Lockheed C-130 Hercules
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The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is an American four-engine
turboprop A turboprop is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller. A turboprop consists of an intake, reduction gearbox, compressor, combustor, turbine, and a propelling nozzle. Air enters the intake and is compressed by the compressor. ...
military transport aircraft A military transport aircraft, military cargo aircraft or airlifter is a military aircraft, military-owned transport aircraft used to support military operations by airlifting troops and military equipment. Transport aircraft are crucial to ma ...
designed and built by Lockheed (now
Lockheed Martin The Lockheed Martin Corporation is an American aerospace, arms, defense, information security, and technology corporation with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are business transactions i ...
). Capable of using unprepared
runway According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a man-made surface (often asphalt concrete, as ...
s for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was originally designed as a troop,
medevac Medical evacuation, often shortened to medevac or medivac, is the timely and efficient movement and en route care provided by medical personnel to wounded being evacuated from a battlefield, to injured patients being evacuated from the scene of a ...
, and cargo transport aircraft. The versatile
airframe The Structural engineering#Mechanical structures, mechanical structure of an aircraft is known as the airframe. This structure is typically considered to include the fuselage, Landing gear, undercarriage, empennage and wings, and excludes the A ...
has found uses in other roles, including as a
gunship A gunship is a military aircraft armed with aircraft artillery, heavy aircraft guns, primarily intended for attacking ground targets either as airstrike or as close air support. In modern usage the term "gunship" refers to fixed-wing aircraft h ...
(
AC-130 The Lockheed AC-130 gunship is a heavily armed, long-endurance, attack aircraft, ground-attack variant of the C-130 Hercules transport, fixed-wing aircraft. It carries a wide array of ground-attack weapons that are integrated with sophisticate ...
), for
airborne assault Airborne forces, airborne troops, or airborne infantry are Ground warfare, ground combat units airlift, carried by aircraft and airdropped into battle zones, typically by parachute drop or air assault. Parachute-qualified infantry and support ...
,
search and rescue Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger. The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, typically determined by the type of terrain the search ...
, scientific research support, weather reconnaissance,
aerial refueling Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one aircraft (the List of tanker aircraft, tanker) to another (the receive ...
,
maritime patrol {{Unreferenced, date=March 2008 Maritime patrol is the task of monitoring areas of water. Generally conducted by military and law enforcement agency, law enforcement agencies, maritime patrol is usually aimed at identifying human activities. Mari ...
, and
aerial firefighting Aerial firefighting is the use of aircraft and other aerial resources to Wildfire suppression, combat wildfires. The types of aircraft used include fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. Smokejumpers and rappellers are also classified as aerial f ...
. It is now the main
tactical airlift An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies or personnel primarily via military transport aircraft. Airlifting consists of two distinct types: strategic and tactical. Typically, strategic airlifting involves moving material long distan ...
er for many military forces worldwide. More than 40 variants of the Hercules, including civilian versions marketed as the Lockheed L-100, operate in more than 60 nations. The C-130 entered service with the U.S. in 1956, followed by Australia and many other nations. During its years of service, the Hercules has participated in numerous military, civilian and
humanitarian aid Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help. It is usually short-term help until the long-term help by the government and other institutions replaces it. Among the people in need are the homeless, refugees, and ...
operations. In 2007, the C-130 became the fifth aircraft to mark 50 years of continuous service with its original primary customer, which for the C-130 is the
United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Aerial warfare, air military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces, and is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. Originally created on 1 August 1907, as a part ...
. The C-130 Hercules is the longest continuously produced military aircraft at more than 60 years, with the updated
Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules The Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules is a four-engine turboprop A turboprop is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller. A turboprop consists of an intake, reduction gearbox, compressor, combustor, turbine, and a prop ...
currently being produced.


Design and development


Background and requirements

The
Korean War , date = {{Ubl, 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953 (''de facto'')({{Age in years, months, weeks and days, month1=6, day1=25, year1=1950, month2=7, day2=27, year2=1953), 25 June 1950 – present (''de jure'')({{Age in years, months, weeks a ...
showed that
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
-era
piston-engine A reciprocating engine, also often known as a piston engine, is typically a heat engine that uses one or more Reciprocating motion, reciprocating pistons to convert high temperature and high pressure into a Circular motion, rotating motion. Th ...
transports—
Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar The Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar (Navy and Marine Corps designation R4Q) was an American military transport aircraft developed from the World War II-era Fairchild C-82 Packet, designed to carry cargo, personnel, Litter (rescue basket), litte ...
s,
Douglas C-47 Skytrain The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota (Royal Air Force, RAF, Royal Australian Air Force, RAAF, Royal Canadian Air Force, RCAF, Royal New Zealand Air Force, RNZAF, and South African Air Force, SAAF designation) is a airlift, military transport ai ...
s and
Curtiss C-46 Commando The Curtiss C-46 Commando is a twin-engine transport aircraft derived from the Curtiss CW-20 pressurised high-altitude airliner design. Early press reports used the name "Condor III" but the Commando name was in use by early 1942 in company pub ...
s—were no longer adequate. On 2 February 1951, the
United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Aerial warfare, air military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces, and is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. Originally created on 1 August 1907, as a part ...
issued a General Operating Requirement (GOR) for a new transport to
Boeing The Boeing Company () is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, telecommunications equipment, and missiles worldwide. The company also provides leasing and product ...
, Douglas,
Fairchild Fairchild may refer to: Organizations * Fairchild Aerial Surveys, operated in cooperation with a subsidiary of Fairey Aviation Company * Fairchild Camera and Instrument * List of Sherman Fairchild companies, "Fairchild" companies * Fairchild Fash ...
, Lockheed,
Martin Martin may refer to: Places * Martin City (disambiguation) * Martin County (disambiguation) * Martin Township (disambiguation) Antarctica * Martin Peninsula, Marie Byrd Land * Port Martin, Adelie Land * Point Martin, South Orkney Islands Austral ...
,
Chase Aircraft The Chase Aircraft Company, founded in 1943, was an American aircraft manufacturer, primarily constructing assault gliders and military transport aircraft. Lacking space for expansion, the company was purchased by Henry J. Kaiser in 1951. Plans t ...
,
North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Car ...
, Northrop, and Airlifts Inc. The new transport would have a capacity of 92 passengers, 72 combat troops or 64
paratroopers A paratrooper is a military parachutist—someone trained to parachuting, parachute into a military operation, and usually functioning as part of an airborne forces, airborne force. Military parachutists (troops) and parachutes were first used ...
in a cargo compartment that was approximately long, high, and wide. Unlike transports derived from passenger airliners, it was to be designed specifically as a combat transport with loading from a hinged loading ramp at the rear of the fuselage. A notable advance for large aircraft was the introduction of a
turboprop A turboprop is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller. A turboprop consists of an intake, reduction gearbox, compressor, combustor, turbine, and a propelling nozzle. Air enters the intake and is compressed by the compressor. ...
powerplant, the
Allison T56 The Allison T56 is an American single-shaft, modular design military turboprop with a 14-stage axial flow compressor driven by a four-stage turbine. It was originally developed by the Allison Engine Company for the Lockheed C-130 Hercules tran ...
which was developed for the C-130. It gave the aircraft greater range than a
turbojet The turbojet is an airbreathing jet engine which is typically used in aircraft. It consists of a gas turbine with a propelling nozzle. The gas turbine has an air inlet which includes inlet guide vanes, a compressor, a combustion chamber, ...
engine as it used less fuel. Turboprop engines also produced much more power for their weight than piston engines. However, the turboprop configuration chosen for the T56, with the propeller connected to the compressor, had the potential to cause structural failure of the aircraft if an engine failed. Safety devices had to be incorporated to reduce the excessive drag from a windmilling propeller.


Design phase

The Hercules resembled a larger four-engine version of the
Fairchild C-123 Provider The Fairchild C-123 Provider is an American military transport aircraft A military transport aircraft, military cargo aircraft or airlifter is a military aircraft, military-owned transport aircraft used to support military operations by ai ...
with a similar wing and cargo ramp layout. The C-123 had evolved from the Chase XCG-20 Avitruc, which was first designed and flown as a cargo glider in 1947. The Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter had rear ramps, which made it possible to drive vehicles onto the airplane (also possible with the forward ramp on a
C-124 The Douglas C-124 Globemaster II, nicknamed "Old Shaky", is an American heavy-lift cargo aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company in Long Beach, California. The C-124 was the primary heavy-lift transport for United States Air Force (USAF ...
). The ramp on the Hercules was also used to airdrop cargo, which included a
Low-altitude parachute-extraction system The low-altitude parachute-extraction system (LAPES) is a tactical military airlift delivery method where a fixed-wing cargo aircraft can deposit supplies in situations in which landing is not an option, in an area that is too small to accurat ...
for Sheridan tanks and even dropping large improvised " daisy cutter" bombs. The new Lockheed cargo plane had a range of and it could operate from short and unprepared strips. Fairchild, North American, Martin, and Northrop declined to participate. The remaining five companies tendered a total of ten designs: Lockheed two, Boeing one, Chase three, Douglas three, and Airlifts Inc. one. The contest was a close affair between the lighter of the two Lockheed (preliminary project designation L-206) proposals and a four-turboprop Douglas design. The Lockheed design team was led by Willis Hawkins, starting with a 130-page proposal for the ''Lockheed L-206''. Hall Hibbard, Lockheed vice president and chief engineer, saw the proposal and directed it to Kelly Johnson, who did not care for the low-speed, unarmed aircraft, and remarked, "If you sign that letter, you will destroy the Lockheed Company." Both Hibbard and Johnson signed the proposal and the company won the contract for the now-designated Model 82 on 2 July 1951.Boyne, Walter J. ''Beyond the Horizons: The Lockheed Story.'' New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. . The first flight of the ''YC-130''
prototype A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design, electronics, and Software prototyping, software programming. A prototyp ...
was made on 23 August 1954 from the Lockheed plant in Burbank, California. The aircraft,
serial number A serial number is a unique identifier assigned incrementally or sequentially to an item, to ''uniquely'' identify it. Serial numbers need not be strictly numerical. They may contain letters and other typographical symbols, or may consist enti ...
''53-3397'', was the second prototype, but the first of the two to fly. The YC-130 was piloted by Stanley Beltz and Roy Wimmer on its 61-minute flight to
Edwards Air Force Base Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force installation in California. Most of the base sits in Kern County, but its eastern end is in San Bernardino County and a southern arm is in Los Angeles County. The hub of the base is Edw ...
; Jack Real and Dick Stanton served as flight engineers. Kelly Johnson flew chase in a
Lockheed P2V Neptune The Lockheed P-2 Neptune (designated P2V by the United States Navy prior to September 1962) is a Maritime patrol aircraft, maritime patrol and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft. It was developed for the US Navy by Lockheed Corporation, Lockh ...
.Dabney, Joseph E. A. "Mating of the Jeep, the Truck, and the Airplane." ''lockheedmartin.com,'' 2004. ''Excerpted from ''HERK: Hero of the Skies'' in ''Lockheed Martin Service News, Lockheed Martin Air Mobility Support '' Volume 29, Issue 2, p. 3. After the two prototypes were completed, production began in
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, where over 2,300 C-130s have been built through 2009. The initial production model, the ''C-130A'', was powered by
Allison T56 The Allison T56 is an American single-shaft, modular design military turboprop with a 14-stage axial flow compressor driven by a four-stage turbine. It was originally developed by the Allison Engine Company for the Lockheed C-130 Hercules tran ...
-A-9 turboprops with three-blade
propellers A propeller (colloquially often called a screw if on a ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying cargo or passengers, or in support of specialized missions ...
and originally equipped with the blunt nose of the prototypes. Deliveries began in December 1956, continuing until the introduction of the ''C-130B'' model in 1959. Some A-models were equipped with skis and re-designated ''C-130D''. As the C-130A became operational with
Tactical Air Command Tactical Air Command (TAC) is an inactive United States Air Force organization. It was a Major Command of the United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Aerial warfare, air military branch, service branch of the U ...
(TAC), the C-130's lack of range became apparent and additional fuel capacity was added with wing pylon-mounted tanks outboard of the engines; this added 6,000 lb (2,720 kg) of fuel capacity for a total capacity of 40,000 lb (18,140 kg).


