The _LOS ANGELES TIMES_, commonly referred to as the _TIMES_ or _LA
TIMES_, is a paid daily newspaper published in
* 1 History
* 1.1 Otis era * 1.2 Chandler era
* 1.3 Modern era
* 1.3.1 Ownership * 1.3.2 Editorial changes and staff reductions * 1.3.3 Circulation * 1.3.4 Internet presence and free weeklies * 1.3.5 Other controversies
* 2 Pulitzer prizes * 3 Competition and rivalry
* 4.1 Midwinter and midsummer
* 4.1.1 Midwinter * 4.1.2 Midsummer
* 4.2 Zoned editions and subsidiaries
* 5 Features
* 6 Promotion
* 6.1 Festival of Books * 6.2 Book prizes
* 7 Book publishing
* 8 Broadcasting activities
* 8.1 Stations
* 9 Notable employees
* 9.1 Writers and editors * 9.2 Cartoonists * 9.3 Photographers
* 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links
See also: List of
The _Times_ was first published on December 4, 1881, as the _Los Angeles Daily Times_ under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner . It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T.J. Caystile . Unable to pay the printing bill, Cole and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, and it was at his insistence that the _Times_ continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the _Times_ a financial success.
In an era where newspapers were driven by party politics, the _Times_ was directed at Republican readers. As was typical of newspapers of the time, the _Times_ would sit on stories for several days, notably including the 1884 victory of Democratic presidential candidate Grover Cleveland .
Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of
manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for
his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic
boosterism , extolling the virtues of
The efforts of the _Times_ to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters , killing twenty-one people. Two union leaders, James and Joseph McNamara , were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who eventually pleaded guilty.
Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new _Times_ headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann , proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True."
Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law,
Harry Chandler , took
control as publisher of the _Times_.
Harry Chandler was succeeded in
1944 by his son,
Norman Chandler , who ran the paper during the rapid
growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler
, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los
Angeles Music Center , whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy
Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the
Hollywood Forever Cemetery near
Paramount Studios . The site also
includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. _
The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler , held that position from 1960 to 1980. Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper, often forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably _ The New York Times _ and _ The Washington Post _. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with _The Washington Post_ to form the Los Angeles Times-Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations.
During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined.
Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, _Times_ reporter Michael Hiltzik said that:
The first generations bought or founded their local paper for
profits and also social and political influence (which often brought
more profits). Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but
as the families grew larger, the later generations found that only one
or two branches got the power, and everyone else got a share of the
money. Eventually the coupon-clipping branches realized that they
could make more money investing in something other than newspapers.
Under their pressure the companies went public, or split apart, or
disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by
The paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history _Thinking Big_ (1977, ISBN 0-399-11766-0 ), and was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in _The Powers That Be _ (1979, ISBN 0-394-50381-3 ; 2000 reprint ISBN 0-252-06941-2 ). It has also been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades.
For two days in 2005, the _Times_ experimented with
Wikitorial , the
In December 2008, the Tribune Company filed for bankruptcy protection.
In 2000, the Times-Mirror Company, publisher of the _Times,_ was
purchased by the
Tribune Company of
On April 2, 2007, the
Tribune Company announced its acceptance of
real estate entrepreneur
Sam Zell 's offer to buy the _
In December 2008, the Tribune Company filed for bankruptcy protection. The bankruptcy was a result of declining advertising revenue and a debt load of $12.9 billion, much of it incurred when the paper was taken private by Zell.
Editorial Changes And Staff Reductions
John Carroll , former editor of the _ Baltimore Sun _, was brought in to restore the luster of the newspaper. During his reign at the _Times_ he eliminated more than 200 jobs, but despite an operating profit margin of 20 percent, the Tribune executives were unsatisfied with returns, and by 2005 Carroll had left the newspaper. His successor, Dean Baquet , refused to impose the additional cutbacks mandated by the Tribune Company.
