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Lhasa
Lhasa
is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.[2] The main urban area of Lhasa
Lhasa
is roughly equivalent[citation needed] to the administrative borders of Chengguan District,[citation needed] which is part of the wider Lhasa
Lhasa
prefecture-level city, an area formerly administered as a prefecture. Lhasa
Lhasa
is the second most populous city on the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
after Xining
Xining
and, at an altitude of 3,490 metres (11,450 ft), Lhasa
Lhasa
is one of the highest cities in the world. The city has been the religious and administrative capital of Tibet
Tibet
since the mid-17th century. It contains many culturally significant Tibetan Buddhist sites such as the Potala
Potala
Palace, Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple and Norbulingka Palaces.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Administration 3.2 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Demographics in the past 4.2 Contemporary demographics

5 Economy 6 Architecture
Architecture
and cityscape 7 Culture

7.1 Music and dance

8 Education

8.1 Tibet
Tibet
University

9 Transport

9.1 Rail 9.2 Air 9.3 Road 9.4 Maritime

10 See also 11 Footnotes 12 Sources 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

15.1 Maps and aerial photos

Etymology[edit] Lhasa
Lhasa
literally means "place of the gods" in the Tibetan language. Ancient Tibetan documents and inscriptions demonstrate that the place was called Rasa[citation needed], which either meant "goats' place"[citation needed], or, as a contraction of rawe sa, a "place surrounded by a wall,"[3] or 'enclosure', suggesting that the site was originally a hunting preserve within the royal residence on Marpori Hill.[4] Lhasa
Lhasa
is first recorded as the name, referring to the area's temple of Jowo, in a treaty drawn up between China
China
and Tibet
Tibet
in 822 C.E.[5] History[edit]

Songsten Gampo

By the mid 7th century, Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
became the leader of the Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
that had risen to power in the Brahmaputra River (locally known as the Yarlung Tsangpo River) Valley.[6] After conquering the kingdom of Zhangzhung
Zhangzhung
in the west, he moved the capital from the Chingwa Taktsé Castle
Taktsé Castle
in Chongye County
Chongye County
(pinyin: Qióngjié Xiàn), southwest of Yarlung, to Rasa (Lhasa) where in 637 he raised the first structures on the site of what is now the Potala Palace
Potala Palace
on Mount Marpori.[7] In CE 639 and 641, Songtsen Gampo, who by this time had conquered the whole Tibetan region, is said to have contracted two alliance marriages, firstly to a Princess Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
of Nepal,[8] and then, two years later, to Princess Wencheng
Princess Wencheng
of the Imperial Tang court. Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
is said to have converted him to Buddhism, which was also the faith attributed to his second wife Wencheng. In 641 he constructed the Jokhang
Jokhang
(or Rasa Trülnang Tsulagkhang) and Ramoche Temples in Lhasa
Lhasa
in order to house two Buddha statues, the Akshobhya Vajra (depicting the Buddha at the age of eight) and the Jowo Sakyamuni (depicting Buddha at the age of twelve), respectively brought to his court by the princesses.[9][10] Lhasa
Lhasa
suffered extensive damage under the reign of Langdarma
Langdarma
in the 9th century, when the sacred sites were destroyed and desecrated and the empire fragmented.[11] A Tibetan tradition mentions that after Songtsen Gampo's death in 649 C.E., Chinese troops captured Lhasa
Lhasa
and burnt the Red Palace.[12][13] Chinese and Tibetan scholars have noted that the event is mentioned neither in the Chinese annals nor in the Tibetan manuscripts of Dunhuang. Lǐ suggested that this tradition may derive from an interpolation.[14] Tsepon W. D. Shakabpa
Tsepon W. D. Shakabpa
believes that "those histories reporting the arrival of Chinese troops are not correct."[13] From the fall of the monarchy in the 9th century to the accession of the 5th Dalai Lama, the centre of political power in the Tibetan region was not situated in Lhasa. However, the importance of Lhasa
Lhasa
as a religious site became increasingly significant as the centuries progressed.[15] It was known as the centre of Tibet
Tibet
where Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
magically pinned down the earth demoness and built the foundation of the Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple over her heart.[16] Islam has been present since the 11th century in what is considered to have always been a monolithically Buddhist
Buddhist
culture.[17] Two Tibetan Muslim communities have lived in Lhasa
Lhasa
with distinct homes, food and clothing, language, education, trade and traditional herbal medicine. By the 15th century, the city of Lhasa
Lhasa
had risen to prominence following the founding of three large Gelugpa
Gelugpa
monasteries by Je Tsongkhapa and his disciples. The three monasteries are Ganden, Sera and Drepung
Drepung
which were built as part of the puritanical Buddhist revival in Tibet.[18] The scholarly achievements and political know-how of this Gelugpa
Gelugpa
Lineage eventually pushed Lhasa
Lhasa
once more to centre stage. The 5th Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso
Lobsang Gyatso
(1617–1682), unified Tibet
Tibet
and moved the centre of his administration to Lhasa
Lhasa
in 1642 with the help of Güshi Khan
Güshi Khan
of the Khoshut. With Güshi Khan
Güshi Khan
as a largely uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama
5th Dalai Lama
and his intimates established a civil administration which is referred to by historians as the Lhasa state. The core leadership of this government is also referred to as the Ganden
Ganden
Phodrang, and Lhasa
Lhasa
thereafter became both the religious and political capital.[19] In 1645, the reconstruction of the Potala Palace began on Red Hill.[20] In 1648, the Potrang Karpo (White Palace) of the Potala
Potala
was completed, and the Potala
Potala
was used as a winter palace by the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
from that time onwards.[21] The Potrang Marpo (Red Palace) was added between 1690 and 1694. The name Potala
Potala
is derived from Mount Potalaka, the mythical abode of the Dalai Lama's divine prototype, the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Avalokiteśvara.[22] The Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple was also greatly expanded around this time. Although some wooden carvings and lintels of the Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple date to the 7th century, the oldest of Lhasa's extant buildings, such as within the Potala
Potala
Palace, the Jokhang
Jokhang
and some of the monasteries and properties in the Old Quarter date to this second flowering in Lhasa's history. By the end of the 17th century, Lhasa's Barkhor
Barkhor
area formed a bustling market for foreign goods. The Jesuit missionary, Ippolito Desideri reported in 1716 that the city had a cosmopolitan community of Mongol, Chinese, Muscovite, Armenian, Kashmiri, Nepalese and Northern Indian traders. Tibet
Tibet
was exporting musk, gold, medicinal plants, furs and yak tails to far-flung markets, in exchange for sugar, tea, saffron, Persian turquoise, European amber and Mediterranean coral.[23] The Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
army entered Lhasa
Lhasa
in 1720, and the Qing government sent resident commissioners, called the Ambans, to Lhasa. In November 11 of 1750, the murder of the regent by the Ambans triggered a riot in the city that left more than a hundred people killed, including the Ambans. After suppressing the rebels, Qing Qianlong Emperor reorganized the Tibetan government and set up the governing council called Kashag
Kashag
in Lhasa
Lhasa
in 1751.

Lhasa's (western gate)- the Tibetans called this chorten, Pargo Kaling pictured here at the time of the 1904 British expedition to Tibet
Tibet
was destroyed by the Communist Chinese
Communist Chinese
People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
after the March 10th, 1959 Tibetan uprising
1959 Tibetan uprising
and flight of the 14th Dalai Lama.