Improved versions

The C-130B model was developed to complement the A-models that had previously been delivered, and incorporated new features, particularly increased fuel capacity in the form of auxiliary tanks built into the center wing section and an AC electrical system. Four-bladed
Hamilton Standard Hamilton Standard was an American aircraft propeller (aircraft), propeller parts supplier. It was formed in 1929 when United Aircraft and Transport Corporation consolidated Hamilton Aero Manufacturing and Standard Steel Propeller into the Hamilto ...
propellers replaced the Aero Products' three-blade propellers that distinguished the earlier A-models. The C-130B had
aileron An aileron (French for "little wing" or "fin") is a hinged flight control surface usually forming part of the trailing edge of each wing A wing is a type of fin that produces lift while moving through air or some other fluid. According ...
s operated by hydraulic pressure that was increased from to , as well as uprated engines and four-blade propellers that were standard until the J-model. The B model was originally intended to have "blown controls", a system that blows high-pressure air over the control surfaces to improve their effectiveness during slow flight. It was tested on an NC-130B prototype aircraft with a pair of T-56 turbines providing high-pressure air through a duct system to the control surfaces and flaps during landing. This greatly reduced landing speed to just 63 knots and cut landing distance in half. The system never entered service because it did not improve takeoff performance by the same margin, making the landing performance pointless if the aircraft could not also take off from where it had landed. An electronic reconnaissance variant of the C-130B was designated C-130B-II. A total of 13 aircraft were converted. The C-130B-II was distinguished by its false external wing fuel tanks, which were disguised signals intelligence (SIGINT) receiver antennas. These pods were slightly larger than the standard wing tanks found on other C-130Bs. Most aircraft featured a swept blade antenna on the upper fuselage, as well as extra wire antennas between the vertical fin and upper fuselage not found on other C-130s. Radio call numbers on the tail of these aircraft were regularly changed to confuse observers and disguise their true mission. The extended-range ''C-130E'' model entered service in 1962 after it was developed as an interim long-range transport for the Military Air Transport Service. Essentially a B-model, the new designation was the result of the installation of 1,360 US gal (5,150 L) ''Sargent Fletcher'' external fuel tanks under each wing's midsection and more powerful
Allison Allison may refer to: People * Allison (given name) * Allison (surname) (includes a list of people with this name) * Eugene Allison Smith (1922-1980), American politician and farmer Companies * Allison Engine Company, American aircraft engine m ...
T56-A-7A turboprops. The hydraulic boost pressure to the
aileron An aileron (French for "little wing" or "fin") is a hinged flight control surface usually forming part of the trailing edge of each wing A wing is a type of fin that produces lift while moving through air or some other fluid. According ...
s was reduced back to as a consequence of the external tanks' weight in the middle of the wingspan. The E model also featured structural improvements,
avionics Avionics (a blend word, blend of ''aviation'' and ''electronics'') are the Electronics, electronic systems used on aircraft. Avionic systems include communications, Air navigation, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems, ...
upgrades, and a higher gross weight. Australia took delivery of 12 C130E Hercules during 1966–67 to supplement the 12 C-130A models already in service with the RAAF. Sweden and Spain fly the TP-84T version of the C-130E fitted for aerial refueling capability. The ''KC-130'' tankers, originally ''C-130F'' procured for the
US Marine Corps The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is the Marines, maritime land force military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary warfare, exped ...
(USMC) in 1958 (under the designation ''GV-1'') are equipped with a removable 3,600 US gal (13,626 L)
stainless steel Stainless steel is an alloy of iron that is resistant to rusting and corrosion. It contains at least 11% chromium and may contain elements such as carbon, other nonmetals and metals to obtain other desired properties. Stainless steel's corros ...
fuel tank A fuel tank (also called a petrol tank or gas tank) is a safe container for Flammability, flammable fluids. Though any storage tank for fuel may be so called, the term is typically applied to part of an engine system in which the fuel is stored ...
carried inside the cargo compartment. The two wing-mounted hose and drogue aerial refueling pods each transfer up to 300 US gal per minute (1,136 L per minute) to two aircraft simultaneously, allowing for rapid cycle times of multiple-receiver aircraft formations, (a typical tanker formation of four aircraft in less than 30 minutes). The
US Navy The United States Navy (USN) is the maritime service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most powerful navy in the world, with the estimated tonnage ...
's ''C-130G'' has increased structural strength allowing higher gross weight operation.


Further developments

The ''C-130H'' model has updated Allison T56-A-15 turboprops, a redesigned outer
wing A wing is a type of fin that produces lift while moving through air or some other fluid. Accordingly, wings have streamlined cross-sections that are subject to aerodynamic force In fluid mechanics, an aerodynamic force is a force exerte ...
, updated avionics, and other minor improvements. Later ''H'' models had a new, fatigue-life-improved, center wing that was retrofitted to many earlier H-models. For structural reasons, some models are required to land with reduced amounts of fuel when carrying heavy cargo, reducing usable range. The H model remains in widespread use with the
United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Aerial warfare, air military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces, and is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. Originally created on 1 August 1907, as a part ...
(USAF) and many foreign air forces. Initial deliveries began in 1964 (to the
RNZAF The Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) ( mi, Te Tauaarangi o Aotearoa, "The Warriors of the Sky of New Zealand"; previously ', "War Party of the Blue") is the aerial warfare, aerial military service, service branch of the New Zealand Defence Fo ...
), remaining in production until 1996. An improved C-130H was introduced in 1974, with Australia purchasing 12 of the type in 1978 to replace the original 12 C-130A models, which had first entered
Royal Australian Air Force "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colours = , colours_label = , march = , mascot = , anniversaries = RAAF Anniversary Commemoration ...
(RAAF) service in 1958. The U.S. Coast Guard employs the HC-130H for long-range search and rescue, drug interdiction, illegal migrant patrols, homeland security, and logistics. C-130H models produced from 1992 to 1996 were designated as C-130H3 by the USAF. The "3" denoting the third variation in design for the H series. Improvements included
ring laser gyro A ring laser gyroscope (RLG) consists of a ring laser having two independent counter-propagating resonant modes over the same path; the difference in phase is used to detect rotation. It operates on the principle of the Sagnac effect which shif ...
s for the INUs, GPS receivers, a partial
glass cockpit A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic (digital) flight instrument display device, displays, typically large liquid-crystal display, LCD screens, rather than the traditional style of Analog device, analog dials and gauge ...
(ADI and HSI instruments), a more capable APN-241 color radar,
night vision device A night-vision device (NVD), also known as a night optical/observation device (NOD), night-vision goggle (NVG), is an Optoelectronics, optoelectronic device that allows visualization of images in low levels of light, improving the user's night ...
compatible instrument lighting, and an integrated radar and missile warning system. The electrical system upgrade included Generator Control Units (GCU) and Bus Switching units (BSU) to provide stable power to the more sensitive upgraded components. The equivalent model for export to the UK is the ''C-130K'', known by the
Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's Air force, air and space force. It was formed towards the end of the World War I, First World War on 1 April 1918, becoming the first independent air force in the world, by regrouping the Royal ...
(RAF) as the ''Hercules C.1''. The ''C-130H-30'' (''Hercules C.3'' in RAF service) is a stretched version of the original Hercules, achieved by inserting a 100 in (2.54 m) plug aft of the cockpit and an 80 in (2.03 m) plug at the rear of the fuselage. A single C-130K was purchased by the
Met Office The Meteorological Office, abbreviated as the Met Office, is the United Kingdom's national weather service. It is an executive agency and trading fund of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and is led by CEO Penelope E ...
for use by its Meteorological Research Flight, where it was classified as the ''Hercules W.2''. This aircraft was heavily modified, with its most prominent feature being the long red and white striped atmospheric probe on the nose and the move of the weather radar into a pod above the forward fuselage. This aircraft, named ''
Snoopy Snoopy is an anthropomorphic beagle in the comic strip ''Peanuts'' by Charles M. Schulz. He can also be found in all of the ''Peanuts'' films and television specials. Since his debut on October 4, 1950, Snoopy has become one of the most recog ...
'', was withdrawn in 2001 and was then modified by Marshall of Cambridge Aerospace as a flight testbed for the
A400M The Airbus A400M AtlasNamed after the Atlas (mythology), Greek mythological figure. is a European four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft. It was designed by Airbus Military (now Airbus Defence and Space) as a tactical airlifter with ...
turbine engine, the TP400. The C-130K is used by the
RAF Falcons The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the European mainlan ...
for parachute drops. Three C-130Ks (Hercules C Mk.1P) were upgraded and sold to the Austrian Air Force in 2002.


