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LEWIS ALLAN REED (March 2, 1942 – October 27, 2013) was an American musician, singer and songwriter. He was the guitarist, vocalist, and principal songwriter of the Velvet Underground , and his solo career spanned five decades. The Velvet Underground had little success during their active years, but later gained a significant cult following to become one of the most widely acclaimed and influential bands in rock history. Brian Eno famously stated that, while the Velvet Underground's debut album sold only 30,000 copies, "everyone who bought one of those 30,000 copies started a band".

Reed's solo career began in 1972. He had a hit the following year with " Walk on the Wild Side ", but this level of mainstream commercial success was not repeated. Reed was known for his distinctive deadpan voice and poetic lyrics, and for pioneering and coining the term ostrich guitar tuning. In 2003, _ Rolling Stone _ magazine's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time included two albums by Reed as a solo artist: _Transformer _ and _ Berlin _, and also included the Velvet Underground albums _ The Velvet Underground "> Reed as a high school senior, 1959

Having learned to play the guitar from the radio, he developed an early interest in rock and roll and rhythm and blues , and during high school played in several bands. Reed began experimenting with drugs at the age of 16. His first recording was as a member of a doo-wop -style group called the Jades. His love for playing music and his desire to play gigs brought him into confrontation with his anxious and unaccommodating parents. His sister Merrill, born Elizabeth Reed, recalled that, during his first year in college, he was brought home one day in an unresponsive state, supposedly due to a mental breakdown, after which he remained "depressed, anxious, and socially unresponsive" for a time, and that his parents were having great difficulty coping with the situation. Visiting a psychologist, Reed's parents were made to feel guilty as inadequate parents, and consented to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Reed appeared to blame his father principally for what he had been subjected to. He wrote about the experience in his 1974 song, "Kill Your Sons". In an interview, Reed said of the experience:

"They put the thing down your throat so you don't swallow your tongue, and they put electrodes on your head. That's what was recommended in Rockland County then to discourage homosexual feelings. The effect is that you lose your memory and become a vegetable. You can't read a book because you get to page 17 and have to go right back to page one again." —  Lou Reed quoted in _Please Kill Me_ (1996)

After Reed's death, his sister Merrill denied the ECT treatments were intended to suppress his "homosexual urges", asserting instead that their parents were told by his doctors that ECT was necessary to treat Reed's mental and behavioral issues: " was depressed, weird, anxious, and avoidant. My parents were many things, but homophobic they were not. In fact, they were blazing liberals. They were caught in a bewildering web of guilt, fear, and poor psychiatric care. Did they make a mistake in not challenging the doctor’s recommendation for ECT? Absolutely. I have no doubt they regretted it until the day they died."

Upon his recovery from the bout of illness and associated treatment, Reed resumed his education at Syracuse University in 1960, studying journalism, film directing, and creative writing. He was a platoon leader in ROTC and was later expelled from the program for holding an unloaded gun to his superior's head. In 1961, he began hosting a late-night radio program on WAER called _Excursions On A Wobbly Rail_. Named after a song by pianist Cecil Taylor , the program typically featured doo wop, rhythm and blues, and jazz , particularly the free jazz developed in the mid-1950s. Many of Reed's guitar techniques, such as the guitar-drum roll, were inspired by jazz saxophonists, such as Ornette Coleman . Reed's sister Merrill offered the following recollection of her brother's time spent at Syracuse: " started a band, he had his own radio show. He reportedly libeled some student on his radio show; the kid's family tried to sue my father. And there were other extracurricular possibly illegal activities of which the university didn't approve. I believe they tried to kick him out. But he was a genius; what could they do? He stayed and he graduated." Reed graduated with honors from Syracuse University's College of Arts and Sciences with a B.A. in English in June 1964.

