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LOFOTEN (Norwegian pronunciation: ) is an archipelago and a traditional district in the county of Nordland , Norway
Norway
. Lofoten is known for a distinctive scenery with dramatic mountains and peaks, open sea and sheltered bays, beaches and untouched lands. Though lying within the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
, the archipelago experiences one of the world's largest elevated temperature anomalies relative to its high latitude .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Geology * 3.2 Wildlife * 3.3 Climate

* 4 Sports

* 4.1 Mountaineering and rock climbing * 4.2 Surfing * 4.3 Cycling

* 5 Transportation

* 6 In popular culture

* 6.1 Literature * 6.2 Films * 6.3 Paintings * 6.4 Music * 6.5 Video games

* 7 Gallery

* 7.1 Photographs * 7.2 Lofoten in art

* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Lofoten (Old Norse : Lófót) was the original name of the island Vestvågøya . The first element is ló (i.e., "lynx ") and the last element is derived from Norse fótr (i.e., "foot"), as the shape of the island must have been compared with that of a lynx's foot. (The old name of the neighbouring island Flakstadøya was Vargfót, "wolf 's foot", from vargr "wolf". See also Ofoten .)

HISTORY

"Raftsund, Lofoten, Digermulen, Norway", ca. 1890 - 1900.

"There is evidence of human settlement extending back at least 11,000 yrs in Lofoten, and the earliest archaeological sites ... are only about 5,500 yrs old, at the transition from the early to late Stone Age." Iron Age
Iron Age
agriculture, livestock, and significant human habitation can be traced back to ~250 BCE. Svolvær in Lofoten, Norway. View from the ferry harbour.

The town of Vågan (Norse Vágar) is the first known town formation in northern Norway
Norway
. It existed in the early Viking Age
Viking Age
, maybe earlier, and was located on the southern coast on eastern Lofoten, near today's village Kabelvåg in Vågan municipality . However, the Lofotr Viking Museum with the reconstructed 83-meter-long longhouse (the largest known) is located near Borg on Vestvågøy , which has many archeological finds from the Iron Age
Iron Age
and Viking Age.

The islands have for more than 1,000 years been the centre of great cod fisheries , especially in winter, when the cod migrates south from the Barents Sea
Barents Sea
and gathers in Lofoten to spawn . Bergen
Bergen
in southwestern Norway
Norway
was for a long time the hub for further export south to different parts of Europe, particularly so when trade was controlled by the Hanseatic League . In the lowland areas, particularly Vestvågøy, agriculture plays a significant role, as it has done since the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
.

Lofotr was originally the name of the island of Vestvågøy only. Later it became the name of the chain of islands. The chain of islands with its pointed peaks looks like a lynx foot from the mainland. In Norwegian, it is always a singular. Another name one might come across, is "Lofotveggen" or the Lofoten wall. The archipelago looks like a closed wall when seen from elevated points around Bodø
Bodø
or when arriving from the sea, some 100 kilometres (62 miles) long, and 800–1,000 metres (2,600–3,300 feet) high.

In 1941, the islands were raided by British Commandos
British Commandos
during Operation Claymore in March and a subsequent diversionary attack to support the Vaagso raid in December.

GEOGRAPHY

Lofoten and Vesterålen .

Lofoten is located at the 68th and 69th parallels north of the Arctic Circle in North Norway
Norway
. It is known for its natural environment within Norway. Lofoten encompasses the municipalities of Vågan , Vestvågøy , Flakstad
Flakstad
, Moskenes , Værøy , and Røst
Røst
. The principal islands, running from north to south are:

* Southern tip of Hinnøya . * Southern 60% (approx.) of Austvågøy (526.7 square kilometres (203.4 square miles ) in total 68°20′N 14°40′E / 68.333°N 14.667°E / 68.333; 14.667 ) * Gimsøy (46.4 square kilometres (17.9 square miles) 68°18′N 14°11′E / 68.300°N 14.183°E / 68.300; 14.183 ) * Vestvågøy (411.1 square kilometres (158.7 square miles) 68°10′N 13°45′E / 68.167°N 13.750°E / 68.167; 13.750 ) * Flakstadøya (109.8 square kilometres (42.4 square miles) 68°5′N 13°20′E / 68.083°N 13.333°E / 68.083; 13.333 ) * Moskenesøya (185.9 square kilometres (71.8 square miles) 67°55′N 13°0′E / 67.917°N 13.000°E / 67.917; 13.000 )

Geological map of Lofoten and Vesterålen.