Enhanced models

The '' MC-130E Combat Talon'' was developed for the USAF during the
Vietnam War The Vietnam War (also known by #Names, other names) was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vi ...
to support
special operations Special operations (S.O.) are military activities conducted, according to NATO, by "specially designated, organized, selected, trained, and equipped forces using unconventional techniques and modes of employment". Special operations may include ...
missions in Southeast Asia, and led to both the '' MC-130H Combat Talon II'' as well as a family of other special missions aircraft. 37 of the earliest models currently operating with the
Air Force Special Operations Command Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), headquartered at Hurlburt Field, Florida, is the Special forces, special operations component of the United States Air Force. An Air Force List of Major Commands of the United States Air Force, majo ...
(AFSOC) are scheduled to be replaced by new-production MC-130J versions. The EC-130 Commando Solo is another special missions variant within AFSOC, albeit operated solely by an AFSOC-gained wing in the
Pennsylvania Air National Guard The Pennsylvania Air National Guard (PA ANG) is the aerial militia of the Pennsylvania, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, United States, United States of America. It is, along with the Pennsylvania Army National Guard, an element of the Pennsylvania ...
, and is a psychological operations/information operations (PSYOP/IO) platform equipped as an aerial radio station and television stations able to transmit messaging over commercial frequencies. Other versions of the
EC-130 The Lockheed Martin EC-130 series comprises several slightly different versions of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules that have been and continue to be operated by the U.S. Air Force and, until the 1990s, the U.S. Navy. The EC-130E Airborne Battlefie ...
, most notably the EC-130H Compass Call, are also special variants, but are assigned to the
Air Combat Command Air Combat Command (ACC) is one of nine List of Major Commands of the United States Air Force, Major Commands (MAJCOMs) in the United States Air Force, reporting to Headquarters, United States Air Force (HAF) at the Pentagon. It is the primary ...
(ACC). The AC-130 gunship was first developed during the
Vietnam War The Vietnam War (also known by #Names, other names) was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vi ...
to provide
close air support In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as Airstrike, air strikes by Fixed-wing aircraft, fixed or rotorcraft, rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets near friendly forces and require detailed integration ...
and other
ground-attack In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as Airstrike, air strikes by Fixed-wing aircraft, fixed or rotorcraft, rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets near friendly forces and require detailed integration ...
duties. The ''
HC-130 The Lockheed HC-130 is an extended-range, search and rescue Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger. The general field of search and rescue includes many specialt ...
'' is a family of long-range search and rescue variants used by the USAF and the U.S. Coast Guard. Equipped for the deep deployment of Pararescuemen (PJs), survival equipment, and (in the case of USAF versions) aerial refueling of combat rescue helicopters, HC-130s are usually the on-scene command aircraft for combat SAR missions (USAF only) and non-combat SAR (USAF and USCG). Early USAF versions were also equipped with the Fulton surface-to-air recovery system, designed to pull a person off the ground using a wire strung from a helium balloon. The John Wayne movie '' The Green Berets'' features its use. The Fulton system was later removed when aerial refueling of helicopters proved safer and more versatile. The movie '' The Perfect Storm'' depicts a real-life SAR mission involving aerial refueling of a
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HH-60G The Sikorsky MH-60G/HH-60G Pave Hawk is a four-blade, twin-engine, medium-lift Utility helicopter, utility military helicopter manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft. It is a derivative of the Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk, UH-60 Black Hawk and incorpo ...
by a New York Air National Guard HC-130P. The ''C-130R'' and ''C-130T'' are U.S. Navy and USMC models, both equipped with underwing external fuel tanks. The USN C-130T is similar but has additional avionics improvements. In both models, aircraft are equipped with Allison T56-A-16 engines. The USMC versions are designated ''KC-130R'' or ''KC-130T'' when equipped with underwing refueling pods and pylons and are fully
night vision Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions, either naturally with scotopic vision or through a night-vision device. Night vision requires both sufficient spectral range and sufficient luminous intensity, intensity range. Humans ...
system compatible. The RC-130 is a
reconnaissance In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration of an area by military forces to obtain information about enemy forces, terrain, and other activities. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops (skirmishers, ...
version. A single example is used by the
Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force , patron = , motto = , "Skyhigh is my place" , colours = Ultramarine blue , colours_label = , march = , mascot ...
, the aircraft having originally been sold to the former
Imperial Iranian Air Force The history of the Iranian Air Force, currently known as the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force , patron = , motto = , "Skyhigh is my place" , colours = Ultramarine ...
. The '' Lockheed L-100 (L-382)'' is a civilian variant, equivalent to a C-130E model without military equipment. The L-100 also has two stretched versions.


Next generation

In the 1970s, Lockheed proposed a C-130 variant with
turbofan The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft engine, aircraft propulsion. The word "turbofan" is a portmanteau of "turbine" and "fan": the ''turbo'' portion refers to a gas turbine engine which ac ...
engines rather than turboprops, but the U.S. Air Force preferred the takeoff performance of the existing aircraft. In the 1980s, the C-130 was intended to be replaced by the Advanced Medium STOL Transport project. The project was canceled and the C-130 has remained in production. Building on lessons learned, Lockheed Martin modified a commercial variant of the C-130 into a High Technology Test Bed (HTTB). This test aircraft set numerous short takeoff and landing performance records and significantly expanded the database for future derivatives of the C-130. Modifications made to the HTTB included extended chord ailerons, a long chord rudder, fast-acting double-slotted trailing edge flaps, a high-camber wing leading edge extension, a larger dorsal fin and dorsal fins, the addition of three spoiler panels to each wing upper surface, a long-stroke main and nose landing gear system, and changes to the flight controls and a change from direct mechanical linkages assisted by hydraulic boost, to fully powered controls, in which the mechanical linkages from the flight station controls operated only the hydraulic control valves of the appropriate boost unit. The HTTB first flew on 19 June 1984, with civil registration of N130X. After demonstrating many new technologies, some of which were applied to the C-130J, the HTTB was lost in a fatal accident on 3 February 1993, at
Dobbins Air Reserve Base Dobbins Air Reserve Base or Dobbins ARB is a United States Air Force Air Force Reserve Command, reserve air base located in Marietta, Georgia, Marietta, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia, a suburb about northwest of Atlanta. Originally known as D ...
, in Marietta, Georgia. The crash was attributed to disengagement of the rudder fly-by-wire flight control system, resulting in a total loss of rudder control capability while conducting ground minimum control speed tests (Vmcg). The disengagement was a result of the inadequate design of the rudder's integrated actuator package by its manufacturer; the operator's insufficient system safety review failed to consider the consequences of the inadequate design to all operating regimes. A factor that contributed to the accident was the flight crew's lack of engineering flight test training. In the 1990s, the improved
C-130J Super Hercules The Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft. The C-130J is a comprehensive update of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules, with new engines, Cockpit, flight deck, and other systems. The C-130J is the ...
was developed by Lockheed (later Lockheed Martin). This model is the newest version and the only model in production. Externally similar to the classic Hercules in general appearance, the J model has new turboprop engines, six-bladed propellers, digital avionics, and other new systems.


Upgrades and changes

In 2000, Boeing was awarded a contract to develop an Avionics Modernization Program kit for the C-130. The program was beset with delays and cost overruns until project restructuring in 2007.Trimble, Stephen
"Boeing outlines C-130H and KC-10 cockpit upgrades."
''
Flightglobal FlightGlobal is an online news and information website which covers the aviation and aerospace industries. The website was established in February 2006 as the website of ''Flight International'' magazine, ''Airline Business'', ''ACAS'', ''Air ...
.'' Retrieved: 2 October 2010.
In September 2009, it was reported that the planned Avionics Modernization Program (AMP) upgrade to the older C-130s would be dropped to provide more funds for the F-35, CV-22 and airborne tanker replacement programs. However, in June 2010,
Department of Defense Department of Defence or Department of Defense may refer to: Current departments of defence * Department of Defence (Australia) * Department of National Defence (Canada) * Department of Defence (Ireland) * Department of National Defense (Philippin ...
approved funding for the initial production of the AMP upgrade kits. Under the terms of this agreement, the USAF has cleared Boeing to begin low-rate initial production (LRIP) for the C-130 AMP. A total of 198 aircraft are expected to feature the AMP upgrade. The current cost per aircraft is , although Boeing expects that this price will drop to US$7 million for the 69th aircraft. In the 2000s, Lockheed Martin and the U.S. Air Force began outfitting and retrofitting C-130s with the eight-blade UTC Aerospace Systems NP2000 propellers. An engine enhancement program saving fuel and providing lower temperatures in the T56 engine has been approved, and the US Air Force expects to save $2 billion and extend the fleet life. In 2021, the Air Force Research Laboratory demonstrated the
Rapid Dragon Rapid Dragon is a palletized and disposable weapons module which is airdrop An airdrop is a type of airlift in which items including weapons A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used to deter, threaten, in ...
system which transforms the C-130 into a lethal strike platform capable of launching 12 JASSM-ER with 500kg warheads from a standoff distance of . Future anticipated improvements support includes support for JDAM-ER, mine laying, drone dispersal as well as improved standoff range when JASSM-XR become available in 2024.


Replacement

In October 2010, the Air Force released a capability request for information (CRFI) for the development of a new airlifter to replace the C-130. The new aircraft was to carry a 190% greater payload and assume the mission of mounted vertical maneuver (MVM). The greater payload and mission would enable it to carry medium-weight armored vehicles and unload them at locations without long runways. Various options were under consideration, including new or upgraded fixed-wing designs, rotorcraft,
tiltrotor A tiltrotor is an aircraft which generates lift (force), lift and thrust, propulsion by way of one or more powered Helicopter rotor, rotors (sometimes called ''proprotors'') mounted on rotating shaft (mechanical engineering), shafts or nacelles ...
s, or even an
airship An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air Powered aircraft, under its own power. Aerostats gain their lift from a lifting gas that is less dense than the surrounding a ...
. The C-130 fleet of around 450 planes would be replaced by only 250 aircraft. The Air Force had attempted to replace the C-130 in the 1970s through the Advanced Medium STOL Transport project, which resulted in the
C-17 Globemaster III The McDonnell Douglas/Boeing C-17 Globemaster III is a large military transport aircraft that was developed for the United States Air Force (USAF) from the 1980s to the early 1990s by McDonnell Douglas. The C-17 carries forward the name of t ...
that instead replaced the
C-141 Starlifter The Lockheed C-141 Starlifter is a retired military strategic airlifter that served with the Military Air Transport Service (MATS), its successor organization the Military Airlift Command (MAC), and finally the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of t ...
.Lockheed's stealth C-130 successor revealed
– ''FlightGlobal'', 13 September 2011
The
Air Force Research Laboratory The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is a scientific research organization operated by the United States Air Force Air Force Materiel Command, Materiel Command dedicated to leading the discovery, development, and integration of aerospace w ...
funded Lockheed Martin and Boeing demonstrators for the ''Speed Agile'' concept, which had the goal of making a STOL aircraft that could take off and land at speeds as low as on airfields less than 2,000 ft (610 m) long and cruise at Mach 0.8-plus. Boeing's design used upper-surface blowing from embedded engines on the inboard wing and blown flaps for circulation control on the outboard wing. Lockheed's design also used blown flaps outboard, but inboard used patented reversing ejector nozzles. Boeing's design completed over 2,000 hours of wind tunnel tests in late 2009. It was a 5 percent-scale model of a narrow body design with a payload. When the AFRL increased the payload requirement to , they tested a 5 percent-scale model of a widebody design with a take-off gross weight and an "
A400M The Airbus A400M AtlasNamed after the Atlas (mythology), Greek mythological figure. is a European four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft. It was designed by Airbus Military (now Airbus Defence and Space) as a tactical airlifter with ...
-size" wide cargo box. It would be powered by four IAE V2533 turbofans. In August 2011, the AFRL released pictures of the Lockheed Speed Agile concept demonstrator. A 23% scale model went through wind tunnel tests to demonstrate its hybrid powered lift, which combined a low drag airframe with simple mechanical assembly to reduce weight and improve aerodynamics. The model had four engines, including two
Williams FJ44 The Williams FJ44 is a family of small, two-spool, turbofan engines produced by Williams International for the light business jet market. Until the recent boom in the very light jet market, the FJ44 was one of the smallest turbofans availab ...
turbofans. On 26 March 2013, Boeing was granted a patent for its swept-wing powered lift aircraft. In January 2014,
Air Mobility Command Air Mobility Command (AMC) is a major command (MAJCOM) of the U.S. Air Force. It is headquartered at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois, east of St. Louis, Missouri. Air Mobility Command was established on 1 June 1992, and was formed from elem ...
,
Air Force Materiel Command Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) is a major command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force (USAF). AFMC was created on July 1, 1992, through the amalgamation of the former Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) and the former Air Force Systems Comm ...
and the Air Force Research Lab were in the early stages of defining requirements for the C-X next generation airlifter program to replace both the C-130 and C-17. The aircraft would be produced from the early 2030s to the 2040s.


