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A Linux
Linux
distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system. Linux
Linux
users usually obtain their operating system by downloading one of the Linux distributions, which are available for a wide variety of systems ranging from embedded devices (for example, OpenWrt) and personal computers (for example, Linux
Linux
Mint) to powerful supercomputers (for example, Rocks Cluster Distribution). A typical Linux
Linux
distribution comprises a Linux
Linux
kernel, GNU
GNU
tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system (the most common being the X Window System), a window manager, and a desktop environment. Most of the included software is free and open-source software made available both as compiled binaries and in source code form, allowing modifications to the original software. Usually, Linux
Linux
distributions optionally include some proprietary software that may not be available in source code form, such as binary blobs required for some device drivers.[1] A Linux
Linux
distribution may also be described as a particular assortment of application and utility software (various GNU
GNU
tools and libraries, for example), packaged together with the Linux kernel
Linux kernel
in such a way that its capabilities meet the needs of many users.[2] The software is usually adapted to the distribution and then packaged into software packages by the distribution's maintainers. The software packages are available online in so-called repositories, which are storage locations usually distributed around the world.[3][4] Beside glue components, such as the distribution installers (for example, Debian-Installer
Debian-Installer
and Anaconda) or the package management systems, there are only very few packages that are originally written from the ground up by the maintainers of a Linux
Linux
distribution. Almost six hundred Linux
Linux
distributions exist, with close to five hundred out of those in active development.[5] Because of the huge availability of software, distributions have taken a wide variety of forms, including those suitable for use on desktops, servers, laptops, netbooks, mobile phones and tablets,[6][7] as well as minimal environments typically for use in embedded systems.[8][9] There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora (Red Hat), openSUSE (SUSE) and Ubuntu (Canonical Ltd.), and entirely community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux. Most distributions come ready to use and pre-compiled for a specific instruction set, while some distributions (such as Gentoo) are distributed mostly in source code form and compiled locally during installation.[10]

Contents

1 History 2 Components

2.1 Package management

3 Types and trends 4 Installation-free distributions (live CD/USB) 5 Examples

5.1 Widely used distributions 5.2 Lightweight distributions 5.3 Niche distributions 5.4 Android and non- GNU
GNU
distributions

6 Interdistribution issues 7 Tools for choosing a distribution 8 Installation

8.1 Installation via an existing operating system

9 Proprietary software 10 OEM contracts 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit]

A timeline representing the development of various Linux distributions, including Android, as of 2016[11]

Linus Torvalds
Linus Torvalds
developed the Linux kernel
Linux kernel
and distributed its first version, 0.01, in 1991. Linux
Linux
was initially distributed as source code only, and later as a pair of downloadable floppy disk images – one bootable and containing the Linux kernel
Linux kernel
itself, and the other with a set of GNU
GNU
utilities and tools for setting up a file system. Since the installation procedure was complicated, especially in the face of growing amounts of available software, distributions sprang up to simplify this.[12] Early distributions included the following:

H. J. Lu's "Boot-root", the aforementioned disk image pair with the kernel and the absolute minimal tools to get started MCC Interim Linux, which was made available to the public for download in February 1992 Softlanding Linux System
Softlanding Linux System
(SLS), released in 1992, was the most comprehensive distribution for a short time, including the X Window System Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X, a commercial distribution first released in December 1992

The two oldest and still active distribution projects started in 1993. The SLS distribution was not well maintained, so in July 1993 a new distribution, called Slackware
Slackware
and based on SLS, was released by Patrick Volkerding.[13] Also dissatisfied with SLS, Ian Murdock
Ian Murdock
set to create a free distribution by founding Debian, which had its first release in December 1993.[14] Users were attracted to Linux
Linux
distributions as alternatives to the DOS and Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
operating systems on IBM PC compatible computers, Mac OS on the Apple Macintosh, and proprietary versions of Unix. Most early adopters were familiar with Unix
Unix
from work or school. They embraced Linux
Linux
distributions for their low (if any) cost, and availability of the source code for most or all of the software included. Originally, the distributions were simply a convenience, offering a free alternative to proprietary versions of Unix
Unix
but later they became the usual choice even for Unix
Unix
or Linux
Linux
experts.[citation needed] To date, Linux
Linux
has become more popular in server and embedded devices markets than in the desktop market. For example, Linux
Linux
is used on over 50% of web servers,[15] whereas its desktop market share is about 3.7%.[16] Components[edit]

A Linux
Linux
distribution is usually built around a package management system, which puts together the Linux
Linux
kernel, free and open-source software, and occasionally some proprietary software.