In 1904 a British expedition force led by Francis Younghusband
Francis Younghusband
entered Lhasa
Lhasa
and forced remaining low-level Tibetan officials to sign the Treaty of Lhasa after the fleeing of Dalai Lama. The treaty was subsequently repudiated and was succeeded by a 1906 Anglo-Chinese treaty. All Qing troops left Lhasa
Lhasa
after the Xinhai Lhasa turmoil
Xinhai Lhasa turmoil
in 1912. By the 20th century, Lhasa, long a beacon for both Tibetan and foreign Buddhists, had numerous ethnically and religiously distinct communities, among them Kashmiri Muslims, Ladakhi merchants, Sikh converts to Islam, and Chinese traders and officials. The Kashmiri Muslims (Khache) trace their arrival in Lhasa
Lhasa
to the Muslim saint of Patna, Khair ud-Din, contemporary with the 5th Dalai Lama.[24] Chinese Muslims lived in a quarter to the south, and Newar merchants from Kathmandu
Kathmandu
to the north of the Barkhor
Barkhor
market. Residents of the Lubu neighbourhood were descended from Chinese vegetable farmers who stayed over after accompanying an Amban
Amban
from Sichuan
Sichuan
in the mid-nineteenth century; some later intermarried with Tibetan women and spoke Tibetan as their first language.[25] The city's merchants catered to all kinds of tastes, importing even Australian butter and British whisky. In the 1940s, according to Heinrich Harrer:-

'There is nothing one cannot buy, or at least order. One even finds the Elizabeth Arden
Elizabeth Arden
specialties, and there is a keen demand for them. . .You can order, too, sewing machines, radio sets and gramophones and hunt up Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
records.'[26]

After the establishment of Communist Chinese
Communist Chinese
People's Republic of China, "(...) the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
(PLA) invaded the country in 1950. In March 1959, an uprising centered on the capital, Lhasa, prompted a massive crackdown, during which the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (b. 1935), fled into exile."[27] Such markets and consumerism came to an abrupt end after the arrival of Chinese government troops and administrative cadres in 1950.[28] Food rations and poorly stocked government stores replaced the old markets, until the 1990s when commerce in international wares once more returned to Lhasa,[29] and arcades and malls with a cornucopia of goods sprang up.[30] Of the 22 parks (lingkas) which surrounded the city of Lhasa, most of them over half a mile in length, where the people of Lhasa
Lhasa
were accustomed to picnic, only three survive today: the Norbulingka, Dalai Lama's Summer Palace, constructed by the 7th Dalai Lama;[18] a small part of the Shugtri Lingka, and the Lukhang. Dormitory blocks, offices and army barracks are built over the rest.[31]

1938 Lhasa
Lhasa
with the Potala
Potala
as seen from the roof of Men-Tsee-Khang or Tibetan Medical College founded by the 13th Dalai Lama

The Guāndì miào (關帝廟) or Gesar Lhakhang temple was erected by the Amban
Amban
in 1792 atop Mount Bamare 3 kilometres (2 miles) south of the Potala
Potala
to celebrate the defeat of an invading Gurkha
Gurkha
army.[32] The main gate to the city of Lhasa
Lhasa
used to run through the large Pargo Kaling chorten and contained holy relics of the Buddha Mindukpa.[33] Between 1987–1989 Lhasa
Lhasa
experienced major demonstrations, led by monks and nuns, against the Chinese Government. After Deng Xiaoping's southern tour in 1992, Lhasa
Lhasa
was mandated by the government to undergo economic liberalization. All government employees, their families and students were forbidden from practicing their religion, while monks and nuns were not allowed to enter government offices and the Tibet University
University
campus. Subsequent to the introduction of the economic development policies, the influx of migrants has dramatically altered the city's ethnic mix in Lhasa.[34] In 2000 the urbanised area covered 53 square kilometres (20 sq mi), with a population of around 170,000. Official statistics of the metropolitan area report that 70 percent are Tibetan, 34.3 are Han, and the remaining 2.7 Hui, though outside observers suspect that non-Tibetans account for some 50–70 percent. Among the Han immigrants, Lhasa
Lhasa
is known as ‘Little Sichuan'.[34] Geography[edit]

Lhasa
Lhasa
sits in a flat river valley

Lhasa
Lhasa
from the Pabonka Monastery. The Potala Palace
Potala Palace
rises above the old city.

Lhasa
Lhasa
has an elevation of about 3,600 m (11,800 ft)[35] and lies in the centre of the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
with the surrounding mountains rising to 5,500 m (18,000 ft). The air only contains 68 percent of the oxygen compared to sea level.[36] The Lhasa
Lhasa
River, also Kyi River or Kyi Chu, a tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River (Brahmaputra River), runs through the southern part of the city. This river, known to local Tibetans as the "merry blue waves", flows through the snow-covered peaks and gullies of the Nyainqêntanglha
Nyainqêntanglha
mountains, extending 315 km (196 mi), and emptying into the Yarlung Zangbo River
Yarlung Zangbo River
at Qüxü, forms an area of great scenic beauty. The marshlands, mostly uninhabited, are to the north.[37] Ingress and egress roads run east and west, while to the north, the road infrastructure is less developed.[37] Administration[edit]

The built-up area (pink) within the Chengguan District (yellow)

Chengguan District is located on the middle reaches of the Lhasa River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra River, with land that rises to the north and south of the river. It is 28 kilometres (17 mi) from east to west and 31 kilometres (19 mi) from north to south. Chengguan District is bordered by Doilungdêqên District
Doilungdêqên District
to the west, Dagzê County
Dagzê County
to the east and Lhünzhub County
Lhünzhub County
to the north. Gonggar County of Lhoka (Shannan) Prefecture lies to the south.[38] Chengguan District has an elevation of 3,650 metres (11,980 ft) and covers 525 square kilometres (203 sq mi). The urban built-up area covers 60 square kilometres (23 sq mi). The average annual temperature of 8 °C (46 °F). Annual precipitation is about 500 millimetres (20 in), mostly falling between July and September.[38] The term "Chengguan District" is the administrative term for the inner urban area or the urban centre within a prefecture, in this case the Prefectural-city of Lhasa. Chengguan District is at the same administrative level as a county.[39] Chengguan District of Lhasa
Lhasa
was established on 23 April 1961. It currently has nine urban subdistricts and four rural townships.[40]

Name Tibetan Chinese Pinyin Population (2010)[41]

Barkor Subdistrict (Barkhor) བར་སྒོར་ 八廓街道 Bākuò Jiēdào 12,744

Gyirai Subdistrict སྐྱིད་རས་ 吉日街道 Jírì Jiēdào 21,022

Jebumgang Subdistrict རྗེ་འབུམ་སྒང་ 吉崩岗街道 Jíbēnggǎng Jiēdào 29,984

Zhaxi Subdistrict གྲ་བཞི་ 扎细街道 Zāxì Jiēdào 30,820

Gündêling Subdistrict ཀུན་བདེ་གླིང་ 公德林街道 Gōngdélín Jiēdào 55,404

Chomsigkang Subdistrict ཁྲོམ་སྲིད་ཁང་ 冲赛康街道 Chōngsàikāng Jiēdào 79,363

Karmakunsang Subdistrict ཀརྨ་མ་ཀུན་བཟང་ 嘎玛贡桑街道 Gámǎgòngsāng Jiēdào 19,472

Liangdao Subdistrict ལེང་ཏའོ་ 两岛街道 Liǎngdǎo Jiēdào 14,055

Jinzhu West Road Subdistrict བཅིངས་འགྲོལ་ནུབ་ལམ་ 金珠西路街道 Jīnzhū Xīlù Jiēdào established in 2013

Caigungtang Township ཚལ་གུང་ཐང་ 蔡公堂乡 Càigōngtáng Xiāng 8,800

Naqen Township སྣ་ཆེན་ 纳金乡 Nàjīn Xiāng 29,575

Nyangbran Township (Nyang bran) ཉང་བྲན་ 娘热乡 Niángrè Xiāng 26,354

Togde Township དོག་སྡེ་ 夺底乡 Duóde Xiāng 15,186

Climate[edit]

Left:Chengguan District, Lhasa. Right: Lhasa
Lhasa
Valley

Due to its very high elevation, Lhasa
Lhasa
has a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen: Dwb) that very closely borders a cool semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSk) and a subtropical highland climate (Köppen: Cwb), with very dry, frosty winters and wet, warm summers, yet the valley location protects the city from intense cold or heat and strong winds. Monthly possible sunshine ranges from 53 percent in July to 84 percent in November, and the city receives nearly 3,000 hours of sunlight annually. It is thus sometimes called the "sunlit city" by Tibetans. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of −0.3 °C (31.5 °F) and the warmest month is June with a daily average of 16.5 °C (61.7 °F), though nights have generally been warmer in July.[42] The annual mean temperature is 8.79 °C (47.8 °F), with extreme temperatures ranging from −16.5 to 30.4 °C (2 to 87 °F).[43] Lhasa
Lhasa
has an annual precipitation of 456 millimetres (18.0 in) with rain falling mainly in July, August and September. The driest month is December at 0.3 millimetres (0.01 in) and the wettest month is August, at 133.5 millimetres (5.26 in). The rainy season is widely regarded the "best" of the year as rains come mostly at night and Lhasa
Lhasa
is still sunny during the daytime.

