LEXINGTON, consolidated with Fayette County and often denoted as
Lexington-Fayette, is the second-largest city in
Lexington ranks 10th among US cities in college education rate, with
39.5% of residents having at least a bachelor's degree. It is the
location of the
* 1 History
* 1.1 20th century to present
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Cityscape * 2.2 Planning * 2.3 Climate
* 3 Demographics * 4 Economy
* 5 Culture
* 5.1 Annual cultural events and fairs * 5.2 Historical structures and museums
* 6 Sports
* 6.1 College athletics * 6.2 Professional sports * 6.3 Horse racing and equestrian events
* 7 Parks and outdoor attractions
* 7.1 City parks and facilities * 7.2 Natural areas
* 8 Government and politics
* 8.1 Mayor * 8.2 Urban County Council * 8.3 Law enforcement
* 9 Education * 10 Media
* 11 Transportation
* 12 Notable people * 13 Sister cities * 14 Notes * 15 References * 16 Further reading * 17 External links
See also: Timeline of Lexington,
This area of fertile soil and abundant wildlife was long occupied by varying tribes of Native Americans. European explorers began to trade with them, but settlers did not come in large numbers until the late 18th century.
Lexington was founded by European Americans in June 1775, in what was
Fincastle County, Virginia , 17 years before Kentucky
became a state . A party of frontiersmen, led by William McConnell ,
camped on the Middle Fork of Elkhorn Creek (now known as Town Branch
and rerouted under Vine Street) at the site of the present-day
McConnell Springs . Upon hearing of the colonists' victory in the
Battles of Lexington and Concord
In 1779, during the
American Revolutionary War
The town was chartered on May 6, 1782, by an act of the Virginia
General Assembly . The First African Baptist Church was founded
c. 1790 by
Peter Durrett , a Baptist preacher and slave held by
Joseph Craig. Durrett helped guide "
The Travelling Church
In 1806, Lexington was a rising city of the vast territory to the west of the Appalachian Mountains; poet Josiah Espy described it in a letter:
Lexington is the largest and most wealthy town in Kentucky, or indeed west of the Allegheny Mountains; the main street of Lexington has all the appearance of Market Street in Philadelphia on a busy day ... I would suppose it contains about five hundred dwelling houses , many of them elegant and three stories high. About thirty brick buildings were then raising, and I have little doubt but that in a few years it will rival, not only in wealth, but in population, the most populous inland town of the United States ... The country around Lexington for many miles in every direction, is equal in beauty and fertility to anything the imagination can paint and is already in a high state of cultivation.
Residents have fondly continued to refer to Lexington as "The Athens of the West" since Espy's poem dedicated to the city.
In the early 19th century, planter
John Wesley Hunt became the first
millionaire west of the Alleghenies. The growing town was devastated
by a cholera epidemic in 1833, which had spread throughout the
waterways of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys: 500 of 7,000 Lexington
residents died within two months, including nearly one-third of the
congregation of Christ Church Episcopal .
London Ferrill , second
preacher of First African Baptist, was one of three clergy who stayed
in the city to serve the suffering victims. Additional cholera
outbreaks occurred in 1848–49 and the early 1850s.
Planters held slaves for use as field hands, laborers, artisans, and domestic servants . In the city, slaves worked primarily as domestic servants and artisans, although they also worked with merchants, shippers, and in a wide variety of trades. Plantations raised commodity crops of tobacco and hemp, and thoroughbred horse breeding and racing became established in this part of the state. In 1850, one-fifth of the state's population were slaves, and Lexington had the highest concentration of slaves in the entire state. It also had a significant population of free blacks , who were usually of mixed race. By 1850, First African Baptist Church, led by London Ferrill , a free black from Virginia, had a congregation of 1,820 persons, the largest of any, black or white, in the entire state.
Many of 19th-century America's leading political and military figures
spent part of their lives in the city, including U.S. President
During the 19th century, migrants moved from central
20TH CENTURY TO PRESENT
In 1935 during the
Lexington has continued as the center of thoroughbred horse breeding and racing in Kentucky, with major racing and sales facilities, as well as a museum of horses and the sport.
