Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti (Italian: [leˈon batˈtista alˈbɛrti];
February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author,
artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and
cryptographer; he epitomised the
Renaissance Man. Although he is often
characterized exclusively as an architect, as James Beck has
observed, "to single out one of Leon Battista's 'fields' over
others as somehow functionally independent and self-sufficient is of
no help at all to any effort to characterize Alberti's extensive
explorations in the fine arts." Although Alberti is known mostly for
being an artist, he was also a mathematician of many sorts and made
great advances to this field during the 15th century. Alberti's
life was described in Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Most Excellent
Painters, Sculptors, and Architects.
3 Architectural works
3.1 Tempio Malatestiano, Rimini
3.2 Façade of Palazzo Rucellai
3.3 Santa Maria Novella
3.5 Sant' Andrea, Mantua
3.6 Other buildings
6 Works in print
7 In Popular Culture
10 External links
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti was born in 1404 in Genoa. His mother is not
known, and his father was a wealthy Florentine who had been exiled
from his own city, allowed to return in 1428. Alberti was sent to
boarding school in Padua, then studied Law at Bologna. He lived for
a time in Florence, then travelled to
Rome in 1431 where he took holy
orders and entered the service of the papal court. During this time
he studied the ancient ruins, which excited his interest in
architecture and strongly influenced the form of the buildings that he
Alberti was gifted in many ways. He was tall, strong and a fine
athlete who could ride the wildest horse and jump over a man's
head. He distinguished himself as a writer while he was still a
child at school, and by the age of twenty had written a play which was
successfully passed off as a genuine piece of Classical literature.
In 1435, he began his first major written work, Della pittura, which
was inspired by the burgeoning pictorial art in
Florence in the early
15th century. In this work he analyses the nature of painting and
explores the elements of perspective, composition and colour.
In 1438 he began to focus more on architecture and was encouraged by
Leonello d'Este of Ferrara, for whom he built a small
triumphal arch to support an equestrian statue of Leonello's
father. In 1447 he became the architectural advisor to Pope
Nicholas V and was involved with several projects at the Vatican.
His first major architectural commission was in 1446 for the facade of
Rucellai Palace in Florence. This was followed in 1450 by a
Sigismondo Malatesta to transform the Gothic church of
San Francesco in
Rimini into a memorial chapel, the Tempio
Malatestiano. In Florence, he designed the upper parts of the
facade for the Dominican church of Santa Maria Novella, famously
bridging the nave and lower aisles with two ornately inlaid scrolls,
solving a visual problem and setting a precedent to be followed by
architects of churches for four hundred years. In 1452, he
completed De re aedificatoria, a treatise on architecture, using as
its basis the work of
Vitruvius and influenced by the archaeological
remains of Rome. The work was not published until 1485. It was
followed in 1464 by his less influential work, De statua, in which he
examines sculpture. Alberti's only known sculpture is a
self-portrait medallion, sometimes attributed to Pisanello.
Alberti was employed to design two churches in Mantua, San Sebastiano,
which was never completed, and for which Alberti's intention can only
be speculated, and the Basilica of Sant'Andrea. The design for the
latter church was completed in 1471, a year before Alberti's death,
but was brought to completion and is his most significant work.
As an artist, Alberti distinguished himself from the ordinary
craftsman, educated in workshops. He was a humanist, and part of the
rapidly expanding entourage of intellectuals and artisans supported by
the courts of the princes and lords of the time. Alberti, as a member
of noble family and as part of the Roman curia, had special status. He
was a welcomed guest at the Este court in Ferrara, and in
spent part of the hot-weather season with the soldier-prince Federico
III da Montefeltro. The Duke of
Urbino was a shrewd military
commander, who generously spent money on the patronage of art. Alberti
planned to dedicate his treatise on architecture to his friend.
Among Alberti's smaller studies, pioneering in their field, were a
treatise in cryptography, De componendis cifris, and the first Italian
grammar. With the Florentine cosmographer
Paolo Toscanelli he
collaborated in astronomy, a close science to geography at that time,
and produced a small
Latin work on geography, Descriptio urbis Romae
(The Panorama of the City of Rome). Just a few years before his death,
Alberti completed De iciarchia (On Ruling the Household), a dialogue
Florence during the
Alberti, having taken holy orders, remained unmarried all his life. He
loved animals and had a pet dog, a mongrel, for whom he wrote a
panegyric, (Canis). Vasari describes him as "an admirable citizen,
a man of culture.... a friend of talented men, open and courteous with
everyone. He always lived honourably and like the gentleman he
was." Alberti died in
Rome on April 25, 1472 at the age of 68.