Baquet was the first African-American to hold this type of editorial position at a top-tier daily. During Baquet and Carroll's time at the paper, it won 13 Pulitzer Prizes , more than any other paper but _The New York Times_. However, Baquet was removed from the editorship for not meeting the demands of the Tribune Group—as was publisher Jeffrey Johnson—and was replaced by James O'Shea of the _Chicago Tribune_. O'Shea himself left in January 2008 after a budget dispute with publisher David Hiller .
The paper's content and design style was overhauled several times in attempts to increase circulation. In 2000, a major change reorganized the news sections (related news was put closer together) and changed the "Local" section to the "California" section with more extensive coverage. Another major change in 2005 saw the Sunday "Opinion" section retitled the Sunday "Current" section, with a radical change in its presentation and featured columnists. There were regular cross-promotions with Tribune-owned television station KTLA to bring evening-news viewers into the _Times_ fold.
The paper reported on July 3, 2008, that it planned to cut 250 jobs by Labor Day and reduce the number of published pages by 15 percent. That included about 17 percent of the news staff, as part of the newly private media company's mandate to reduce costs. "We've tried to get ahead of all the change that's occurring in the business and get to an organization and size that will be sustainable," Hiller said.
The changes and cuts were controversial, prompting criticism from such disparate sources as a Jewish Journal commentary, an anonymously written employee blog called Tell Zell and a satirical Web site, Not the L.A. Times.
In January 2009, the _Times_ increased its single-copy price from 50 to 75 cents and eliminated the separate California/Metro section, folding it into the front section of the newspaper. The _Times_ also announced seventy job cuts in news and editorial, or a 10 percent cut in payroll.
In September 2015, in an apparent struggle over localized versus corporate control, Austin Beutner , the publisher and chief executive, was replaced by Timothy E. Ryan .
On October 5, 2015,
Poynter Institute reported that "'At least 50'
editorial positions will be culled from the
The _Times's_ reported daily circulation in October 2010 was 600,449, down from a peak of 1,225,189 daily and 1,514,096 Sunday in April 1990.
Some attributed the drop in circulation to the increasing
availability of alternate methods of obtaining news, such as the
Internet, cable TV and radio. Others believed that the drop was due to
the retirement of circulation director Bert Tiffany. Still others
thought the decline was a side effect of a succession of short-lived
editors who were appointed by publisher Mark Willes after publisher
Otis Chandler relinquished day-to-day control in 1995. Willes, the
former president of
General Mills , was criticized for his lack of
understanding of the newspaper business, and was derisively referred
to by reporters and editors as _The Cereal Killer_. _ Abandoned
Other reasons offered for the circulation drop included an increase in the single-copy price from 25 cents to 50 cents and a rise in the proportion of readers preferring to read the online version instead of the print version. Editor Jim O'Shea, in an internal memo announcing a May 2007, mostly voluntary, reduction in force , characterized the decrease in circulation as an "industry-wide problem" which the paper had to counter by "growing rapidly on-line," "break news on the Web and explain and analyz it in our newspaper."
In early 2006, the _Times_ closed its San Fernando Valley printing plant, leaving press operations to the Olympic plant and to Orange County . Also in 2006, the _Times_ announced its circulation had fallen to 851,532, down 5.4 percent from 2005. The _Times's_ loss of circulation was the largest of the top ten newspapers in the U.S.
Despite the circulation decline, many in the media industry lauded the newspaper's effort to decrease its reliance on "other-paid" circulation in favor of building its "individually paid" circulation base—which showed a marginal increase in a circulation audit. This distinction reflected the difference between, for example, copies distributed to hotel guests free of charge (other-paid) versus subscriptions and single-copy sales (individually paid).
Internet Presence And Free Weeklies
In December 2006, a team of _Times_ reporters delivered management with a critique of the paper's online news efforts known as the Spring Street Project . The report, which condemned the _Times_ as a "web-stupid" organization," was followed by a shakeup in management of the paper's website, _www.latimes.com,_ and a rebuke of print staffers who had assertedly "treated change as a threat."
