, Apple still managed to ship 2.8 million MacBooks in Q2 2012 (the majority of which are the MacBook Air) compared to 500,000 total Ultrabooks,[176][177] although there were dozens of Ultrabooks
Ultrabooks
from various manufacturers on the market while Apple only offered 11-inch and 13-inch models of the MacBook Air.[178] The Air has been the best-selling ultra-portable in certain countries over Windows Ultrabooks, particularly the United States.[179] While several Ultrabooks
Ultrabooks
were able to claim individual distinctions such as being the lightest or thinnest, the Air was regarded by reviewers as the best all-around subnotebook/ultraportable in regard to " OS X
OS X
experience, full keyboard, superior trackpad, Thunderbolt connector and the higher-quality, all-aluminum unibody construction".[180] The Air was among the first to receive Intel's latest CPUs before other PC manufacturers, and OS X
OS X
has gained market share on Windows in recent years.[170][171] Through July 1, 2013, the MacBook Air
MacBook Air
took in 56 percent of all Ultrabook sales in the United States, although being one of the higher-priced competitors,[181] though several Ultrabooks
Ultrabooks
with better features were often more expensive than the MacBook
MacBook
Air.[179] The competitive pricing of MacBooks was particularly effective when rivals charged more for seemingly equivalent Ultrabooks, as this contradicted the established "elitist aura" perception that Apple products cost more but were higher quality, which made these most expensive Ultrabooks
Ultrabooks
seem exorbitant no matter how valid their higher prices were.[182] Apple has generally dominated the premium PC market, having a 91 percent market share for PCs priced at more than $1,000 in 2009, according to NPD.[183] The Macintosh
Macintosh
took 45 percent of operating profits in the PC industry during Q4 2012, compared to 13 percent for Dell, seven percent for Hewlett Packard, six percent for Lenovo
Lenovo
and Asus, and one percent for Acer.[168][184] While sales of the Macintosh have largely held steady, in comparison to Apple's sales of the iPhone and iPad
iPad
which increased significantly during the 2010s, Macintosh computers still enjoy high margins on a per unit basis, with the majority being their MacBooks that are focused on the ultraportable niche that is the most profitable and only growing segment of PCs.[168] It also helped that the Macintosh
Macintosh
lineup is simple, updated on a yearly schedule, and consistent across both Apple retail stores, and authorized resellers where they have a special "store within a store" section to distinguish them from Windows PCs. In contrast, Windows PC manufacturers generally have a wide range of offerings, selling only a portion through retail with a full selection on the web, and often with limited-time or region-specific models. The Macintosh
Macintosh
ranked third on the "list of intended brands for desktop purchases" for the 2011 holiday season, then moved up to second in 2012 by displacing Hewlett Packard, and in 2013 took the top spot ahead of Dell.[185] See also[edit]

Book: Apple Inc.

Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
litigation Apple community History of computing hardware (1960s-present) Lilith (computer) List of Macintosh
Macintosh
models by case type List of Macintosh
Macintosh
models grouped by CPU type List of Macintosh
Macintosh
software List of Macintosh software
List of Macintosh software
published by Microsoft Macintosh
Macintosh
hardware Macintosh
Macintosh
operating systems Macintosh
Macintosh
XL Reality distortion field

Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
portal Computer Science portal Design portal

References[edit]

^ Polsson, Ken (July 29, 2009). "Chronology of Apple Computer
Apple Computer
Personal Computers". Archived from the original on August 21, 2009. Retrieved August 27, 2009.  ^ a b Reimer, Jeremy (December 14, 2005). "Total share: 30 years of personal computer market share figures". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 16, 2015.  ^ Raskin, Jef (1996). "Recollections of the Macintosh
Macintosh
project". Articles from Jef Raskin
Jef Raskin
about the history of the Macintosh. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved November 27, 2008.  ^ Raskin, Jef (May 1984). "More Mac Reactions". BYTE
BYTE
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Further reading[edit]

