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Proprietary Software
Proprietary software, also known as non-free software or closed-source software, is computer software for which the software's publisher or another person reserves some rights from licenses to use, modify, share modifications, or share the software. It is the opposite of open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized softwar ... or free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty .... Non-free software sometimes includes patent A patent is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an inven ...
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Open-source Software
Open-source software (OSS) is computer software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or instructions may refer to: Computing * Instruction, one operation of a processor within a computer architecture instruction set * Computer program, a collection of instructions Music * I ... that is released under a license A license (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ... in which the copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ... holder grants users the rights to use, study, change, and distribute the software and its source code In computing ...
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CC-BY
A Creative Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright license A public license or public copyright licenses is a license by which a copyright holder as licensor can grant additional copyright permissions to any and all persons in the general public as licensees. By applying a public license to a work, prov ...s that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...ed "work".A "work" is any creative material made by a person. A painting, a graphic, a book, a song/lyrics to a song, or a photograph of almost anything are all examples of "works". A CC license is used when an author wants to give other people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that the author has created. CC provides an author flexi ...
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Copyright Infringement
Copyright infringement (at times referred to as piracy) is the use of works Works may refer to: People * Caddy Works Pierce "Caddy" Works (January 2, 1896 – July 19, 1982) was an American basketball and baseball coach. He was the head basketball coach at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)—known as the Sou ... protected by copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ... without permission for a usage where such permission is required, thereby infringing certain exclusive right In Anglo-Saxon law, an exclusive right, or exclusivity, is a de facto, non-tangible prerogative existing in law (that is, the power (sociology), power or, in a wider sense, right) to perform an action or acquire a benefit and to permit or deny oth ...s granted to the copyrig ...
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Open Letter To Hobbyists
The Open Letter to Hobbyists is a 1976 open letter An open letter is a letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as represen ... written by Bill Gates William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term character ..., the co-founder of Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ..., to early personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it fea ...
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Bill Gates
William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characteristically refers to a wealthy entrepreneur or investor who controls, through personal ente ..., software developer, investor, author, landowner and philanthropist. He is a co-founder of Microsoft Corporation Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports, and sells Software, computer software, consumer electroni .... During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board Board or Boards may refer to: Flat surface * Lumber, or other rigid material, milled or sawn f ...
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IEEE Annals Of The History Of Computing
The ''IEEE Annals of the History of Computing'' is a quarterly Peer review, peer-reviewed academic journal published by the IEEE Computer Society. It covers the history of computing, history of computer science, computer science, and History of computing hardware, computer hardware. It was founded in 1979 by the AFIPS, in particular by Saul Rosen, who was an editor until his death in 1991. The journal publishes scholarly articles, interviews, "think pieces," and memoirs by computer pioneers, and news and events in the field. It was established in July 1979 as ''Annals of the History of Computing'', with Bernard Galler as editor-in-chief. The journal became an IEEE publication in 1992, and was retitled to ''IEEE Annals of the History of Computing''. The 2020 impact factor was 0.741. The current editor in chief is Gerardo Con Diaz with the University of California, Davis. See also * ''Technology and Culture'' * ''Information_%26_Culture, Information & Culture'' * Computer History M ...
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The System/360 Era, Unbundling Software And Services
''The'' () is a grammatical Article (grammar), article in English language, English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers, or speakers. It is the definite article in English. ''The'' is the Most common words in English, most commonly used word in the English language; studies and analyses of texts have found it to account for seven percent of all printed English-language words. It is derived from gendered articles in Old English which combined in Middle English and now has a single form used with pronouns of any gender. The word can be used with both singular and plural nouns, and with a noun that starts with any letter. This is different from many other languages, which have different forms of the definite article for different genders or numbers. Pronunciation In most dialects, "the" is pronounced as (with the voiced dental fricative followed by a schwa) when followed by a consonant soun ...
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Antitrust
Competition law is a law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ... that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition In economics, competition is a scenario where different Economic agent, economic firmsThis article follows the general economic convention of referring to all actors as firms; examples in include individuals and brands or divisions within the sam ... by regulating anti-competitive Anti-competitive practices are business or government practices that unlawfully prevent or reduce competition Competition arises whenever two or more parties strive for a common goal A goal is an idea of the future or desired result tha ... conduct by companies. Competition law is implemented through public and private enforcement. It is also known as ''anti-mon ...
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MIT Press
The MIT Press is a university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of pri ... affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a Private university, private Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1861, MIT has since played a key role in the development of modern ... (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts Cambridge ( ) is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Greater Boston, Boston metropolitan area as a major suburb of Boston. , it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, ... (United States). History The MIT Press traces its origins back to 1926 when MIT published under its own n ...
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Sales
Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. The delivery of a service for a cost is also considered a sale. The seller, or the provider of the goods or services, completes a sale in response to an acquisition Acquisition may refer to: * Takeover, the purchase of one company by another * Mergers and acquisitions, transactions in which the ownership of companies or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities * Procurement, fi ..., appropriation, requisition Requisition may refer to: * Purchase requisition, a document issued by a buyer to a seller indicating types, quantities, and agreed prices for products or services *Requisition in military logistics *Requisition of property by a government unde ..., or a direct interaction with the ''buyer'' at the point of sale The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed. At the ...
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Lease
A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the user (referred to as the ''lessee'') to pay the owner (the Lessor (leasing), ''lessor'') for use of an asset. Property, buildings and vehicles are common assets that are leased. Industrial or business equipment is also leased. Broadly put, a lease agreement is a contract between two Party (law), parties: the lessor and the lessee. The lessor is the Ownership, legal owner of the asset, while the lessee obtains the right to use the asset in return for regular rental payments. The lessee also agrees to abide by various conditions regarding their use of the property or equipment. For example, a person leasing a car may agree to the condition that the car will only be used for personal use. The term rental agreement can refer to two kinds of leases: * A lease in which the asset is tangible property. Here, the user ''Renting, rents'' the asset (e.g. land or goods) ''let out'' or ''rented out'' by the owner (the verb ''to lease'' i ...
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Mainframe Computer
A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These programs enable compu ... used primarily by large organizations for critical applications like bulk data processing Data processing is, generally, "the collection Collection or Collections may refer to: * Cash collection, the function of an accounts receivable department * Collection agency, agency to collect cash * Collections management (museum) ** Collec ... for tasks such as censuses A census is the procedure of systematically enumerating, and acquiring and recording information about the members of a given Statistical population, population. This term is used mostly in connection with Population and housing censuses by country ..., industry and consumer statistics ...
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