Many Linux
Linux
distributions provide an installation system akin to that provided with other modern operating systems. On the other hand, some distributions, including Gentoo Linux, provide only the binaries of a basic kernel, compilation tools, and an installer; the installer compiles all the requested software for the specific architecture of the user's computer, using these tools and the provided source code. Package management[edit] See also: Package management system and Linux
Linux
package formats Distributions are normally segmented into packages. Each package contains a specific application or service. Examples of packages are a library for handling the PNG image format, a collection of fonts or a web browser. The package is typically provided as compiled code, with installation and removal of packages handled by a package management system (PMS) rather than a simple file archiver. Each package intended for such a PMS contains meta-information such as a package description, version, and "dependencies". The package management system can evaluate this meta-information to allow package searches, to perform an automatic upgrade to a newer version, to check that all dependencies of a package are fulfilled, and/or to fulfill them automatically. Although Linux
Linux
distributions typically contain much more software than proprietary operating systems, it is normal for local administrators to also install software not included in the distribution. An example would be a newer version of a software application than that supplied with a distribution, or an alternative to that chosen by the distribution (for example, KDE Plasma Workspaces
KDE Plasma Workspaces
rather than GNOME
GNOME
or vice versa for the user interface layer). If the additional software is distributed in source-only form, this approach requires local compilation. However, if additional software is locally added, the "state" of the local system may fall out of synchronization with the state of the package manager's database. If so, the local administrator will be required to take additional measures to ensure the entire system is kept up to date. The package manager may no longer be able to do so automatically. Most distributions install packages, including the kernel and other core operating system components, in a predetermined configuration. Few now require or even permit configuration adjustments at first install time. This makes installation less daunting, particularly for new users, but is not always acceptable. For specific requirements, much software must be carefully configured to be useful, to work correctly with other software, or to be secure, and local administrators are often obliged to spend time reviewing and reconfiguring assorted software. Some distributions go to considerable lengths to specifically adjust and customize most or all of the software included in the distribution. Not all do so. Some distributions provide configuration tools to assist in this process. By replacing everything provided in a distribution, an administrator may reach a "distribution-less" state: everything was retrieved, compiled, configured, and installed locally. It is possible to build such a system from scratch, avoiding a distribution altogether. One needs a way to generate the first binaries until the system is self-hosting. This can be done via compilation on another system capable of building binaries for the intended target (possibly by cross-compilation). For example, see Linux
Linux
From Scratch. Types and trends[edit] Further information: Linux adoption
Linux adoption
and Comparison of Linux distributions In broad terms, Linux
Linux
distributions may be:

Commercial or non-commercial Designed for enterprise users, power users, or for home users Supported on multiple types of hardware, or platform-specific, even to the extent of certification by the platform vendor Designed for servers, desktops, or embedded devices General purpose or highly specialized toward specific machine functionalities (e.g. firewalls, network routers, and computer clusters) Targeted at specific user groups, for example through language internationalization and localization, or through inclusion of many music production or scientific computing packages Built primarily for security, usability, portability, or comprehensiveness

