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Lucca
Lucca
(Italian pronunciation: [ˈlukka] ( listen)) is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca. It is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls.[2][3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient and medieval city 1.2 First republic 1.3 After Napoleonic conquest

2 Architecture

2.1 Walls, streets, and squares 2.2 Palaces, villas, houses, offices, and museums 2.3 Churches

3 Culture

3.1 Museums 3.2 Events 3.3 Film and television

4 International relations 5 People 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 Bibliography 9 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Lucca Ancient and medieval city[edit] Lucca
Lucca
was founded by the Etruscans (there are traces of an earlier Ligurian settlement in the 3rd century BC called Luk meaning marsh in which the name Lucca
Lucca
originated) and became a Roman colony in 180 BC.[4] The rectangular grid of its historical centre preserves the Roman street plan, and the Piazza San Michele occupies the site of the ancient forum. Traces of the amphitheatre still may be seen in the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro. At the Lucca
Lucca
Conference, in 56 BC, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus reaffirmed their political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.[4][5]

Piazza Anfiteatro and the Basilica
Basilica
di San Frediano

Frediano, an Irish monk, was bishop of Lucca
Lucca
in the early sixth century.[6] At one point, Lucca
Lucca
was plundered by Odoacer, the first Germanic King of Italy. Lucca
Lucca
was an important city and fortress even in the sixth century, when Narses
Narses
besieged it for several months in 553. Under the Lombards, it was the seat of a duke who minted his own coins. The Holy Face of Lucca
Holy Face of Lucca
(or Volto Santo), a major relic supposedly carved by Nicodemus, arrived in 742. During the eighth-tenth centuries Lucca
Lucca
was a center of Jewish
Jewish
life, the community being led by the Kalonymos family
Kalonymos family
(which at some point during this time migrated to Germany
Germany
to become a major component of proto-Ashkenazic Jewry). Lucca
Lucca
became prosperous through the silk trade that began in the eleventh century, and came to rival the silks of Byzantium. During the tenth–eleventh centuries Lucca
Lucca
was the capital of the feudal margraviate of Tuscany, more or less independent but owing nominal allegiance to the Holy Roman Emperor. First republic[edit] Main article: Republic of Lucca After the death of Matilda of Tuscany, the city began to constitute itself an independent commune with a charter in 1160. For almost 500 years, Lucca
Lucca
remained an independent republic. There were many minor provinces in the region between southern Liguria
Liguria
and northern Tuscany dominated by the Malaspina; Tuscany
Tuscany
in this time was a part of feudal Europe. Dante’s Divine Comedy includes many references to the great feudal families who had huge jurisdictions with administrative and judicial rights. Dante spent some of his exile in Lucca. In 1273 and again in 1277, Lucca
Lucca
was ruled by a Guelph capitano del popolo (captain of the people) named Luchetto Gattilusio. In 1314, internal discord allowed Uguccione della Faggiuola
Uguccione della Faggiuola
of Pisa to make himself lord of Lucca. The Lucchesi expelled him two years later, and handed over the city to another condottiero, Castruccio Castracani, under whose rule it became a leading state in central Italy. Lucca rivalled Florence
Florence
until Castracani's death in 1328. On 22 and 23 September 1325, in the battle of Altopascio, Castracani defeated Florence's Guelphs. For this he was nominated by Louis IV the Bavarian to become duke of Lucca. Castracani's tomb is in the church of San Francesco. His biography is Machiavelli's third famous book on political rule. In 1408, Lucca
Lucca
hosted the convocation intended to end the schism in the papacy. Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, the city was sold to a rich Genoese, Gherardino Spinola, then seized by John, king of Bohemia. Pawned to the Rossi of Parma, by them it was ceded to Mastino II della Scala
Mastino II della Scala
of Verona, sold to the Florentines, surrendered to the Pisans, and then nominally liberated by the emperor Charles IV and governed by his vicar. Lucca
Lucca
managed, at first as a democracy, and after 1628 as an oligarchy, to maintain its independence alongside of Venice
Venice
and Genoa, and painted the word Libertas on its banner until the French Revolution in 1789.[7] After Napoleonic conquest[edit]

Palazzo Pfanner, garden view

Lucca
Lucca
had been the second largest Italian city state (after Venice) with a republican constitution ("comune") to remain independent over the centuries. In 1805, Lucca
Lucca
was conquered by Napoleon, who installed his sister Elisa Bonaparte
Elisa Bonaparte
Baciocchi as "Princess of Lucca". From 1815 to 1847 it was a Bourbon-Parma duchy. The only reigning dukes of Lucca
Lucca
were Maria Luisa of Spain, who was succeeded by her son Charles II, Duke of Parma
Charles II, Duke of Parma
in 1824. Meanwhile, the Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
had been assigned for life to Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, the second wife of Napoleon. In accordance with the Treaty of Vienna (1815), upon the death of Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
in 1847, Parma reverted to Charles II, Duke of Parma, while Lucca
Lucca
lost independence and was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. As part of Tuscany, it became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
in 1860 and finally part of the Italian State in 1861. Architecture[edit]