While enrolled at Syracuse University, he studied under poet Delmore Schwartz , who he said was "the first great person I ever met", and they became friends. He credited Schwartz with showing him how "with the simplest language imaginable, and very short, you can accomplish the most astonishing heights." One of Reed's fellow students at Syracuse in the early 60's (who also studied under Schwartz) was the musician Garland Jeffreys ; they remained close friends until the end of Reed's life. Jeffreys once offered the following recollection of Schwartz and Reed during Reed's time at Syracuse: "At four in the afternoon we'd all meet at _The Orange Grove_. Me, Delmore and Lou. That would often be the center of the crew. And Delmore was the leader - our quiet leader." While at Syracuse, Reed was also introduced to heroin for the first time. He once commented: "I had recently been introduced to by a mashed-in-face negro named 'Jaw'. Jaw gave me hepatitis immediately, which is pathetic and laughable at once." While at Syracuse, Reed also met fellow guitar-playing student Sterling Morrison , who would later play with Reed in the Velvet Underground . While Morrison wasn't attending Syracuse at the time, he made Reed's acquaintance while he was visiting mutual friend Jim Tucker, the older brother of Velvet Underground drummer Maureen Tucker who happened to be attending school there. Reed would later dedicate the song " European Son ", from the Velvet Underground's debut album, to his teacher Delmore Schwartz. In 1982, Reed also recorded "My House" from his early 80's album _ The Blue Mask _ as a tribute to his late mentor. He later said that his goals as a writer were "to bring the sensitivities of the novel to rock music" or to write the Great American Novel in a record album.

1964–70: PICKWICK RECORDS AND THE VELVET UNDERGROUND

The Velvet Underground, 1968

In 1964, Reed moved to New York City and began working as an in-house songwriter for Pickwick Records . In 1964, he wrote and recorded the single "The Ostrich", a parody of popular dance songs of the time, which included lines such as "put your head on the floor and have somebody step on it". His employers felt that the song had hit potential, and assembled a supporting band to help promote the recording. The ad hoc group, called "The Primitives", included Welsh musician John Cale , who had recently moved to New York to study music and was playing viola in composer La Monte Young 's Theatre of Eternal Music , along with Tony Conrad . Cale and Conrad were both surprised to find that for "The Ostrich", Reed tuned each string of his guitar to the same note, which they began to call his "ostrich guitar " tuning. This technique created a drone effect similar to their experimentation in Young's avant-garde ensemble. Disappointed with Reed's performance, Cale was nevertheless impressed by Reed's early repertoire (including " Heroin "), and a partnership began to evolve.

Reed and Cale (who would play viola, keyboards and bass) lived together on the Lower East Side , and invited Reed's college acquaintance guitarist Sterling Morrison and Cale's neighbour drummer Angus MacLise to join the group, thus forming the Velvet Underground . When the opportunity came to play their first paying gig at Summit High School in Summit, New Jersey , MacLise quit because he believed that accepting money for art was a sellout and also did not want to participate in a structured gig. He was replaced on drums by Maureen Tucker , initially for that one show, but she soon became a full-time member with her pounding style of drumming an integral part of the band's distinctive sound, despite the initial objections of Cale. Though internally unstable (Cale left in 1968, Reed in 1970), and without commercial success, the band has a long-standing reputation as one of the most influential in rock history. "Had he accomplished nothing else, his work with the Velvet Underground in the late sixties would assure him a place in anyone's rock those remarkable songs still serve as an articulate aural nightmare of men and women caught in the beauty and terror of sexual, street and drug paranoia, unwilling or unable to move. The message is that urban life is tough stuff—it will kill you; Reed, the poet of destruction, knows it but never looks away and somehow finds holiness as well as perversity in both his sinners and his quest. . . . e is still one of a handful of American artists capable of the spiritual home run." —_Rolling Stone_, 1975

The group soon caught the attention of artist Andy Warhol . One of Warhol's first contributions was to integrate them into the Exploding Plastic Inevitable . Warhol's associates inspired many of Reed's songs as he fell into a thriving, multifaceted artistic scene. Reed rarely gave an interview without paying homage to Warhol as a mentor. Conflict emerged when Warhol had the idea for the group to take on a chanteuse , the European former model and singer Nico . Despite his initial resistance, Reed wrote several songs for Nico to sing, and the two were briefly lovers. _The Velvet Underground white-space:nowrap;"> After the band's move to Atlantic Records ' Cotillion label, their new manager pushed Reed to change the subject matter of his songs to lighter topics in hopes of commercial success. _Loaded_ had taken more time to record than the previous three albums together, but had not broken them through to a wider audience.

Reed left the band in August 1970 and briefly retired to his parents' home on Long Island . The band disintegrated as core members Sterling Morrison and Maureen Tucker departed in 1971. Yule continued until early 1973, and one more studio album, _Squeeze _, was released under the Velvet Underground name.

