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Lamium
Lamium
purpureum, showing the bilaterally symmetrical flower

Melissa officinalis

Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
(/ˌleɪmiˈeɪsiˌaɪ/[3] or /ˌleɪmiˈeɪsiiː/[3]) or Labiatae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the mint or deadnettle family. Many of the plants are aromatic in all parts and include widely used culinary herbs, such as basil, mint, rosemary, sage, savory, marjoram, oregano, hyssop, thyme, lavender, and perilla. Some species are shrubs, trees (such as teak), or, rarely, vines. Many members of the family are widely cultivated, not only for their aromatic qualities but also their ease of cultivation, since they are readily propagated by stem cuttings.[citation needed] Besides those grown for their edible leaves, some are grown for decorative foliage, such as Coleus. Others are grown for seed, such as Salvia
Salvia
hispanica (chia), or for their edible tubers, such as Plectranthus
Plectranthus
edulis, Plectranthus
Plectranthus
esculentus, Plectranthus
Plectranthus
rotundifolius, and Stachys affinis (Chinese artichoke). The family has a cosmopolitan distribution.[4] The enlarged Lamiaceae contains about 236 genera[5] and has been stated to contain 6,900[4] to 7,200[5] species, but the World Checklist lists 7,534.[6] The largest genera are Salvia
Salvia
(900), Scutellaria
Scutellaria
(360), Stachys
Stachys
(300), Plectranthus
Plectranthus
(300), Hyptis
Hyptis
(280), Teucrium
Teucrium
(250), Vitex
Vitex
(250), Thymus (220), and Nepeta
Nepeta
(200).[5] Clerodendrum
Clerodendrum
was once a genus of over 400 species,[5] but by 2010, it had been narrowed to about 150.[7] The family has traditionally been considered closely related to the Verbenaceae;[5] in the 1990s, phylogenetic studies suggested that many genera classified in the Verbenaceae
Verbenaceae
should be classified in the Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
[8][9] or to other families in the order Lamiales.[1] The alternate family name Labiatae refers to the fact that the flowers typically have petals fused into an upper lip and a lower lip (labia in Latin). The flowers are bilaterally symmetrical with five united petals and five united sepals. They are usually bisexual and verticillastrate (a flower cluster that looks like a whorl of flowers, but actually consists of two crowded clusters). Although this is still considered an acceptable alternative name, most botanists now use the name Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
in referring to this family. The leaves emerge oppositely, each pair at right angles to the previous one (decussate) or whorled. The stems are frequently square in cross section,[10] but this is not found in all members of the family, and is sometimes found in other plant families.

Contents

1 Genera 2 Recent changes 3 Subfamilies
Subfamilies
and tribes 4 Phylogeny 5 References 6 External links

Genera[edit] The last revision of the entire family was published in 2004.[5] It described and provided keys to 236 genera. These are marked with an asterisk in the list below. A few genera have been established or resurrected since 2004. These are marked with a plus sign (+). The remaining genera in the list are mostly of historical interest only and are from a source that includes such genera without explanation.[11] Few of these are recognized in modern treatments of the family. Kew Gardens
Kew Gardens
provides a list of genera that includes additional information.[12] A list at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website is frequently updated.[13]

*Acanthomintha *Achyrospermum Acinos Acrocephalus *Acrotome *Acrymia Adelosa *Aegiphila *Aeollanthus *Agastache *Ajuga *Ajugoides *Alajja *Alvesia *Amasonia *Amethystea *Anisochilus *Anisomeles Archboldia *Asterohyptis *Ballota *Basilicum Becium *Benguellia *Blephilia *Bostrychanthera Bovonia *Brachysola *Brazoria *Bystropogon Calamintha *Callicarpa *Capitanopsis Capitanya *Caryopteris *Catoferia *Cedronella Ceratanthus *Chaiturus *Chamaesphacos *Chaunostoma *Chelonopsis *Chloanthes *Cleonia *Clerodendrum *Clinopodium *Colebrookea *Collinsonia *Colquhounia *Comanthosphace *Congea *Conradina Coridothymus *Cornutia *Craniotome