Climate data for Lhasa
Lhasa
(normals 1986−2015, extremes 1951−2016)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 20.5 (68.9) 21.3 (70.3) 25.0 (77) 25.9 (78.6) 29.4 (84.9) 29.9 (85.8) 30.4 (86.7) 27.2 (81) 26.5 (79.7) 24.8 (76.6) 22.8 (73) 20.1 (68.2) 30.4 (86.7)

Average high °C (°F) 8.4 (47.1) 10.1 (50.2) 13.3 (55.9) 16.3 (61.3) 20.5 (68.9) 24.0 (75.2) 23.3 (73.9) 22.0 (71.6) 20.7 (69.3) 17.5 (63.5) 12.9 (55.2) 9.3 (48.7) 16.5 (61.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.3 (31.5) 2.3 (36.1) 5.9 (42.6) 9.0 (48.2) 13.1 (55.6) 16.7 (62.1) 16.5 (61.7) 15.4 (59.7) 13.8 (56.8) 9.4 (48.9) 3.8 (38.8) −0.1 (31.8) 8.8 (47.8)

Average low °C (°F) −7.4 (18.7) −4.7 (23.5) −0.8 (30.6) 2.7 (36.9) 6.8 (44.2) 10.9 (51.6) 11.4 (52.5) 10.7 (51.3) 8.9 (48) 3.1 (37.6) −3 (27) −6.8 (19.8) 2.7 (36.9)

Record low °C (°F) −16.5 (2.3) −15.4 (4.3) −13.6 (7.5) −8.1 (17.4) −2.7 (27.1) 2.0 (35.6) 4.5 (40.1) 3.3 (37.9) 0.3 (32.5) −7.2 (19) −11.2 (11.8) −16.1 (3) −16.5 (2.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.9 (0.035) 1.8 (0.071) 2.9 (0.114) 8.6 (0.339) 28.4 (1.118) 75.9 (2.988) 129.6 (5.102) 133.5 (5.256) 66.7 (2.626) 7.4 (0.291) 0.9 (0.035) 0.3 (0.012) 456.9 (17.987)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.6 1.2 2.1 5.4 9.0 14.0 19.4 19.9 14.6 4.1 0.6 0.4 91.3

Average relative humidity (%) 26 25 27 36 41 48 59 63 59 45 34 29 41

Mean monthly sunshine hours 250.9 231.2 253.2 248.8 280.4 260.7 227.0 214.3 232.7 280.3 267.1 257.2 3,003.8

Percent possible sunshine 78 72 66 65 66 61 53 54 62 80 84 82 67

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration,[42] all-time extreme temperature[43]

Demographics[edit]

An elderly Tibetan woman holding a prayer wheel on the street in Chengguan District, Lhasa

Mendicant
Mendicant
monk in Chengguan District, Lhasa

Woman with son busking in Chengguan District, Lhasa, 1993

Demographics in the past[edit] The 11th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica published between 1910–1911 noted the total population of Lhasa, including the lamas in the city and vicinity was about 30,000;[44] a census in 1854 made the figure 42,000, but it is known to have greatly decreased since. Britannica noted that within Lhasa, there were about a total of 1,500 resident Tibetan laymen and about 5,500 Tibetan women.[44] The permanent population also included Chinese families (about 2,000).[44] The city's residents included traders from Nepal
Nepal
and Ladak (about 800), and a few from Bhutan, Mongolia and other places.[44] The Britannica noted with interest that the Chinese had a crowded burial-ground at Lhasa, tended carefully after their manner and that the Nepalese supplied mechanics and metal-workers at that time.[44] In the first half of the 20th century, several Western explorers made celebrated journeys to the city, including William Montgomery McGovern, Francis Younghusband, Alexandra David-Néel
Alexandra David-Néel
and Heinrich Harrer. Lhasa
Lhasa
was the centre of Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
as nearly half of its population were monks,[45] Though this figure may include monks from surrounding monasteries who travelled to Lhasa
Lhasa
for various celebrations and were not ordinarily resident there. The majority of the pre-1950 Chinese population of Lhasa
Lhasa
were merchants and officials. In the Lubu section of Lhasa, the inhabitants were descendants of Chinese vegetable farmers, some of whom married Tibetan wives. They came to Lhasa
Lhasa
in the 1840s–1860s after a Chinese official was appointed to the position of Amban.[46] According to one writer, the population of the city was about 10,000, with some 10,000 monks at Drepung
Drepung
and Sera monasteries in 1959[47] Hugh Richardson, on the other hand, puts the population of Lhasa
Lhasa
in 1952, at "some 25,000–30,000—about 45,000–50,000 if the population of the great monasteries on its outskirts be included."[48] Contemporary demographics[edit] The total population of Lhasa
Lhasa
Prefecture-level City is 521,500 (including known migrant population but excluding military garrisons). Of this, 257,400 are in the urban area (including a migrant population of 100,700), while 264,100 are outside.[49] Nearly half of Lhasa Prefecture-level City's population lives in Chengguan District, which is the administrative division that contains the urban area of Lhasa (i.e. the actual city). The urban area is populated by ethnic Tibetans, Han, Hui and other ethnic groups.[38] The 2000 official census gave a total population of 223,001, of which 171,719 lived in the areas administered by city street offices and city neighborhood committees. 133,603 had urban registrations and 86,395 had rural registrations, based on their place of origin.[50] The census was taken in November, when many of the ethnic Han workers in seasonal industries such as construction would have been away from Tibet, and does not count the military.[50] A 2011 book estimated that up to two-thirds of the city's residents are non-Tibetan, although the government states that Chengguan District as a whole is still 63% ethnic Tibetan.[51] As of 2014[update] half of Tibet's Han population resided in Chengguan District of Lhasa, where bi-lingual or purely Chinese teaching was common in the schools.[52] Economy[edit]

Left:Barkhor. Right: Jokhang
Jokhang
Market

Competitive industry together with feature economy play key roles in the development of Lhasa. With the view to maintaining a balance between population growth and the environment, tourism and service industries are emphasised as growth engines for the future. Many of Lhasa's rural residents practice traditional agriculture and animal husbandry. Lhasa
Lhasa
is also the traditional hub of the Tibetan trading network. For many years, chemical and car making plants operated in the area and this resulted in significant pollution, a factor which has changed in recent years. Copper, lead and zinc are mined nearby and there is ongoing experimentation regarding new methods of mineral mining and geothermal heat extraction. Agriculture and animal husbandry in Lhasa
Lhasa
are considered to be of a high standard. People mainly plant highland barley and winter wheat. The resources of water conservancy, geothermal heating, solar energy and various mines are abundant. There is widespread electricity together with the use of both machinery and traditional methods in the production of such things as textiles, leathers, plastics, matches and embroidery. The production of national handicrafts has made great progress.