Operational history


Military

The first production batch of C-130A aircraft were delivered beginning in 1956 to the 463d Troop Carrier Wing at Ardmore AFB, Oklahoma and the 314th Troop Carrier Wing at
Sewart AFB Sewart Air Force Base (1941–1971) is a former United States Air Force base located in Smyrna, Tennessee, Smyrna, about 25 miles southeast of Nashville, Tennessee. During World War II, it was known as Smyrna Army Airfield. History World W ...
, Tennessee. Six additional squadrons were assigned to the 322d Air Division in Europe and the 315th Air Division in the Far East. Additional aircraft were modified for electronics intelligence work and assigned to
Rhein-Main Air Base Rhein-Main Air Base (located at ) was a United States Air Force air base near the city of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was a Military Airlift Command (MAC) and United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) installation, occupying the south side of ...
, Germany while modified RC-130As were assigned to the
Military Air Transport Service The Military Air Transport Service (MATS) is an inactive Department of Defense Unified Command. Activated on 1 June 1948, MATS was a consolidation of the United States Navy The United States Navy (USN) is the maritime military branc ...
(MATS) photo-mapping division. The C-130A entered service with the U.S. Air Force in December 1956. In 1958, a U.S. reconnaissance C-130A-II of the 7406th Support Squadron was shot down over Armenia by four Soviet MiG-17s along the Turkish-Armenian border during a routine mission. Australia became the first non-American force to operate the C-130A Hercules with 12 examples being delivered from late 1958. The
Royal Canadian Air Force The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF; french: Aviation royale canadienne, ARC) is the air force, air and space force of Canada. Its role is to "provide the Canadian Forces with relevant, responsive and effective airpower". The RCAF is one of thre ...
became another early user with the delivery of four B-models (Canadian designation C-130 Mk I) in October / November 1960. In 1963, a Hercules achieved and still holds the record for the largest and heaviest aircraft to land on an
aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft. Typically, it is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows ...
. During October and November that year, a USMC KC-130F (BuNo ''149798''), loaned to the U.S. Naval Air Test Center, made 29
touch-and-go landing In aviation, a touch-and-go landing (TGL) or circuit is a maneuver that is common when learning to fly a fixed-wing aircraft. It involves landing on a runway and takeoff, taking off again without coming to a full stop. Usually the pilot then circl ...
s, 21 unarrested full-stop landings and 21 unassisted take-offs on at a number of different weights. The pilot, Lieutenant (later Rear Admiral) James H. Flatley III, USN, was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his role in this test series. The tests were highly successful, but the aircraft was not deployed this way. Flatley denied that C-130 was tested for
carrier onboard delivery Carrier onboard delivery (COD) is the use of aircraft to ferry personnel, mail, supplies, and high-priority cargo, such as spare part, replacement parts, from shore bases to an aircraft carrier at sea. Several types of aircraft, including helico ...
(COD) operations, or for delivering nuclear weapons. He said that the intention was to support the
Lockheed U-2 The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed "''Dragon Lady''", is an American single-jet engine, high altitude reconnaissance aircraft operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). It provides day ...
, also being tested on carriers. The Hercules used in the test, most recently in service with Marine Aerial Refueler Squadron 352 ( VMGR-352) until 2005, is now part of the collection of the
National Museum of Naval Aviation The National Naval Aviation Museum, formerly known as the National Museum of Naval Aviation and the Naval Aviation Museum, is a military and aerospace museum located at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. Founded in 1962 and moved to its curr ...
at
NAS Pensacola Naval Air Station Pensacola or NAS Pensacola (formerly NAS/KNAS until changed circa 1970 to allow Nassau International Airport, now Lynden Pindling International Airport, to have IATA code NAS), "The Cradle of Naval Aviation", is a United State ...
, Florida. In 1964, C-130 crews from the 6315th Operations Group at Naha Air Base, Okinawa commenced
forward air control Forward air control is the provision of guidance to close air support (CAS) aircraft intended to ensure that their attack hits the intended target and does not injure friendly troops. This task is carried out by a forward air controller (FAC). ...
(FAC; "Flare") missions over the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos supporting USAF strike aircraft. In April 1965 the mission was expanded to
North Vietnam North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV; vi, Việt Nam Dân chủ Cộng hòa), was a socialist state supported by the Soviet Union (USSR) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Southeast Asia that existed f ...
where C-130 crews led formations of
Martin B-57 Canberra The Martin B-57 Canberra is an American-built, twin-engined Tactical bombing, tactical bomber and reconnaissance aircraft that entered service with the United States Air Force (USAF) in 1953. The B-57 is a license-built version of the British ...
bombers on night reconnaissance/strike missions against communist supply routes leading to South Vietnam. In early 1966 Project Blind Bat/Lamplighter was established at Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand. After the move to Ubon, the mission became a four-engine FAC mission with the C-130 crew searching for targets and then calling in strike aircraft. Another little-known C-130 mission flown by Naha-based crews was Operation Commando Scarf, which involved the delivery of chemicals onto sections of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos that were designed to produce mud and landslides in hopes of making the truck routes impassable. In November 1964, on the other side of the globe, C-130Es from the 464th Troop Carrier Wing but loaned to 322d Air Division in France, took part in Operation Dragon Rouge, one of the most dramatic missions in history in the former
Belgian Congo The Belgian Congo (french: Congo belge, ; nl, Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colonial empire, Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence in 1960. The former colony adopted its present name, the Democratic Republic of the Cong ...
. After communist Simba rebels took white residents of the city of Stanleyville hostage, the U.S. and Belgium developed a joint rescue mission that used the C-130s to drop, air-land, and air-lift a force of Belgian paratroopers to rescue the hostages. Two missions were flown, one over Stanleyville and another over Paulis during Thanksgiving weeks. The headline-making mission resulted in the first award of the prestigious MacKay Trophy to C-130 crews. In the
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 or the Second Kashmir War was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was d ...
, the No. 6 Transport Squadron of the
Pakistan Air Force , "Be it deserts or seas; all lie under our wings" (traditional) , colours = , colours_label = , march = , mascot = , anniversaries = ...
modified its C-130Bs for use as bombers to carry up to 20,000 lb (9,072 kg) of bombs on pallets. These improvised bombers were used to hit Indian targets such as bridges, heavy artillery positions, tank formations, and troop concentrations, though weren't that successful finally. In October 1968, a C-130Bs from the 463rd Tactical Airlift Wing dropped a pair of M-121 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) bombs that had been developed for the massive
Convair B-36 Peacemaker The Convair B-36 "Peacemaker" is a strategic bomber that was built by Convair and operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) from 1949 to 1959. The B-36 is the largest mass-produced Reciprocating engine, piston-engined aircraft ever built. It ...
bomber but had never been used. The U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force resurrected the huge weapons as a means of clearing landing zones for helicopters and in early 1969 the 463rd commenced Commando Vault missions. Although the stated purpose of COMMANDO VAULT was to clear LZs, they were also used on enemy base camps and other targets. During the late 1960s, the U.S. was eager to get information on Chinese nuclear capabilities. After the failure of the Black Cat Squadron to plant operating sensor pods near the
Lop Nur Lop Nur or Lop Nor (from a Mongolian name meaning "Lop Lake", where "Lop" is a toponym of unknown origin) is a former salt lake A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salt (chemistry), salts (t ...
Nuclear Weapons Test Base using a U-2, the CIA developed a plan, named ''Heavy Tea'', to deploy two battery-powered sensor pallets near the base. To deploy the pallets, a Black Bat Squadron crew was trained in the U.S. to fly the C-130 Hercules. The crew of 12, led by Col Sun Pei Zhen, took off from
Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base is a Royal Thai Air Force "Royal Thai Air Force March" , mascot = , anniversaries = 9 April 1937 (Royal Thai Air Force Day) , equipment = , ...
in an unmarked U.S. Air Force C-130E on 17 May 1969. Flying for six and a half hours at low altitude in the dark, they arrived over the target and the sensor pallets were dropped by parachute near Anxi in Gansu province. After another six and a half hours of low-altitude flight, they arrived back at Takhli. The sensors worked and uploaded data to a U.S. intelligence satellite for six months before their batteries failed. The Chinese conducted two nuclear tests, on 22 September 1969 and 29 September 1969, during the operating life of the sensor pallets. Another mission to the area was planned as Operation Golden Whip, but it was called off in 1970. It is most likely that the aircraft used on this mission was either C-130E serial number 64-0506 or 64-0507 (cn 382-3990 and 382–3991). These two aircraft were delivered to Air America in 1964. After being returned to the U.S. Air Force sometime between 1966 and 1970, they were assigned the serial numbers of C-130s that had been destroyed in accidents. 64-0506 is now flying as 62–1843, a C-130E that crashed in Vietnam on 20 December 1965, and 64-0507 is now flying as 63–7785, a C-130E that had crashed in Vietnam on 17 June 1966. The A-model continued in service through the
Vietnam War The Vietnam War (also known by #Names, other names) was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vi ...
, where the aircraft assigned to the four squadrons at Naha AB, Okinawa, and one at
Tachikawa Air Base is an airfield An aerodrome (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English) or airdrome (American English) is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passen ...
, Japan performed yeoman's service, including operating highly classified special operations missions such as the BLIND BAT FAC/Flare mission and FACT SHEET leaflet mission over Laos and North Vietnam. The A-model was also provided to the
Republic of Vietnam Air Force The South Vietnam Air Force, officially the Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF; vi, Không lực Việt Nam Cộng hòa, KLVNCH; french: Force aérienne vietnamienne, FAVN) (sometimes referred to as the Vietnam Air Force or VNAF) was the aer ...
as part of the
Vietnamization Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War The Vietnam War (also known by #Names, other names) was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fal ...
program at the end of the war, and equipped three squadrons based at
Tan Son Nhut Air Base Tan Son Nhut Air Base ( vi, Căn cứ không quân Tân Sơn Nhứt) (1955–1975) was a Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF) facility. It was located near the city of Saigon in southern Vietnam. The United States used it as a major base durin ...
. The last operator in the world is the
Honduran Air Force The Honduras Air Force ( es, Fuerza Aérea Hondureña, sometimes abbreviated to FAH in English) is the air force of Honduras. As such it is the air power arm of the Military of Honduras, Honduras Armed Forces. History The first Honduras milita ...
, which is still flying one of five A model Hercules (FAH ''558'', c/n 3042) as of October 2009. As the Vietnam War wound down, the 463rd Troop Carrier/Tactical Airlift Wing B-models and A-models of the 374th Tactical Airlift Wing were transferred back to the United States where most were assigned to
Air Force Reserve The Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) is a MAJCOM, major command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force, with its headquarters at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. It is the federal Air Reserve Component (ARC) of the U.S. Air Force, consisting of ...
and