1970–79: GLAM ROCK AND NOISE MUSIC

After quitting the Velvet Underground in August 1970, Reed took a job at his father's tax accounting firm as a typist, by his own account earning $40 a week (US$247 in 2016 dollars ). In 1971, he signed a recording contract with RCA Records and recorded his first solo album in London with top session musicians including Steve Howe and Rick Wakeman , members of the progressive rock group Yes . The album, _Lou Reed _, contained smoothly produced versions of unreleased Velvet Underground songs, some of which had originally been recorded by the Velvets for _Loaded_ but shelved (see the _ Peel Slowly and See _ box set). This first solo album was overlooked by most pop music critics and it did not sell well, although music critic Stephen Holden , in _Rolling Stone_, called it an "almost perfect album. . . . which embodied the spirit of the Velvets." Holden describes Reed's unique qualities, in both his voice and lyrics, in the album:

Reed's voice hasn't changed much since the early days. Outrageously unmusical, it combines the sass of Jagger and the mockery of early Dylan , but is lower-pitched than either. It is a voice so incapable of bullshit that it makes even an artsy arrangement work by turning the whole thing into a joyous travesty. Just as arresting as Reed's voice are his lyrics, which combine a New York street punk sensibility and rock song cliches with a powerful poetic gift. "His artistic self-awareness is so secure that he invariably turns less into more. For he not only awakens nostalgia for Fifties rock, he shows that it is still a vital resource for today's musicians. . . . The overall impression is that of a knowing primitivism, as serious as it is playful, and never less than refreshing. . . . By keeping close to the roots he is keeping the faith." —_Rolling Stone,_ (1972)

Reed's breakthrough album, _Transformer _, was released in November 1972. _Transformer_ was co-produced by David Bowie and Mick Ronson , and it introduced Reed to a wider audience, especially in the UK. The hit single " Walk on the Wild Side " was an ironic yet affectionate salute to the misfits and hustlers who once surrounded Andy Warhol. When first introduced to Reed's music, Bowie had said, "I had never heard anything quite like it. It was a revelation to me."

Each of the song's five verses poignantly describes a person who had been a fixture at The Factory during the mid-to-late 1960s: (1) Holly Woodlawn , (2) Candy Darling , (3) "Little Joe" Dallesandro , (4) "Sugar Plum Fairy" Joe Campbell and (5) Jackie Curtis . The song's transgressive lyrics evaded radio censorship. Though the jazzy arrangement (courtesy of bassist Herbie Flowers and saxophonist Ronnie Ross ) was musically somewhat atypical for Reed, it eventually became his signature song. It came about as a result of a commission to compose a soundtrack to a theatrical adaptation of Nelson Algren 's novel of the same name, though the play failed to materialize. Ronson's arrangements brought out new aspects of Reed's songs. "Perfect Day ," for example, features delicate strings and soaring dynamics. It was rediscovered in the 1990s and allowed Reed to drop "Walk on the Wild Side" from his concerts.

_Transformer_ was Reed's commercial and critical pinnacle, and he resented the shadow the record cast over the rest of his career. An argument between Bowie and Reed ended their working relationship for several years, though its subject is not known. (The two reconciled some years later, and Reed performed with Bowie at the latter's 50th birthday concert at Madison Square Garden in 1997. They did not formally collaborate again until 2003's _The Raven ._) Touring in support of _Transformer_ posed the challenge of forming a band for the first time since joining the Velvets. Reed hired an inexperienced bar band, the Tots, and spent much of 1972 and early 1973 on the road with them. Though they improved over the months, criticism of their still-basic abilities ultimately led Reed to fire them mid-tour. He chose keyboardist Moogy Klingman to come up with a new five-member backing band on barely a week's notice. Thus the tour continued with a denser, bluesier and tighter sound that presaged the very successful live albums Reed would record with all different musicians in December.

Reed followed _Transformer_ with the darker _ Berlin _. _Berlin_ is a concept album about two junkies in love in the city. The songs variously concern domestic violence ("Caroline Says I," "Caroline Says II"), drug addiction ("How Do You Think It Feels"), adultery and prostitution ("The Kids"), and suicide ("The Bed"). Reed's late-1973 European tour, featuring dual lead guitarists Steve Hunter and Dick Wagner , mixed his _Berlin_ material with older numbers. Response to _Berlin_ at the time of its release was decidedly negative, with _Rolling Stone_ pronouncing it "a disaster". Since then the album has been critically reevaluated, and in 2003 _Rolling Stone_ included it in their list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.