A market in Lhasa

Barkhor

With the growth of tourism and service sectors, the sunset industries which cause serious pollution are expected to fade in the hope of building a healthy ecological system. Environmental problems such as soil erosion, acidification, and loss of vegetation are being addressed. The tourism industry now brings significant business to the region, building on the attractiveness of the Potala
Potala
Palace, the Jokang, the Norbulingka
Norbulingka
Summer Palace and surrounding large monasteries as well the spectacular Himalayan landscape together with the many wild plants and animals native to the high altitudes of Central Asia. Tourism to Tibet
Tibet
dropped sharply following the crackdown on protests in 2008, but as early as 2009, the industry was recovering.[53] Chinese authorities plan an ambitious growth of tourism in the region aiming at 10 million visitors by 2020; these visitors are expected to be domestic. With renovation around historic sites, such as the Potala
Potala
Palace, UNESCO
UNESCO
has expressed "concerns about the deterioration of Lhasa's traditional cityscape."[54]

Banak Shöl Hotel

Lhasa
Lhasa
contains several hotels. Lhasa Hotel
Lhasa Hotel
is a 4-star hotel located northeast of Norbulingka
Norbulingka
in the western suburbs of the city. Completed in September 1985, it is the flagship of CITS's installations in Tibet. It accommodates about 1000 guests and visitors to Lhasa. There are over 450 rooms (suites) in the hotel, and all are equipped with air conditioning, mini-bar and other basic facilities. Some of the rooms are decorated in traditional Tibetan style. The hotel was operated by Holiday Inn from 1986 to 1997[55] and is the subject of a book, The Hotel on the Roof of the World. Another hotel of note is the historical Banak Shöl Hotel, located at 8 Beijing
Beijing
Road in the city.[56] It is known for its distinctive wooden verandas. The Nam-tso Restaurant is located in the vicinity of the hotel and is frequented especially by Chinese tourists visiting Lhasa. Lhasa
Lhasa
contains several businesses of note. Lhasa
Lhasa
Carpet Factory, a factory south of Yanhe Dong Lu near the Tibet
Tibet
University, produces traditional Tibetan rugs that are exported worldwide. It is a modern factory, the largest manufacturer of rugs throughout Tibet, employing some 300 workers. Traditionally Tibetan women were the weavers, and men the spinners, but both work on the rugs today. The Lhasa Brewery Company
Lhasa Brewery Company
was established in 1988 on the northern outskirts of Lhasa, south of Sera Monastery
Sera Monastery
and is the highest commercial brewery in the world at 11,975 feet (3,650 m) and accounts for 85 percent of contemporary beer production in Tibet.[57] The brewery, consisting of five-story buildings, cost an estimated US$20–25 million, and by 1994, production had reached 30,000 bottles per day, employing some 200 workers by this time.[58] Since 2000, the Carlsberg group has increased its stronghold in the Chinese market and has become increasingly influential in the country with investment and expertise. Carlsberg invested in the Lhasa
Lhasa
Brewery in recent years and has drastically improved the brewing facility and working conditions, renovating and expanding the building to what now covers 62,240 square metres (15.3 acres).[59][60] Architecture
Architecture
and cityscape[edit] Main article: Architecture
Architecture
of Lhasa

The Potala
Potala
Palace

Lhasa
Lhasa
has many sites of historic interest, including the Potala Palace, Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple, Sera Monastery
Sera Monastery
and Norbulingka. The Potala Palace, Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple and the Norbulingka
Norbulingka
are UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage sites.[61] However, many important sites were damaged or destroyed mostly, but not solely, during China's Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
of the 1960s.[62][63][64] Many have been restored since the 1980s. The Potala
Potala
Palace, named after Mount Potala, the abode of Chenresig
Chenresig
or Avalokitesvara,[65] was the chief residence of the Dalai Lama. After the 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
fled to India
India
during the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the government converted the palace into a museum. The site was used as a meditation retreat by King Songtsen Gampo, who in 637 built the first palace there in order to greet his bride Princess Wen Cheng
Princess Wen Cheng
of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
of China. Lozang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, started the construction of the Potala Palace
Potala Palace
in 1645[20] after one of his spiritual advisers, Konchog Chophel (d. 1646), pointed out that the site was ideal as a seat of government, situated as it is between Drepung
Drepung
and Sera monasteries and the old city of Lhasa.[21] The palace underwent restoration works between 1989 and 1994, costing RMB55 million (US$6.875 million) and was inscribed to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List
World Heritage List
in 1994.

Inner and outer Zhol Village
Zhol Village
as seen from the Potala Palace
Potala Palace
in 1938.

The Lhasa
Lhasa
Zhol Pillar, below the Potala, dates as far back as circa 764 CE.[66] and is inscribed with what may be the oldest known example of Tibetan writing.[67] The pillar contains dedications to a famous Tibetan general and gives an account of his services to the king including campaigns against China
China
which culminated in the brief capture of the Chinese capital Chang'an
Chang'an
(modern Xian) in 763 CE[68] during which the Tibetans temporarily installed as Emperor a relative of Princess Jincheng Gongzhu (Kim-sheng Kong co), the Chinese wife of Trisong Detsen's father, Me Agtsom.[69][70]

Norbulingka

Chokpori, meaning 'Iron Mountain', is a sacred hill, located south of the Potala. It is considered to be one of the four holy mountains of central Tibet
Tibet
and along with two other hills in Lhasa
Lhasa
represent the "Three Protectors of Tibet.", Chokpori
Chokpori
(Vajrapani), Pongwari (Manjushri), and Marpori ( Chenresig
Chenresig
or Avalokiteshvara).[71] It was the site of the most famous medical school Tibet, known as the Mentsikhang, which was founded in 1413. It was conceived of by Lobsang Gyatso, the "Great" 5th Dalai Lama, and completed by the Regent Sangye Gyatso (Sangs-rgyas rgya-mtsho)[72] shortly before 1697. Lingkhor
Lingkhor
is a sacred path, most commonly used to name the outer pilgrim road in Lhasa
Lhasa
matching its inner twin, Barkhor. The Lingkhor in Lhasa
Lhasa
was 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) long enclosing Old Lhasa, the Potala
Potala
and Chokpori
Chokpori
hill. In former times it was crowded with men and women covering its length in prostrations, beggars and pilgrims approaching the city for the first time. The road passed through willow-shaded parks where the Tibetans used to picnic in summer and watch open air operas on festival days. New Lhasa
Lhasa
has obliterated most of Lingkhor, but one stretch still remains west of Chokpori.

Jokhang
Jokhang
Square

Old Barkhor
Barkhor
street, 1993.

The Norbulingka
Norbulingka
palace and surrounding park is situated in the west side of Lhasa, a short distance to the southwest of Potala Palace
Potala Palace
and with an area of around 36 hectares (89 acres), it is considered to be the largest man made garden in Tibet.[73][74] It was built from 1755.[75] and served as the traditional summer residence of the successive Dalai Lamas until the 14th's self-imposed exile. Norbulingka
Norbulingka
was declared a ‘National Important Cultural Relic Unit”, in 1988 by the State council. In 2001, the Central Committee of the Chinese Government in its 4th Tibet
Tibet
Session resolved to restore the complex to its original glory. The Sho Dun Festival
Sho Dun Festival
(popularly known as the "yogurt festival") is an annual festival held at Norbulingka
Norbulingka
during the seventh Tibetan month in the first seven days of the Full Moon
Full Moon
period, which corresponds to dates in July/August according to the Gregorian calendar. The Barkhor
Barkhor
is an area of narrow streets and a public square in the old part of the city located around Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple and was the most popular devotional circumambulation for pilgrims and locals. The walk was about one kilometre (0.6 miles) long and encircled the entire Jokhang, the former seat of the State Oracle in Lhasa
Lhasa
called the Muru Nyingba Monastery, and a number of nobles' houses including Tromzikhang
Tromzikhang
and Jamkhang. There were four large incense burners (sangkangs) in the four cardinal directions, with incense burning constantly, to please the gods protecting the Jokhang.[76] Most of the old streets and buildings have been demolished in recent times and replaced with wider streets and new buildings. Some buildings in the Barkhor
Barkhor
were damaged in the 2008 unrest.[77]