Further to the south are the small and isolated islands of Værøy (67°40′N 12°40′E / 67.667°N 12.667°E / 67.667; 12.667 ) and Røst
Røst
(67°37′N 12°7′E / 67.617°N 12.117°E / 67.617; 12.117 ). The total land area amounts to 1,227 square kilometres (474 square miles), and the population totals 24,500. Many will argue that Hinnøya, the northern part of Austvågøy and several hundred smaller islands, skerries and rocks to the east of Austvågøy are also part of the Lofoten complex. Historically, the territorial definition of Lofoten has changed significantly. Between the mainland and the Lofoten archipelago lies the vast, open Vestfjorden , and to the north is Vesterålen . The principal towns in Lofoten are Leknes in Vestvågøy and Svolvær in Vågan.

The Lofoten Islands are characterised by their mountains and peaks, sheltered inlets, stretches of seashore and large virgin areas. The highest mountain in Lofoten is Higravstinden (1,161 metres (3,809 feet) in Austvågøy; the Møysalen National Park just northeast of Lofoten has mountains reaching 1,262 metres (4,140 feet). The famous Moskstraumen
Moskstraumen
(Malstrøm) system of tidal eddies is located in western Lofoten, and is indeed the root of the term maelstrom .

GEOLOGY

See also: Transscandinavian Igneous Belt

Geologically, Lofoten is considered part of the Western Gneiss Region of Norway. The high relief and irregular surfaces of Lofoten has been attributed to etching that took place during the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era . Evidence of this would be the kaolinite found at some locations. To the northwest the Lofoten archipelago is bounded by the NE–SW-trending West Lofoten Border Fault. This is a normal fault whose fault scarp has been eroded forming a strandflat .

WILDLIFE

The sea is rich with life, and the world's largest deep water coral reef, called the Røst
Røst
Reef , is located west of Røst. Lofoten has a high density of sea eagles and cormorants , and millions of other sea birds, among them the colourful puffin . Otters are common, and there are moose on the largest islands. There are some woodlands with downy birch and rowan . There are no native conifer forests in Lofoten, but some small areas with private spruce plantations. Sorbus hybrida ( Rowan
Rowan
whitebeam) and Malus sylvestris occur in Lofoten, but not further north.

The animals mistaken as the extinct great auk turned out to be some of the nine king penguins released around Norway’s Lofoten Islands in August 1936, there until at least 1944.

CLIMATE

SKROVA /SVOLVæR (1961–90)

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

69 1 −2 53 1 −3 54 2 −2 47 4 1 39 9 4 42 13 8 57 15 11 60 15 11 86 11 8 117 7 4 87 4 1 91 2 −2

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Source: met.no/klimastatistikk/eklima

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

2.7 34 28 2.1 34 28 2.1 35 29 1.9 39 33 1.5 48 40 1.7 55 46 2.2 59 51 2.4 58 51 3.4 52 46 4.6 45 39 3.4 39 33 3.6 36 29

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Lofoten features a subpolar oceanic climate under the Köppen climate classification . Winter temperatures in Lofoten are very mild considering its location north of the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
Lofoten has the largest positive temperature anomaly in the world relative to latitude . This is a result of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
and its extensions: the North Atlantic Current
North Atlantic Current
and the Norwegian Current . Røst
Røst
and Værøy are the most northerly locations in the world where average temperatures are above freezing all year.

May and June are the driest months, while October has three times as much precipitation. The warmest recording in Svolvær is 30.4 °C (86.7 °F).

Strong winds can occur in late autumn and winter. Snow and sleet are not uncommon in winter, the mountains can have substantial amounts of snow, and in some winters, avalanches might come down from steep mountain slopes. Two of the top ten deadliest rainstorms ever recorded passed through Lofoten.

In Svolvær, the sun is above the horizon continuously ("midnight sun ") from 25 May to 17 July, and in winter the sun does not rise from 4 December to 7 January. In Leknes , the sun is above the horizon from 26 May to 17 July, and in winter the sun does not rise from 9 December to 4 January.