Palazzo Ducale

Passeggiata delle Mura

Via Fillungo view from the Clock Tower

Autumn atop bastions

View of Lucca
Lucca
from the Clock Tower

Walls, streets, and squares[edit] The walls encircling the old town remain intact, even as the city expanded and modernized, unusual for cities in the region. Initially built as a defensive rampart, once the walls lost their military importance they became a pedestrian promenade, the Passeggiata delle Mura Urbane, a street atop the walls linking the bastions. It passes through the Bastions of Santa Croce, San Frediano, San Martino, San Pietro/Battisti, San Salvatore, La Libertà/Cairoli, San Regolo, San Colombano, Santa Maria, San Paolino/Catalani, and San Donato; and over the gates (Porte): San Donato, Santa Maria, San Jocopo, Elisa, San Pietro, and Sant'Anna. Each of the four principal sides of the structure is lined with a different tree species than the others. The walled city is encircled by Piazzale Boccherini, Viale Lazzaro Papi, Viale Carlo Del Prete, Piazzale Martiri della Libertà, Via Batoni, Viale Agostino Marti, Viale G. Marconi (vide Guglielmo Marconi), Piazza Don A. Mei, Viale Pacini, Viale Giusti, Piazza Curtatone, Piazzale Ricasoli, Viale Ricasoli, Piazza Risorgimento (vide Risorgimento), and Viale Giosuè Carducci. The town includes a number of public squares, most notably the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro, site of ancient Roman amphitheater; but also Piazzale Verdi; Piazza Napoleone'; and Piazza San Michele.

The courtyard of National Museum of Palazzo Mansi

Teatro del Giglio

San Michele in Foro

San Michele at Antraccoli

Palaces, villas, houses, offices, and museums[edit]

Ducal Palace: built on the site of Castruccio Castracani's fortress. Construction began by Ammannati in 1577–1582, and continued by Juvarra in the eighteenth century Pfanner Palace Villa Garzoni, noted for its water gardens Casa di Puccini: House of the opera composer, at the nearby Torre del Lago, where the composer summered. A Puccini opera festival takes place every July–August Torre delle Ore: ("The Clock Tower") Guinigi Tower
Guinigi Tower
and House: Panoramic view from tower-top balcony with oak trees National Museum of Villa Guinigi National Museum of Palazzo Mansi Orto Botanico Comunale di Lucca: botanical garden dating from 1820 Academy of Sciences (1584) Teatro del Giglio: nineteenth-century opera house

Churches[edit] There are many medieval, a few as old as the eighth century, basilica-form churches with richly arcaded façades and campaniles

Duomo di San Martino: St Martin's Cathedral San Michele in Foro: Romanesque church San Giusto: Romanesque church Basilica
Basilica
di San Frediano Sant'Alessandro [8] an example of medieval classicism Santa Giulia: Lombard church rebuilt in thirteenth century San Michele: church at Antraccoli, founded in 777, it was enlarged and rebuilt in the twelfth century with the introduction of a sixteenth-century portico San Giorgio church in the locality of Brancoli, built in the late twelfth century has a bell tower in Lombard-Romanesque style, the interior houses a massive ambo (1194) with four columns mounted on lion sculptures, a highly decorated Romanesque octagonal baptismal fount, and the altar is supported by six small columns with human figures

Culture[edit] Lucca
Lucca
is the birthplace of composers Giacomo Puccini
Giacomo Puccini
( La Bohème
La Bohème
and Madama Butterfly), Nicalao Dorati, Francesco Geminiani, Gioseffo Guami, Luigi Boccherini, and Alfredo Catalani. It is also the birthplace of Bruno Menconi and artist Benedetto Brandimarte.