After _Berlin_ came two albums in 1974, a live record _Rock \'n\' Roll Animal _, and _Sally Can\'t Dance _; the former containing performances of the Velvet Underground songs "Sweet Jane" and "Heroin" and would go on to become his biggest selling album. _Rock 'n' Roll Animal_, featuring primarily Velvet Underground material, and its follow-up released in early 1975 _ Lou Reed Live_, its time divided primarily between _Transformer_ and _Berlin_ songs, with only one Velvet Underground song, were both recorded at the same show (Academy Of Music, NYC December 21, 1973), and kept Reed in the public eye with strong sales. The later expanded CD version of _Rock 'n' Roll Animal_ taken together with _ Lou Reed Live_ are the entirety of the show that night, although not in the running order it was performed. "Lou Reed doesn't just write about squalid characters, he allows them to leer and breathe in their own voices, and he colors familiar landscapes through their own eyes. In the process, Reed has created a body of music that comes as close to disclosing the parameters of human loss and recovery as we're likely to find. That qualifies him, in my opinion, as one of the few real heroes rock text-align: left;">—Mikal Gilmore, _Rolling Stone,_ (1979)

As he had done with _Berlin_ after _Transformer_, in 1975 Reed responded to commercial success with a commercial failure, a double album of electronically generated audio feedback, _Metal Machine Music _. Critics interpreted it as a gesture of contempt, an attempt to break his contract with RCA or to alienate his less sophisticated fans. Reed claimed that the album was a genuine artistic effort, even suggesting that quotations of classical music could be found buried in the feedback. Lester Bangs declared it "genius", though also psychologically disturbing. The album was reportedly returned to stores by the thousands after a few weeks. Though later admitting that the liner notes' list of instruments is fictitious and intended as parody, Reed continued to maintain that _MMM_ was a serious album; though at the time he had taken it seriously, he was also "very stoned". In the 2000s it was adapted for orchestral performance by the German ensemble Zeitkratzer .

By contrast, 1975's _ Coney Island Baby _ was mainly a warm and mellow album, though for its characters Reed still drew on the underbelly of city life. At this time his lover was a transgender woman, Rachel, mentioned in the dedication of "Coney Island Baby" and appearing in the photos on the cover of Reed's 1977 "best of" album, _Walk on the Wild Side: The Best of Lou Reed _. While _ Rock and Roll Heart _, his 1976 debut for his new record label Arista , fell short of expectations, _ Street Hassle _ (1978) was a return to form in the midst of the punk scene he had helped to inspire. Reed was dismissive of punk, and rejected any affiliation with it. "I'm too literate to be into punk rock . . . The whole CBGB 's, new Max\'s thing that everyone's into and what's going on in London—you don't seriously think I'm responsible for what's mostly rubbish?"

In 1978 Reed released his third live album, _Live: Take No Prisoners _, which some critics thought was his "bravest work yet," while others considered it his "silliest." _Rolling Stone_ described it as "one of the funniest live albums ever recorded Lou's dark-humored, Lenny Bruce -like monologues." Reed felt it was his best album:

You may find this funny, but I think of it as a contemporary urban-blues album. After all, that's what I write—tales of the city. And if I dropped dead tomorrow, this is the record I'd choose for posterity. It's not only the smartest thing I've done, it's also as close to Lou Reed as you're probably going to get, for better or for worse.

_The Bells _ (1979) featured jazz musician Don Cherry , and was followed the next year by _Growing Up in Public _ with guitarist Chuck Hammer . Around this period he also appeared as a sleazy record producer in Paul Simon 's film _One-Trick Pony _. Reed also played several unannounced one-off concerts in tiny downtown Manhattan clubs with the likes of Cale, Patti Smith , and David Byrne during this period. Reed and Patti Smith both worked at Record Plant in 1977 at the same time, each trying to complete albums. Bruce Springsteen was also at the studio working on finishing his _Darkness on the Edge of Town _ album. After a concert at the Hammersmith Odeon in October 1979, during the tour to promote _The Bells_, Reed had dinner with Bowie in a restaurant in Knightsbridge during which Reed hit David Bowie after Reed asked him to produce his next album, and Bowie agreed provided Reed cleaned up his act.

1980–89: MARRIAGE AND CRITICAL ACCLAIM

In 1980, Reed married British designer Sylvia Morales. They were divorced more than a decade later. While together, Morales inspired Reed to write several songs, particularly "Think It Over" from 1980's _Growing Up in Public_ and "Heavenly Arms" from 1982's _The Blue Mask _ with bassist Fernando Saunders . After _ Legendary Hearts _ (1983) and _ New Sensations _ (1984) fared adequately on the charts, Reed was sufficiently reestablished as a public figure to become spokesman for Honda motorcycles.

