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LA PAZ, (/lɑː ˈpɑːz/ ), officially known as NUESTRA SEñORA DE LA PAZ (Spanish pronunciation: ; English: Our Lady of Peace), also named CHUQI YAPU (CHUQUIAGO) in Aymara , is the seat of government of the Plurinational State of Bolivia
Bolivia
. With an estimated 789,541 residents as of 2015, La Paz
La Paz
is the third-most populous city in Bolivia
Bolivia
(after Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Santa Cruz de la Sierra
and El Alto ).

Its metropolitan area, which is formed by La Paz, El Alto and Viacha , makes up the most populous urban area in Bolivia, with a population of 2.3 million. It is also the capital of the La Paz
La Paz
Department .

The city, located in west-central Bolivia
Bolivia
68 km (42 mi) southeast of Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
, is set in a canyon created by the Choqueyapu River . It is located in a bowl-like depression surrounded by the high mountains of the Altiplano
Altiplano
. Overlooking the city is the towering, triple-peaked Illimani . Its peaks are always snow covered and can be seen from many parts of the city. At an elevation of roughly 3,650 m (11,975 ft) above sea level , La Paz
La Paz
is the highest capital city in the world . Due to its altitude, La Paz
La Paz
has an unusual subtropical highland climate , with rainy summers and dry winters.

La Paz
La Paz
was founded on October 20, 1548 by the Spanish conquistador Captain Alonso de Mendoza at the site of the Inca
Inca
settlement of Laja as a connecting point between the commercial routes that led from Potosí and Oruro to Lima
Lima
; the full name of the city was originally Nuestra Señora de La Paz
La Paz
(meaning Our Lady of Peace
Peace
) in commemoration of the restoration of peace following the insurrection of Gonzalo Pizarro and fellow conquistadors against the first viceroy of Peru
Peru
. The city was later moved to its present location in the valley of Chuquiago Marka. La Paz
La Paz
was under Spanish colonial rule as part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata , before Bolivia gained independence. Since its founding, the city was the site of numerous revolts. In 1781, the indigenous leader and independence activist Túpac Katari laid siege to the city for a total of six months, but was finally defeated. On July 16, 1809 the Bolivian patriot Pedro Domingo Murillo ignited a revolution for independence, marking the beginning of the Spanish American Wars of Independence , which gained the freedom of South American states in 1821.

As the seat of the government of Bolivia, La Paz
La Paz
is the site of the Palacio Quemado , the Presidential Palace and seat of the Bolivian executive power , the Plurinational Legislative Assembly , and numerous government departments and agencies. Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia
Bolivia
and retains the judicial power . The city hosts numerous foreign embassies as well as international missions in the country. La Paz
La Paz
is an important political, administrative, economic, and sports center of Bolivia; it generates 25% of Bolivia's Gross Domestic Product and serves as the headquarters for numerous Bolivian companies and industries.

La Paz
La Paz
is also an important cultural center of Bolivia, as it hosts several landmarks belonging to the colonial times, such as the San Francisco Church , the Metropolitan Cathedral , the Plaza Murillo and the Jaén Street. The city is renowned for its unique markets, particularly the Witches\' Market , and for its vibrant nightlife. Its unusual topography offers unique views of the city and the surrounding mountains of the Cordillera Real from numerous natural viewing points . La Paz
La Paz
is also home to both the longest and highest urban cable car network in the world. In May 2015, it was officially recognized as one of the New 7 Wonders Cities together with Beirut
Beirut
, Doha
Doha
, Durban
Durban
, Havana
Havana
, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and Vigan . La Paz
La Paz
is listed on the Global Cities Index 2015, and is considered a global city type "Gamma" by Globalization and World Cities Research Network
Globalization and World Cities Research Network
(GaWC).

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 Districts and neighborhoods

* 3.1 Main neighborhoods and zones

* 4 Cityscape * 5 Colonial architecture * 6 Economy * 7 Sports * 8 Education

* 9 Tourism

* 9.1 Principal attractions

* 9.1.1 Museums and cultural centers * 9.1.2 Churches and cathedrals * 9.1.3 Other attractions

* 10 Local festivals

* 11 Transportation

* 11.1 Highways * 11.2 Air * 11.3 Bus * 11.4 Cable car system * 11.5 La Paz traffic zebras
La Paz traffic zebras

* 12 Communications and media * 13 Water supply

* 14 International relations

* 14.1 Twin towns and sister cities

* 15 Notable people * 16 Image gallery * 17 Curiosities * 18 See also * 19 References * 20 External links

HISTORY

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Main article: History of La Paz Government Palace of Bolivia
Bolivia
in downtown La Paz
La Paz

This area had been the site of an Inca
Inca
city, located on a major trading route.