Lucca, Piazza Anfiteatro

Guinigi Tower

Museums[edit]

National Museum of Villa Guinigi Museum of Villa Mansi Museo della Cattedrale Lu.C.C.A. Museum of the Archaeology of the Lucca
Lucca
Cathedral Orto Botanico Comunale di Lucca

Events[edit] Lucca
Lucca
hosts the annual Lucca
Lucca
Summer Festival. The 2006 edition featured live performances by Eric Clapton, Placebo, Massive Attack, Roger Waters, Tracy Chapman, and Santana at the Piazza Napoleone. Lucca
Lucca
hosts the annual Lucca Comics and Games
Lucca Comics and Games
festival, Europe's largest festival for comics, movies, games and related subjects. Other events include:

Lucca
Lucca
Film Festival[9] Lucca
Lucca
Digital Photography Fest[10] Procession of Santa Croce, on 13 September. Costume procession through the town's roads. Lucca
Lucca
Jazz Donna[11]

Film and television[edit] Mauro Bolognini's 1958 film Giovani mariti with Sylva Koscina
Sylva Koscina
is set and was filmed in Lucca.[citation needed] TopGear filmed the episode 'series 17, episode 3' here. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Lucca
Lucca
is twinned with:

Abingdon, United Kingdom Colmar, France Gogolin, Poland Schongau, Germany Sint-Niklaas, Belgium Buenos Aires, Argentina Gorinchem, Netherlands Lucca
Lucca
Sicula, Italy Panther's Contrade, Siena South San Francisco, United States
United States
of America

People[edit]

St. Anselm of Lucca, (1036–1086), bishop of Lucca Giovanni Arnolfini, merchant and arts patron Pompeo Batoni, painter Simone Bianchi, comics artist[12] Luigi Boccherini, musician and composer Elisa Bonaparte, ruler of Lucca Giulio Carmassi, composer Castruccio Castracani, ruler of Lucca
Lucca
(1316–1328) Alfredo Catalani, composer Gusmano Cesaretti, photographer and artist Mario Cipollini, cyclist Matteo Civitali, sculptor Ivan Della Mea, singer-songwriter Theodor Döhler, composer and pianist; lived in Lucca
Lucca
from 1827–1829 Ernesto Filippi, football referee Saint Frediano St. Gemma Galgani, mystic and saint Tejay van Garderen, cyclist Francesco Geminiani, musician and composer Giovanni Batista Giusti, harpsichord maker Agostino Giuntoli, nightclub owner and entrepreneur Gioseffo Guami, composer Pope Lucius III Vincenzo Lunardi, pioneer aeronaut [13] Ludovico Marracci, priest and first translator of the Qur'an to Latin Felice Matteucci, engineer Italo Meschi, harp guitarist, poet, anarchist-pacifist Leo Nomellini, athlete Mario Pannunzio, journalist and politician Marcello Pera, politician and philosopher Giacomo Puccini, composer Eros Riccio, chess player Marco Rossi, footballer Daniele Rugani, footballer Renato Salvatori, actor Carlo Sforza, diplomat and politician Rinaldo and Ezilda Torre, founded the Torani syrup company in San Francisco using Luccan recipes from their hometown Rolando Ugolini, athlete Giuseppe Ungaretti, poet Antonio Vallisneri, scientist and physician Alfredo Volpi, painter Saint Zita

See also[edit]

Castruccio Castracani Duchy of Lucca Republic of Lucca

Footnotes[edit]

^ Population data from Istat ^ Magrini, Graziano. "The Walls of Lucca". Scientific Itineraries of Tuscany. Museo Galileo. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  ^ DONADIO, Rachel. "A Walled City in Tuscany
Tuscany
Clings to Its Ancient Menu". March 12, 2009. New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  ^ a b Haegen, Anne Mueller von der; Strasser, Ruth F. (2013). "Lucca". Art & Architecture: Tuscany. Potsdam: H.F.Ullmann Publishing. p. 57. ISBN 978-3-8480-0321-1.  ^ Boatwright, Mary et al. The Romans: From Village to Empire, pg 229. ^ See article on the Basilica
Basilica
di San Frediano. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) ^ "Church of Sant'Alessandro Maggiore Lucca". Tuscanypass.com. 2010-12-16. Archived from the original on 2013-01-23. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Lucca
Lucca
Film Festival ^ Lucca
Lucca
Digital Photo Fest ^ Lucca
Lucca
Jazz Donna ^ "About" Archived 2010-02-11 at the Wayback Machine. SimoneBianchi.com, retrieved March 25, 2012 ^ The Quarterly review, Volume 139 Google Books

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Lucca External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lucca.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lucca.

Municipality website

v t e

Tuscany
Tuscany
· Comuni of the Province of Lucca

Altopascio Bagni di Lucca Barga Borgo a Mozzano Camaiore Camporgiano Capannori Careggine Castelnuovo di Garfagnana Castiglione di Garfagnana Coreglia Antelminelli Fabbriche di Vergemoli Forte dei Marmi Fosciandora Gallicano Lucca Massarosa Minucciano Molazzana Montecarlo Pescaglia Piazza al Serchio Pietrasanta Pieve Fosciana Porcari San Romano in Garfagnana Seravezza Sillano Giuncugnano Stazzema Vagli Sotto Viareggio Villa Basilica Villa Collemandina

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 127825027 LCCN: n79008

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