Adams, Noah (January 25, 1984). "The MacIntosh Computer Is a Calculated Risk". All Things Considered. NPR. Retrieved January 30, 2014.  This is an interview about the introduction of the Macintosh. Apple & Raskin, Jef (1992). Macintosh
Macintosh
Human Interface Guidelines. Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-201-62216-5.  Apple. "Press release Library". Retrieved November 18, 2007.  Deutschman, Alan (2001). The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway. ISBN 0-7679-0433-8.  Herrick, Dennis (2012). Technological milestones of the electronic age. ISBN 9780826351630. Retrieved March 11, 2014.  Hertzfeld, Andy. "folklore.org: Macintosh
Macintosh
stories". Archived from the original on April 24, 2006. Retrieved April 24, 2006.  Hertzfeld, Andy (2005). Revolution in the Valley:The Insanely Great Story of How the MAC was made. O'Reilly
O'Reilly
Books. ISBN 0-596-00719-1.  Kahney, Leander (2004). The Cult of Mac. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-886411-83-2.  Kawasaki, Guy (1989). The Macintosh
Macintosh
Way. Scott Foresman Trade. ISBN 0-673-46175-0.  Kelby, Scott (2002). Macintosh... The Naked Truth. New Riders Press. ISBN 0-7357-1284-0.  Knight, Dan (2005). "1984: The First Macs". Retrieved April 24, 2006.  Levy, Steven (2000). Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-029177-6.  Linzmayer, Owen (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-59327-010-0.  Page, Ian (2007). "MacTracker Macintosh
Macintosh
model database 4.3.1". Retrieved November 30, 2007.  Sanford, Glen (2006). "Apple History". Retrieved April 24, 2006.  Singh, Amit (2005). "A History of Apple's Operating Systems". Retrieved April 24, 2006. [permanent dead link]

External links[edit]

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Apple Music
Apple Music
Festival Welcome to Macintosh
Macintosh
(2008 documentary) Artistic depictions of Steve Jobs Original programs distributed by Apple

Book  Category Portal

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Apple hardware before 1998

Computers

Apple

Apple I Apple II
Apple II
series

II II Plus IIe IIc IIc Plus IIGS

Apple III

Compact Macintosh

128K 512K 512Ke Plus SE SE/30 Classic Classic II Color Classic

Macintosh
Macintosh
II

II IIx IIcx IIci IIfx IIsi IIvi IIvx

Macintosh
Macintosh
LC

LC LC II LC III LC 475 LC 500 series LC 630 5200 LC Macintosh
Macintosh
TV

Macintosh
Macintosh
Quadra

700 900 950 800 840AV 600 series

610 650 660AV 605 630

PowerBook

Macintosh
Macintosh
Portable 68k-based PowerBooks

100 series

100 140 170 160 180 150 190

200 series

210 230

500 series

PowerPC-based PowerBooks

2300c 5300 1400 3400c 2400c

Power Macintosh

4400 and 7220 5000 series

5200 LC and 5300 LC 5260 5400 5500

6000 series

6100 6200 and 6300 6400 6500

7000 series

7100 7200 and 8200 7300 7500 7600

8000 series

8100 8500 8600

9000 series

9500 9600

Power Macintosh
Power Macintosh
G3

Miscellaneous

Apple Lisa Macintosh
Macintosh
XL Macintosh
Macintosh
Performa Macintosh
Macintosh
Centris Apple IIe Card
Apple IIe Card
( Macintosh
Macintosh
PDS) Apple Workgroup Server

9150

Apple Network Server Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh

Peripherals

Displays

Monitor III Monitor II AppleColor Composite IIe AppleColor High-Resolution RGB Macintosh
Macintosh
Color AudioVision 14 Multiple Scan 14 ColorSync
ColorSync
750

External drives

Disk II Macintosh ProFile Hard Disk 20 Hard Disk 20SC AppleCD PowerCD Tape Drive 40SC

Input devices

Keyboard Desktop Bus Extended Keyboard Adjustable Keyboard Mouse Scanner QuickTake

Networking

Apple II
Apple II
serial cards Apple Modem LocalTalk Apple Communication Slot GeoPort

Printers

Silentype Dot Matrix Printer Letter Quality Printer ImageWriter LaserWriter 410 Color Plotter Color LaserWriter StyleWriter

Newton

MessagePad eMate 300

Other

Paladin Interactive Television Box Pippin

Apple hardware since 1998

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Apple hardware since 1998

Consumer desktop/all-in-ones

eMac iMac

G3 G4 G5 Intel-based

Mac Mini

Professional tower/desktop

iMac
iMac
Pro Mac Pro Power Macintosh

G3 G4 G4 Cube G5

Xserve

Consumer notebook

iBook MacBook

Retina

MacBook
MacBook
Air

Professional notebooks

MacBook
MacBook
Pro PowerBook

G3 G4

Consumer electronics

Apple TV

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 4K

Apple Watch

1st Series 1 Series 2 Series 3

Displays

Thunderbolt Cinema Studio

HomePod iPad

1st 2 3rd 4th Air

1st 2

2017 2018

iPad
iPad
Mini

1st 2 3 4

iPad
iPad
Pro

1st 2nd

iPod

Classic Photo Mini iPod+HP Shuffle Nano Touch

Newton

MessagePad eMate 300

Smartphones

iPhone

1st 3G 3GS 4 4S 5 5C 5S 6 / 6 Plus 6S / 6S Plus SE 7 / 7 Plus 8 / 8 Plus X

Accessories

AirPods AirPort

Express Extreme Time Capsule

AirPower iPad

Pencil

iPod

Click Wheel Hi-Fi Nike+

iSight Keyboard

Wireless Magic

Mouse

USB Pro Wireless Mighty Magic Magic 2

Remote Siri
Siri
Remote SuperDrive Trackpad

Magic Magic 2

USB Modem Xserve
Xserve
RAID

Italics indicate current products. See also: Apple hardware before 1998

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Operating systems by Apple Inc.