Lexington, which includes all Fayette County , consists of 285.5
square miles (739.4 km2), mostly gently rolling plateau, in the center
of the inner
The Lexington-Fayette metro area includes five counties: Clark ,
Jessamine , Bourbon , Woodford , and Scott . This is the
second-largest metro area in
Main article: Cityscape of Lexington,
Lexington features a diverse cityscape.
Lexington's strict urban growth boundary protects area horse farms from development.
Lexington must manage a rapidly growing population while working to maintain the character of the surrounding horse farms that give the region its identity. In 1958, Lexington enacted the nation's first urban growth boundary , restricting new development to an urban service area (USA). It set a strict minimum area requirement, currently 40 acres (160,000 m2), to maintain open space for landholdings in the rural service area. In 1967, the USA was decreased in area; various zoning regulations were also amended from the original 1958 issue. Cheapside Ave in downtown, now closed to vehicles
In 1980, the comprehensive plan was updated: the USA was modified to
include urban activity centers (UACs) and rural activity centers
(RACs). The UACs were commercial and light-industrial districts in
urbanized areas, while RACs were retail trade and light-industrial
centers clustered around the
Interstate 64 /Interstate 75
interchanges. In 1996, the USA was expanded when 5,300 acres (21 km2)
of the RSA were acquired through the expansion area master plan
(EAMP). This was controversial: this first major update to the
comprehensive plan in over a decade was accompanied by arguments among
residents about the future of Lexington and the
The EAMP included new concepts of impact fees, assessment districts, neighborhood design concepts, design overlays, mandatory greenways , major roadway improvements, stormwater management, and open-space mitigation for the first time. It also included a draft of the rural land management plan, which included large-lot zoning and traffic-impact controls. A prezoning of the entire expansion area was refuted in the plan. A 50-acre (200,000 m2) minimum proposal was defeated. Discussion of this proposal appeared to stimulate the development of numerous 10-acre (40,000 m2) subdivisions in the RSAs.
Three years after the expansion was initiated, the RSA land management plan was adopted, which increased the minimum lot size in the agricultural rural zones to 40-acre (160,000 m2) minima. In 2000, a purchase of development rights plan was adopted, granting the city the power to purchase the development rights of existing farms; in 2001, $40 million were allocated to the plan from a $25-million local, $15-million state grant. An infill and redevelopment study was also initiated during that time, along with design guidelines for the areas surrounding the new Fayette County courthouses.
Lexington is in the northern periphery of the humid subtropical
climate zone, with hot, humid summers, and cool winters with
occasional mild periods; it falls in USDA hardiness zone 6b. The city
and the surrounding
Lexington is recognized as a high allergy area by the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America . The results for the spring of 2008 rank Lexington as first among high-allergy cities.
CLIMATE DATA FOR LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY (BLUE GRASS AIRPORT ), 1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1872–PRESENT
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 80 (27) 80 (27) 86 (30) 91 (33) 96 (36) 104 (40) 108 (42) 105 (41) 103 (39) 93 (34) 83 (28) 75 (24) 108 (42)
MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 63.4 (17.4) 67.8 (19.9) 75.8 (24.3) 82.0 (27.8) 86.2 (30.1) 91.5 (33.1) 93.7 (34.3) 94.0 (34.4) 89.8 (32.1) 82.6 (28.1) 74.2 (23.4) 64.4 (18) 95.7 (35.4)
AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 40.9 (4.9) 45.6 (7.6) 55.4 (13) 65.8 (18.8) 74.4 (23.6) 82.9 (28.3) 86.1 (30.1) 85.6 (29.8) 78.8 (26) 67.5 (19.7) 55.4 (13) 43.9 (6.6) 65.3 (18.5)
AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 24.9 (−3.9) 28.1 (−2.2) 35.7 (2.1) 44.7 (7.1) 53.9 (12.2) 62.5 (16.9) 66.3 (19.1) 65.0 (18.3) 57.5 (14.2) 46.6 (8.1) 37.3 (2.9) 28.0 (−2.2) 46.0 (7.8)
MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 2.2 (−16.6) 7.0 (−13.9) 17.4 (−8.1) 27.2 (−2.7) 38.8 (3.8) 49.1 (9.5) 56.0 (13.3) 54.3 (12.4) 42.2 (5.7) 30.4 (−0.9) 21.2 (−6) 7.9 (−13.4) −2.3 (−19.1)
RECORD LOW °F (°C) −21 (−29) −20 (−29) −2 (−19) 15 (−9) 26 (−3) 39 (4) 47 (8) 42 (6) 32 (0) 20 (−7) −3 (−19) −19 (−28) −21 (−29)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 3.20 (81.3) 3.20 (81.3) 4.07 (103.4) 3.60 (91.4) 5.26 (133.6) 4.44 (112.8) 4.65 (118.1) 3.25 (82.6) 2.91 (73.9) 3.13 (79.5) 3.53 (89.7) 3.93 (99.8) 45.17 (1,147.3)
AVERAGE SNOWFALL INCHES (CM) 3.9 (9.9) 4.6 (11.7) 1.4 (3.6) 0.3 (0.8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.3 (0.8) 2.5 (6.4) 13.0 (33)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 12.1 11.1 12.4 12.1 12.5 10.9 10.4 8.7 7.8 8.7 10.7 12.4 129.8
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 0.1 IN) 4.8 3.7 1.4 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 3.0 13.7
EST. 2016 318,449
The Lexington-Fayette Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) includes
Bourbon , Clark , Fayette, Jessamine , Scott , and Woodford Counties.
The MSA population in 2015 was estimated at 500,535. The
Lexington-Fayette-Frankfort-Richmond, KY Combined Statistical Area
As of the census of 2010, 295,803 people, 125,752 households, and 62,915 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,042.8 people per square mile (353.5/km²). The 135,160 housing units averaged 408.3/mi² (157.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 75.7% White , 14.5% Black or African American , 0.3% Native American , 3.2% Asian , 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.21% from other races, and 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latinos of any race were 6.9% of the population.
Of the 125,752 households, 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.9% were not families; 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the city, the population was distributed as 21.3% under the age of 18, 14.6% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $49,778, and for a family was $53,264. Males had a median income of $36,166 versus $26,964 for females. The per capita income for the city was $30,031. About 8.2% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line , including 14.3% of those under the age of 18 and 8.6% of those ages 65 and older.
The table below illustrates the population growth of Fayette County
since the first U.S.
* 1790 to 1960 census: * 1970 census: * 1980 census: * 1990 census: * 2000 to 2005 census: * 2006 census:
Lexington has one of the nation's most stable economies. Lexington
describes itself as having "a fortified economy, strong in
manufacturing, technology, and entrepreneurial support, benefiting
from a diverse, balanced business base". The Lexington Metro Area had
an unemployment rate of 3.7% in August 2015, lower than many cities of
similar size. In 2011 Lexington was ranked as the 4th-best city for
"Businesses and Careers" by
The city is home to several large corporations. Sizable employment is
generated by four
Notable corporate headquarters include: Lexmark International, a
manufacturer of printers and enterprise software; Link-Belt
Construction Equipment , a designer and manufacturer of telescopic and
lattice boom cranes;
Big Ass Solutions , a manufacturer of large
ceiling fans and lighting fixtures for industrial, commercial,
agricultural, and residential use; A Fazoli\'s , a fast-food
Italian-style chain that has expanded to more than 20 states; Tempur
Sealy International , a manufacturer of mattresses;
Florida Tile , a
manufacturer of porcelain and ceramic tile; and the Forcht Group of
The city's largest employer, the University of
Other sizable employers include the Lexington-Fayette County government and other hospital facilities. The Fayette County Public Schools employ 5,374, and the Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government employs 2,699. Central Baptist Hospital, Saint Joseph Hospital , Saint Joseph East, and the Veterans Administration Hospital employ 7,000 persons in total.