The temperature in the sea has been recorded since 1935. At 1 metre (3 feet 3 inches) depth in the sea near Skrova , water temperatures varies from a low of 3 °C (37 °F) in March to 14 °C (57 °F) in August. Some years peaking above 17 °C (63 °F). November is around 7–8 °C (45–46 °F). At a depth of 200 metres (660 feet), the temperature is near 8 °C (46 °F) all year.

SPORTS

MOUNTAINEERING AND ROCK CLIMBING

A mountain massif of Flakstadøya island backgrounding the road to Nusfjord village.

Lofoten offers many rock climbing and mountaineering opportunities. It has 24 hours of daylight in the summer and has Alpine-style ridges, summits and glaciers , but at a height of less than 1,200 metres (3,900 feet). The main centre for rock climbing is Henningsvær on Austvågøya.

The main areas for mountaineering and climbing are on Austvågøy and Moskenesøya . Moskenesøya features remote and serious mountaineering whereas Austvågøy is very popular area for rock climbing. For more information, see the walking guide by Dyer and the rock climbing guidebook by Craggs and Enevold (see references).

SURFING

Unstad is one of its better known locations for surfing.

CYCLING

Nusfjord .

There is a well marked cycling route that goes from Å in the south and continues past Fiskebøl in the north. The route is part public road, part cycle-path with the option to bypass all of the tunnels by either cycle-path (tunnels through mountains) or boat. Traffic is generally light, although in July there may be a lot of campervans . Some of the more remote sections are on gravel roads. There is a dedicated cycling ferry which sails between Ballstad and Nusfjord , allowing cyclists to avoid the long, steep Nappstraum tunnel. The route hugs the coastline for most of its length where it is generally flat. As it turns inland through the mountain passes there are a couple of 300–400-metre (980–1,310-foot ) climbs.

The Lofoten Insomnia Cycling Race takes place every year around midsummer, possible in the midnight sun, but surely in 24-hr daylight, along the whole Lofoten archipelago.

TRANSPORTATION

The E10 road follows the archipelago southwest to Å . Late August near Eggum , Vestvågøy .

The European road E10 connects the larger islands of Lofoten with bridges and undersea tunnels. The E10 road also connects Lofoten to the mainland of Norway
Norway
through the Lofast road connection, which was officially opened on December 1, 2007. There are several daily bus services between the islands of Lofoten and between Lofoten and the mainland along E10.

Lofoten is also served by a number of small airports:

* Leknes Airport (84,215 passengers in 2006) * Svolvær Airport, Helle (63,787 passengers in 2006) * Røst
Røst
Airport (7,755 passengers in 2006), which mainly offers flights to Bodø. * A heliport at Værøy (7,923 passengers in 2006) * Stokmarknes Airport, Skagen is located in Vesterålen. * Harstad/Narvik Airport, Evenes has direct flights to Oslo
Oslo
and Trondheim
Trondheim
.

Bodø
Bodø
is often used as a hub for travel to Lofoten. In addition to air travel there is a ferry connecting Bodø
Bodø
to Moskenes . There is also a ferry connecting Svolvær to Skutvik in Hamarøy , with road connection east to E6 . Hurtigruten
Hurtigruten
calls at Stamsund and Svolvær .

IN POPULAR CULTURE

LITERATURE

* Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
's short story " A Descent into the Maelström " tells the story of a man who survived his ship being drawn into and swallowed by Moskstraumen
Moskstraumen
. * Jules Verne
Jules Verne
's novel 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1870) concludes with the Nautilus fallen into the Maelström , and Prof. Aronnax, Conseil and Ned Land, who had been attempting to escape when the Nautilus began its fall, washed up on an island in the Lofotens. * Johan Bojer 's novel The Last of the Vikings (1922) tells the story of the Lofoten cod fishermen. * In Nikos Kavvadias 's poem "The pilot Nagel", pilot Nagel's birthplace was the Lofoten islands. * In Angela Green's novel The Colour of Water, much of the action takes place in Å i Lofoten and climaxes at the Maelstrom. * In Ole Edvart Rølvaag 's novel Giants in the Earth , the Norwegian protagonists settling in Dakota Territory
Dakota Territory
are immigrants from Lofoten. * In Thomas Campbell's poem Ode to Winter

FILMS

* In the film Maelström , Lofoten is where the ashes of Annstein Karson are distributed.

