MAARIV or MA\'ARIV (
The service usually begins with two verses from
Psalms , followed by
the communal recitation of
Barechu . The three paragraphs of the Shema
are then said, both preceded and followed by two blessings, although
sometimes a fifth blessing is added at the end. The hazzan (leader)
then recites half-
Kaddish . The
Amidah is said quietly by everyone,
and, unlike at the other services, is not repeated by the hazzan. He
recites the full Kaddish,
Aleinu is recited, and the mourners' Kaddish
ends the service. Other prayers occasionally added include the
Counting of the Omer (between
* 1 Etymology * 2 Origin
* 3 Time
* 4 Prayers included
* 5 Additions
* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References
Another explanation is that as the third prayer,
Further information: Zmanim
Generally, the time when
BACK-TO-BACK MINCHA AND MAARIV
In many congregations, the afternoon and evening prayers are recited back-to-back, to save people having to attend synagogue twice. The Vilna Gaon discouraged this practice, and followers of his set of customs commonly wait until after nightfall to recite Ma'ariv, since the name derives from the word "nightfall".
On the eve of
Shabbat , some have the custom to recite the Maariv
prayer earlier than usually, generally during Pelag Hamincha (1¼
hours before sunset). This is in order to fulfill the precept of
adding from the weekday to the holiness of Shabbat. However, this is
too early for the recitation of Shema, so
On weekdays, the service begins with two verses from Psalms : 78:38 and 20:10.
The first main part of the service is focused on the
In a congregation,
Barechu , the formal public call to prayer, is
recited. Then come two benedictions, one praising God for creating the
cycle of day and night, and one thanking God for the
The three passages of the
Two more benedictions are recited. The first praises God for taking the Jews out of Egypt , and the second prays for protection during the night. Ashkenazim outside of Israel (except Chabad-Lubavitch and followers of the Vilna Gaon ) then add another blessing (Baruch Adonai L\'Olam ), which is made mostly from a tapestry of biblical verses. However, this is omitted on Shabbat and holidays, and by some at the conclusion of those days and on Chol HaMoed . (This prayer is also said by Baladi Temanim in and out of Israel, albeit combined with the last blessing. )
On Shabbat and holidays, some congregations recite relevant verses at this point.
This is followed by the Shemoneh Esreh (
Amidah ). Just beforehand is
Kaddish , to separate between the required
Sephardim (and, in Israel, most who follow
Nusach Sefard ) then say
Psalm 121 (or another topical
From the beginning of
At the beginning of Shabbat on Friday night, the Amidah is immediately followed by the recitation of Genesis 1-3 which discusses God's "resting" on the seventh day of creation . Although these verses were already said during the Amidah (and will be recited yet again during Kiddush at home) they are repeated. This is because when Shabbat coincides with a holiday , the Amidah does not include the passage.
The three verses are followed by the
Seven-Faceted Blessing . This is
a single blessing designed to summarize the seven blessings of the
Amidah, for those who came late. While originally this was said only
by the leader, it is now customary for the congregation to recite the
middle part before the leader does so. This blessing is omitted on the
first night of
Further information: Motza\'ei Shabbat
A paragraph called "Ata Chonantanu" is inserted into the fourth blessing of the Amidah. The recitation of this paragraph officially ends Shabbat. One who forgets to recite this paragraph may also end Shabbat through Havdalah or by saying the words "Blessed is He Who differentiates between the holy and the secular."
Two sections of prayers, "Vihi Noam " (the last verse from
COUNTING OF THE OMER
Main article: Counting of the Omer
During the seven weeks from the second night of
In general, relatively few prayers are added onto Maariv, even on
holidays, although there are exceptions. On Simchat
* ^ Wein 2002 , p. 88.
* ^ Donin 1991 , p. 72.
* ^ Berakhot 26b
* ^ Wein 2002 , p. 90.
* ^ Donin 1991 , pp. 340–341.
* ^ In strict law, one should only recite
Mincha between sunset and
nightfall if one recites Arvit after nightfall; conversely one should
only recite Arvit between sunset and nightfall if one recites Mincha
before sunset; in other words one should not take advantage of both
flexibilities at once so as to combine the prayers. The prevailing
practice, of doing exactly that, is regarded as an emergency measure.
On yet another view, the disputed period is not that between sunset
and nightfall but the last seasonally adjusted hour and a quarter
* ^ One reason for this is that, while the prevailing practice may
satisfy the law concerning the timing of Arvit in the sense of the
evening Amidah, it means that the evening
* Karo, Yosef . Shulchan Aruch , Orach Chayim . * Appel, Gersion (1978). The Concise Code of Jewish Law. New York: Ktav Publishing House. ISBN 978-0-88125-314-6 . * Donin, Hayim H. (1991). To Pray As A Jew: A Guide To The Prayer Book And The Synagogue Service. New York: Basic Books . ISBN 978-0-465-08633-7 . * Wein, Berel (2002). Living Jewish: Values, Practices and Traditions. New York: Mesorah Publications. ISBN 978-1-57819-753-8 .
* v * t * e
* Birkot hashachar * Akeida * Offerings
* Mizmor Shir (
SHABBAT / HOLIDAY ADDITIONS
Pesukei dezimra (
* 93 )