Although the Spanish conquistadors entered the area in 1535, they did not found La Paz
La Paz
until 1548. Originally it was to be at the site of the Native American settlement, Laja , with the full name of the city being Nuestra Señora de La Paz
La Paz
(meaning Our Lady of Peace
Peace
). The name commemorated the restoration of peace following the insurrection of Gonzalo Pizarro and fellow conquistadors four years earlier against Blasco Núñez Vela
Blasco Núñez Vela
, the first viceroy of Peru
Peru
. The town site was moved a few days later to its present location in the valley of Chuquiago, which is more clement.

Control over the former Inca
Inca
lands had been entrusted to Pedro de la Gasca by the Spanish king (and Holy Roman Emperor) Emperor Charles V . Gasca commanded Alonso de Mendoza to found a new city commemorating the end of the civil wars in Peru; the city of La Paz
La Paz
was founded on October 20, 1548 by Alonzo de Mendoza, with Juan de Vargas appointed as its first mayor.

In 1549, Juan Gutierrez Paniagua was commanded to design an urban plan that would designate sites for public areas, plazas, official buildings, and a cathedral. These were meant to express the ideals and relationships of Spanish colonial society. La Plaza de los Españoles, which is known today as the Plaza Murillo, was chosen as the location for government buildings as well as the Metropolitan Cathedral.

Spain
Spain
controlled La Paz
La Paz
with a firm grip and the Spanish king had the last word in all matters political, but consultation was extended, taking months or longer by sea. Indigenous and other unrest was repeated around the turn of the nineteenth century. In 1781, for a total of six months, a group of Aymara people laid siege to La Paz. Under the leadership of Tupac Katari , they destroyed churches and government property. Thirty years later Indians conducted a two-month siege against La Paz. This incident was the setting for the origin of the legend of the Ekeko . In 1809 the struggle for independence from the Spanish rule brought uprisings against the royalist forces. On July 16, 1809 Pedro Domingo Murillo said that the Bolivian revolution was igniting a lamp that nobody would be able to turn off. This uprising formally marked the beginning of the liberation of South America from Spain. The first open rebellions against the Spanish Crown took place in La Paz
La Paz
and the city of Sucre simultaneously. This event is known as the Primer Grito Libertario de América .

Pedro Domingo Murillo was hanged at the Plaza de los Españoles that night. After Bolivia
Bolivia
gained independence, La Paz
La Paz
named this plaza after him, to commemorate him always. He is remembered as the voice of revolution across South America.

In 1825, after the decisive victory of the republicans at Ayacucho over the Spanish army in the course of the Spanish American wars of independence , the city's full name was changed to La Paz
La Paz
de Ayacucho (meaning The Peace
Peace
of Ayacucho).

In 1898, La Paz
La Paz
was made the de facto seat of the national government, with Sucre remaining the nominal historical as well as judiciary capital. This change reflected the shift of the Bolivian economy away from the largely exhausted silver mines of Potosí to the exploitation of tin near Oruro , and resulting shifts in the distribution of economic and political power among various national elites .

GEOGRAPHY

Valle de la Luna ("moon valley") The Illimani mountain seen from La Paz
La Paz

Located at 16°30′0″S 68°08′0″W / 16.50000°S 68.13333°W / -16.50000; -68.13333 (−16.5, −68.1333), La Paz is built in a canyon created by the Choqueyapu River (now mostly built over), which runs northwest to southeast. The city's main thoroughfare, which roughly follows the river, changes names over its length, but the central tree-lined section running through the downtown core is called the Prado.

The geography of La Paz
La Paz
(in particular the altitude) is marked by social differences. The more affluent residents live in the lower, central areas of the city southwest of the Prado. Many middle-class residents live in high-rise condos near the center. Lower-income residents live in makeshift brick houses in the surrounding hills.

The satellite city of El Alto, in which the airport is located, is spread over a broad area to the west of the canyon, on the Altiplano. La Paz
La Paz
is renowned for its unique markets, unusual and dramatic topography, and traditional culture.

La Paz
La Paz
is located in the valleys of the Andes, close to the Eastern split of the Altiplano
Altiplano
region. It is closer to such notable mountains as the Illimani (guardian of La Paz), Huayna Potosi, Mururata, and Illampu. On the Western side of the Altiplano
Altiplano
divide, about an hour to the west of the La Paz, is the Sajama Volcano, the tallest mountain in Bolivia
Bolivia
and ninth-tallest mountain in the Andes.

In July 1994, an earthquake rated at 8.2 struck just 200 miles (322 km) north of La Paz. It could be felt near La Paz
La Paz
and caused damage throughout the villages of the area.