_ The New York Times _ reported in 1998 on Reed's change from the 1970s to the 1980s. The _Times_ observed that, in the 1970s, Reed had a distinctive persona: "Back then he was publicly gay, pretended to shoot heroin onstage, and cultivated a 'Dachau panda' look, with cropped peroxide hair and black circles painted under his eyes." The newspaper went on to note that, in 1980, "Reed renounced druggy theatrics, even swore off intoxicants themselves, and became openly heterosexual, openly married."

In the early 1980s, Reed worked with a number of innovative guitarists including Chuck Hammer and Robert Quine . Hammer appeared on _Growing Up in Public_ (1980) and Quine appeared on _The Blue Mask_ (1982) and _Legendary Hearts_ (1983). Reed performing during A Conspiracy of Hope , 1986

On September 22, 1985, Reed performed at the first Farm Aid concert in Champaign, Illinois . He performed "Doin' the Things That We Want To", "I Love You, Suzanne", "New Sensations" and "Walk on the Wild Side" as his solo set, later playing bass for Roy Orbison during his set. In June 1986, Reed released _Mistrial_ (co-produced with Fernando Saunders), a more commercial album than previous records. To support the release, he released two music videos: " No Money Down " and "The Original Wrapper ".

At the same time of _Mistrial'_s release, he joined Amnesty International 's A Conspiracy of Hope short tour and was outspoken about New York's political issues and personalities. He would later use this experience on the 1989 album _New York _, commenting on crime, AIDS, Jesse Jackson , Kurt Waldheim and Pope John Paul II .

Following Warhol's death after routine surgery in 1987, Reed again collaborated with John Cale on the biographical _ Songs for Drella _ (1990), Warhol's nickname. The album marked an end to a 22-year estrangement from Cale. On the album, Reed sings of his love for his late friend, and criticizes both the doctors who were unable to save Warhol's life and Warhol's would-be assassin, Valerie Solanas .

1990–99: VELVET UNDERGROUND REUNION AND LAURIE ANDERSON

1993 Velvet Underground reunion promotional photo. From left to right: Morrison (at back), Tucker, Cale and Reed

In 1990, following a twenty-year hiatus, the Velvet Underground reformed for a Fondation Cartier benefit in France. Reed released his sixteenth solo record, _ Magic and Loss _, in 1992, an album about mortality, inspired by the death of two close friends from cancer. In 1993, the Velvet Underground again reunited and toured throughout Europe, although plans for a North American tour were cancelled following another falling out between Reed and Cale. In 1994, Reed appeared in _A Celebration: The Music of Pete Townshend and The Who _, also known as _Daltrey Sings Townshend_. This was a two-night concert at Carnegie Hall produced by Roger Daltrey in celebration of his fiftieth birthday. In 1994, a CD and a VHS video were issued, and in 1998 a DVD was released. Reed performed a radically rearranged version of "Now and Then" from _ Psychoderelict _.

In 1996, the Velvet Underground were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame . At the induction ceremony, Reed performed a song entitled "Last Night I Said Goodbye to My Friend" alongside former bandmates John Cale and Maureen Tucker, in dedication to Velvet Underground guitarist Sterling Morrison, who had died the previous August. Reed was nominated for the Rock Hall as a solo artist thrice, in 2000, 2001 and 2015 and was chosen to be inducted at the April 18, 2015 ceremony in Cleveland.

His 1996 album, _ Set the Twilight Reeling _, and 2000's _Ecstasy _, both produced by Hal Willner, drew praise from most critics. In 1996, Reed contributed songs and music to _Time Rocker_, an avant-garde theatrical interpretation of H. G. Wells ' _ The Time Machine _ staged by theater director Robert Wilson . The piece premiered in the Thalia Theater, Hamburg , Germany and was later also shown at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in New York.

In 1998, the PBS TV show _ American Masters _ aired Timothy Greenfield-Sanders ' feature documentary _Lou Reed: Rock and Roll Heart_. This film, which premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in the U.S. and at the Berlin International Film Festival in Germany went on to screen at over 50 festivals worldwide. In 1999, the film and Reed as its subject received a Grammy Award for best long-form music video.

From the late 1990s, Reed was romantically linked to the musician, multi-media and performance artist Laurie Anderson , and the two collaborated on a number of recordings together. Anderson contributed to "Call On Me" from Reed's project _The Raven_, to the tracks "Baton Rouge" and "Rock Minuet" from Reed's _Ecstasy_ and to "Hang On to Your Emotions" from Reed's _Set the Twilight Reeling_. Reed contributed to "In Our Sleep" from Anderson's _ Bright Red _ and to "One Beautiful Evening" from her _Life on a String _. They married on April 12, 2008.