*Cryphia *Cuminia *Cunila *Cyanostegia *Cyclotrichium *Cymaria *Dauphinea *Dicerandra *Dicrastylis Discretitheca Dorystoechas *Dracocephalum *Drepanocaryum *Elsholtzia *Endostemon Englerastrum *Eremostachys *Eriope *Eriophyton Eriopidion *Eriothymus Erythrochlamys Euhesperida *Eurysolen *Faradaya *Fuerstia *Galeopsis *Garrettia Geniosporum *Glechoma *Glechon *Glossocarya *Gmelina *Gomphostemma *Gontscharovia *Hanceola *Haplostachys *Haumaniastrum *Hedeoma *Hemiandra *Hemigenia *Hemiphora *Hemizygia *Hesperozygis *Heterolamium *Hoehnea *Holmskioldia *Holocheila Holostylon *Horminum *Hosea *Hoslundia *Huxleya *Hymenocrater *Hymenopyramis *Hypenia

*Hypogomphia *Hyptidendron *Hyptis *Hyssopus Isodictyophorus *Isodon *Isoleucas +Kalaharia *Karomia Keiskea Killickia Kudrjaschevia *Kurzamra *Lachnostachys *Lagochilus *Lagopsis *Lallemantia *Lamiophlomis *Lamium *Lavandula *Leocus *Leonotis *Leonurus *Lepechinia *Leucas Leucophae *Leucosceptrum Limniboza *Lophanthus *Loxocalyx *Lycopus *Macbridea *Madlabium *Mallophora *Marmoritis *Marrubium *Marsypianthes *Matsumurella *Meehania *Melissa *Melittis *Mentha *Meriandra Mesona *Metastachydium *Microcorys *Micromeria *Microtoena *Minthostachys *Moluccella *Monarda *Monardella *Monochilus *Mosla *Neoeplingia Neohyptis Neorapinia

*Nepeta *Newcastelia Nosema *Notochaete *Obtegomeria *Ocimum Octomeron *Ombrocharis *Oncinocalyx *Origanum *Orthosiphon *Otostegia +Ovieda *Oxera *Panzerina *Paralamium *Paraphlomis *Paravitex *Peltodon *Pentapleura *Perilla *Perillula *Peronema *Perovskia Perrierastrum Petitia *Petraeovitex *Phlomidoschema *Phlomis *Phlomoides *Phyllostegia *Physopsis *Physostegia *Piloblephis Pitardia *Pityrodia *Platostoma *Plectranthus *Pogogyne *Pogostemon *Poliomintha *Prasium *Premna *Prostanthera *Prunella *Pseuderemostachys *Pseudocarpidium *Pseudocaryopteris *Pseudomarrubium Puntia *Pycnanthemum *Pycnostachys Rabdosiella *Renschia *Rhabdocaulon *Rhaphiodon *Rhododon

*Rosmarinus *Rostrinucula *Rotheca *Roylea *Rubiteucris +Rydingia Sabaudia *Saccocalyx Salazaria *Salvia *Satureja *Schizonepeta *Schnabelia *Scutellaria *Sideritis *Siphocranion Solenostemon *Spartothamnella *Sphenodesme *Stachydeoma *Stachyopsis *Stachys *Stenogyne *Sulaimania *Suzukia *Symphorema Symphostemon *Synandra *Syncolostemon *Tectona *Teijsmanniodendron +Tetraclea *Tetradenia *Teucridium *Teucrium *Thorncroftia *Thuspeinanta *Thymbra *Thymus *Tinnea *Trichostema *Tripora *Tsoongia *Vitex *Viticipremna +Volkameria *Warnockia *Wenchengia *Westringia Wiedemannia *Wrixonia Xenopoma *Zataria *Zhumeria *Ziziphora

Leucas aspera
Leucas aspera
in Hyderabad, India.