CLIMATE

LA PAZ (ELEVATION 4,058 M)

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

134 14 4 105 14 4 72 14 4 32 14 1 14 14 −2 5.1 14 −4 7.1 14 −4 15 14 −3 36 15 −1 38 15 2 51 17 2 95 16 4

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

5.3 58 40 4.1 58 40 2.8 58 38 1.2 58 34 0.6 58 29 0.2 57 24 0.3 56 24 0.6 57 27 1.4 60 30 1.5 60 35 2 63 36 3.7 60 38

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

The city in winter, with Illimani in the background.

At more than 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) above sea level, higher parts of La Paz
La Paz
have an unusual subtropical highland climate (Cwc, according to the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
), with subpolar oceanic characteristics (less than 4 months have a mean temperature above 10 °C), bordering on a tundra climate (ET). The whole city has rainy summers and dry winters. Night-time temperatures range from cold to very cold. Snow flurries can occur in winter, especially at dawn and it usually melts before noon. At these high altitudes despite being located only 16 degrees from the equator, the city's average temperature is similar to that of cities such as Bergen
Bergen
, Norway
Norway
or Tórshavn , Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
, located as far as 60 and 62 degrees from the equator respectively.

The temperatures in the central La Paz, at 3,600 metres (11,811 feet), and in the Zona Sur (Southern Zone), at 3,250 m (10,663 ft) above sea level, are warmer (subtropical highland climate Cwb, according to the Köppen classification).

Owing to the altitude of the city, temperatures are consistently cool to mild throughout the year, though the diurnal temperature variation is typically large. The city has a relatively dry climate, with rainfall occurring mainly in the slightly warmer months of November to March.

At 4,012 metres, February and March, the two cloudiest months of the year, both in late summer, receive a low daily average of around 5 hours of sunshine. Conversely, June and July, the two sunniest months of the year, both in winter, receive an abundant daily average of around 8 hours of sunshine.

The seasonally uneven distribution of the year's annual precipitation often results in destructive mudslides experienced in summer, due to the excessive amount of precipitation typically observed throughout the season. At 3,250 metres, the wettest month is January with a monthly average of 114 mm (4.5 in) and the driest is July with 8 mm (0.3 in).

The warmest temperature recorded was 27.0 °C (80.6 °F) and the coldest was −12.5 °C (9.5 °F).

CLIMATE DATA FOR LA PAZ, BOLIVIA (EL ALTO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT , ELEVATION 4,058 M)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 25.4 (77.7) 22.8 (73) 25.1 (77.2) 22.9 (73.2) 24.0 (75.2) 20.0 (68) 23.0 (73.4) 21.0 (69.8) 23.0 (73.4) 23.0 (73.4) 24.2 (75.6) 22.0 (71.6) 25.4 (77.7)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 14.3 (57.7) 14.2 (57.6) 14.4 (57.9) 14.4 (57.9) 14.0 (57.2) 13.5 (56.3) 13.7 (56.7) 15.3 (59.5) 15.3 (59.5) 17.0 (62.6) 15.7 (60.3) 15.0 (59)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 9.3 (48.7) 9.0 (48.2) 8.9 (48) 8.8 (47.8) 8.2 (46.8) 7.3 (45.1) 6.8 (44.2) 8.2 (46.8) 8.7 (47.7) 10.0 (50) 10.5 (50.9) 9.7 (49.5) 8.8 (47.8)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 4.4 (39.9) 4.4 (39.9) 3.6 (38.5) 1.0 (33.8) −1.9 (28.6) −4.3 (24.3) −4.4 (24.1) −3 (27) −1.0 (30.2) 1.5 (34.7) 2.1 (35.8) 3.6 (38.5) 0.5 (32.9)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −3.3 (26.1) −3.3 (26.1) −2.7 (27.1) −4.7 (23.5) −10.3 (13.5) −12.4 (9.7) −11.9 (10.6) −10 (14) −10 (14) −5.2 (22.6) −5 (23) −2.8 (27) −12.4 (9.7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 133.7 (5.264) 104.7 (4.122) 71.7 (2.823) 31.7 (1.248) 14.3 (0.563) 5.1 (0.201) 7.1 (0.28) 15.2 (0.598) 35.5 (1.398) 38.1 (1.5) 50.5 (1.988) 94.9 (3.736) 602.5 (23.72)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 20.7 15.8 14.2 9.8 3.6 2.8 2.8 5.1 8.2 10.4 11.5 15.5 120.3

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 66 72 67 59 48 42 43 42 48 49 51 60 54

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 182.9 152.6 148.8 165.0 222.7 240.0 235.6 217.0 189.0 179.8 171.0 186.0 2,288.9

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 46 43 40 47 64 73 68 61 53 47 45 46 52

Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
, Meteo Climat (extremes 1942–present)

Source #2: Climatemps.com (sunshine)