Air National Guard The Air National Guard (ANG), also known as the Air Guard, is a Reserve components of the United States Armed Forces, federal military reserve force of the United States Air Force, as well as the air militia (United States), militia of each U.S. ...
units. Another prominent role for the B model was with the
United States Marine Corps The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is the maritime land force service branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations through c ...
, where Hercules initially designated as GV-1s replaced C-119s. After Air Force C-130Ds proved the type's usefulness in
Antarctica Antarctica () is Earth's southernmost and least-populated continent. Situated almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle and surrounded by the Southern Ocean, it contains the geographic South Pole. Antarctica is the fifth-largest contine ...
, the U.S. Navy purchased several B-models equipped with skis that were designated as LC-130s. C-130B-II electronic reconnaissance aircraft were operated under the SUN VALLEY program name primarily from Yokota Air Base, Japan. All reverted to standard C-130B cargo aircraft after their replacement in the reconnaissance role by other aircraft. The C-130 was also used in the 1976 Entebbe raid in which Israeli commando forces performed a surprise operation to rescue 103 passengers of an airliner hijacked by
Palestinian Palestinians ( ar, الفلسطينيون, ; he, פָלַסְטִינִים, ) or Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, label=none, ), also referred to as Palestinian Arabs ( ar, الفلسطينيين العرب, label=non ...
and German terrorists at Entebbe Airport, Uganda. The rescue force—200 soldiers, jeeps, and a black
Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz (), commonly referred to as Mercedes and sometimes as Benz, is a German luxury and commercial vehicle automotive brand established in 1926. Mercedes-Benz AG (a Mercedes-Benz Group subsidiary established in 2019) is headquartere ...
(intended to resemble Ugandan Dictator
Idi Amin Idi Amin Dada Oumee (, ; 16 August 2003) was a Ugandan military officer and politician who served as the third president of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. He ruled as a military dictator and is considered one of the most brutal despots in modern w ...
's vehicle of state)—was flown over almost entirely at an altitude of less than from Israel to Entebbe by four
Israeli Air Force The Israeli Air Force (IAF; he, זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, tl, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as , ''Kheil HaAvir'', "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense ...
(IAF) Hercules aircraft without mid-air refueling (on the way back, the aircraft refueled in
Nairobi Nairobi ( ) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Kenya. The name is derived from the Maasai language, Maasai phrase ''Enkare Nairobi'', which translates to "place of cool waters", a reference to the Nairobi River which flows throug ...
, Kenya). During the
Falklands War The Falklands War ( es, link=no, Guerra de las Malvinas) was a ten-week undeclared war between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1982 over two British Overseas Territories, British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland I ...
( es, link=no, Guerra de las Malvinas) of 1982,
Argentine Air Force "Argentine Wings" , mascot = , anniversaries = 10 August (anniversary) 1 May (Baptism of fire during the Falklands War) , equipment = 139 aircraft , equipment_label = , battles = * Operation Independence * Operation Soberanía * Falkl ...
C-130s undertook dangerous re-supply night flights as blockade runners to the Argentine garrison on the
Falkland Islands The Falkland Islands (; es, Islas Malvinas, link=no ) is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about east of South America's southern Patagonian coast and about fro ...
. They also performed daylight maritime survey flights. One was shot down by a
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of England, English and Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were foug ...
Sea Harrier The British Aerospace Sea Harrier is a naval short take-off and vertical landing/ vertical take-off and landing jet fighter, reconnaissance In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration of an area by military fo ...
using
AIM-9 Sidewinder The AIM-9 Sidewinder (where "AIM" stands for "Air Intercept Missile") is a short-range air-to-air missile which entered service with the US Navy in 1956 and subsequently was adopted by the US Air Force in 1964. Since then the Sidewinder has prove ...
s and cannon. The crew of seven were killed. Argentina also operated two KC-130 tankers during the war, and these refueled both the
Douglas A-4 Skyhawk The Douglas A-4 Skyhawk is a single-seat subsonic aircraft, subsonic Carrier-based aircraft, carrier-capable light attack aircraft developed for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps in the early 1950s. The delta wing, delta-wi ...
s and Navy
Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard The Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard (''Étendard'' is French for "War flag, battle flag", cognate to English "standard") is a French carrier-based aircraft, carrier-borne strike fighter aircraft designed by Dassault Aviation, Dassault-Breguet ...
s; some C-130s were modified to operate as bombers with bomb-racks under their wings. The British also used RAF C-130s to support their logistical operations. During the
Gulf War The Gulf War was a 1990–1991 armed campaign waged by a Coalition of the Gulf War, 35-country military coalition in response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Spearheaded by the United States, the coalition's efforts against Ba'athist Iraq, ...
of 1991 (
Operation Desert Storm Operation or Operations may refer to: Arts, entertainment and media * ''Operation'' (game), a battery-operated board game that challenges dexterity * Operation (music), a term used in musical set theory * ''Operations'' (magazine), Multi-Ma ...
), the C-130 Hercules was used operationally by the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and U.S. Marine Corps, along with the air forces of Australia, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, and the UK. The
MC-130 Combat Talon The Lockheed MC-130 is the basic designation for a family of special mission aircraft operated by the United States Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), a wing of the Air Education and Training Command Air Education and Training Co ...
variant also made the first attacks using the largest conventional
bomb A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the Exothermic process, exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy. Detonations inflict damage principally through ground- and atmosphere-t ...
s in the world, the
BLU-82 The BLU-82B/C-130 weapon system, known under program "Commando Vault" and nicknamed " Daisy Cutter" in Vietnam Vietnam or Viet Nam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,., group="n" is a country in Southeast ...
"Daisy Cutter" and
GBU-43/B The GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB , colloquially known as the "Mother of All Bombs") is a large-yield bomb, developed for the United States military by Albert L. Weimorts, Jr. of the Air Force Research Laboratory. It was first tes ...
"Massive Ordnance Air Blast" (MOAB) bomb. Daisy Cutters were used to primarily clear landing zones and to eliminate mine fields. The weight and size of the weapons make it impossible or impractical to load them on conventional
bombers A bomber is a military combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), launching aerial torpedo, torpedoes, or deploying air-launched cruise missiles. The first use of bombs dropped ...
. The GBU-43/B MOAB is a successor to the BLU-82 and can perform the same function, as well as perform strike functions against hardened targets in a low air threat environment. Since 1992, two successive C-130 aircraft named ''Fat Albert'' have served as the support aircraft for the U.S. Navy
Blue Angels The Blue Angels is a Aerobatics, flight demonstration squadron of the United States Navy.
flight demonstration team. ''Fat Albert I'' was a TC-130G (''151891'') a former U.S. NAVY TACAMO aircraft serving with Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron Three (VQ-3) before being transferred to the BLUES,Olausson, Lars, "Lockheed Hercules Production List 1954–2012", 28th edition, self-published, Såtenäs, Sweden, March 2010, page 43. while ''Fat Albert II'' is a C-130T (''164763''). Although ''Fat Albert'' supports a Navy squadron, it is operated by the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) and its crew consists solely of USMC personnel. At some
air show An air show (or airshow, air fair, air tattoo) is a public event where aircraft are trade fair, exhibited. They often include aerobatics demonstrations, without they are called "static air shows" with aircraft parked on the ground. The larges ...
s featuring the team, ''Fat Albert'' takes part, performing flyovers. Until 2009, it also demonstrated its rocket-assisted takeoff (RATO) capabilities; these ended due to dwindling supplies of rockets.McCullough, Amy. "Abort Launch: Air shows to do without Fat Albert's famed JATO." ''
Marine Corps Times ''Marine Corps Times'' (International Standard Serial Number, ISSN 1522-0869) is a newspaper serving active, reserve and retired United States Marine Corps personnel and their families, providing news, information and analysis as well as community ...
,'' 9 November 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
The AC-130 also holds the record for the longest sustained flight by a C-130. From 22 to 24 October 1997, two AC-130U gunships flew 36 hours nonstop from Hurlburt Field, Florida to Taegu (Daegu),
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is formed ...
, being refueled seven times by KC-135 tanker aircraft. This record flight beat the previous record longest flight by over 10 hours and the two gunships took on of fuel. The gunship has been used in every major U.S. combat operation since Vietnam, except for
Operation El Dorado Canyon The 1986 United States bombing of Libya, code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon, consisted of air strikes by the United States against Libya on Tuesday 15 April 1986. The attack was carried out by the United States Air Force, U.S. Air Force (USAF ...
, the 1986 attack on Libya. During the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the ongoing support of the
International Security Assistance Force The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a multinational military mission in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014. It was established by United Nations Security Council United Nations Security Council Resolution 1386, Resolution 1386 pursua ...
(
Operation Enduring Freedom Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) was the official name used synonymously by the U.S. government for both the War in Afghanistan (2001–2014) and the larger-scale Global War on Terrorism. On 7 October 2001, in response to the September 11 atta ...
), the C-130 Hercules has been used operationally by Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, Spain, the UK, and the United States. During the
2003 invasion of Iraq The 2003 invasion of Iraq was a United States-led invasion of the Ba'athist Iraq, Republic of Iraq and the first stage of the Iraq War. The invasion phase began on 19 March 2003 (air) and 20 March 2003 (ground) and lasted just over one mont ...
(
Operation Iraqi Freedom {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Iraq War , partof = the Iraq conflict (2003–present), Iraq conflict and the War on terror , image = Iraq War montage.png , image_size = 300px , caption ...
), the C-130 Hercules was used operationally by Australia, the UK, and the United States. After the initial invasion, C-130 operators as part of the
Multinational force in Iraq Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign state that comprises two or more na ...
used their C-130s to support their forces in Iraq. Since 2004, the Pakistan Air Force has employed C-130s in the
War in North-West Pakistan The insurgency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, also known as the War in North-West Pakistan or Pakistan's war on terror, is an ongoing armed conflict involving Pakistan, and Islamist militant groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Jundall ...
. Some variants had
forward looking infrared Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) cameras, typically used on military and civilian aircraft, use a thermographic camera that senses infrared radiation. The sensors installed in forward-looking infrared cameras, as well as those of other thermal ...
(FLIR Systems Star Safire III EO/IR) sensor balls, to enable close tracking of militants. In 2017, France and Germany announced that they are to build up a joint air transport squadron at Evreux Air Base, France, comprising ten C-130J aircraft. Six of these will be operated by Germany. Initial operational capability is expected for 2021 while full operational capability is scheduled for 2024.


Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

For almost two decades, the USAF 910th Airlift Wing's 757th Airlift Squadron and the U.S. Coast Guard have participated in oil spill cleanup exercises to ensure the U.S. military has a capable response in the event of a national emergency. The 757th Airlift Squadron operates the DOD's only fixed-wing Aerial Spray System which was certified by the EPA to disperse pesticides on DOD property to spread oil dispersants onto the ''Deepwater Horizon'' oil spill in the Gulf Coast in 2010. During the 5-week mission, the aircrews flew 92 sorties and sprayed approximately 30,000 acres with nearly 149,000 gallons of oil dispersant to break up the oil. The Deepwater Horizon mission was the first time the US used the oil dispersing capability of the 910th Airlift Wing—its only large area, fixed-wing aerial spray program—in an actual spill of national significance. The
Air Force Reserve Command The Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) is a MAJCOM, major command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force, with its headquarters at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. It is the federal Air Reserve Component (ARC) of the U.S. Air Force, consisting of ...
announced the 910th Airlift Wing has been selected as a recipient of the
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award The Air and Space Outstanding Unit Award (ASOUA) is one of the Awards and decorations of the United States Department of the Air Force, unit awards of the United States Air Force and United States Space Force. It was established in 1954 as the A ...
for its outstanding achievement from 28 April 2010 through 4 June 2010.


Hurricane Harvey (2017)

C-130s temporarily based at
Kelly Field Kelly Field (formerly Kelly Air Force Base) is a Joint-use airport, Joint-Use facility located in San Antonio, Texas. It was originally named after George E. M. Kelly, the first member of the U.S. military killed in the crash of an airplane he ...
conducted
mosquito control Mosquito control manages the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment. Mosquito control is a vital public-health practice throughout the world and especially in the tropics because mosquitoes spr ...
aerial spray applications over areas of eastern Texas devastated by
Hurricane Harvey Hurricane Harvey was a devastating Saffir–Simpson scale, Category 4 hurricane that made landfall on Texas and Louisiana in August 2017, causing catastrophic flooding and more than 100 deaths. It is tied with 2005 Atlantic hurrican ...
. This special mission treated more than 2.3 million acres at the direction of
Federal Emergency Management Agency The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS), initially created under President Jimmy Carter by Presidential Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978 and implemented by two Exec ...
(FEMA) and the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) to assist in recovery efforts by helping contain the significant increase in pest insects caused by large amounts of standing, stagnant water. The 910th Airlift Wing operates the Department of Defense's only aerial spray capability to control pest insect populations, eliminate undesired and invasive vegetation, and disperse oil spills in large bodies of water. The aerial spray flight also is now able to operate during the night with NVGs, which increases the flight's best case spray capacity from approximately 60 thousand acres per day to approximately 190 thousand acres per day. Spray missions are normally conducted at dusk and nighttime hours when pest insects are most active, the U.S. Air Force Reserve reports.


Aerial firefighting

In the early 1970s, Congress created the
Modular Airborne FireFighting System The Modular Airborne FireFighting System (MAFFS) is a self-contained unit used for aerial firefighting that can be loaded onto both military cargo transport Lockheed C-130 Hercules and Embraer C-390 Millennium, which then allows the aircraft to b ...
(MAFFS) which is a joint operation between the U.S. Forest Service who supply the systems and the
Department of Defense Department of Defence or Department of Defense may refer to: Current departments of defence * Department of Defence (Australia) * Department of National Defence (Canada) * Department of Defence (Ireland) * Department of National Defense (Philippin ...
who supply the C-130 aircraft. The roll-on/roll-off systems allow existing aircraft to be temporarily converted into a 3,000-gallon airtanker for fighting
wildfire A wildfire, forest fire, bushfire, wildland fire or rural fire is an unplanned, uncontrolled and unpredictable fire in an area of Combustibility and flammability, combustible vegetation. Depending on the type of vegetation present, a wildfire ...
s when demand exceeds the supply of privately contracted and publicly available airtankers. In the late 1980s, 22 retired USAF C-130As were removed from storage and transferred to the U.S. Forest Service, which then transferred them to six private companies to be converted into airtankers. One of these C-130s crashed in June 2002 while operating the Retardant Aerial Delivery System (RADS) near Walker, CA. The crash was attributed to wing separation caused by fatigue stress cracking and contributed to the grounding of the entire large aircraft fleet. After an extensive review,
US Forest Service The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 United States National Forest, national forests and 20 United States Nationa ...
and The Bureau of Land Management declined to renew the leases on nine C-130A over concerns about the age of the aircraft, which had been in service since the 1950s, and their ability to handle the forces generated by aerial firefighting. More recently, an updated Retardant Aerial Delivery System known as RADS XL was developed by Coulson Aviation USA. That system consists of a C-130H/Q retrofitted with an in-floor discharge system, combined with a removable 3,500- or 4,000-gallon water tank. The combined system is FAA certified. On 22 January 2020, Coulson's Tanker 134, an EC-130Q registered N134CG, crashed during aerial firefighting operations in
New South Wales ) , nickname = , image_map = New South Wales in Australia.svg , map_caption = Location of New South Wales in AustraliaCoordinates: , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = Australia , established_title = Before federation , es ...
, Australia, killing all three crew members. The aircraft had taken off out of
RAAF Base Richmond RAAF Base Richmond is a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) military airfield, military air base located within the City of Hawkesbury, approximately North-West of the Sydney Central Business District in New South Wales, Australia. Situated bet ...
and was supporting firefighting operations during Australia's 2019–20 fire season.


Variants

Significant military variants of the C-130 include: ;C-130A : Initial production model with four Allison T56-A-11/9 turboprop engines. 219 were ordered and deliveries to the USAF began in Dec. 1956. ;C-130B : Variant with four Allison T56-A-7 engines. 134 were ordered and entered USAF service in May 1959. ;C-130E : Same engines as the Bravo variant but with two 1,290 gal. external fuel tanks, and an increased maximum takeoff weight capability. Introduced in Aug. 1962 with 389 were ordered. ;C-130F/G : Variants procured by the U.S. Navy for USMC refueling missions, and other support/transport operations. ;C-130H : Identical to the Echo variant but with more powerful Allison T56-A-15 turboprop engines. Introduced in Jun. 1974 with 308 ordered. ;C-130K : Designation for
RAF The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's Air force, air and space force. It was formed towards the end of the World War I, First World War on 1 April 1918, becoming the first independent air force in the world, by regrouping the Royal ...
Hercules C1/W2/C3 aircraft (C-130Js in RAF service are the Hercules C.4 and Hercules C.5) ;C-130T : Improved variants procured by the U.S. Navy for USMC refueling, and other support/transport operations. ; C-130A-II Dreamboat : Early version Electronic Intelligence/Signals Intelligence (ELINT/SIGINT) aircraft ;
C-130J Super Hercules The Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft. The C-130J is a comprehensive update of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules, with new engines, Cockpit, flight deck, and other systems. The C-130J is the ...
: Tactical airlifter, with new engines, avionics, and updated systems ;C-130B BLC: A one-off conversion of C-130B 58–0712, modified with a double Allison YT56 gas generator pod under each outer wing, to provide bleed air for all the control surfaces and flaps. ; AC-130A/E/H/J/U/W : Gunship variants ;C-130D/D-6 : Ski-equipped version for snow and ice operations
United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Aerial warfare, air military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces, and is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. Originally created on 1 August 1907, as a part ...
/ Air National Guard ;CC-130E/H/J Hercules : Designation for
Canadian Armed Forces } The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; french: Forces armées canadiennes, ''FAC'') are the unified Military, military forces of Canada, including sea, land, and air elements referred to as the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Ai ...
/
Royal Canadian Air Force The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF; french: Aviation royale canadienne, ARC) is the air force, air and space force of Canada. Its role is to "provide the Canadian Forces with relevant, responsive and effective airpower". The RCAF is one of thre ...
Hercules aircraft. U.S. Air Force used the CC-130J designation to differentiate the standard C-130J variant from the "stretched" C-130J (company designation C-130J-30). CC-130H(T) is the Canadian tanker variant of the KC-130H. ;C-130M: Designation used by the
Brazilian Air Force "Wings that protect the country" , colours = , colours_label = , march = s:Hino dos Aviadores, Hino dos Aviadores , mascot = , anniversaries ...
for locally modified / up-graded C-130H aircraft ; DC-130A/E/H : USAF and USN Drone control ;
EC-130 The Lockheed Martin EC-130 series comprises several slightly different versions of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules that have been and continue to be operated by the U.S. Air Force and, until the 1990s, the U.S. Navy. The EC-130E Airborne Battlefie ...
:EC-130E/J Commando Solo – USAF / Air National Guard psychological operations version :EC-130E Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center (ABCCC) – USAF procedural air-to-ground attack control, also provided NRT threat updates :EC-130E Rivet Rider – Airborne psychological warfare aircraft :EC-130H Compass Call –
Electronic warfare Electronic warfare (EW) is any action involving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum (EM spectrum) or Directed-energy weapon, directed energy to control the spectrum, attack an enemy, or impede enemy assaults. The purpose of electronic warfare ...
and electronic attack. :EC-130V – Airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) variant used by
USCG The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is the maritime security, search and rescue, and maritime law enforcement, law enforcement military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's eight Uniformed services ...
for counter-narcotics missions ;GC-130 : Permanently grounded instructional airframes ;
HC-130 The Lockheed HC-130 is an extended-range, search and rescue Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger. The general field of search and rescue includes many specialt ...
:HC-130B/E/H – Early model
combat search and rescue Combat search and rescue (CSAR) are search and rescue operations that are carried out during war that are within or near combat zones. A CSAR mission may be carried out by a task force of Military helicopter, helicopters, ground-attack aircraft ...
:HC-130P/N Combat King – USAF aerial refueling tanker and combat search and rescue :HC-130J Combat King II – Next generation
combat search and rescue Combat search and rescue (CSAR) are search and rescue operations that are carried out during war that are within or near combat zones. A CSAR mission may be carried out by a task force of Military helicopter, helicopters, ground-attack aircraft ...
tanker :HC-130H/J – USCG long-range surveillance and
search and rescue Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger. The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, typically determined by the type of terrain the search ...