On July 10, 2007, _Times_ launched a local
Metromix site targeting
live entertainment for young adults. A free weekly tabloid print
It was revealed in 1999 that a revenue-sharing arrangement was in place between the _Times_ and Staples Center in the preparation of a 168-page magazine about the opening of the sports arena. The magazine's editors and writers were not informed of the agreement, which breached the Chinese wall that traditionally has separated advertising from journalistic functions at American newspapers. Publisher Mark Willes also had not prevented advertisers from pressuring reporters in other sections of the newspaper to write stories favorable to their point of view. _ The Los Angeles Times_ building
Michael Kinsley was hired as the Opinion and Editorial (
Editor in April 2004 to help improve the quality of the opinion
pieces. His role was controversial, as he forced writers to take a
more decisive stance on issues. In 2005, he created a
Wikitorial , the
On November 12, 2005, new Op-Ed Editor Andrés Martinez shook things up by announcing the firing of liberal op-ed columnist Robert Scheer and conservative editorial cartoonist Michael Ramirez , replacing the two with a more diversified lineup of regular columnists.
The _Times_ has also come under controversy for its decision to drop
the weekday edition of the _
Following the Republican Party 's defeat in the 2006 mid-term elections , an Opinion piece published on November 19, 2006, by Joshua Muravchik , a leading neoconservative and a resident scholar at the conservative American Enterprise Institute , was titled BOMB IRAN. The article shocked some readers, with its hawkish comments in support of more unilateral action by the United States, this time against Iran.
On March 22, 2007, editorial page editor Andrés Martinez resigned following an alleged scandal centering on his girlfriend's professional relationship with a Hollywood producer who had been asked to guest edit a section in the newspaper. In an open letter written upon leaving the paper, Martinez criticized the publication for allowing the Chinese Wall between the news and editorial departments to be weakened, accusing news staffers of lobbying the opinion desk. Further information: Andrés_Martinez_(editor) § .22Grazergate.22_Controversy
The _Times_ drew fire for a last-minute story before the 2003
California recall election alleging that gubernatorial candidate
Arnold Schwarzenegger groped scores of women during his movie career.
Jill Stewart wrote on the _American Reporter_ website that
the _Times_ did not do a story on allegations that former Governor
Gray Davis had verbally and physically abused women in his office and
that the Schwarzenegger story relied on a number of anonymous sources.
Further, she said, four of the six alleged victims were not named. She
also said that in the case of the Davis allegations, the _Times_
decided against printing the Davis story because of its reliance on
anonymous sources. The American Society of
In 2016, the _Times_ won the breaking news Pulitzer prize for its
coverage of the mass shooting in
_Times_ sportswriter Jim Murray won a Pulitzer in 1990.
_Times_ journalist David Willman won the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting ; the organization cited "his pioneering expose of seven unsafe prescription drugs that had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and an analysis of the policy reforms that had reduced the agency's effectiveness." In 2004 , the paper won five prizes, which is the third-most by any paper in one year (behind _ The New York Times _ in 2002 (7) and _The Washington Post _ in 2008 (6)).
_Times_ reporters Bettina Boxall and Julie Cart won a Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting in 2009 "for their fresh and painstaking exploration into the cost and effectiveness of attempts to combat the growing menace of wildfires across the western United States."
COMPETITION AND RIVALRY
_ Partial front page of the
In the 19th century, the chief competition to the _Times_ was the
By the mid-1940s, the _Times_ was the leading newspaper in terms of
circulation in the
The _Herald-Examiner _ published its last number in 1989. Today the
second-largest daily newspaper in
MIDWINTER AND MIDSUMMER
For 69 years, from 1885 until 1954, the _Times_ issued on New Year's Day a special annual Midwinter Number or Midwinter Edition that extolled the virtues of Southern California. At first it was called the "Trade Number," and in 1886 it featured a special press run of "extra scope and proportions"; that is, "a twenty-four-page paper, and we hope to make it the finest exponent of this country that ever existed." Two years later, the edition had grown to "forty-eight handsome pages (9x15 inches), stitched for convenience and better preservation," was "equivalent to a 150-page book." The last use of the phrase _Trade Number_ was in 1895, when the edition had grown to thirty-six pages split among three separate sections.