Ramoche Temple

The Jokhang
Jokhang
is located on Barkhor
Barkhor
Square in the old town section of Lhasa. For most Tibetans it is the most sacred and important temple in Tibet. It is in some regards pan-sectarian, but is presently controlled by the Gelug
Gelug
school. Along with the Potala
Potala
Palace, it is probably the most popular tourist attraction in Lhasa. It is part of the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
"Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace," and a spiritual centre of Lhasa. This temple has remained a key center of Buddhist
Buddhist
pilgrimage for centuries. The circumambulation route is known as the "kora" in Tibetan and is marked by four large stone incense burners placed at the corners of the temple complex. The Jokhang
Jokhang
temple is a four-story construction, with roofs covered with gilded bronze tiles. The architectural style is based on the Indian vihara design, and was later extended resulting in a blend of Nepalese and Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
styles. It possesses the statues of Chenresig, Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
and King Songtsan Gampo and his two foreign brides, Princess Wen Cheng
Princess Wen Cheng
(niece of Emperor Taizong of Tang) and Princess Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
of Nepal
Nepal
and other important items. Ramoche Temple
Ramoche Temple
is considered the most important temple in Lhasa
Lhasa
after the Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple. Situated in the northwest of the city, it is east of the Potala
Potala
and north of the Jokhang,[78] covering a total area of 4,000 square meters (almost one acre). The temple was gutted and partially destroyed in the 1960s and its famous bronze statue disappeared. In 1983 the lower part of it was said to have been found in a Lhasa
Lhasa
rubbish tip, and the upper half in Beijing. They have now been joined and the statue is housed in the Ramoche Temple, which was partially restored in 1986,[78] and still showed severe damage in 1993. Following the major restoration of 1986, the main building in the temple now has three stories.

Tibet
Tibet
Museum

Tibet
Tibet
Peaceful Liberation Monument, Potala
Potala
Square

The Tibet
Tibet
Museum in Lhasa
Lhasa
is the official museum of the Tibet Autonomous Region and was inaugurated on October 5, 1999. It is the first large, modern museum in the Tibet Autonomous Region
Tibet Autonomous Region
and has a permanent collection of around 1000 artefacts, from examples of Tibetan art to architectural design throughout history such as Tibetan doors and construction beams.[79][80] It is located in an L-shaped building west of the Potala Palace
Potala Palace
on the corner of Norbulingkha Road. The museum is organized into three main sections: a main exhibition hall, a folk cultural garden and administrative offices.[79] The Monument to the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet
Tibet
was unveiled in the Potala
Potala
Square in May 2002 to celebrate the 51st anniversary of the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, and the work in the development of the autonomous region since then. The 37-metre-high concrete monument is shaped as an abstract Mount Everest and its name is engraved with the calligraphy of former president Jiang Zemin, while an inscription describes the socioeconomic development experienced in Tibet
Tibet
in the past fifty years.[81]

Bar in Lhasa
Lhasa
with image of Potala
Potala
on wall. 1993.

Culture[edit] Music and dance[edit] There are some night spots that feature cabaret acts in which performers sing in Chinese, Tibetan, and English. Dancers wear traditional Tibetan costume with long flowing cloth extending from their arms. There are a number of small bars that feature live music, although they typically have limited drink menus and cater mostly to foreign tourists.

Tibet
Tibet
University
University
Auditorium (2007)

Education[edit] Tibet
Tibet
University[edit] Tibet
Tibet
University
University
(Tibetan: བོད་ལྗོངས་སློབ་གྲྭ་ཆེན་མོ་) is the main university of the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region. Its campus is in Chengguan District, Lhasa, east of the city-centre. A forerunner was created in 1952 and the university was officially established in 1985, funded by the Chinese government. About 8000 students are enrolled at the university. Transport[edit]

Lhasa
Lhasa
railway station

Lhasa
Lhasa
Gonggar Airport

Rail[edit] Lhasa
Lhasa
has been served by rail since 2006, when the Qinghai–Tibet Railway opened for passenger operations. Reaching an elevation of 5,072 metres above sea level, the Qinghai- Tibet
Tibet
railway is the world's highest railway by elevation. It connects Lhasa
Lhasa
with Xining, the capital of Qinghai Province, some 2,000 km (1,200 mi) away, and ultimately links Lhasa
Lhasa
with other major cities with China's extensive railway network.[82] Five trains arrive at and depart from Lhasa railway station
Lhasa railway station
each day. Train number Z21 takes 40 hours and 53 minutes from Beijing
Beijing
West, arriving in Lhasa
Lhasa
at 13:03 every day. Train Z22 from Lhasa
Lhasa
to Beijing
Beijing
West departs at 15:30 and arrives in Beijing at 08:20 on the third day, taking 40 hours, 50 minutes. Trains also arrive in Lhasa
Lhasa
from Chengdu, Chongqing, Lanzhou, Xining, Guangzhou, Shanghai
Shanghai
and other cities.[83] To counter the problem of altitude differences giving passengers altitude sickness, extra oxygen is pumped in through the ventilation system and available directly on each berth with close open control by a flap for convenience of passenger, and personal oxygen masks are available on request.[84] Within the soft sleeper cabins there are 64 seats per train and are well equipped and have a socket to plug electronics.[85] Lhasa
Lhasa
is also connected to the second largest city in Tibet, Xigazê, by rail service, since 2014. A third railway, the Sichuan- Tibet
Tibet
Railway, which links Lhasa
Lhasa
with Nyingchi County
Nyingchi County
and into the interior ultimately terminating in Chengdu, began construction in June 2015.[86] For onward rail travel in South Asia, the closest major station in India
India
is New Jalpaiguri, Siliguri
Siliguri
in West Bengal. However, extension of the Indian railway system to Sikkim
Sikkim
will make it easier for onward connections through the South Asian
South Asian
railway network. There are preliminary plans to link Lhasa
Lhasa
by rail with Kathmandu.[87] As per a Chinese Tibetan spokesperson, extension of this rail line to Kathmandu
Kathmandu
with tunneling under Mount Everest
Mount Everest
is expected to be completed by 2020.[88] Air[edit] Lhasa Gonggar Airport
Lhasa Gonggar Airport
(IATA: LXA), built in 1965, is the aviation hub of Tibet. It is located south of the city proper. It takes around half an hour to get there by car via the Lhasa
Lhasa
Airport Expressway; prior to the completion of the expressway in 2011, the trip to the airport took over an hour. As of 2014[update], there are daily flights serving major Chinese cities including Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, and Shanghai, and there are also occasional scheduled services to Kathmandu
Kathmandu
in Nepal. Lhasa
Lhasa
Airport is the hub of Tibet
Tibet
Airlines, which offers regional services to other destinations in Tibet
Tibet
such as Nyingchi
Nyingchi
Prefecture, Ngari Prefecture, Shigatse, and Qamdo.