The diversity of Linux
Linux
distributions is due to technical, organizational, and philosophical variation among vendors and users. The permissive licensing of free software means that any user with sufficient knowledge and interest can customize an existing distribution or design one to suit his or her own needs. Installation-free distributions (live CD/USB)[edit] Main articles: Live CD
Live CD
and Live USB A "live" distribution is a Linux
Linux
distribution that can be booted from removable storage media such as optical discs or USB flash drives, instead of being installed on and booted from a hard disk drive. The portability of installation-free distributions makes them advantageous for applications such as demonstrations, borrowing someone else's computer, rescue operations, or as installation media for a standard distribution. When the operating system is booted from a read-only medium such as a CD or DVD, any user data that needs to be retained between sessions cannot be stored on the boot device but must be written to another storage device, such as a USB flash drive
USB flash drive
or a hard disk drive.[17] Many Linux
Linux
distributions provide a "live" form in addition to their conventional form, which is a network-based or removable-media image intended to be used only for installation; such distributions include SUSE, Ubuntu, Linux
Linux
Mint, MEPIS
MEPIS
and Fedora. Some distributions, including Knoppix, Puppy Linux, Devil-Linux, SuperGamer, SliTaz GNU/ Linux
Linux
and dyne:bolic, are designed primarily for live use. Additionally, some minimal distributions can be run directly from as little space as one floppy disk without the need to change the contents of the system's hard disk drive.[18] Examples[edit] The website DistroWatch
DistroWatch
lists many Linux
Linux
distributions, and displays some of the ones that have the most web traffic on the site. The Wikimedia Foundation
Wikimedia Foundation
released an analysis of the browser User Agents of visitors to WMF websites until 2015, which includes details of the most popular Operating System identifiers, including some Linux distributions.[19] Many of the popular distributions are listed below. Widely used distributions[edit]

Debian, a non-commercial distribution and one of the earliest, maintained by a volunteer developer community with a strong commitment to free software principles and democratic project management

Knoppix, the first Live CD
Live CD
distribution to run completely from removable media without installation to a hard disk, derived from Debian Linux Mint
Linux Mint
Debian
Debian
Edition (LMDE) uses Debian
Debian
packages directly (rather than Ubuntu's) Ubuntu, a desktop and server distribution derived from Debian, maintained by British company Canonical Ltd.

Kubuntu, the KDE
KDE
version of Ubuntu Linux
Linux
Mint, a distribution based on and compatible with Ubuntu. Supports multiple desktop environments, among others GNOME
GNOME
Shell fork Cinnamon and GNOME
GNOME
2 fork MATE. Trisquel, an Ubuntu-based distribution based on Linux-libre
Linux-libre
kernel composed entirely of free software Elementary OS, an Ubuntu-based distribution with strong focus on the visual experience without sacrificing performance.

Fedora, a community distribution sponsored by American company Red Hat and the successor to the company's previous offering, Red Hat
Red Hat
Linux. It aims to be a technology testbed for Red Hat's commercial Linux offering, where new open source software is prototyped, developed, and tested in a communal setting before maturing into Red Hat
Red Hat
Enterprise Linux.

Red Hat
Red Hat
Enterprise Linux
Linux
(RHEL), a derivative of Fedora, maintained and commercially supported by Red Hat. It seeks to provide tested, secure, and stable Linux
Linux
server and workstation support to businesses.

CentOS, a distribution derived from the same sources used by Red Hat, maintained by a dedicated volunteer community of developers with both 100% Red Hat-compatible versions and an upgraded version that is not always 100% upstream compatible. Oracle Linux, which is a derivative of Red Hat
Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, maintained and commercially supported by Oracle Scientific Linux, a distribution derived from the same sources used by Red Hat, maintained by Fermilab

Mandriva Linux
Mandriva Linux
was a Red Hat
Red Hat
derivative popular in several European countries and Brazil, backed by the French company of the same name. After the company went bankrupt, it was superseded by OpenMandriva Lx,[20][21] although a number of derivatives now have a larger user base.

Mageia, a community fork of Mandriva Linux
Mandriva Linux
created in 2010[21] PCLinuxOS, a derivative of Mandriva, which grew from a group of packages into a community-spawned desktop distribution ROSA Linux, another former derivative of Mandriva, now developed independently

openSUSE, a community distribution mainly sponsored by German company SUSE.

SUSE
SUSE
Linux
Linux
Enterprise, derived from openSUSE, maintained and commercially supported by SUSE

Arch Linux, a rolling release distribution targeted at experienced Linux
Linux
users and maintained by a volunteer community, offers official binary packages and a wide range of unofficial user-submitted source packages. Packages are usually defined by a single PKGBUILD
PKGBUILD
text file.