Orthosiphon
Orthosiphon
thymiflorus flower.

Oregano

Recent changes[edit] The circumscription of several genera has changed since 2004. Tsoongia, Paravitex, and Viticipremna
Viticipremna
have been sunk into synonymy with Vitex.[14] Huxleya
Huxleya
has been sunk into Volkameria.[7] Kalaharia, Volkameria, Ovieda, and Tetraclea have been segregated from a formerly polyphyletic Clerodendrum.[7] Rydingia has been separated from Leucas.[15] The remaining Leucas
Leucas
is paraphyletic over four other genera.[16] Subfamilies
Subfamilies
and tribes[edit] In 2004, the Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
were divided into seven subfamilies with 10 genera not placed in any of the subfamilies.[5] The unplaced genera are: Tectona, Callicarpa, Hymenopyramis, Petraeovitex, Peronema, Garrettia, Cymaria, Acrymia, Holocheila, and Ombrocharis. The subfamilies are the Symphorematoideae, Viticoideae, Ajugoideae, Prostantheroideae, Nepetoideae, Scutellarioideae, and Lamioideae. The subfamily Viticoideae
Viticoideae
is probably not monophyletic.[14] The Prostantheroideae and Nepetoideae are divided into tribes. These are shown in the phylogenetic tree below. Phylogeny[edit] Most of the genera of Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
have never been sampled for DNA
DNA
for molecular phylogenetic studies. Most of those that have been are included in the following phylogenetic tree. The phylogeny depicted below is based on seven different sources.[5][9][7][14][17][18][19]

Lamiaceae 

Callicarpa

Tectona

Viticoideae (pro parte) 

Gmelina

Premna

Viticoideae (pro parte) 

Vitex

Symphorematoideae 

Congea

Symphorema

Ajugoideae 

Rotheca

Teucrium

Ajuga

Oxera

Faradaya

Kalaharia

Clerodendrum

Volkameria

Ovieda

Aegiphila

Tetraclea

Amasonia

Prostantheroideae 

Chloantheae 

Chloanthes

Westringieae

Prostanthera

Westringia

Nepetoideae 

Ocimeae 

Lavandula

Siphocranion

Isodon

Hanceola

Hyptis

Orthosiphon

Ocimum

Plectranthus

Solenostemon

Elsholtzieae 

Elsholtzia

Perilla

Mentheae 

Lepechinia

Salvia

Rosmarinus

Prunella

Nepeta

Dracocephalum

Agastache

Origanum

Thymus

Mentha

Satureja

Clinopodium

Bystropogon

Pycnanthemum

Monarda

Dicerandra

Conradina

Scutellarioideae 

Holmskioldia

Scutellaria

Lamioideae 

Pogostemon

Phlomis

Lamium

Stachys

Sideritis

Haplostachys

Stenogyne

Phyllostegia

Leonurus

Marrubium

Moluccella

Rydingia

Leucas

Leonotis

References[edit]