Further information: Mathematics and architecture
Alberti regarded mathematics as the common ground of art and the
sciences. "To make clear my exposition in writing this brief
commentary on painting," Alberti began his treatise, Della Pittura (On
Painting), "I will take first from the mathematicians those things
with which my subject is concerned."
Della pittura (also known in
Latin as De Pictura) relied in its
scientific content on classical optics in determining perspective as a
geometric instrument of artistic and architectural representation.
Alberti was well-versed in the sciences of his age. His knowledge of
optics was connected to the handed-down long-standing tradition of the
Kitab al-manazir (The Optics; De aspectibus) of the Arab polymath
Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham, d. c. 1041), which was mediated by Franciscan
optical workshops of the 13th-century Perspectivae traditions of
scholars such as Roger Bacon,
John Peckham and
influences are also traceable in the third commentary of Lorenzo
Ghiberti, Commentario terzo).
English title page of the first edition of Giacomo Leoni’s
translation of Alberti’s
De Re Aedificatoria
De Re Aedificatoria (1452). The book is
bilingual, with the Italian version being printed on the left and the
English version printed on the right.
In both Della pittura and De statua, Alberti stressed that "all steps
of learning should be sought from nature." The ultimate aim of an
artist is to imitate nature. Painters and sculptors strive "through by
different skills, at the same goal, namely that as nearly as possible
the work they have undertaken shall appear to the observer to be
similar to the real objects of nature." However, Alberti did not
mean that artists should imitate nature objectively, as it is, but the
artist should be especially attentive to beauty, "for in painting
beauty is as pleasing as it is necessary." The work of art is,
according to Alberti, so constructed that it is impossible to take
anything away from it or add anything to it, without impairing the
beauty of the whole. Beauty was for Alberti "the harmony of all parts
in relation to one another," and subsequently "this concord is
realized in a particular number, proportion, and arrangement demanded
by harmony." Alberti's thoughts on harmony were not new—they could
be traced back to Pythagoras—but he set them in a fresh context,
which fit in well with the contemporary aesthetic discourse.
In Rome, Alberti had plenty of time to study its ancient sites, ruins,
and objects. His detailed observations, included in his De Re
Aedificatoria (1452, On the Art of Building), were patterned after
the De architectura by the Roman architect and engineer
46–30 BC). The work was the first architectural treatise of the
Renaissance. It covered a wide range of subjects, from history to town
planning, and engineering to the philosophy of beauty. De re
aedificatoria, a large and expensive book, was not fully published
until 1485, after which it became a major reference for
architects. However, the book was written "not only for craftsmen
but also for anyone interested in the noble arts," as Alberti put
it. Originally published in Latin, the first Italian edition came
out in 1546. and the standard Italian edition by
Cosimo Bartoli was
published in 1550. Pope Nicholas V, to whom Alberti dedicated the
whole work, dreamed of rebuilding the city of Rome, but he managed to
realize only a fragment of his visionary plans. Through his book,
Alberti opened up his theories and ideals of the Florentine
Renaissance to architects, scholars and others.
Alberti wrote I Libri della famiglia—which discussed education,
marriage, household management, and money—in the Tuscan dialect. The
work was not printed until 1843. Like
Erasmus decades later, Alberti
stressed the need for a reform in education. He noted that "the care
of very young children is women's work, for nurses or the mother," and
that at the earliest possible age children should be taught the
alphabet. With great hopes, he gave the work to his family to
read, but in his autobiography Alberti confesses that "he could hardly
avoid feeling rage, moreover, when he saw some of his relatives openly
ridiculing both the whole work and the author's futile enterprise
along it." Momus, written between 1443 and 1450, was a misogynist
comedy about the Olympian gods. It has been considered as a roman à
clef—Jupiter has been identified in some sources as Pope Eugenius IV
and Pope Nicholas V. Alberti borrowed many of its characters from
Lucian, one of his favorite Greek writers. The name of its hero,
Momus, refers to the Greek word for blame or criticism. After being
expelled from heaven, Momus, the god of mockery, is eventually
castrated. Jupiter and the other gods come down to earth also, but
they return to heaven after Jupiter breaks his nose in a great storm.
The dramatic facade of Sant' Andrea, Mantua, (1471) built to Alberti's
design after his death
The unfinished and altered facade of San Sebastiano has promoted much
speculation as to Alberti's intentions.