PAINTINGS

The islands of the Lofoten archipelago are known for their natural environment. The area has rugged landscape and unique lighting. Consequently, the islands have long served as an inspiration for artists. Norwegian painter, Gunnar Berg was known for his paintings of his native Lofoten. He principally painted scenes of the everyday life of the local fishermen. Other artists whose work has been associated with Lofoten include Adelsteen Normann
Adelsteen Normann
, Otto Sinding , Christian Krohg , Theodor Kittelsen
Theodor Kittelsen
, and Lev Lagorio .

MUSIC

In 2004, Nurse with Wound broadcast 24 unexpected radio transmissions from the Lofoten Islands, whose sounds were sourced from the environment and objects found in Lofoten. These recordings are included on their three releases entitled Shipwreck Radio .

VIDEO GAMES

In the 2015 video game, The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt , a village is named Lofoten within the Norse/Celtic inspired archipelago, Skellige.

GALLERY

PHOTOGRAPHS

*

Henningsvær in Lofoten during fishing season. *

The Lofotr Viking Museum. Borg in Vestvågøy *

Steinsfjorden in Lofoten *

Ramberg beach in Flakstad
Flakstad
. *

Sildpollneset
Sildpollneset
and Higravstindan mountains, Vågan municipality. *

Stockfish has been exported from Lofoten for at least 1,000 years.

LOFOTEN IN ART

*

fra Lofoten Theodor Kittelsen
Theodor Kittelsen
(1890) *

Lofoten Island Lev Lagorio (1895) *

Lofotenlandskap Anna Boberg (1910) *

Blick von Lauksund auf Trolltinden am Raftsund, Lofoten Themistokles von Eckenbrecher (1906) *

Blick von Svolvaer nach Storemolla und Lillemolla Hermann Eschke
Hermann Eschke
(1887) *

Fra Svolvær i Lofoten Gunnar Berg

SEE ALSO

* Atlantic cod
Atlantic cod
* Stockfish * " A Descent into the Maelström ", story by Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe

REFERENCES

* ^ Robert M. D’Anjou, Raymond S. Bradley, Nicholas L. Balascio, and David B. Finkelstein. Climate impacts on human settlement and agricultural activities in northern Norway
Norway
revealed through sediment biogeochemistry. PNAS, November 26, 2012 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1212730109 * ^ " Norway
Norway
Vestvågøy – Vendalsjord". * ^ Steltenpohl, Mark G.; Hames, Willis E.; Andresen, Arild (2004). "The Silurian to Permian history of a metamorphic core complex in Lofoten, northern Scandinavian Caledonides". Tectonics. 23 (1). doi :10.1029/2003TC001522 . * ^ Lidmar-Bergström, K. ; Näslund, J.O. (2002). "Landforms and uplift in Scandinavia". In Doré, A.G.; Cartwright, J.A.; Stoker, M.S.; Turner, J.P.; White, N. Exhumation of the North Atlantic Margin: Timing, Mechanisms and Implications for Petroleum Exploration. Geological Society, London, Special
Special
Publications. The Geological Societ y of London. pp. 103–116. * ^ Osmundsen, P.T.; Redfield, T.F.; Hendriks, B.H.W.; Bergh, S.; Hansen, J.-A.; Henderson, I.H.C.; Dehls, J.; Lauknes, T.R.; Larsen, Y.; Anda, E.; Davidsen, B. (2010). "Fault-controlled alpine topography in Norway". Journal of the Geological Society, London. 167: 83–98. doi :10.1144/0016-76492009-019 . * ^ Røst
Røst
Reef, 40 km long * ^ Martin, Stephen. Penguin. Reaktion Books Ltd., 2009, p. 22. * ^ Temperature scale in Lofoten * ^ "ROST II, NORWAY (INCLUDING JAN MAYEN AND SVALBARD) Weather History and Climate Data". * ^ institutt, NRK og Meteorologisk. "Weather statistics for Værøy". * ^ Temperature scale for Vågan * ^ Geography of Norway
Norway
* ^ "Faste stasjoner". * ^ "Ekstremsurferne Inntar Lofoten". nrk.no. Opphavsrett NRK. * ^ "Zalaris Lofoten I