^ a b Stevens, P. F. (July 2012). " Lamiales
Lamiales
( Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Family)". Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Website. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-06-26.  ^ a b "Pronunciation of lamiaceae". Retrieved 2014-11-25.  ^ a b Heywood, Vernon H.; Brummitt, Richard K.; Seberg, Ole; Culham, Alastair. Flowering Plant
Plant
Families of the World. Ontario, Canada: Firefly Books. ISBN 978-1-55407-206-4.  ^ a b c d e f g h Raymond M. Harley, Sandy Atkins, Andrey L. Budantsev, Philip D. Cantino, Barry J. Conn, Renée J. Grayer, Madeline M. Harley, Rogier P.J. de Kok, Tatyana V. Krestovskaja, Ramón Morales, Alan J. Paton, and P. Olof Ryding. 2004. "Labiatae" pages 167-275. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor) and Joachim W. Kadereit (volume editor). The Families and Genera
Genera
of Vascular Plants volume VII. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-540-40593-1 ^ World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families ^ a b c d Yuan, Yao-Wu; Mabberley, David J.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Olmstead, Richard G. (2010). "Further disintegration and redefinition of Clerodendrum
Clerodendrum
(Lamiaceae): Implications for the understanding of the evolution of an intriguing breeding strategy". Taxon. 59 (1): 125–133.  ^ Cantino, P.D., Harley, R.M. & Wagstaff, S.J. 1992. Genera
Genera
of Labiatae: status and classification. Pp. 511-522. In: Raymond M. Harley and Tom Reynolds (editors). Advances in Labiate Science. Richmond, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ^ a b Wagstaff, Steven J.; Hickerson, Laura; Spangler, Russ; Reeves, Patrick A.; Olmstead, Richard G. (1998). " Phylogeny
Phylogeny
in Labiatae s.l., inferred from cp DNA
DNA
sequences". Plant
Plant
Systematics and Evolution. 209 (3–4): 265–274. doi:10.1007/bf00985232.  ^ Parnell, J. and Curtis, T. 2012. Webb's An Irish Flora. Cork University Press ISBN 978-185918-4783 ^ "List of genera in Lamiaceae". In: "Lamiaceae". In: "List of families". In: "Families and genera in GRIN. (see External links below) ^ List of Genera
Genera
in Lamiaceae. At: Vascular Plant
Plant
Families and Genera. At: World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families. At: Electronic Plant Information Center. At: Website of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (see External Links below). ^ APG list of Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
genera ^ a b c Bramley, Gemma L.C.; Forest, Félix; Rogier (2009). "Troublesome tropical mints: re-examining generic limits of Vitex
Vitex
and relations (Lamiaceae) in South East Asia". Taxon. 58 (2): 500–510.  ^ Scheen, Anne-Cathrine; Albert, Victor A. (2007). "Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes within the Leucas
Leucas
clade (Lamioideae; Lamiaceae)"". Systematics and Geography of Plants. 77 (2): 229–238.  ^ Scheen, Anne-Cathrine; Albert, Victor A. (2009). "Molecular Phylogenetics of the Leucas
Leucas
Group (Lamioideae; Lamiaceae)"". Systematic Botany. 34 (1): 173–181. doi:10.1600/036364409787602366.  ^ Zhong, Jin-Shun; Li, Jie; Li, Lang; Conran, John G.; Hsi-wen, Li (2010). " Phylogeny
Phylogeny
of Isodon
Isodon
(Schrad. ex Benth.) Spach (Lamiaceae) and Related Genera
Genera
Inferred from Nuclear Ribosomal ITS, trnL-trnF Region, and rps16 Intron Sequences and Morphology". Systematic Botany. 35 (1): 207–219. doi:10.1600/036364410790862614.  ^ Walker, Jay B.; Sytsma, Kenneth J. (2007). "Staminal Evolution in the Genus Salvia
Salvia
(Lamiaceae): Molecular Phylogenetic
Phylogenetic
Evidence for Multiple Origins of the Staminal Lever". Annals of Botany. 100 (2): 375–391. doi:10.1093/aob/mcl176. PMC 2735309 . PMID 16926227.  ^ Ryding, P. Olof (2010). "Pericarp structure and phylogeny of tribe Mentheae
Mentheae
(Lamiaceae)"". Plant
Plant
Systematics and Evolution. 285 (3-4): 165–175. doi:10.1007/s00606-010-0270-9. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lamiaceae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval. http://delta-intkey.com

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q53476 EoL: 4302 EPPO: 1LAMF FloraBase: 22905 FoC: 10476 GBIF: 2497 GRIN: 619 IPNI: 30000097-2 ITIS: 32251 NCBI: 4136 Tropicos: 42000291 VASCAN: 152 WoRMS: 425910

Authority control

GND: 41678

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