Alberti did not concern himself with the practicalities of building,
and very few of his major works were brought to completion. As a
designer and a student of
Vitruvius and of ancient Roman remains, he
grasped the nature of column and lintel architecture, from the visual
rather than structural viewpoint, and correctly employed the Classical
orders, unlike his contemporary, Brunelleschi, who utilised the
Classical column and pilaster in a free interpretation. Among
Alberti's concerns was the social effect of architecture, and to this
end he was very well aware of the cityscape. This is demonstrated
by his inclusion, at the Rucellai Palace, of a continuous bench for
seating at the level of the basement.
Rome he was employed by
Pope Nicholas V
Pope Nicholas V for the restoration of the
Roman aqueduct of Acqua Vergine, which debouched into a simple basin
designed by Alberti, which was swept away later by the Baroque Trevi
Some studies propose that the
Medici in Fiesole might owe
its design to Alberti, not to Michelozzo, and that it then became the
prototype of the
Renaissance villa. This hilltop dwelling,
commissioned by Giovanni de' Medici, Cosimo il Vecchio's second son,
with its view over the city, may be the very first example of a
Renaissance villa: that is to say it follows the Albertian criteria
for rendering a country dwelling a "villa suburbana". Under this
Medici in Fiesole could therefore be considered
the "muse" for numerous other buildings, not only in the Florence
area, which from the end of the 15th century onwards find inspiration
and creative innovation here.
Tempio Malatestiano, Rimini
Tempio Malatestiano in
Rimini (1447, 1453–60) is the
rebuilding of a Gothic church. The facade, with its dynamic play of
forms, was left incomplete.
Façade of Palazzo Rucellai
The design of the façade of the
Palazzo Rucellai (1446–51) was one
of several commissions for the Rucellai family. The design
overlays a grid of shallow pilasters and cornices in the Classical
manner onto rusticated masonry, and is surmounted by a heavy cornice.
The inner courtyard has Corinthian columns. The palace set a standard
in the use of Classical elements that is original in civic buildings
in Florence, and greatly influenced later palazzi. The work was
executed by Bernardo Rosselino.
Tempio Malatestiano, Rimini
The polychrome facade of Santa Maria Novella
Santa Maria Novella
At Santa Maria Novella, Florence, between (1448–70) the upper
facade was constructed to the design of Alberti. It was a challenging
task, as the lower level already had three doorways and six Gothic
niches containing tombs and employing the polychrome marble typical of
Florentine churches such as
San Miniato al Monte
San Miniato al Monte and the Baptistery of
Florence. The design also incorporates an ocular window which was
already in place. Alberti introduced Classical features around the
portico and spread the polychromy over the entire facade in a manner
which includes Classical proportions and elements such as pilasters,
cornices and a pediment in the Classical style, ornamented with a
sunburst in tesserae, rather than sculpture. The best known feature of
this typically aisled church is the manner in which Alberti has solved
the problem of visually bridging the different levels of the central
nave and much lower side aisles. He employed two large scrolls, which
were to become a standard feature of Church facades in the later
Renaissance, Baroque and Classical Revival buildings.
Piazza Pio II in Pienza, looking towards the Palazzo Piccolomini
Alberti is considered to have been the consultant for the design of
the Piazza Pio II, Pienza. The village, previously called Corsignano,
was redesigned beginning around 1459. It was the birthplace of
Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, Pope Pius II, in whose employ Alberti
served. Pius II wanted to use the village as a retreat but needed for
it to reflect the dignity of his position.
The piazza is a trapezoid shape defined by four buildings, with a
Pienza Cathedral and passages on either side opening onto a
landscape view. The principal residence, Palazzo Piccolomini, is on
the west side. It has three stories, articulated by pilasters and
entablature courses, with a twin-lighted cross window set within each
bay. This structure is similar to Alberti's
Palazzo Rucellai in
Florence and other later palaces. Noteworthy is the internal court of
the palazzo. The back of the palace, to the south, is defined by
loggia on all three floors that overlook an enclosed Italian
Renaissance garden with
Giardino all'italiana era modifications, and
spectacular views into the distant landscape of the
Val d'Orcia and
Pope Pius's beloved Mount Amiata beyond. Below this garden is a
vaulted stable that had stalls for 100 horses. The design, which
radically transformed the center of the town, included a palace for
the pope, a church, a town hall and a building for the bishops who
would accompany the Pope on his trips.
Pienza is considered an early
Renaissance urban planning.