USAFR Aerial Spray & Airlift
;JC-130 : Temporary conversion for flight test operations; used to recover drones and spy satellite film capsules. ; KC-130F/R/T/J :
United States Marine Corps The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is the maritime land force service branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations through c ...
aerial refueling tanker and tactical airlifter ; LC-130F/H/R : USAF / Air National Guard – Ski-equipped version for
Arctic The Arctic ( or ) is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Canada (Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut), Danish Realm (Greenland), northern Finland ...
and
Antarctic The Antarctic ( or , American English also or ; commonly ) is a polar regions of Earth, polar region around Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises the continent of Antarctica, the Kergu ...
support operations; LC-130F and R previously operated by USN ;
MC-130 The Lockheed MC-130 is the basic designation for a family of special mission aircraft operated by the Air Force Special Operations Command, United States Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), a wing of the Air Education and Training Com ...
:MC-130E/H Combat Talon I/II –
Special operations Special operations (S.O.) are military activities conducted, according to NATO, by "specially designated, organized, selected, trained, and equipped forces using unconventional techniques and modes of employment". Special operations may include ...
infiltration/extraction variant :MC-130W Combat Spear/Dragon Spear – Special operations tanker/gunshipHousman, Damian
"Highly modified C-130 ready for war on terrorism."
''Air Force Link, United States Air Force,'' 29 June 2006.
:MC-130P Combat Shadow – Special operations tanker – all operational aircraft converted to HC-130P standard :MC-130J Commando II (formerly Combat Shadow II) – Special operations tanker Air Force Special Operations Command :YMC-130H – Modified aircraft under
Operation Credible Sport Operation Credible Sport was a joint project of the United States Armed Forces, U.S. military in the second half of 1980 to prepare for a second rescue attempt of the Iran hostage crisis, hostages held in Iran. The concept included using a Loc ...
for second
Iran hostage crisis On November 4, 1979, 52 United States diplomats and citizens were held hostage after a group of militarized Iran, Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took ...
rescue attempt ;NC-130 : Permanent conversion for flight test operations ;PC-130/C-130-MP :
Maritime patrol {{Unreferenced, date=March 2008 Maritime patrol is the task of monitoring areas of water. Generally conducted by military and law enforcement agency, law enforcement agencies, maritime patrol is usually aimed at identifying human activities. Mari ...
; RC-130A/S :
Surveillance aircraft A surveillance aircraft is an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few ca ...
for reconnaissance ;SC-130J Sea Herc : Proposed maritime patrol version of the C-130J, designed for coastal surveillance and anti-submarine warfare. ;TC-130 : Aircrew training ;VC-130H : VIP transport ; WC-130A/B/E/H/J : Weather reconnaissance (" Hurricane Hunter") version for
USAF The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Aerial warfare, air military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces, and is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. Originally created on 1 August 1907, as a part ...
/
Air Force Reserve Command The Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) is a MAJCOM, major command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force, with its headquarters at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. It is the federal Air Reserve Component (ARC) of the U.S. Air Force, consisting of ...
's 53d Weather Reconnaissance Squadron in support of the
National Weather Service The National Weather Service (NWS) is an Government agency, agency of the Federal government of the United States, United States federal government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weathe ...
's
National Hurricane Center The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' NOAA/National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the IERS Reference Meridian, Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian ...


Operators

Former operators * * * * *


Accidents

The C-130 Hercules has had a low accident rate in general. The Royal Air Force recorded an accident rate of about one aircraft loss per 250,000 flying hours over the last 40 years, placing it behind
Vickers VC10 The Vickers VC10 is a mid-sized, narrow-body long-range British jet airliner designed and built by Vickers-Armstrongs, Vickers-Armstrongs (Aircraft) Ltd and first flown at Brooklands, Surrey, in 1962. The airliner was designed to operate on ...
s and Lockheed TriStars with no flying losses."Aircraft Air Accidents and Damage Rates."
Defence Analytical Services Agency. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
USAF C-130A/B/E-models had an overall attrition rate of 5% as of 1989 as compared to 1–2% for commercial airliners in the U.S., according to the
NTSB The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an Independent agencies of the United States government, independent U.S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation accident investigation. In this role, the NTSB inv ...
, 10% for
B-52 The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic aircraft, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber. The B-52 was designed and built by Boeing, which has continued to provide support and upgrades. It has been operated by the ...
bombers, and 20% for fighters ( F-4, F-111), trainers ( T-37,
T-38 T38 or T-38 may refer to: * T38 (classification), a disability sport classification for disability athletics * T.38, a standard for fax over IP * T-38 tank, a Soviet light tank * Allison T38, a turboprop aircraft engine * Northrop T-38 Talon, a U.S ...
), and helicopters ( H-3).


Aircraft on display


Argentina

* C-130B FAA TC-60. ex USAF 61-0964 received in February 1992 now at Museo Nacional de Aeronáutica since September 2011.


Australia

* C-130A RAAF A97-214 used by 36 Squadron from early 1959, withdrawn from use late 1978; now at RAAF Museum, RAAF Base Williams, Point Cook. * C-130E RAAF A97-160 used by 37 Squadron from August 1966, withdrawn from use November 2000; to
RAAF Museum RAAF Museum is the official museum of the Royal Australian Air Force "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colours = , colours_label = , march = , mascot ...
, 14 November 2000, cocooned as of September 2005.


Belgium

* C-130H Belgian Airforce tailnumber CH13 in service from 2009 until May 2021 is on display at the Beauvechain Air Base at the First Wing Historical Center.


Canada

* CC-130E RCAF 10313 (later 130313) is on display at the National Air Force Museum of Canada,
CFB Trenton Canadian Forces Base Trenton (also CFB Trenton), formerly RCAF Station Trenton, is a Canadian Forces base located within the city of Quinte West, Ontario. It is operated as an air force base by the Royal Canadian Air Force The Royal Cana ...
* CC-130E RCAF 10307 (later 130307) is on display in the Reserve Hangar at the
Canada Aviation and Space Museum The Canada Aviation and Space Museum (french: link=no, Musée de l'Aviation et de l'Espace du Canada) (formerly the Canada Aviation Museum and National Aeronautical Collection) is Canada's national aviation history museum. The museum is located ...
, Ottawa, Ontario * CC-130E RCAF 130328 is on display at the Greenwood Aviation Museum, CFB Greenwood


Colombia

* C-130B FAC 1010 (serial number 3521) moved on 14 January 2016 to the Colombian Aerospace Museum in Tocancipá, Cundinamarca, for static display. * C-130B FAC1011 (serial number 3585, ex 59–1535) preserved at the Colombian Air and Space Museum within CATAM AFB,
Bogotá Bogotá (, also , , ), officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santa Fe de Bogotá (; ) during the Spanish period and between 1991 and 2000, is the capital city A capital city or capital is t ...
.


Indonesia

* C-130B Indonesian Air Force A-1301 preserved at Sulaeman Airstrip, Bandung. Also occasionally used for
Paskhas The Kopasgat ( id, Komando Pasukan Gerak Cepat, Quick Reaction Forces Command) is the air force infantry and special forces corps of the Indonesian Air Force. The corps is also known as the Orange Berets ( in Indonesian language, Indonesian) fr ...
Training. The airplane is relocated to Air Force Museum in Yogyakarta in 2017.


Norway

* C-130H Royal Norwegian Air Force 953 was retired on 10 June 2007 and moved to the Air Force museum at Oslo Gardermoen in May 2008.


Saudi Arabia

* C-130H RSAF 460 was operated by 4 Squadron
Royal Saudi Air Force The Royal Saudi Air Force ( ar, ‎الْقُوَّاتُ الْجَوِّيَّةُ الْمَلَكِيَّةْ ٱلسُّعُوْدِيَّة, Al-Quwwat Al-Jawiyah Al-Malakiyah as-Su’udiyah) (RSAF) is the Military aviation, aviation branch o ...
from December 1974 until January 1987. It was damaged in a fire at
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, , Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the country's commercial center. Established in the 6th century BC as a fishing village, Jeddah's promi ...
in December 1989. Restored for ground training by August 1993. At Royal Saudi Air Force Museum, November 2002, restored for ground display by using a tail from another C-130H.


United Kingdom

* Hercules C3 ''XV202'' that served with the Royal Air Force from 1967 to 2011, is on display at the
Royal Air Force Museum Cosford The Royal Air Force Museum Cosford, located in Cosford, Shropshire, Cosford in Shropshire, is a free (currently, 2022) museum dedicated to the history of aviation and the Royal Air Force in particular. The museum is part of the Royal Air Force Mu ...
.