2000–09: ROCK AND AMBIENT EXPERIMENTATION

_Ecstasy_, _The Raven_ And _Berlin_ Tour

Reed performing at Schinitzer Concert Hall in Portland, Oregon, 2004

In May 2000, Reed performed before Pope John Paul II at the Great Jubilee Concert in Rome. In 2000, a new collaboration with Robert Wilson called "POEtry" was staged at the Thalia Theater in Germany. As with the previous collaboration "Time Rocker," "POEtry" was also inspired by the works of a 19th-century writer: Edgar Allan Poe . Reed became interested in Poe after producer Hal Willner suggested he read some of Poe's text at a Halloween benefit he was curating at St. Ann's Episcopal Church in Brooklyn. For this new collaboration, Reed reworked and rewrote some of Poe's text and included some new songs based on the theme explored in the texts. In 2001, Reed made a cameo appearance in the movie adaptation of _ Prozac Nation _. On October 6, 2001, the _New York Times_ published a Reed poem called _Laurie Sadly Listening_ in which he reflects upon the September 11 attacks .

Incorrect reports of Reed's death were broadcast by numerous U.S. radio stations in 2001, caused by a hoax email (purporting to be from Reuters ) which said he had died of a drug overdose. In 2003, he released a 2-CD set, _The Raven_, based on "Poe-Try". In 2011, he transformed the CD into an illustrated book, with art by Lorenzo Mattotti , published by Fantagraphics . Besides Reed and his band, the album featured actors and musicians including singers David Bowie, Laurie Anderson, Kate "> Reed performing in Málaga , Spain, 2008

In 2004, a Groovefinder remix of his song " Satellite of Love ", called " Satellite of Love '04", was released. It reached No. 10 in the UK Singles Chart . Also in 2004, Reed contributed vocals and guitar to the track "Fistful of Love" on _ I Am a Bird Now _ by Antony and the Johnsons . In 2005, Reed recorded a spoken word text on Danish rock band Kashmir 's album _ No Balance Palace _.

In January 2006, a second book of photographs, _Lou Reed's New York_, was released. At the 2006 MTV Video Music Awards , Reed performed "White Light/White Heat" with the Raconteurs . Later in the night, while co-presenting the award for Best Rock Video with Pink , he exclaimed, apparently unscripted, that "MTV should be playing more rock n' roll."

In October 2006, Reed appeared at Hal Willner's Leonard Cohen tribute show "Came So Far for Beauty" in Dublin , beside the cast of Laurie Anderson, Nick Cave , Anohni, Jarvis Cocker , Beth Orton and others. According to the reports, he played a heavy metal version of Cohen's "The Stranger Song." He also performed "One of Us Cannot Be Wrong" and two duets — "Joan of Arc " with Cohen's former back-up singer Julie Christensen and "Memories" with Anjani .

In December 2006, Reed played a first series of show at St. Ann\'s Warehouse , Brooklyn, based on his 1973 _Berlin_ song cycle. Reed was reunited on stage with guitarist Steve Hunter , who played on the original album as well as on _Rock 'n' Roll Animal_, as well as joined by singers Anohni and Sharon Jones , pianist Rupert Christie, a horn and string section and the Brooklyn Youth Chorus. The show was produced by Bob Ezrin , who also produced the original album, and Hal Willner. The stage was designed by his neighbor and best friend, painter Julian Schnabel , and a film about protagonist "Caroline" directed by his daughter, Lola Schnabel, was projected to the stage. A live recording of these concerts was also published as a film (directed by Schnabel) which was released in 2008. The show was also played at the Sydney Festival in January 2007 and throughout Europe during June and July 2007. The album version of the concert, entitled _Berlin: Live at St. Ann\'s Warehouse _, was released in 2008.

_Hudson River Wind Meditations_ And Metal Machine Trio

_ Reed performing the Berlin_ album in Stockholm, Sweden, 2008

In April 2007, he released _ Hudson River Wind Meditations _, a record of ambient meditation music. It was released on the Sounds True record label and its four tracks were said to have been composed just for himself as a guidance for t'ai chi exercise and meditation.