The Midwinter Number drew acclamations from other newspapers, including this one from the _Kansas City Star_ in 1923:
It is made up of five magazines with a total of 240 pages – the
maximum size possible under the postal regulations. It goes into every
detail of information about
In 1948 the Midwinter Edition, as it was then called, had grown to "7 big picture magazines in beautiful rotogravure reproduction." The last mention of the Midwinter Edition was in a _Times_ advertisement on January 10, 1954.
Between 1891 and 1895, the _Times_ also issued a similar Midsummer Number, the first one with the theme "The Land and Its Fruits". Because of its issue date in September, the edition was in 1891 called the Midsummer Harvest Number.
ZONED EDITIONS AND SUBSIDIARIES
In the 1990s, the _Times_ published various editions catering to far-flung areas. Editions included a Ventura County edition, an Inland Empire edition, a San Diego County edition, and a "National Edition" that was distributed to Washington, D.C. and the San Francisco Bay Area . The National Edition was closed in December 2004.
Some of these editions were folded into _Our Times_, a group of community supplements included in editions of the regular Los Angeles _Metro _ newspaper.
A subsidiary, Times Community Newspapers, publishes the _Burbank Leader _, _Coastline Pilot_ of Laguna Beach , _Crescenta Valley Sun,_ _ Daily Pilot _ of Newport Beach and Costa Mesa , _Glendale News-Press _, _ Huntington Beach Independent _ and _La Cañada Valley Sun_. From 2011 to 2013, the _Times_ had also published the award-winning _Pasadena Sun_.
Among the _Times_' staff are columnists
Steve Lopez and Patt Morrison
, food critic
Jonathan Gold , television critic
Mary McNamara and film
Kenneth Turan . Sports columnists include
Bill Plaschke , who
is also a panelist on
One of the _Times_' features is "Column One", a feature that appears daily on the front page to the left-hand side. Established in September 1968, it is a place for the weird and the interesting; in the _How Far Can a Piano Fly?_ (a compilation of Column One stories) introduction, Patt Morrison writes that the column's purpose is to elicit a "Gee, that's interesting, I didn't know that" type of reaction.
The _Times_ also embarked on a number of investigative journalism
pieces. A series in December 2004 on the King/Drew Medical Center in
FESTIVAL OF BOOKS
In 1996, the _Times_ started the annual
Since 1980, the _Times_ has awarded annual book prizes. The categories are now biography, current interest, fiction, first fiction, history, mystery/thriller, poetry, science and technology, and young adult fiction. In addition, the Robert Kirsch Award is presented annually to a living author with a substantial connection to the American West whose contribution to American letters deserves special recognition".
In 1960 Times Mirror of
In 1967 Times Mirror acquired C.V. Mosby Company a professional publisher and merged it over the years with several other professional publishers including Resource Application, Inc., Year Book Medical Publishers, Wolfe Publishing Ltd., PSG Publishing Company, B.C. Decker, Inc., among others. Eventually in 1998 Mosby is then sold to Harcourt Brace LINE-HEIGHT:1.2EM;">FORMER TYPE Private
FATE Acquired by Argyle Television (sold to New World Communications in 1994)
FOUNDED 1946 (as KTTV, INC.)
DEFUNCT 1993 (inactive, 1963–1970)
HEADQUARTERS Los Angeles, California
PRODUCTS Broadcast and cable television
The Times-Mirror Company was a founding owner of television station
After a seven-year hiatus from the medium, the firm reactivated
TIMES-MIRROR BROADCASTING COMPANY with its 1970 purchase of the
Dallas Times Herald _ and its radio and television stations, KRLD-AM
-FM -TV in Dallas . The
Federal Communications Commission granted an
exemption of its cross-ownership policy and allowed Times-Mirror to
retain the newspaper and the television outlet, which was renamed
Times-Mirror Broadcasting later acquired KTBC-TV in Austin, Texas in 1973; and in 1980 purchased a group of stations owned by Newhouse Newspapers : WAPI-TV (now WVTM-TV ) in Birmingham, Alabama ; KTVI in St. Louis ; WSYR-TV (now WSTM-TV ) in Syracuse, New York and its satellite station WSYE-TV (now WETM-TV ) in Elmira, New York ; and WTPA-TV (now WHTM-TV ) in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania . The company also entered the field of cable television, servicing the Phoenix and San Diego areas, amongst others. They were originally titled TIMES-MIRROR CABLE, and were later renamed to DIMENSION CABLE TELEVISION. Similarly, they also attempted to enter the pay-TV market, with the Spotlight movie network; it wasn't successful and was quickly shut down. The cable systems were sold in the mid-1990s to Cox Communications .