Manjaro Linux, a derivative of Arch Linux
Arch Linux
that includes a graphical installer and other ease-of-use features for less experienced Linux users. Rolling release packages from Arch repositories are held for further testing to achieve increased stability, and packages identified as addressing security issues of critical or high severity are "fast-tracked" to the stable branch.[22]

Gentoo, a distribution targeted at power users, known for its FreeBSD Ports-like automated system for compiling applications from source code

Chrome OS, Google's commercial operating system (using Gentoo and its Portage) that primarily runs web applications

Chromium OS, the fully open-source version of Chrome OS

Slackware, created in 1993, one of the first Linux
Linux
distributions and among the earliest still maintained, committed to remain highly Unix-like
Unix-like
and easily modifiable by end users[23][non-primary source needed]

Lightweight distributions[edit] Main article: Lightweight Linux
Linux
distribution

Niche distributions[edit] Other distributions target specific niches, such as:

Routers – for example, targeted by the tiny embedded router distribution OpenWrt Internet of things – for example, targeted by Ubuntu Core[24] Home theater PCs – for example, targeted by KnoppMyth, Kodi (former XBMC) and Mythbuntu Specific platforms – for example, Raspbian
Raspbian
targets the Raspberry Pi
Raspberry Pi
platform Education – examples are Edubuntu
Edubuntu
and Karoshi, server systems based on PCLinuxOS Scientific computer servers and workstations – for example, targeted by Scientific Linux Digital audio workstations for music production – for example, targeted by Ubuntu Studio Computer Security, digital forensics and penetration testing – examples are Kali Linux
Kali Linux
and Parrot Security OS Privacy and anonymity – for example, targeted by Tails Offline use – for example, Endless OS

Android and non- GNU
GNU
distributions[edit]

Terminal Emulator
Emulator
in Android

Whether Google's Android counts as a Linux
Linux
distribution is a matter of definition. It uses the Linux
Linux
kernel, so the Linux
Linux
Foundation[25] and Chris DiBona,[26] Google's open source chief, agree that Android is a Linux
Linux
distribution; others, such as Google engineer Patrick Brady, disagree by noting the lack of support for many GNU
GNU
tools in Android, including glibc.[27] Other non- GNU
GNU
distributions include Cyanogenmod, its fork LineageOS, Android-x86
Android-x86
and recently Tizen. Interdistribution issues[edit] The Free Standards Group is an organization formed by major software and hardware vendors that aims to improve interoperability between different distributions. Among their proposed standards are the Linux Standard Base, which defines a common ABI and packaging system for Linux, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard which recommends a standard filenaming chart, notably the basic directory names found on the root of the tree of any Linux
Linux
filesystem. Those standards, however, see limited use, even among the distributions developed by members of the organization.[citation needed] The diversity of Linux
Linux
distributions means that not all software runs on all distributions, depending on what libraries and other system attributes are required. Packaged software and software repositories are usually specific to a particular distribution, though cross-installation is sometimes possible on closely related distributions.[citation needed] Tools for choosing a distribution[edit] The process of constantly switching between distributions is often referred to as "distro hopping".[28] Virtual machines such as VirtualBox
VirtualBox
and VMware Workstation
VMware Workstation
virtualize hardware allowing users to test live media on a virtual machine. Some websites like DistroWatch
DistroWatch
offer lists of popular distributions, and link to screenshots of operating systems as a way to get a first impression of various distributions. There are tools available to help people select an appropriate distribution, such as several versions of the Linux
Linux
Distribution Chooser,[29] and the universal package search tool whohas.[30] There are easy ways to try out several Linux
Linux
distributions before deciding on one: Multi Distro is a Live CD
Live CD
that contains nine space-saving distributions.[31] Installation[edit] There are many ways to install a Linux
Linux
distribution. The most common method of installing Linux
Linux
is by booting from an optical disc that contains the installation program and installable software. Such a disk can be burned from a downloaded ISO image, purchased alone for a low price, provided as a cover disk with a magazine, shipped for free by request, or obtained as part of a box set that may also include manuals and additional commercial software. Early Linux
Linux
distributions were installed using sets of floppies but this has been abandoned by all major distributions. Nowadays most distributions offer CD and DVD sets with the vital packages on the first disc and less important packages on later ones. They usually also allow installation over a network after booting from either a set of floppies or a CD with only a small amount of data on it.[32] New users tend to begin by partitioning a hard drive in order to keep their previously installed operating system. The Linux
Linux
distribution can then be installed on its own separate partition without affecting previously saved data. In a Live CD
Live CD
setup, the computer boots the entire operating system from CD without first installing it on the computer's hard disk. Some distributions have a Live CD
Live CD
installer, where the computer boots the operating system from the disk, and then proceeds to install it onto the computer's hard disk, providing a seamless transition from the OS running from the CD to the OS running from the hard disk. Both servers and personal computers that come with Linux
Linux
already installed are available from vendors including Hewlett-Packard, Dell and System76. On embedded devices, Linux
Linux
is typically held in the device's firmware and may or may not be consumer-accessible. Anaconda, one of the more popular installers, is used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Fedora (which uses the Fedora Media Writer) and other distributions to simplify the installation process. Debian, Ubuntu and many others use Debian-Installer. Installation via an existing operating system[edit] Some distributions let the user install Linux
Linux
on top of their current system, such as WinLinux or coLinux. Linux
Linux
is installed to the Windows hard disk partition, and can be started from inside Windows itself Virtual machines (such as VirtualBox
VirtualBox
or VMware) also make it possible for Linux
Linux
to be run inside another OS. The VM software simulates a separate computer onto which the Linux
Linux
system is installed. After installation, the virtual machine can be booted as if it were an independent computer. Various tools are also available to perform full dual-boot installations from existing platforms without a CD, most notably:

The (now deprecated) Wubi installer, which allows Windows users to download and install Ubuntu or its derivatives into a FAT32 or an NTFS partition without an installation CD, allowing users to easily dual boot between either operating system on the same hard drive without losing data. Replaced by Ubiquity. Win32-loader, which is in the process of being integrated in official Debian
Debian
CDs/DVDs, and allows Windows users to install Debian
Debian
without a CD, though it performs a network installation and thereby requires repartitioning[33] UNetbootin, which allows Windows and Linux
Linux
users to perform similar no-CD network installations for a wide variety of Linux
Linux
distributions and additionally provides live USB creation support

Proprietary software[edit] See also: List of proprietary software for Linux Some specific proprietary software products are not available in any form for Linux. As of September 2015, the Steam gaming service has 1,500 games available on Linux, compared to 2,323 games for Mac and 6,500 Windows games.[34][35][36] Emulation and API-translation projects like Wine and CrossOver
CrossOver
make it possible to run non-Linux-based software on Linux
Linux
systems, either by emulating a proprietary operating system or by translating proprietary API calls (e.g., calls to Microsoft's Win32 or DirectX
DirectX
APIs) into native Linux API calls. A virtual machine can also be used to run a proprietary OS (like Microsoft Windows) on top of Linux. OEM contracts[edit] Computer hardware is usually sold with an operating system other than Linux
Linux
already installed by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). In the case of IBM PC compatibles the OS is usually Microsoft Windows; in the case of Apple Macintosh
Apple Macintosh
computers it has always been a version of Apple's OS, currently macOS; Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems
sold SPARC
SPARC
hardware with the Solaris installed; video game consoles such as the Xbox, PlayStation, and Wii
Wii
each have their own proprietary OS. This limits Linux's market share: consumers are unaware that an alternative exists, they must make a conscious effort to use a different operating system, and they must either perform the actual installation themselves, or depend on support from a friend, relative, or computer professional. However, it is possible to buy hardware with Linux
Linux
already installed. Lenovo, Hewlett-Packard, Dell, Affordy,[37] and System76
System76
all sell general-purpose Linux
Linux
laptops,[38] and custom-order PC manufacturers will also build Linux
Linux
systems (but possibly with the Windows key
Windows key
on the keyboard). Fixstars Solutions
Fixstars Solutions
(formerly Terra Soft) sells Macintosh computers and PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
consoles with Yellow Dog Linux installed. It is more common to find embedded devices sold with Linux
Linux
as the default manufacturer-supported OS, including the Linksys NSLU2
NSLU2
NAS device, TiVo's line of personal video recorders, and Linux-based cellphones (including Android smartphones), PDAs, and portable music players. The end user license agreement (EULA) for Apple gives the consumer the opportunity to reject the license and obtain a refund. The current Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
license lets the manufacturer determine the refund policy.[39] With previous versions of Windows, it was possible to obtain a refund if the manufacturer failed to provide the refund by litigation in the small claims courts.[40] On 15 February 1999, a group of Linux
Linux
users in Orange County, California
Orange County, California
held a "Windows Refund Day" protest in an attempt to pressure Microsoft into issuing them refunds.[41] In France, the Linuxfrench and AFUL (French speaking Libre Software Users' Association) organizations along with free software activist Roberto Di Cosmo
Roberto Di Cosmo
started a "Windows Detax" movement,[42] which led to a 2006 petition against "racketiciels" (translation: Racketware) with 39,415 signatories and the DGCCRF branch of the French government filing several complaints against bundled software. On March 24, 2014, a new international petition was launched by AFUL on the Avaaz platform,[43] translated into several languages and supported by many organizations around the world. See also[edit]