In May 2007, Reed performed the narration for a screening of Guy Maddin 's silent film _ Brand upon the Brain! _. In June 2007, he performed live at the Traffic Festival 2007 in Turin , Italy, a five-day free event organized by the city. That same month saw the re-release of Reed's and The Underground's _Pale Blue Eyes_, as part of the soundtrack of the French-language film, _The Diving Bell and the Butterfly (imdb.com)._

In August 2007, Reed went into the studio with the Killers in New York City to record " Tranquilize ," a duet with Brandon Flowers for the Killers' B-side/rarities album, called _Sawdust _. During that month, he also recorded guitar for the Lucibel Crater song "Threadbare Funeral" which appears on their album _The Family Album_. In October 2007, Reed gave a special performance in the _Recitement_ song "Passengers". The album combines music with spoken word , and was composed by Stephen Emmer and produced by Tony Visconti . Hollandcentraal was inspired by this piece of music and literature, which spawned a concept for a music video. On October 1, 2008, Reed joined Richard Barone via projected video on a spoken/sung duet of Reed's "I'll Be Your Mirror" with cellist Jane Scarpantoni, in Barone's _FRONTMAN: A Musical Reading_ at Carnegie Hall.

On October 2 and 3, 2008, he premiered his new group, which was later named Metal Machine Trio , at REDCAT (Walt Disney Concert Hall Complex, Los Angeles). The live recordings of the concerts were released under the title _ The Creation of the Universe _. The trio featured Ulrich Krieger (saxophone) and Sarth Calhoun (electronics), and played free improvised instrumental music inspired by Reed's 1975 album _Metal Machine Music_. The music ranges from ambient soundscapes to free rock to contemporary noise. The trio played further shows at New York's Gramercy Theater in April 2009, and appeared as part of Reed's band at the 2009 Lollapalooza, including a ten-minute free trio improvisation. At Lollapalooza , held in Chicago's Grant Park, Reed played "Sweet Jane" and "White Light/White Heat" with Metallica at Madison Square Garden as part of the twenty-fifth anniversary celebration of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on October 30, 2009. Reed provided the voice of Maltazard, the villain in the 2009 Luc Besson animated film _ Arthur and the Revenge of Maltazard _ and played himself in Wim Wenders' movie _ Palermo Shooting _ (2008).

In 2009, Reed became an active member of the Jazz Foundation of America (JFA). He was a featured performer at the JFA's annual benefit "A Great Night in Harlem" in May 2009.

2010–13: FINAL YEARS AND _LULU_

Reed performing at the Hop Farm Festival in Paddock Wood , Kent, 2011

Reed remained active doing benefits and composing music. He contributed vocals to the third Gorillaz album, _ Plastic Beach _, on the song "Some Kind of Nature", and co-wrote and performed backup music for a chen-style t'ai chi instructional DVD. Reed also co-produced and created original music for a tai chi series entitled Power and Serenity. He had a co-production credit on Laurie Anderson's _Homeland _. In 2010 Reed also appeared in Stephan Berwick 's short film "Final Weapon".

In 2011, the American heavy metal band Metallica recorded a full-length collaboration album with Reed entitled _Lulu_ , released on November 1 in North America and October 31 everywhere else. Despite the negative response it received from critics, Metallica drummer Lars Ulrich offered the following opinion of the album following Reed's death in 2013: "We were both outsiders, we both never felt comfortable going down the same path that everyone else was doing. Lou Reed is the godfather of being an outsider, being autonomous, marching to his own drum, making every project different from the previous one and never feeling like he had a responsibility to anybody other than himself. We shared kinship over that."

In 2011 Reed performed a cover of the Buddy Holly song " Peggy Sue ", which is featured on the 2011 tribute album _Rave On Buddy Holly _.

On September 15, 2011, he performed "Who Am I? (Tripitena's Song)" and Sam Cooke 's "A Change Is Gonna Come" as part of Dailymotion\'s Music In Motion: Hall Willner\'s Freedom Rides celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Freedom Rides .

In January 2012, Reed and John Cale sued the Andy Warhol Foundation for the license to use the yellow banana image from Warhol's art for _ The Velvet Underground "> A Day of the Dead ofrenda (at an exhibition curated by the Mexican consulate in Boise, Idaho )

David Byrne , Laurie Anderson , Patti Smith, David Bowie , Morrissey , Iggy Pop , Courtney Love , Lenny Kravitz , Miley Cyrus , Samuel L. Jackson , Kanye West , Ricky Gervais , Ryan Adams , Elijah Wood , Howard Stern and many others paid tribute to Reed. Pearl Jam dedicated their song " Man of the Hour " to Reed at their show in Baltimore and then played "I\'m Waiting for the Man ". On the day of his death, the Killers dedicated their rendition of " Pale Blue Eyes " to Reed at the Life Is Beautiful festival in Las Vegas . Phish opened their show in Hartford with "Rock & Roll ", after which Trey Anastasio asked the audience for a moment of silence for one of the "greatest artists to ever live".