United States

* GC-130A, AF Ser. No. 55-037 used by the 773 TCS, 483 TCW, 315 AD, 374 TCW, 815 TAS, 35 TAS, 109 TAS, belly-landed at Duluth, Minnesota, April 1973, repaired; 167 TAS, 180 TAS, to Chanute Technical Training Center as GC-130A, May 1984; now displayed at Museum of Missouri Military History,
Missouri National Guard The Missouri National Guard (MONG), commonly known as the Missouri Guard, is a component of the Army National Guard and Missouri State Department of the National Guard. It is composed of Army National Guard, Army and Missouri Air National Guard, A ...
Ike Skelton Training Center,
Jefferson City, Missouri Jefferson City, informally Jeff City, is the Capital (political), capital of Missouri, United States. It had a population of 43,228 at the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, ranking as the 15th most populous city in the state. It is also t ...
. Previously displayed at Octave Chanute Aerospace Museum, (former) Chanute AFB,
Rantoul, Illinois Rantoul is a village in Champaign County, Illinois Illinois ( ) is a state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. Its largest metropolitan areas include the Chicago metropolitan area, and the Metro East section, of ...
until museum closed. * C-130A, AF Ser. No. 56-0518 used by the 314 TCW, 315 AD, 41 ATS, 328 TAS; to
Republic of Vietnam Air Force The South Vietnam Air Force, officially the Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF; vi, Không lực Việt Nam Cộng hòa, KLVNCH; french: Force aérienne vietnamienne, FAVN) (sometimes referred to as the Vietnam Air Force or VNAF) was the aer ...
435 Transport Squadron, November 1972; holds the C-130 record for taking off with the most personnel on board, during the evacuation of SVN, 29 April 1975, with 452. Returned to USAF, 185 TAS, 105 TAS; Flown to
Little Rock AFB Little Rock Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located approximately northeast of Little Rock, Arkansas. Little Rock AFB is the primary C-130 Hercules training base for the United States Department of Defense, Department of De ...
on 28 June 1989. It was converted to a static display at the LRAFB Visitor Center, Arkansas by Sept. 1989. * C-130A, AF Ser. No. 57-0453 was operated from 1958 to 1991, last duty with 155th TAS, 164th TAG,
Tennessee Air National Guard The Tennessee Air National Guard (TN ANG) is the aerial militia of the State of Tennessee Tennessee ( , ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a landlocked state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State ...
, Memphis International Airport/ANGB, Tennessee, 1976–1991, named "Nite Train to Memphis"; to AMARC in December 1991, then sent to Texas for modification into a replica of C-130A-II Dreamboat aircraft, AF Ser. No. 56-0528, shot down by Soviet fighters in Soviet airspace near
Yerevan, Armenia Yerevan ( , , hy, Երևան , sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia and one of the world's List of oldest continuously inhabited cities, oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Y ...
on 2 September 1958, while on
ELINT Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is list of intelligence gathering disciplines, intelligence-gathering by interception of ''Signal, signals'', whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from ele ...
mission with loss of all crew, displayed in National Vigilance Park,
National Security Agency The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). The NSA is responsible for global monitoring, collectio ...
grounds, Fort George Meade,
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. It shares borders with Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; ...
. * C-130B, AF Ser. No. 59-0528 was operated by 145th Airlift Wing, North Carolina Air National Guard; placed on static display at Charlotte Air National Guard Base, North Carolina in 2010. * C-130D, AF Ser. No. 57-0490 used by the 61st TCS, 17th TCS, 139th TAS with skis, July 1975 – April 1983; to MASDC, 1984–1985, GC-130D ground trainer, Chanute AFB,
Illinois Illinois ( ) is a state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. Its largest metropolitan areas include the Chicago metropolitan area, and the Metro East section, of Greater St. Louis. Other smaller metropolitan areas inc ...
, 1986–1990; When Chanute AFB closed in September 1993, it moved to the Octave Chanute Aerospace Museum (former Chanute AFB,
Rantoul, Illinois Rantoul is a village in Champaign County, Illinois Illinois ( ) is a state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. Its largest metropolitan areas include the Chicago metropolitan area, and the Metro East section, of ...
. In July 1994, it moved to the Empire State Air Museum, Schenectady County Airport, New York, until placed on the gate at Stratton Air National Guard Base in October 1994. * NC-130B, AF Ser. No. 57-0526 was the second B model manufactured, initially delivered as JC-130B; assigned to 6515th Organizational Maintenance Squadron for flight testing at
Edwards AFB Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force installation in California. Most of the base sits in Kern County, but its eastern end is in San Bernardino County and a southern arm is in Los Angeles County. The hub of the base is Edw ...
, California on 29 November 1960; turned over to 6593rd Test Squadron's Operating Location No. 1 at Edwards AFB and spent next seven years supporting Corona Program; "J" status and prefix removed from aircraft in October 1967; transferred to 6593rd Test Squadron at
Hickam AFB Hickam Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation, named in honor of aviation pioneer Lieutenant Colonel (United States), Lieutenant Colonel Horace Meek Hickam. The installation merged in 2010 with Naval Station Pearl Harbor to beco ...
, Hawaii and modified for mid-air retrieval of satellites; acquired by 6514th Test Squadron at Hill AFB, Utah in Jan. 1987 and used as electronic testbed and cargo transport; aircraft retired January 1994 with 11,000+ flight hours and moved to Hill Aerospace Museum at Hill AFB by January 1994. * C-130E, AF Ser. No. 62-1787, on display at the
National Museum of the United States Air Force The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official museum of the United States Air Force located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, northeast of Dayton, Ohio. The NMUSAF is the ...
,
Wright-Patterson AFB Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) is a United States Air Force base and census-designated place just east of Dayton, Ohio, in Greene County, Ohio, Greene and Montgomery County, Ohio, Montgomery counties. It includes both Wright and Patte ...
, Ohio, was flown to the museum on 18 August 2011. One of the greatest feats of heroism during the
Vietnam War The Vietnam War (also known by #Names, other names) was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vi ...
involved the C-130E, call sign "Spare 617". The C-130E attempted to airdrop ammunition to surround South Vietnamese forces at An Loc, Vietnam. Approaching the drop zone, Spare 617 received heavy enemy ground fire that damaged two engines, ruptured a bleed air duct in the cargo compartment, and set the ammunition on fire. Flight engineer TSgt Sanders was killed, and navigator 1st Lt Lenz and co-pilot 1st Lt Hering were both wounded. Despite receiving severe burns from hot air escaping from the damaged air bleed duct, loadmaster TSgt Shaub extinguished a fire in the cargo compartment, and successfully jettisoned the cargo pallets, which exploded in mid-air. Despite losing a third engine on the final approach, pilot Capt Caldwell landed Spare 617 safely. For their actions, Caldwell and Shaub received the Air Force Cross, the U.S. Air Force's second highest award for valor. TSgt Shaub also received the William H. Pitsenbarger Award for Heroism from the Air Force Sergeants Association. * KC-130F, USN/USMC BuNo 149798 used in tests in October–November 1963 by the U.S. Navy for unarrested landings and unassisted take-offs from the carrier USS ''Forrestal'' (CV-59), it remains the record holder for largest aircraft to operate from a carrier flight deck, and carried the name "Look Ma, No Hook" during the tests. Retired to the
National Museum of Naval Aviation The National Naval Aviation Museum, formerly known as the National Museum of Naval Aviation and the Naval Aviation Museum, is a military and aerospace museum located at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. Founded in 1962 and moved to its curr ...
,
NAS Pensacola Naval Air Station Pensacola or NAS Pensacola (formerly NAS/KNAS until changed circa 1970 to allow Nassau International Airport, now Lynden Pindling International Airport, to have IATA code NAS), "The Cradle of Naval Aviation", is a United State ...
, Florida in May 2003. * C-130G, USN/USMC BuNo 151891; modified to EC-130G, 1966, then testbed for EC-130Q TACAMO in 1981, then changed to TC-130G and used by Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron Three (VQ-3) for flight proficiency (bounce bird). In early 1991 it was transferred to AMMARG Davis-Monthan AFB Tucson, AZ. In May 1991 it was assigned as the U.S. Navy's
Blue Angels The Blue Angels is a Aerobatics, flight demonstration squadron of the United States Navy.
USMC support aircraft, serving as "Fat Albert Airlines" from 1991 to 2002. Retired to the
National Museum of Naval Aviation The National Naval Aviation Museum, formerly known as the National Museum of Naval Aviation and the Naval Aviation Museum, is a military and aerospace museum located at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. Founded in 1962 and moved to its curr ...
at NAS Pensacola, Florida in November 2002 where it remains on outside static display reflecting the BLUES colors. * C-130E, AF Ser. No. 64-0525 was on display at the 82nd Airborne Division War Memorial Museum at
Fort Bragg Fort Bragg is a military installation of the United States Army in North Carolina, and is one of the largest military installations in the world by population, with around 54,000 military personnel. The military reservation is located within Cum ...
, North Carolina. The aircraft was the last assigned to the 43rd AW at
Pope AFB Pope Field is a U.S. military facility located 12 miles (19 km) northwest of the central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business centre of a city. It contains commercial space and offices, an ...
, North Carolina before retirement from the USAF. * C-130E-LM, AF Ser. No. 64-0533 – Taken in December 1964 by 314th Troop Carrier Wing, Sewart AFB, TN. Last assigned to 37th Airlift Squadron, Rhein-Main AB, Germany. Transferred to
Elmendorf AFB Elmendorf Air Force Base is a United States Air Force (USAF) facility in Anchorage, Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska. Originally known as Elmendorf Field, it became Elmendorf Air Force Base after World War II. It is the home of the Headquarters, Alas ...
for display, May 2004. Marked as 53-2453 * C-130E, AF Ser. No. 69-6579 operated by the 61st TAS, 314th TAW, 50th AS, 61st AS; at Dyess AFB as maintenance trainer as GC-130E, March 1998; to Dyess AFB Linear Air Park, January 2004. * MC-130E Combat Talon I, AF Ser. No. 64-0567, unofficially known as "Wild Thing". It transported captured Panamanian dictator
Manuel Noriega Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (; February 11, 1934 – May 29, 2017) was a Panamanian dictator, politician and military officer who was the ''de facto'' ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989. An authoritarian ruler who amassed a personal f ...
in 1989 during Operation Just Cause and participated in Operation Eagle Claw, the unsuccessful attempt to rescue U.S. hostages from Iran in 1980. Wild Thing was also the first fixed-wing aircraft to employ night-vision goggles. On display at
Hurlburt Field Hurlburt Field is a United States Air Force installation located in Okaloosa County, Florida, immediately west of the town of Mary Esther. It is part of the greater Eglin Air Force Base reservation and is home to Headquarters Air Force ...
, in Florida."Combat Talon Dedicated."
''Code One Magazine'', 6 May 2011.
* C-130E, AF Ser. No. 69-6580 operated by the 61st TAS, 314th TAW, 317th TAW, 314th TAW, 317th TAW, 40th AS, 41st AS, 43rd AW, retired after center wing cracks were detected in April 2002; to the
Air Mobility Command Museum The Air Mobility Command Museum a military aviation museum located at Dover Air Force Base in Dover, Delaware dedicated to the history of the Air Transport Command, Military Air Transport Service, Military Airlift Command and Air Mobility Command. ...
,
Dover AFB Dover Air Force Base or Dover AFB is a United States Air Force base under the operational control of the Air Mobility Command (AMC), located southeast of the city of Dover, Delaware Dover () is the capital and second-largest city of the U. ...
, Delaware on 2 February 2004. * C-130E, AF Ser. No. 70-1269 was used by the 43rd AW and is on display at the Pope Air Park,
Pope AFB Pope Field is a U.S. military facility located 12 miles (19 km) northwest of the central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business centre of a city. It contains commercial space and offices, an ...
, North Carolina as of 2006. * C-130H, AF Ser. No. 74-1686 used by the 463rd TAW; one of three C-130H airframes modified to YMC-130H for an aborted rescue attempt of Iranian hostages,
Operation Credible Sport Operation Credible Sport was a joint project of the United States Armed Forces, U.S. military in the second half of 1980 to prepare for a second rescue attempt of the Iran hostage crisis, hostages held in Iran. The concept included using a Loc ...
, with rocket packages blistered onto fuselage in 1980, but these were removed after the mission was canceled. Subsequent duty with the 4950th Test Wing, then donated to the Museum of Aviation at
Robins AFB Robins Air Force Base is a major United States Air Force The United States Air Force (USAF) is the Aerial warfare, air military branch, service branch of the United States Armed Forces, and is one of the eight uniformed services of the U ...
, Georgia, in March 1988.


Specifications (C-130H)


See also


References


Notes


Citations


Bibliography

* Borman, Martin W. ''Lockheed C-130 Hercules.'' Marlborough, UK: Crowood Press, 1999. . * Diehl, Alan E., PhD, Former Senior USAF Safety Scientist. ''Silent Knights: Blowing the Whistle on Military Accidents and Their Cover-ups.'' Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's Inc., 2002. . * Donald, David, ed. "Lockheed C-130 Hercules". ''The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft''. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997. . * Eden, Paul. "Lockheed C-130 Hercules". ''Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft.'' London: Amber Books, 2004. . * Frawley, Gerard. ''The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002/03''. Fyshwick, ACT, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd, 2002. . * Olausson, Lars. ''Lockheed Hercules Production List 1954–2011''. Såtenäs, Sweden: Self-published, 27th Edition March 2009. No ISBN. * * * Reed, Chris. ''Lockheed C-130 Hercules and Its Variants.'' Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 1999. . *


External links


Lockheed Martin official C-130 page

U.S. Air Force C-130 fact sheet

C-130 U.S. Navy fact file
an


C-130hercules.net

C-130 page on amcmuseum.org


a 1954 ''Flight'' article * * * {{Authority control
Lockheed C-130 Hercules The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is an American four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built by Lockheed Corporation, Lockheed (now Lockheed Martin). Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 ...
Four-engined tractor aircraft High-wing aircraft Four-engined turboprop aircraft Aircraft first flown in 1954