ANNUAL CULTURAL EVENTS AND FAIRS
Lexington is home to many thriving arts organizations, including a
professional orchestra, two ballet companies, a professional theatre,
several museums, several choral organizations, and a highly respected
opera program at the University of Kentucky. In addition, several
annual events and fairs draw people as attendees from throughout the
Bluegrass region. The
Lexington History Center
Mayfest Arts Fair is a free outdoor festival that takes place annually over Mother's Day weekend. Held in Gratz Park between the Carnegie Center and Transylvania University, the festival typically features up to 100 art and craft booths, live entertainment throughout the weekend, food, children's activities, adult activities and literary events, free carriage rides, a traditional Morris and Maypole dance and various demonstrations.
June has two popular music festivals: Bluegrass and Broadway. The Festival of the Bluegrass , Kentucky's oldest bluegrass music festival, is in early June; it includes three stages for music and a "bluegrass music camp" for school children. For more than two decades, during the second and yhird weekends, UK Opera Theatre presents a Broadway medley "It's A Grand Night for Singing!"
Later in June, the Gay and Lesbian Services Organization hosts the Lexington Pride Festival, which celebrates pride in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities and welcomes allies . The festival offers live music, crafts, food, and informational booths from diverse service organizations. Lexington Mayor Jim Gray , elected in 2010 and openly gay, proclaimed June 29, 2013, as Pride Day. Lexington has one of the highest concentrations of gay and lesbian couples in the United States for a city its size.
Area residents gather downtown for the Fourth of July festivities which extend for several days. On July 3, the Gratz Park Historic District is transformed into an outdoor music hall, when the Patriotic Music Concert is held on the steps of Morrison Hall at Transylvania University. The Lexington Singers and the Lexington Philharmonic Orchestra perform at this event. On the Fourth, events include a reading of the Declaration of Independence on the steps of the Old Courthouse, a waiters' race in Phoenix Park, a parade, a country-music concert, street vendors for wares and food, and fireworks. The Woodland Arts Fair, almost four decades old, is held in mid-August by the Lexington Art League. It features many local and national artists working in a variety of media; vendors also sell refreshments.
Since the turn of the 21st century, Festival Latino de Lexington, the biggest fiesta in September, has been the city's main event to celebrate Hispanic Heritage Month. During the festival, thousands of people, Hispanics and non-Hispanics alike, gather in downtown Lexington to enjoy the cultural displays, dancing presentations, live music, and a variety of food from different regions of Latin America.
Also in September, the Roots and Heritage Festival includes art exhibits, literary readings, film presentations, the Festival Ball, and the ever-popular two-day street festival featuring live musical performances from internationally renowned artists. Rupp Arena serves as the home of UK men's basketball and is also a major concert and convention venue.
"Southern Lights: Spectacular Sights on Holiday Nights", taking
place from November 18 to December 31, is held at the
In 2002, Lexington became the first city to launch a "Thriller video"
reenactment as a Halloween festivity. The video's storyline and dance
sequences are faithfully recreated in a parade beginning outside the
The Lexington Christmas Parade is held usually the day after Thanksgiving. The parade route follows Main Street between Midland and Broadway. Festivities include a Holiday Market with over 25 arts and craft vendors, a stage with entertainment, food, and the annual tree-lighting ceremony, which occur in Triangle Park.
Other events and fairs include:
* The Artists Market: A small display of arts and craft booths is
set up concurrently with the Farmer's Market each Saturday from the
first weekend in June through the last weekend in August. It is
Cheapside Park adjacent to the Lexington Farmer's Market.
* Thursday Night Live: An annual summer series of free, public
concerts held in
Cheapside Park every Thursday evening from 4:30 –
7:30 pm in from May – October
* A Midsummer Night's Run is a 5K race in early August.
* The North Limestone (NoLi) Night Market
Lexington Philharmonic Orchestra presents several annual
HISTORICAL STRUCTURES AND MUSEUMS
Mary Todd Lincoln House , completed in 1832
Hunt-Morgan House , completed in 1814, served as residence for John
Wesley Hunt , the first millionaire west of the Appalachians; a
Confederate General (
John Hunt Morgan
Lexington is home to numerous museums and historical structures. One
of the most famous is Ashland: The
Since the late 20th century, Lexington has demolished hundreds of historic structures to make way for hotels, banks, and parking structures. The Lexington Public Library was constructed where the historic Phoenix Hotel once stood. An historic 1880s block located on Main Street was demolished. This lot is still vacant.