Sant' Andrea, Mantua
The Basilica of Sant'Andrea,
Mantua was begun in 1471, the year
before Alberti's death. It was brought to completion and is his most
significant work employing the triumphal arch motif, both for its
facade and interior, and influencing many works that were to
follow. Alberti perceived the role of architect as designer. Unlike
Brunelleschi, he had no interest in the construction, leaving the
practicalities to builders and the oversight to others.
San Sebastiano, Mantua, (begun 1458) the unfinished facade of
which has promoted much speculation as to Alberti's intention
Sepolcro Rucellai in San Pancrazio, 1467)
The Tribune for Santissima Annunziata,
Florence (1470, completed with
Giorgio Vasari, who argued that historical progress in art reached its
peak in Michelangelo, emphasized Alberti's scholarly achievements, not
his artistic talents: "He spent his time finding out about the world
and studying the proportions of antiquities; but above all, following
his natural genius, he concentrated on writing rather than on applied
work."  Leonardo, who ironically called himself "an uneducated
person" (omo senza lettere), followed Alberti in the view that
painting is science. However, as a scientist Leonardo was more
empirical than Alberti, who was a theorist and did not have similar
interest in practice. Alberti believed in ideal beauty, but Leonardo
filled his notebooks with observations on human proportions, page
after page, ending with his famous drawing of the Vitruvian man, a
human figure related to a square and a circle.
In On Painting, Alberti uses the expression "We Painters", but as a
painter, or sculptor, he was a dilettante. "In painting Alberti
achieved nothing of any great importance or beauty," wrote Vasari.
"The very few paintings of his that are extant are far from perfect,
but this is not surprising since he devoted himself more to his
studies than to draughtsmanship."
Jacob Burckhardt portrayed Alberti
in The Civilization of the
Renaissance in Italy as a truly universal
genius. "And Leonardo Da Vinci was to Alberti as the finisher to the
beginner, as the master to the dilettante. Would only that Vasari's
work were here supplemented by a description like that of Alberti! The
colossal outlines of Leonardo's nature can never be more than dimly
and distantly conceived."
Alberti is said to be in Mantegna's great frescoes in the Camera degli
Sposi, the older man dressed in dark red clothes, who whispers in the
ear of Ludovico Gonzaga, the ruler of Mantua. In
Alberti's self-portrait, a large plaquette, he is clothed as a Roman.
To the left of his profile is a winged eye. On the reverse side is the
question, Quid tum? (what then), taken from Virgil's Eclogues: "So
what, if Amyntas is dark? (quid tum si fuscus Amyntas?) Violets are
black, and hyacinths are black."
Detail of the facade of Tempio Malatestiano
Alberti made a variety of contributions to several fields:
Alberti was the creator of a theory called "historia". In his treatise
De pictura (1435) he explains the theory of the accumulation of
people, animals, and buildings, which create harmony amongst each
other, and "hold the eye of the learned and unlearned spectator for a
long while with a certain sense of pleasure and emotion". De pictura
("On Painting") contained the first scientific study of perspective.
An Italian translation of
De pictura (Della pittura) was published in
1436, one year after the original
Latin version and addressed Filippo
Brunelleschi in the preface. The
Latin version had been dedicated to
Alberti's humanist patron, Gianfrancesco Gonzaga of Mantua. He also
wrote works on [sculpture], De Statua.
Alberti used his artistic treatises to propound a new humanistic
theory of art. He drew on his contacts with early Quattrocento artists
such as Brunelleschi, Donatello and Ghiberti to provide a practical
handbook for the renaissance artist.
Alberti wrote an influential work on architecture, De Re
Aedificatoria, which by the 16th century had been translated into
Italian (by Cosimo Bartoli), French, Spanish and English. An English
translation was by
Giacomo Leoni in the early 18th century. Newer
translations are now available.
Whilst Alberti's treatises on painting and architecture have been
hailed as the founding texts of a new form of art, breaking from the
Gothic past, it is impossible to know the extent of their practical
impact within his lifetime. His praise of the Calumny of Apelles led
to several attempts to emulate it, including paintings by Botticelli
and Signorelli. His stylistic ideals have been put into practice in
the works of Mantegna,
Piero della Francesca
Piero della Francesca and Fra Angelico. But how
far Alberti was responsible for these innovations and how far he was
simply articulating the trends of the artistic movement, with which
his practical experience had made him familiar, is impossible to
He was so skilled in
Latin verse that a comedy he wrote in his
twentieth year, entitled Philodoxius, would later deceive the younger
Aldus Manutius, who edited and published it as the genuine work of
The upper storey of Santa Maria Novella
One of the giant scrolls at Santa Maria Novella
He has been credited with being the author, or alternatively the
designer of the woodcut illustrations, of the Hypnerotomachia
Poliphili, a strange fantasy novel.