Linux
Linux
portal Open-source software
Open-source software
portal

Comparison of Linux
Linux
distributions Lightweight Linux
Linux
distribution List of Linux
Linux
distributions

References[edit]

^ "Explaining Why We Don't Endorse Other Systems". gnu.org. June 30, 2014. Retrieved January 5, 2015.  ^ " Linux
Linux
Operating Systems: Distributions". swift.siphos.be. November 27, 2014. Retrieved January 8, 2015.  ^ Chris Hoffman (June 27, 2012). "HTG Explains: How Software Installation & Package Managers Work On Linux". howtogeek.com. Retrieved January 15, 2015.  ^ "The status of CentOS
CentOS
mirrors". centos.org. January 15, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015.  ^ "The LWN.net
LWN.net
Linux
Linux
Distribution List". LWN.net. Retrieved September 11, 2015.  ^ Jim Martin. "How to install Ubuntu Touch on your Android phone or tablet". PC Advisor.  ^ David Hayward. "Install Linux
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on your x86 tablet: five distros to choose from". TechRadar.  ^ Brian Proffitt (February 3, 2010). "The Top 7 Best Linux Distributions for You". linux.com. Archived from the original on January 5, 2015. Retrieved January 11, 2015.  ^ Eric Brown (November 4, 2014). "Mobile Linux
Linux
Distros Keep on Morphing". linux.com. Retrieved January 11, 2015.  ^ " Debian
Debian
and Other Distros". debian.org. December 7, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2015.  ^ "GNU/ Linux
Linux
Distribution Timeline". Futurist.se. Retrieved March 25, 2014.  ^ Berlich, Ruediger (April 2001). "ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT... The early history of Linux, Part 2, Re: distribution" (PDF). LinuxUser. Retrieved May 4, 2013.  ^ "The Slackware
Slackware
Linux
Linux
Project: Slackware
Slackware
Release Announcement". Slackware.com. July 16, 1993. Retrieved July 29, 2011.  ^ "A Brief History of Debian
Debian
- Debian
Debian
Releases". debian.org. May 4, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2014.  ^ "Usage statistics and market share of Unix
Unix
for websites". w3techs.org. November 5, 2016. Retrieved November 5, 2016.  ^ "Browser & Platform Market Share January 2017". w3counter.com. January 31, 2017. Retrieved February 21, 2017.  ^ Jonathan Corbet (2011-06-15). "Debating overlayfs". LWN.net. Retrieved 2015-01-05.  ^ "PiTuX – a micro serial terminal distro". asashi.net. Retrieved 2015-01-06.  ^ https://stats.wikimedia.org/archive/squid_reports/2015-01-new/SquidReportOperatingSystems.htm ^ " Mandriva Linux
Mandriva Linux
will return to the community". mandriva.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2015.  ^ a b "The LWN.net
LWN.net
Linux
Linux
Distribution List". LWN.net. Retrieved 2015-01-15.  ^ "New Security Policy Report". manjaro.github.io. Manjaro Linux. Retrieved January 12, 2015.  ^ Slackware
Slackware
Linux
Linux
Basics, Chapter 2 ^ Dieguez Castro, Jose (2016). Introducing Linux
Linux
Distros. Apress. pp. 49, 345. ISBN 978-1-4842-1393-3.  ^ Ask AC: Is Android Linux?. "Ask AC: Is Android Linux?". Android Central. Retrieved March 14, 2013.  ^ derStandard.at. "Google: "Android is the Linux
Linux
desktop dream come true" - Suchmaschinen - derStandard.at " Web". Derstandard.at. Retrieved March 14, 2013.  ^ Paul, Ryan (February 24, 2009). "Dream(sheep++): A developer's introduction to Google Android". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 22, 2013.  ^ "How I stopped distro hopping". Linux
Linux
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Linux
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Linux
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External links[edit]