Additional historic sites include:
* Aviation Museum of
The University of
The world's largest ceiling clock and a five-story Foucault pendulum are located inside the Lexington Public Library on East Main St. The Central Library is also home to an art gallery and the 138-seat Farish Theater. The city library has five branches located throughout the city: Beaumont (off Harrodsburg Rd.), Eastside (off Man o' War Blvd.), Northside (Russell Cave Rd.), Tates Creek (off Tates Creek Rd.), and Village (Versailles Rd.). Lexington Public Library offers a variety of programs and services to the citizens of Fayette County, and circulates 3,000,000 items per year.
The local Woolworth\'s building was listed on the National Register
of Historic Places for its significance as a site of protests during
Civil Rights Movement
A Lexington Legends game
Lexington is home to the
Lexington Legends , a Class A minor-league
affiliate of the
Kansas City Royals
HORSE RACING AND EQUESTRIAN EVENTS
This area has been known as a major center for
The city is home to two horse-racing tracks,
PARKS AND OUTDOOR ATTRACTIONS
CITY PARKS AND FACILITIES
Lexington has over 100 parks ranging in size from the 8,719-square-foot (810.0 m2) Smith Street Park to the 659-acre (2.7 km2) Masterson Station Park. Among those parks are:
* Five public golf courses at Kearney Hill Links, Lakeside, Meadowbrook, Tates Creek, and Picadome * Five dog parks at Jacobson, Masterson Station, Coldstream, Pleasant Ridge, and Wellington * Three public 18-hole disc golf courses at Shillito Park, Jacobson Park, and Veterans Park * A public skate park at Woodland Park, featuring 12,000 square feet (1,100 m2) of "ramps, platforms, bowls, and pipes"
The city is home to Raven Run Nature Sanctuary, a 734-acre (3.0 km2)
nature preserve along the
The Arboretum is a 100-acre (0.40 km2) preserve adjacent to the
University of Kentucky. It features the Arboretum Woods, a small,
16-acre (65,000 m2) Bluegrass Woodland patch that is home to 18 native
The city also plays host to the historic McConnell Springs , a 26-acre (110,000 m2) park within the industrial confines off Old Frankfort Pike. Two miles (3 km) of trails surround the namesake springs, historic dry-laid stone fences, and historical structures.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
See also: Government of
Federally, Lexington is part of Kentucky\'s 6th congressional
district , represented by Republican Andy Barr . Elected in 2012 , he
defeated five-term Democrat
In 1974, the governments of the city of Lexington and Fayette County,
On November 2, 2010, former vice mayor Jim Gray was elected mayor,
becoming the city's first openly gay mayor. He was sworn into office
on January 2, 2011, by
URBAN COUNTY COUNCIL
The Urban County Council is a 15-member legislative group. Twelve of the members represent specific districts and serve two-year terms; three are elected citywide as at-large council members and serve four-year terms. The at-large member receiving the highest number of votes in the general election automatically becomes the vice mayor, who in the absence of the mayor, is the presiding officer of the council. The council members as of 2017 are: Robert F. Stephens Courthouse The Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government Building
COUNCILMEMBER DISTRICT TERM ENDS
Steve Kay Vice Mayor 2018
Kevin Stinnett At-large 2018
Richard Moloney At-large 2018
James Brown 1st 2018
Joe Smith 2nd 2018
Jake Gibbs 3rd 2018
Susan Lamb 4th 2018
Bill Farmer, Jr. 5th 2018
Angela Evans 6th 2018
Jennifer Scutchfield 7th 2018
Fred Brown 8th 2018
Jennifer Mossotti 9th 2018
Amanda Mays Bledsoe 10th 2018
Peggy Henson 11th 2018
Kathy Plomin 12th 2018
Primary law enforcement duties within Lexington-Fayette County are
the responsibility of the Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government
Division of Police. The Division of Police resulted from the merger of
the Lexington Police Department with the Fayette County Patrol in
1974. The Fayette County Sheriff's Office is responsible for court
service, including court security, prisoner transport, process and
warrant service, and property tax collection. The 1974 merger also
consolidated the office of city jailer into the office of county
jailer, a constitutional position. In 1992 (effective 1993), the
See also: List of schools in Lexington,
According to the United States
The city is served by the Fayette County Public Schools . The system
currently consists of five district high schools, along with multiple
smaller multidistrict high schools, 12 middle schools, one combined
middle/high school, and 37 elementary schools, and is supplemented
with many private schools. FCPS opened two new elementary schools in
August 2016, and is nearing completion of a sixth high school that is
scheduled to open in August 2017. The two traditional colleges are
the University of Kentucky, which is the state's flagship public
university, and Transylvania University, which is the state's oldest
four-year university and the first university west of the Alleghenies.