Mainstreet

Road[edit] The Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
Highway (part of G109) runs northeast toward Xining
Xining
and eventually to Beijing
Beijing
and is the most-used road in Tibet. The Sichuan– Tibet
Tibet
Highway (part of G318) runs east towards Chengdu and eventually to Shanghai. G318 also runs west to Zhangmu
Zhangmu
on the Nepal
Nepal
border. The Xinjiang- Tibet
Tibet
Highway (G219) runs north from Lhasa to Yecheng, and then to Xinjiang. This road is rarely used due to the lack of amenities and petrol stations. A new 37.68 kilometres (23.41 mi), four-lane highway between Lhasa
Lhasa
and the Gonggar Airport was built by the Transportation Department of Tibet
Tibet
at a cost of RMB 1.5 billion. This road is part of National Highway 318 and starts from the Lhasa
Lhasa
Railway Station, passes through Caina
Caina
Township in Qushui County, terminating between the north entrance of the Gala Mountain Tunnel and the south bridgehead of the Lhasa River
Lhasa River
Bridge, and en route goes over the first overpass of Lhasa
Lhasa
at Liuwu Overpass.[89] Maritime[edit] The closest seaport is Kolkata, India. The Nathu La
Nathu La
pass offers Chinese companies access to the port of Kolkata
Kolkata
(Calcutta), situated about 1,100 km (680 mi) from Lhasa, for transshipments to and from Tibet. See also[edit]

Tibet
Tibet
portal China
China
portal

List of twin towns and sister cities in China McLeod Ganj Leh, India Mustang, Nepal Drapchi Prison
Drapchi Prison
or Lhasa
Lhasa
Prison No.1

Footnotes[edit]

^ " Lhasa
Lhasa
City Master Plan". gov.cn. Retrieved 2017-08-07.  ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". China.org.cn. Retrieved 2014-05-17.  ^ Anne-Marie Blondeau and Yonten Gyatso, 'Lhasa, Legend and History,' in Françoise Pommaret-Imaeda (ed.) Lhasa
Lhasa
in the seventeenth century: the capital of the Dalai Lamas, BRILL, 2003, pp.15–38, pp.21–22. ^ John Powers, Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, Snow Lion Publications, 2007, p.144. ^ Anne-Marie Blondeau and Yonten Gyatso, 'Lhasa, Legend and History,' pp.21–22. ^ Stein, R. A. Tibetan Civilization 1962. Revised English edition, 1972, Faber & Faber, London. Reprint, 1972. Stanford University Press, p. 62. ISBN 0-8047-0806-1 cloth; ISBN 0-8047-0901-7 pbk., p. 59. ^ Dorje (1999), p. 201. ^ Snellgrove, David. 1987. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and Their Tibetan Successors. 2 Vols. Shambhala, Boston, Vol. II, p. 416. ^ Anne-Marie Blondeau, Yonten Gyatso, 'Lhasa, Legend and History,' in Françoise Pommaret(ed.) Lhasa
Lhasa
in the seventeenth century: the capital of the Dalai Lamas, Brill Tibetan Studies Library, 3, Brill 2003, pp.15-38, pp15ff. ^ Amund Sinding-Larsen, The Lhasa
Lhasa
atlas: : traditional Tibetan architecture and townscape, Serindia Publications, Inc., 2001 p.14 ^ Dorje (1999), pp. 68–9. ^ Bell, Charles (1924). Tibet
Tibet
Past and Present. p. 28. Archived from the original on 2011-10-02.  Reprinted in 1992 by CUP Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1048-1. ^ a b Shakabpa, W. D. (2010) [1976]. One hundred thousand moons, Volume 1. trans. by Derek F. Maher. BRILL. p. 123. ISBN 90-04-17788-4. Archived from the original on 2011-10-02.  ^ Li, Tiezheng (1956). The historical status of Tibet. King's Crown Press, Columbia University. p. 6.  ^ Bloudeau, Anne-Mari & Gyatso, Yonten. 'Lhasa, Legend and History' in Lhasa
Lhasa
in the Seventeenth Century: The Capital of the Dalai Lamas, 2003, pp. 24-25. ^ Bloudeau, Anne-Mari & Gyatso, Yonten. "Lhasa, Legend and History." In: Lhasa
Lhasa
in the Seventeenth Century: The Capital of the Dalai Lamas. Françoise Pommaret-Imaeda, Françoise Pommaret 2003, p. 38. Brill, Netherlands. ISBN 978-90-04-12866-8. ^ The Ornaments of Lhasa, Islam in Tibet, Produced by Gray Henry ^ a b Dorje (1999), p. 69. ^ Berzin, Alexander (1996). "The History of the Early Period of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Bon in Tibet". The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist
Buddhist
and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire. Study Buddhism. Retrieved 20 June 2016. With Tibet
Tibet
conceived as a demoness lying on her back and locations for the temples carefully selected according to the rules of Chinese acupuncture applied to the body of the demoness, Songtsen-gampo hoped to neutralize any opposition to his rule from local malevolent spirits. Of the thirteen Buddhist
Buddhist
temples, the major one was constructed eighty miles from the imperial capital, at the site that later became known as “Lhasa” (Lha-sa, The Place of the Gods). At the time, it was called "Rasa" (Ra-sa, The Place of the Goats). Western scholars speculate that the Emperor was persuaded to avoid building the temple at the capital so as not to offend the traditional gods.  ^ a b Laird, Thomas. (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama, pp. 175. Grove Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1. ^ a b Karmay, Samten C. (2005). "The Great Fifth", p. 1. Downloaded as a pdf file on 16 December 2007 from: [1] ^ Stein, R. A. Tibetan Civilization (1962). Translated into English with minor revisions by the author. 1st English edition by Faber & Faber, London (1972). Reprint: Stanford University
University
Press (1972), p. 84 ^ Emily T. Yeh,'Living Together in Lhasa: Ethnic Relations, Coercive Amity, and Subaltern Cosmopolitanism,' in Shail Mayaram (ed.) The other global city, Taylor & Francis US. 2009, pp.54-85, pp.58-7. ^ John Bray, 'Trader, Middleman or Spy? The Dilemmas of a Kashmiri Muslim in Early Nineteenth-Century Tibet,' in Anna Akasoy, Charles Burnett, Ronit Yoeli-Tlalim (eds.)Islam and Tibet: Interactions Along the Musk Routes, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011, pp.313-338, p.315. ^ Emily T. Yeh,'Living Together in Lhasa: Ethnic Relations, Coercive Amity, and Subaltern Cosmopolitanism,' pp.59-60. ^ Heinrich Harrer, Seven Years in Tibet, Penguin 1997 p.140, cited in Peter Bishop, The myth of Shangri-La: Tibet, travel writing, and the western creation of sacred landscape, University
University
of California Press, 1989 p.192. ^ Powers, John (2017). The Buddha Party: How the People's Republic of China
China
Works to Define and Control Tibetan Buddhism. New York: Oxford University
University
Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780199358151. OCLC 947145370. From birth they had been exposed to pro-China propaganda and denunciations of the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
and the government he headed before troops from the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
(PLA) invaded the country in 1950. In March 1959, an uprising centered on the capital, Lhasa, prompted a massive crackdown, during which the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (b. 1935), fled into exile. The Tibetan Government, the Ganden
Ganden