Apart from his treatises on the arts, Alberti also wrote: Philodoxus
("Lover of Glory", 1424), De commodis litterarum atque incommodis ("On
the Advantages and Disadvantages of Literary Studies", 1429),
Intercoenales ("Table Talk", c. 1429), Della famiglia ("On the
Family", begun 1432) Vita S. Potiti ("Life of St. Potitus", 1433), De
iure (On Law, 1437), Theogenius ("The Origin of the Gods", c. 1440),
Profugorium ab aerumna ("Refuge from Mental Anguish",),
and De Iciarchia ("On the Prince", 1468). These and other works were
translated and printed in Venice by the humanist
Cosimo Bartoli in
Alberti was an accomplished cryptographer by the standard of his day,
and invented the first polyalphabetic cipher, which is now known as
the Alberti cipher, and machine-assisted encryption using his Cipher
Disk. The polyalphabetic cipher was, at least in principle, for it was
not properly used for several hundred years, the most significant
advance in cryptography since before Julius Caesar's time.
Cryptography historian David Kahn titles him the "Father of Western
Cryptography", pointing to three significant advances in the field
which can be attributed to Alberti: "the earliest Western exposition
of cryptanalysis, the invention of polyalphabetic substitution, and
the invention of enciphered code."David Kahn (1967). The codebreakers:
the story of secret writing. New York: MacMillan.
According to Alberti himself, in a short autobiography written c. 1438
Latin and in the third person, (many but not all scholars consider
this work to be an autobiography) he was capable of "standing with his
feet together, and springing over a man's head." The autobiography
survives thanks to an 18th-century transcription by Antonio Muratori.
Alberti also claimed that he "excelled in all bodily exercises; could,
with feet tied, leap over a standing man; could in the great
cathedral, throw a coin far up to ring against the vault; amused
himself by taming wild horses and climbing mountains." Needless to
say, many in the
Renaissance promoted themselves in various ways and
Alberti's eagerness to promote his skills should be understood, to
some extent, within that framework. (This advice should be followed in
reading the above information, some of which originates in this
Alberti claimed in his "autobiography" to be an accomplished musician
and organist, but there is no hard evidence to support this claim. In
fact, musical posers were not uncommon in his day (see the lyrics to
the song Musica Son, by Francesco Landini, for complaints to this
effect.) He held the appointment of canon in the metropolitan church
of Florence, and thus – perhaps – had the leisure to devote
himself to this art, but this is only speculation. Vasari also agreed
He was also interested in the drawing of maps and worked with the
astronomer, astrologer, and cartographer Paolo Toscanelli.
In terms of Aesthetics Alberti is one of the first defining the work
of art as imitation of nature, exactly as a selection of its most
beautiful parts: "So let's take from nature what we are going to
paint, and from nature we choose the most beautiful and worthy
Works in print
A window of the Rucellai Palace
De Pictura, 1435. On Painting, in English, De Pictura, in Latin, On
Painting. Penguin Classics. 1972. ISBN 978-0-14-043331-9. ;
Della Pittura, in Italian (1804 ).
Latin text and English translation, 2003
De re aedificatoria
De re aedificatoria (1452, Ten Books on Architecture). Alberti, Leon
Battista. De re aedificatoria. On the art of building in ten books.
(translated by Joseph Rykwert,
Robert Tavernor and Neil Leach).
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1988. ISBN 0-262-51060-X.
ISBN 978-0-262-51060-8. Latin, French and Italian editions
De Cifris A
Treatise on Ciphers (1467), trans. A. Zaccagnini. Foreword
by David Kahn, Galimberti, Torino 1997.
Della tranquillitá dell'animo. 1441.
"Leon Battista Alberti. On Painting. A New Translation an Critical
Edition", Edited and Translated by Rocco Sinisgalli, Cambridge
University Press, New York, May 2011, ISBN 978-1-107-00062-9
I libri della famiglia, Italian edition 
"Dinner pieces". A Translation of the Intercenales by David Marsh.
Center for Medieval and Early
Renaissance Studies, State University of
New York, Binghampton 1987.