Other institutions of higher learning include Bluegrass Community and
Technical College ,
Main article: Media in Lexington,
Lexington's largest daily circulating newspaper is the Lexington
Herald-Leader . The region is also served by eight primary television
Main article: Roads of Lexington,
The northeast border of Lexington has direct access to Interstate 64 and Interstate 75 , but freeways do not run through downtown or other sections of the city. Instead, Lexington has two beltways: inner New Circle Road (KY 4) and outer Man o\' War Boulevard (southern semicircle), then numerous arterial highways/U.S. routes radiate from downtown to the surrounding suburbs and small towns.
Lexington suffers considerable traffic congestion for a city of its
size due to the lack of freeways, the proximity of the University of
Blue Grass Airport
On August 27, 2006,
Comair Flight 5191
The airport is located 4 mi (6 km) west of the city center, at the intersection of US 60 (Versailles Road) and Man o' War Boulevard.
In addition to commercial airline service, the airport is also home to several private (general aviation) operators, including TACAir, which serves as the airport's fixed-base operator. Flight training and aircraft maintenance services are also offered. A new general aviation runway was dedicated August 4, 2010.
Main article: Lextran
Lexington is served by Lextran, a public transit bus agency operated
by LFUCG and has been in existence since 1972.
Lextran (officially the
Transit Authority of the Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government) is
a public transportation bus system serving Lexington, Kentucky. It
runs bus routes throughout the city, which mostly all converge in
downtown at the
Lexington Transit Center located at 220 East Vine. It
provides public transportation in the form of buses and lift vans. It
operates seven days a week on a total of 24 bus routes from 5:00 am
until 12:30 am. In addition to mainline and paratransit, Lextran
contracts with the University of
The Lexington Area Metropolitan Planning Organization is responsible for transportation planning for Fayette and Jessamine Counties. This includes activities such as carpool matching, administering a commuter vanpool program, air quality forecasting, bicycle and pedestrian planning, congestion management, and developing transportation plans and documents.
Main article: List of people from Lexington,
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Lexington has four sister cities , as designated by Sister Cities International :
All four are, like Lexington, major centers of the Thoroughbred breeding industry in their respective countries.
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* ^ Under Kentucky's current classification scheme, which went into effect on January 1, 2015, cities with a mayor–alderman form of government are first-class, with the "home rule class" covering all other forms. This replaced a system in which cities were divided into six classes, nominally by population.
* ^ "Counties Population Totals Tables: 2010-2016". Retrieved March
* ^ A B C Commonwealth of Kentucky. Office of the Secretary of
State. Land Office. "Lexington, Kentucky". Accessed September 18,
* ^ Noble, Jeff (April 30, 2014). "Corbin, other Tri-County cities
now in Home Rule Class". The Times-Tribune. Corbin, KY. Archived from
the original on November 11, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
* ^ Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American
FactFinder – Results". census.gov. Archived from the original on
August 15, 2014.
* ^ Degrees & Training – Most-Educated Cities in the United
States. MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009.
Retrieved August 21, 2015.
* ^ Ramsay, Robert L. (1952). Our Storehouse of Missouri Place
Names. University of Missouri Press. p. 16.
* ^ A B "First African Baptist Church", Lexington: The Athens of
the West, National Park Service. Retrieved August 21, 2010.
* ^ George Washington Ranck (1910). The Travelling Church: An
Account of the Baptist Exodus from Virginia to
* ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in