Find more about Linux
Linux
distributionat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

The LWN.net
LWN.net
Linux
Linux
Distribution List – a categorized list with information about each entry List of GNU/ Linux
Linux
distributions considered free by the Free Software Foundation Google's approach to a large-scale live upgrading between two widely different Linux
Linux
distributions: presentation and text version, LinuxCon 2013, by Marc Merlin Rolling release vs. fixed release Linux, ZDNet, February 3, 2015, by Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols

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Distributions

General comparison Distributions list Netbook-specific comparison Distributions that run from RAM Lightweight Security-focused operating system Proprietary software for Linux Package manager

Package format List of software package managers

Organizations

Linux
Linux
Foundation Linux
Linux
Mark Institute Linux
Linux
User Group (LUG) Linux
Linux
Documentation Project LinuxChix Linux
Linux
Counter

Adoption

Desktop Embedded Mobile Gaming Linux
Linux
range of use List of Linux
Linux
adopters

Media

DistroWatch Free Software Magazine Full Circle Linux.com Linux
Linux
Format Linux
Linux
Gazette Linux
Linux
Journal Linux
Linux
Magazine LinuxUser

Ubuntu User

Linux
Linux
Outlaws Linux
Linux
Voice LugRadio LWN.net OMG! Ubuntu! Open Source For You Phoronix Revolution OS The Code

Linux Linux kernel
Linux kernel
features Portal:Linux WikiProject Linux

v t e

Free and open-source software

General

Alternative terms for free software Comparison of open-source and closed-source software Comparison of source code hosting facilities Free software Free software
Free software
project directories Gratis versus libre Long-term support Open-source software Open-source software
Open-source software
development Outline

Software packages

Audio Bioinformatics Codecs Collaboration Configuration management Device drivers

Graphics Wireless

Geophysics Health Mathematics Operating systems Programming languages Routing Statistics Television Video games Web applications

Content management systems E-commerce

Word processors Android apps iOS apps Commercial Trademarked Formerly proprietary

Community

Free software
Free software
movement History Open-source software
Open-source software
movement Organizations Events

Licenses

AFL Apache APSL Artistic Beerware Boost BSD CC0 CDDL EPL Free Software Foundation

GNU
GNU
GPL GNU
GNU
LGPL

ISC MIT MPL Ms-PL/RL Python Python Software Foundation License Sleepycat Unlicense WTFPL zlib

License types and standards

Comparison of free and open-source software licenses Contributor License Agreement Copyleft Debian
Debian
Free Software Guidelines Definition of Free Cultural Works Free license The Free Software Definition The Open Source Definition Open-source license Permissive software licence Public domain Viral license

Challenges

Binary blob Digital rights management Hardware restrictions License proliferation Mozilla software rebranding Proprietary software SCO/ Linux
Linux
controversies Secure boot Software patents Software security Trusted Computing

Related topics

The Cathedral and the Bazaar Forking Microsoft Open Specification Promise Open-source hardware Revolution OS

Book Categor

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