Podrang, was dissolved, and a transitional administration under Chinese leadership was established.  ^ Robert Barnett, Lhasa: Streets with Memories, Columbia University Press, 2010 p.65 ^ Emily T. Yeh,'Living Together in Lhasa: Ethnic Relations, Coercive Amity, and Subaltern Cosmopolitanism,' p.58. ^ Robert Barnett, Lhasa: Streets with Memories, p.104. ^ Robert Barnett, Lhasa: Streets with Memories, Columbia University Press, 2010 p.67: "Today, except for the Dalai Lama's Summer Palace, a small part of the Shugtri Lingka (now renamed the People's Park), and the Lukhang, those parks have disappeared." ^ Emily T. Yeh,'Living Together in Lhasa: Ethnic Relations, Coercive Amity, and Subaltern Cosmopolitanism,' p.60; The monument however does not commemorate the Tibetan epic hero, but the Chinese figure. See Lara Maconi, ‘Gesar de Pékin? Le sort du Roi Gesar de Gling, héros épique tibétain, en Chinese (post-) maoïste,’ in Judith Labarthe, Formes modernes de la poésie épique: nouvelles approches, Peter Lang, 2004 pp.371–419, p.373 n.7. Relying on H. Richardson, and R. A. Stein, Maconi says that this was erected by the Chinese general Fu Kang'an (福康安). ^ Tung (1980), p.21 and caption to plate 17, p. 42. ^ a b Emily T. Yeh,'Living Together in Lhasa: Ethnic Relations, Coercive Amity, and Subaltern Cosmopolitanism,' p.70. ^ National Geographic Atlas of China. (2008), p. 88. National Geographic, Washington D.C. ISBN 978-1-4262-0136-3. ^ Dorje (1999), p. 68. ^ a b Barnett, Robert (2006). Lhasa: streets with memories. Columbia University
University
Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-231-13680-3.  ^ a b c Chengguan District of Lhasa, Baidu
Baidu
Baike. ^ Subramanya 2004, p. 486. ^ "2013年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:城关区". stats.gov.cn. National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 6 April 2015.  ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian=Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China
China
by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing
Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.  ^ a b 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China
China
Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-04.  ^ a b "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2013-02-21.  ^ a b c d e LHASA. Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th Edition ^ Barnett, Robert (2013). Lhasa: Streets with Memories. Columbia University
University
Press. ISBN 9780231510110. population of Lhasa
Lhasa
in 1904 was estimated by the British at 30,000 people, of whom 20,000 were said to be monks [...] in 1936 Spencer Chapman estimated the population at 50,000 to 60,000, consisting of 20,000 residents and 30,000 to 40,000 monks  ^ Mayaram, Shail (2009). The other global city. Taylor & Francis US. p. 60. ISBN 0-415-99194-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Dowman (1988), p. 39. ^ Richardson (1984), p. 7. ^ People's Government of Lhasa
Lhasa
Official Website - "Administrative divisions" Archived August 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Yeh & Henderson 2008, pp. 21–25. ^ Johnson 2011, p. 81. ^ Leibold & Chen 2014, p. 117. ^ Xinhua, " Tibet
Tibet
tourism warms as spring comes", 2009-02-13. ^ Miles, Paul (8 April 2005). "Tourism drive 'is destroying Tibet'". London: Telegraph. Retrieved 20 May 2009.  ^ " Lhasa Hotel
Lhasa Hotel
in Lhasa, China
China
- Lonely Planet". Hotels.lonelyplanet.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ Lonely Planet Archived 2008-07-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Lhasa
Lhasa
beer from Tibet
Tibet
makes US debut". Tibet
Tibet
Sun. August 12, 2009. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2009.  ^ Gluckman, Ron (1994). Brewing at the Top of the World. Asia, Inc.  ^ "Carlsberg China". Carlsberg Group. Retrieved September 27, 2009.  ^ "The Beer". Lhasa
Lhasa
Beer USA. Archived from the original on July 6, 2009. Retrieved September 27, 2009.  ^ "Historic Ensemble of the Potala
Potala
Palace, Lhasa". unesco. Retrieved 2008-02-10.  In the surrounding prefecture of Lhasa
Lhasa
are Sera Monastery and its many hermitages, many of which overlook Lhasa
Lhasa
from the northern hill valleys and Drepung
Drepung
Monastery, amongst many others of historical importance. ^ Bradley Mayhew and Michael Kohn. Tibet. 6th Edition (2005), pp. 36–37. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-523-8 ^ Keith Dowman. The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide, (1988) pp. 8–13. Routledge & Kegan Paul, Ltd., London and New York. ISBN 0-7102-1370-0. ^ Laird, Thomas. (2006). The Story of Tibet: Conversations with the Dalai Lama, pp. 345–351.Grove Press, New York. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1. ^ Stein, R. A. Tibetan Civilization (1962). Translated into English with minor revisions by the author. 1st English edition by Faber & Faber, London (1972). Reprint: Stanford University
University
Press (1972), p. 84 ^ Richardson (1985), p. 2. ^ Coulmas, Florian (1999). "Tibetan writing". Blackwell Reference Online. Retrieved 2009-10-20.  ^ Snellgrove and Richardson (1995), p. 91. ^ Richardson (1984), p. 30. ^ Beckwith (1987), p. 148. ^ Stein, R. A. (1972). Tibetan Civilization, p. 228. Translated by J. E. Stapleton Driver. Stanford University
University
Press, Stanford, California. ISBN 0-8047-0806-1 (cloth); ISBN 0-8047-0901-7 (paper). ^ Dowman, Keith. (1988). The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide, p. 49. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London. ISBN 0-7102-1370-0. ^ " Norbulingka
Norbulingka
Palace". Tibet
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Tours. Retrieved 2010-05-18.  ^ "Norbulingka". Cultural China. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2010-05-23.  ^ Tibet
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(1986), p.71 ^ Dowman, Keith (1998). The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide, pp. 40–41. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London and New York. ISBN 0-7102-1370-0. ^ Philip, Bruno (19 March 2008). "Trashing the Beijing
Beijing
road". The Economist. Retrieved 2010-02-03.  ^ a b Dowman, Keith. 1988. The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide, p. 59. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London. ISBN 0-7102-1370-0 (ppk). ^ a b "The Tibet
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Museum". China
China
Tibet
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China
Museums. Retrieved May 18, 2010.  ^ "Monument to Tibet
Tibet
Peaceful Liberation Unveiled". China
China
Tibet Tourism Bureau. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved October 26, 2010.  ^ World's highest railway Qinghai- Tibet
Tibet
Railway to be extended to Xigaze from Lhasa
Lhasa
- Apple Travel ^ "How to Get to Lhasa" ChinaTour.net Accessed 2015-3-23 ^ Cody, Edward (2006-07-04). "Train 27, Now Arriving Tibet, in a 'Great Leap West'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-05-07.  ^ "The train to Lhasa, Tibet
Tibet
- What You Can Expect".  ^ "拉林铁路预计2014年9月份动工 全线435.39千米". China Tibet
Tibet
News. January 15, 2014. Archived from the original on July 30, 2014.  ^ "Extend Tibet
Tibet
railway line to Kathmandu, Nepal
Nepal
tells China". The Indian Express. October 12, 2009.  ^ China
China
may build rail tunnel under Mount Everest, state media reports ^ "New highway linking Lhasa
Lhasa
to Gonggar Airport to be built". Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. 