Apple II/III/Lisa

Apple II
Apple II
series

Apple DOS ProDOS GS/OS

Apple III

SOS

Lisa

Lisa OS MacWorks

Macintosh (overview)

Classic Mac OS

System 1 System 2, 3, and 4 System 5 System 6 System 7 Mac OS
Mac OS
8 Mac OS
Mac OS
9

Mac OS X
OS X
/ OS X
OS X
/ macOS

History

NeXTSTEP OpenStep Rhapsody Public Beta

Core

Darwin

Desktop

Mac OS X
OS X
10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 OS X
OS X
10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11 macOS 10.12 10.13

Server

1.0 macOS Server

Other projects

Shipped

A/ROSE A/UX AIX for Apple Network Servers MAE MkLinux PowerOpen Environment

Cancelled

Star Trek Taligent Copland

iPod/iPhone/iPad

iPod
iPod
Software iPhone
iPhone
OS

1 2 3

iOS

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Other devices

Newton

Newton OS

Apple Watch

watchOS

Apple TV

Apple TV
Apple TV
Software tvOS

HomePod

audioOS

Italics indicate discontinued products · List · Category

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Classic Mac OS

Versions

System 1 System 2, 3, and 4 System 5 System 6 System 7 Mac OS
Mac OS
8 Mac OS
Mac OS
9

Applications

Calculator Chooser Drive Setup DVD Player Finder Graphing Calculator Keychain Access PictureViewer PowerTalk QuickTime
QuickTime
Player Network Browser Scrapbook Sherlock Software Update Stickies System Information SimpleText

Developer

HyperCard MacsBug Macintosh
Macintosh
Programmer's Workshop ResEdit

Technology

Alias Appearance Manager Apple menu At Ease Balloon help Bomb Error Command key
Command key
(⌘) Control Panel Control Strip Creator code Extensions Hierarchical File
File
System HFS Plus Keychain Labels Macintosh
Macintosh
File
File
System Menu blinking MultiFinder Option key
Option key
(⌥) OSType PICT QuickDraw QuickTime Resource fork Sosumi sound Startup Screen System folder System suitcase Type code WorldScript

Related articles

Manager Toolbox Memory management Old World ROM New World ROM EFI Software

v t e

macOS

History Architecture Components Technologies Server Software

Versions

Server 1.0 Hera Public Beta Kodiak 10.0 Cheetah 10.1 Puma 10.2 Jaguar 10.3 Panther 10.4 Tiger 10.5 Leopard 10.6 Snow Leopard 10.7 Lion 10.8 Mountain Lion 10.9 Mavericks 10.10 Yosemite 10.11 El Capitan 10.12 Sierra 10.13 High Sierra

Applications

Automator Calculator Calendar Chess Contacts Dashboard Dictionary DVD Player FaceTime Finder Game Center Grapher iTunes (version history) Launchpad Mac App Store Mail Messages Notes Notification Center Photo Booth Photos Preview QuickTime Reminders Safari (version history) Stickies TextEdit Time Machine

Discontinued

Front Row iChat iPhoto iSync Sherlock

Utilities

Activity Monitor AirPort
AirPort
Utility AppleScript
AppleScript
Editor Archive Utility Audio MIDI Setup Bluetooth
Bluetooth
File
File
Exchange Boot Camp ColorSync Configurator Console Crash Reporter DigitalColor Meter Directory Utility DiskImageMounter Disk Utility Font Book Grab Help Viewer Image Capture Installer Keychain Access Migration Assistant Network Utility ODBC Administrator Screen Sharing System Preferences System Information Terminal Universal Access VoiceOver

Discontinued

Software Update Remote Install Mac OS
Mac OS
X

Technology and user interface

AirDrop Apple File
File
System Apple menu Apple Push Notification Service AppleScript Aqua Audio Units Bonjour CloudKit Cocoa ColorSync Command key Core Animation Core Audio Core Data Core Foundation Core Image Core OpenGL Core Text Core Video CUPS Cover Flow Darwin Dock FileVault Fonts Gatekeeper Grand Central Dispatch icns iCloud Inkwell I/O Kit Kernel panic Keychain launchd Mach-O Menu extra Metal Mission Control OpenCL Option key Preference Pane Property list Quartz QuickTime Quick Look Smart Folders Speakable items Spotlight Stacks System Integrity Protection Uniform Type Identifier Universal binary WebKit XNU XQuartz

Deprecated

Carbon HFS+

Discontinued

BootX Brushed metal Classic Environment Rosetta Spaces Xgrid

Authority control

BNF:

.