"Descriptio urbis Romae. Leon Battista Alberti's Delineation of the
city of Rome". Peter Hicks, Arizona Board of Regents for Arizona State
In Popular Culture
Mentioned in the 1994 film
Renaissance Man or Army Intelligence
starring Danny DeVito.
^ James Beck, "
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti and the 'Night Sky' at San
Lorenzo", Artibus et Historiae 10, No. 19 (1989:9–35), p. 9.
^ Williams, Kim (August 27, 2010). The Mathematical Works of Leon
Battista Alberti. Birkhauser Verlag AG. p. 1.
ISBN 978-3-0346-0473-4 – via Duke Libraries.
^ a b c d Melissa Snell, Leon Battsta Alberti, About.com: Medieval
^ a b c d e The Renaissance:a Illustrated Encyclopedia, Octopus (1979)
^ a b c d
Jacob Burckhardt in The Civilization of the Renaissance
Italy, 2.1, 1860.
^ a b c d e f g h i Joseph Rykwert, ed., Leon Baptiste Alberti,
Architectul Design, Vol 49 No 5-6, London
^ a b c d Vasari, The Lives of the Artists
^ Leone Battista Alberti, On Painting, editor John Richard Spencer,
1956, p. 43.
^ Nader El-Bizri, "A Philosophical Perspective on Alhazen’s Optics,"
Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, vol. 15, issue 2 (2005), pp. 189–218
(Cambridge University Press).
^ a b c d e Liukkonen, Petri. "Leon Battista Alberti". Books and
Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland:
Kuusankoski Public Library.
Archived from the original on 10 February 2015.
^ a b Alberti, Leon Battista. On the Art of Building in Ten Books.
Trans. Leach, N., Rykwert, J., & Tavenor, R. Cambridge: The MIT
^ Center for Palladian Studies in America, Inc., Palladio's Literary
^ D. Mazzini, S. Simone,
Medici a Fiesole. Leon Battista Alberti
e il prototipo di villa rinascimentale, Centro Di, Firenze 2004
^ a b c d e f g h Franco Borsi. Leon Battista Alberti. New York:
Harper & Row, (1977)
^ Liane Lefaivre, Leon Battista Alberti's Hypnerotomachia Poliphili,
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997
^ De Pictura, book III: Ergo semper quae picturi sumus, ea a natura
sumamus, semperque ex his quaeque pulcherrima et dignissima deligamus.
Gille, Bertrand (1970). "Alberti, Leone Battista". Dictionary of
Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
pp. 96–98. ISBN 0-684-10114-9.
Wright, D.R. Edward, "Alberti's De Pictura: Its Literary Structure and
Purpose", Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 47,
1984 (1984), pp. 52–71.
Robert Tavernor, On Alberti and the Art of Building. New Haven and
London: Yale University Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-300-07615-8.
Mark Jarzombek, “The Structural Problematic of Leon Battista
Alberti's De pictura”,
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Anthony Grafton, Leon Battista Alberti. Master Builder of the Italian
Renaissance. New York 2000
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and walling within the city space', The Journal of
309–45 Volume 16, Issue 3, London & New York: Routledge, 2011
Korolija Fontana-Giusti, Gordana, 'The Cutting Surface: On Perspective
as a Section, Its Relationship to Writing, and Its Role in
Understanding Space' AA Files No. 40 (Winter 1999), pp. 56–64
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Günther Fischer, Leon Battista Alberti. Sein Leben und seine
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Albertian Bibliography on line
MS Typ 422.2. Alberti, Leon Battista, 1404–1472. Ex ludis rerum
mathematicarum : manuscript, [14--]. Houghton Library, Harvard
Palladio's Literary Predecessors
"Learning from the City-States?
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti and the London
Riots", Caspar Pearson, Berfrois, 26 September 2011
Online resources for Alberti's buildings
Alberti Photogrammetric Drawings 
S. Andrea, Mantua, Italy
Sta. Maria Novella, Florence, Italy
Alberti's works online
De pictura/Della pittura, original
Latin and Italian texts (English
Libri della famiglia – Libro 3 – Dignità del volgare on audio MP3
Momus, (printed in
Rome in 1520), full digital facsimile, CAMENA
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti in Ten Books, (printed in
London in 1755), full digital facsimile, Linda Hall Library
Read online "Ten Books on
Architecture by Leone Battista Alberti"
Works of Alberti, book facsimiles via archive.org
ISNI: 0000 0001 2095 8329
BNF: cb12083793k (data)