Times-Mirror also pared its station group down, selling off the Syracuse, Elmira and Harrisburg properties in 1986. The remaining four outlets were packaged to a new upstart holding company, Argyle Television, in 1993. These stations were acquired by New World Communications shortly thereafter and became key components in a sweeping shift of network-station affiliations which occurred between 1994–1995 .
CITY OF LICENSE / MARKET STATION Channel TV / (RF ) YEARS OWNED CURRENT OWNERSHIP STATUS
Harrisburg - Lancaster - Lebanon - York WHTM-TV 27 (10) 1980–1986 ABC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Dallas - Fort Worth
WRITERS AND EDITORS
Dean Baquet , editor 2000–07
Martin Baron , assistant managing editor 1979-96
* James Bassett , reporter, editor 1934-71
Skip Bayless , sportswriter 1976–78
Barry Bearak , reporter 1982–97
Jim Bellows (1922–2005), editor 1967–74
Sheila Benson , film critic 1981–91
Martin Bernheimer , music critic, 1982
Pulitzer Prize for
Bettina Boxall , reporter, 2009
Jeff Brazil , reporter 1993–2000
Doyle McManus , Washington bureau chief
Charles McNulty , theater critic
* Alan Miller , 2003
Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting
T. Christian Miller , investigative journalist 1999–2008
* Kay Mills , editorial writer 1978–91
* Carolina Miranda , arts and culture critic 2014–present
J.R. Moehringer , feature writing, 2000
Pulitzer Prize for Feature
Patt Morrison , columnist
Suzanne Muchnic , art critic 1978–2009
* Kim Murphy , assistant managing editor for foreign and national
* Jim Murray (1919–1998), sports columnist, 1990 Pulitzer Prize
Sonia Nazario , feature writing, 2003
Dan Neil , columnist, 2004
Pulitzer Prize for Criticism
Chuck Neubauer , investigative journalist
Ross Newhan , baseball writer 1967–2004
* Jack Nelson (1929–2009), political reporter, 1960 Pulitzer Prize
for Local Reporting in 1960
* Anne-Marie O\'Connor , reporter
Nicolai Ouroussoff , architectural critic
Scot J. Paltrow , financial journalist 1988–97
Bill Plaschke , sports columnist
* Michael Parks , foreign correspondent, editor, 1987 Pulitzer Prize
for International Reporting
Russ Parsons , food writer
Mike Penner (1957–2009) (
Christine Daniels ), sportswriter
* Don Bartletti , Pulitzer Prize in 2003 * Carolyn Cole , Pulitzer Prize in 2004 * Rick Corrales (1957–2005), photographer 1981–95 * Mary Nogueras Frampton , one of the paper's first female photographers * Jose Galvez , photographer 1980–92 * John L. Gaunt, Jr. , Pulitzer Prize in 1955
* Rick Loomis , photojournalist, 2007
Anacleto Rapping , multiple Pulitzer Prizes
* George Rose , photojournalist 1977–83
* ^ "Total Circ for US Newspapers".
Alliance for Audited Media .
March 31, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013.
* ^ Pérez-Peña, Richard (October 27, 2008). "Newspaper
Circulation Continues to Decline Rapidly". _The New York Times_. ISSN
0362-4331 . Retrieved 2016-07-09.
* ^ "Mirror Acorn, \'Times\' Oak," _
* Ainsworth, Edward Maddin (c. 1940). _History of Los Angeles Times_. * Berges, Marshall (1984). _The life and Times of Los Angeles: A newspaper,