Former Velvet Underground members Maureen Tucker and John Cale made statements on Reed's death, and notables from far outside the music industry paid their respects on Twitter, including Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi and Salman Rushdie .

On November 7, 2013 Reed's mother Toby died at the age of 93, 11 days after Reed's death.

On November 14, 2013, a three-hour public memorial was held near Lincoln Center 's Paul Milstein Pool and Terrace. Billed as "New York: Lou Reed at Lincoln Center," the ceremony featured favorite Reed recordings selected by family and friends. That same month, it was reported that a biography is being written by _Rolling Stone_ critic Anthony DeCurtis.

On December 16, 2013, UK's BBC Four broadcast _ Lou Reed Remembered_, an hour-long tribute with contributions from friends and colleagues. The following day, a memorial featuring friends and collaborators of Reed was held at the Apollo Theater in Harlem. Organized by Laurie Anderson, the event included performances by Patti Smith, Antony Hegarty , Debbie Harry , Paul Simon , John Zorn , Philip Glass , and Maureen Tucker, to name a few.

On March 14, 2014, Richard Barone and Alejandro Escovedo co-presented the official SXSW Music Festival tribute to Reed, a nearly four-hour concert held at the Paramount Theatre in Austin, Texas. The event featured performances from friends, colleagues, and admirers ranging from Suzanne Vega and Garland Jeffreys to Sean Lennon , Spandau Ballet , and Lucinda Williams joining Barone and Escovedo.

Exactly one year after the BBC Four tribute broadcast, Reed's induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a solo artist was announced on December 16, 2014. He was inducted by Patti Smith at a ceremony in Cleveland on April 18, 2015.

The New York Public Library announced March 2, 2017 the preservation of the Lou Reed archives at the NYPL. Reed's legacy takes up 300 linear feet of shelf space and offers a glimpse into Reed's life as a surviving musician and celebrity A-lister. Items in the archive collection include tapes of "Pale Blue Eyes" and "Sweet Jane" along with lyrics, unpublished poetry, letters, notes on tai chi, photographs, records, and fan art.

DISCOGRAPHY

WITH THE VELVET UNDERGROUND

For a more comprehensive list, see The Velvet Underground discography .

* _ The Velvet Underground text-align:left; vertical-align:top;">

* _ Lou Reed _ (1972) * _Transformer _ (1972) * _ Berlin _ (1973) * _Sally Can\'t Dance _ (1974) * _ Metal Machine Music _ (1975) * _ Coney Island Baby _ (1976) * _ Rock and Roll Heart _ (1976) * _ Street Hassle _ (1978) * _The Bells _ (1979) * _Growing Up in Public _ (1980)

* _ The Blue Mask _ (1982) * _ Legendary Hearts _ (1983) * _ New Sensations _ (1984) * _Mistrial _ (1986) * _New York _ (1989) * _ Magic and Loss _ (1992) * _ Set the Twilight Reeling _ (1996) * _Ecstasy _ (2000) * _The Raven _ (2003) * _ Hudson River Wind Meditations _ (2007)

COLLABORATIONS

* _ Songs for Drella _ (with John Cale, 1990) * _Lulu _ (with Metallica , 2011)

FILMOGRAPHY

YEAR FILM ROLE NOTES

1980 _One-Trick Pony _ Steve Kunelian

1983 _ Get Crazy _ Auden

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* Biography portal * Arts portal * Music portal * Film portal * LGBT portal

* Loureedia , a genus of (underground) velvet spiders named for Lou Reed

REFERENCES

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* ^ " Lou Reed biography currently in the works". _NME_. November 18, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2013. * ^ " Lou Reed Remembered". BBC. December 15, 2013. Retrieved December 15, 2013. * ^ Pareles, Jon (March 4, 2014). "Lou Reed’s Complex Spirit Is Invoked at a Reunion of His Inner Circle". _The New York Times_. Retrieved December 17, 2013. * ^ "Green Day, Lou Reed among Rock Hall inductees", _ USA Today _. December 16, 2014. Retrieved December 18, 2014 * ^ "Read Patti Smith\'s Poignant Lou Reed Rock Hall Induction". _Rolling Stone_. April 19, 2015. * ^ Sisario, Ben (March 2, 2017). " Lou Reed Archives Head to New York Public Library". _New York Times_. Retrieved April 17, 2017.

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