Sources[edit]

"Chengguan District of Lhasa". Baidu
Baidu
Baike. Baidu. Retrieved 2015-02-17.  Johnson, Tim (2011). Tragedy in Crimson: How the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
Conquered the World But Lost the Battle with China. Nation Books. ISBN 978-1-56858-649-6. Retrieved 2015-02-17.  Leibold, James; Chen, Yangbin (2014-03-04). Minority Education in China: Balancing Unity and Diversity in an Era of Critical Pluralism. Hong Kong University
University
Press. ISBN 978-988-8208-13-5. Retrieved 2015-02-17.  Subramanya, N. (2004). Human Rights and Refugees. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7648-683-5. Retrieved 2015-02-17.  Yeh, Emily T.; Henderson, Mark (December 2008). "Interpreting Urbanization in Tibet". Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies. 4. Retrieved 2015-02-12. 

References[edit]

Das, Sarat Chandra. 1902. Lhasa
Lhasa
and Central Tibet. Reprint: Mehra Offset Press, Delhi. 1988. ISBN 81-86230-17-3 Dorje, Gyurme. 1999. Footprint Tibet
Tibet
Handbook. 2nd Edition. Bath, England. ISBN 1-900949-33-4. Also published in Chicago, U.S.A. ISBN 0-8442-2190-2. Dowman, Keith. 1988. The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide, p. 59. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London. ISBN 0-7102-1370-0 (ppk). Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2011). China's Ancient Tea Horse Road. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B005DQV7Q2 Jianqiang, Liu (2006). chinadialogue - Preserving Lhasa's history (part one). Miles, Paul. (April 9, 2005). "Tourism drive 'is destroying Tibet' Unesco fears for Lhasa's World Heritage sites as the Chinese try to pull in 10 million visitors a year by 2020". Daily Telegraph (London), p. 4. Pelliot, Paul. (1961) Histoire ancienne du Tibet. Libraire d'Amérique et d'orient. Paris. Richardson, Hugh E
Richardson, Hugh E
(1984). Tibet
Tibet
and its History. Second Edition, Revised and Updated. Shambhala Publications, Boston. ISBN 0-87773-376-7. Richardson, Hugh E
Richardson, Hugh E
(1997). Lhasa. In Encyclopedia Americana international edition, (Vol. 17, pp. 281–282). Danbury, CT: Grolier Inc. Stein, R. A. (1972). Tibetan Civilization, p. 38. Reprint 1972. Stanford University
University
Press. ISBN 0-8047-0806-1 (cloth); ISBN 0-8047-0901-7 (paper). Tuladhar, Kamal Ratna (2011). Caravan to Lhasa: A Merchant of Kathmandu
Kathmandu
in Traditional Tibet. Kathmandu: Lijala & Tisa. ISBN 99946-58-91-3. Tung, Rosemary Jones. 1980. A Portrait of Lost Tibet. Thomas and Hudson, London. ISBN 0-500-54068-3. Vitali, Roberto. 1990. Early Temples of Central Tibet. Serindia Publications. London. ISBN 0-906026-25-3. (2006). Lhasa
Lhasa
Lhasa
Lhasa
Intro von Schroeder, Ulrich. (1981). Indo-Tibetan Bronzes. (608 pages, 1244 illustrations). Hong Kong: Visual Dharma Publications Ltd. ISBN 962-7049-01-8 von Schroeder, Ulrich. (2001). Buddhist
Buddhist
Sculptures in Tibet. Vol. One: India
India
& Nepal; Vol. Two: Tibet
Tibet
& China. (Volume One: 655 pages with 766 illustrations; Volume Two: 675 pages with 987 illustrations). Hong Kong: Visual Dharma Publications, Ltd.). ISBN 962-7049-07-7 von Schroeder, Ulrich. 2008. 108 Buddhist
Buddhist
Statues in Tibet. (212 p., 112 colour illustrations) (DVD with 527 digital photographs). Chicago: Serindia Publications. ISBN 962-7049-08-5

Further reading[edit]

Desideri (1932). An Account of Tibet: The Travels of Ippolito Desideri 1712-1727. Ippolito Desideri. Edited by Filippo De Filippi. Introduction by C. Wessels. Reproduced by Rupa & Co, New Delhi. 2005 Le Sueur, Alec (2013). The Hotel on the Roof of the World
The Hotel on the Roof of the World
– Five Years in Tibet. Chichester: Summersdale. ISBN 978-1-84024-199-0. Oakland: RDR Books. ISBN 978-1-57143-101-1

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lhasa.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chengguan District, Lhasa.

People's Government of Chengguan District, Lhasa
Chengguan District, Lhasa
Official Website (in Chinese) Lhasa
Lhasa
Nights art exhibition Grand temple of Buddha at Lhasa
Lhasa
in 1902, Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection Tibet
Tibet
Travel Permit Gombojab Tsybikov, Lhasa
Lhasa
and Central Tibet, 1903.  "Lhasa". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

Maps and aerial photos[edit]

Map central Lhasa Old map of central Lhasa
Lhasa
from 1959

v t e

Lhasa

County-level divisions

District

Chengguan Doilungdêqên Dagzê

Counties

Lhünzhub Damxung Nyêmo Qüxü Maizhokunggar

Towns and villages

Caina Chundui (Codoi) Dangquka Donggar Gongtang Gyaidar Horru Kunggar Leten Lhünzhub Namco Niu New Area Nyêmo Nyêtang Qiannang Wumatang Yangbajain Zaxoi Zhujia

Monasteries and palaces

Architecture
Architecture
of Lhasa Lingkhor Potala
Potala
Palace Norbulingka Jokhang Tsomon Ling Ganden
Ganden
Monastery Kundeling Monastery Nechung Nyethang Drolma Lhakhang Temple Yangpachen Monastery Drepung
Drepung
Monastery Ramoche Temple Reting Monastery Sanga Monastery Yerpa

Sera Monastery Chupzang Nunnery Drakri Hermitage Garu Nunnery Keutsang Hermitage Keutsang East Hermitage Keutsang Hermitage Khardo Hermitage Negodong Nunnery Nenang Monastery Pabonka Hermitage Panglung Hermitage Purbuchok Hermitage Rakhadrak Hermitage Sera Monastery Sera Chöding Hermitage Sera Gönpasar Hermitage Sera Utsé Hermitage Takten Hermitage Trashi Chöling Hermitage

Other landmarks

Banak Shöl Hotel Barkhor Chokpori Drapchi Prison Lhasa
Lhasa
Hotel Lhasa
Lhasa
Zhol Pillar Tibet
Tibet
Museum Tibet
Tibet
University Tromzikhang Nyang bran Hutoushan Reservoir

Transport

Lhasa
Lhasa
Airport Damxung railway station Lhasa
Lhasa
railway station Lhasa
Lhasa
West railway station Wumatang
Wumatang
railway station Yangbajain
Yangbajain
railway station G109 G318 North Linkor Road Central Beijing
Beijing
Road

Government

Doje Cezhug Jigme Namgyal

v t e

Township-level divisions of Lhasa
Lhasa
(prefecture-level city)

Chengguan

Zhaxi Jebumgang Porgor Gyirai Chomsigkang Gamagongsang Liangdao Jinzhuxilu Caigungtang Nagen Nyangrain Togde

Doilungdêqên

Donggar Naiqung Niu Dêqên Mar Gurum Yabda

Dagzê

Dêqên Targyai Zangdog Tanggar Xoi Bomdoi

Lhünzhub
Lhünzhub
County

Gandainqonkor Codai Karze Qangka Songpan Jangraxa Banjorling Pundo Ngarnang Tanggo

Damxung County

Dangquka Yangbajain Gyaidar Nyingzhung Gongtang Lungring Wumatang Namco

Nyêmo County

Tarrong Toinba Xumai Pusum Paggor Margyang Karru Nyêmo

Qüxü
Qüxü
County

Qüxü Nyêtang Carbanang Caina Nam Dagar

Maizhokunggar County

Kunggar Gyama Tanggya Zhaxigeng Nyimajangra Zaxoi Rutog Mamba

v t e

County-level divisions of Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region

Lhasa
Lhasa
(capital)

Prefecture-level city

Lhasa

Chengguan District Doilungdêqên District Dagzê District Lhünzhub
Lhünzhub
County Damxung County Nyêmo County Qüxü
Qüxü
County Maizhokunggar County

Shigatse (Xigazê)

Samzhubzê District Namling County Gyantse (Gyangzê) County Tingri County Sa'gya County Lhatse (Lhazê) County Ngamring County Xaitongmoin County Bainang County Rinbung County Kangmar County Dinggyê County Zhongba County Chomo (Yadong) County Gyirong County Nyalam County Saga County Gamba County

Chamdo (Qamdo)

Karub District Jomda County Gonjo County Riwoqê County Dêngqên County Zhag'yab County Baxoi County Zogang County Markam County Lhorong County Banbar County

Nyingchi

Bayi District Gongbo'gyamda County Mainling County** Mêdog County** Bomê County Zayü County** Nang County**

Shannan

Nêdong District Zhanang County Gonggar County Sangri County Qonggyai County Qusum County Comai County Lhozhag County Gyaca County Lhünzê County** Cona County** Nagarzê County

Nagqu

Seni District Lhari County Biru County Nyainrong County Amdo County Xainza County Sog County Baingoin County Baqên County Nyima County Shuanghu County

Prefectures

Ngari

Gar County Burang County Zanda County Rutog County Gê'gyai County Gêrzê County Coqên County

** Southern portions of these counties are part of the South Tibet area, which is administered by India
India
and c

.