CLIMATE DATA FOR LA PAZ, BOLIVIA (ELEVATION 3,250 M)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 25 (77) 24 (75) 24 (75) 24 (75) 22 (72) 21 (70) 22 (72) 22 (72) 27 (81) 24 (75) 25 (77) 24 (75) 27.0 (80.6)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 17 (63) 17 (63) 18 (64) 18 (64) 18 (64) 17 (63) 17 (63) 17 (63) 18 (64) 19 (66) 19 (66) 18 (64) 17.8 (64)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 11.5 (52.7) 11.5 (52.7) 12.0 (53.6) 11.0 (51.8) 10.5 (50.9) 9.0 (48.2) 9.0 (48.2) 9.5 (49.1) 10.5 (50.9) 11.5 (52.7) 12.5 (54.5) 12.0 (53.6) 10.9 (51.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 6 (43) 6 (43) 6 (43) 4 (39) 3 (37) 1 (34) 1 (34) 2 (36) 3 (37) 4 (39) 6 (43) 6 (43) 4.0 (39.2)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 1 (34) 2 (36) 2 (36) −1 (30) −1 (30) −3 (27) −3 (27) −3 (27) −1 (30) −1 (30) −1 (30) 2 (36) −3.0 (26.6)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 114 (4.49) 107 (4.21) 66 (2.6) 33 (1.3) 13 (0.51) 8 (0.31) 10 (0.39) 13 (0.51) 28 (1.1) 41 (1.61) 48 (1.89) 94 (3.7) 575 (22.64)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 21 18 16 9 5 2 2 4 9 9 11 18 124

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 186 141 155 180 248 270 279 248 210 186 180 186 2,469

Source: BBC Weather

DISTRICTS AND NEIGHBORHOODS

La Paz's districts

# DISTRICT POPULATION AREA (km² ) TYPE MAP

1 Mallasa 5,082 32,68 Urbano

2 Zona Sur 127,228 64,15 Urbano

3 San Antonio 115,659 22,59 Urbano

4 Periférica 159,123 26,05 Urbano

5 Max Paredes 164,566 13,31 Urbano

6 Centro 64,272 5,22 Urbano

7 Cotahuma 153,655 16,10 Urbano

23 Zongo

Rural

22 Hampaturi

Rural

LA PAZ\'S NEIGHBORHOODS

# DISTRICT MAP NEIGHBORHOODS MAIN STREETS

1 Mallasa 90px Amor de Dios • Mallasa • Muela del Diablo • Mallasilla • Jupapina Carretera principal Rio abajo

2 Zona Sur 80px Obrajes • Bella Vista • Bolonia • Irpavi • Calacoto • Cota Cota • Achumani • Ovejuyo • Koani • La Florida • Seguencoma • San Miguel Avenida Ballivián

3 San Antonio 80px San Antonio • Villa Copacabana • Pampahasi • Valle Hermoso • Kupini • Villa Armonía • Callapa, •San Isidro Avenida cd del niño

4 Periférica 50px Achachicala • Chuquiaguillo • Villa Fátima • Vino Tinto •5 Dedos • Santiago
Santiago
de Lacaya • Rosasani Avenida Grl Juan Jose Torres

5 Max Paredes 50px Munaypata • La Portada • El Tejar • Gran Poder • Obispo Indaburu • Chamoco Chico • Munaypata • Pura Pura • Ciudadela Ferroviaria Avenida Naciones Unidas

6 Zona Centro 80px Casco Urbano Central • San Jorge • Miraflores • Barrio Gráfico • San Sebastián • Santa Bárbara • Parque Urbano Central Avenida Arce • Avenida 16 de Julio

7 Cotahuma 70px Sopocachi
Sopocachi
• Alto Sopocachi
Sopocachi
• Pasankeri • Tembladerani • Alpacoma • Belén • Tacagua • San Pedro • Bajo Llojeta Avenida Buenos Aires

MAIN NEIGHBORHOODS AND ZONES

Buildings in San Jorge, on the 1st District (Cotahuma). La Paz
La Paz
skyline from the "Via Balcón". The Southern District is one of the most affluent neighborhoods in La Paz. San Jorge Located in the district known as Cotahuma and near Sopocachi
Sopocachi
, is one of the main residential and diplomatic areas of the city. San Jorge is one of the most exclusive neighborhoods of La Paz
La Paz
and the financial center of the metropolis, housing international firms like Deloitte
Deloitte
, Bank of America
Bank of America
, Ernst has less height than the rest of La Paz
La Paz
(3,200 to 2,800 meters). This area houses some of the most affluent and exclusive neighborhoods of the city, like Obrajes, Irpavi, Calacoto , La Florida and Achumani, among others. It has been benefited from steady economic growth and is now the second commercial and financial center of the city, housing international firms like Moody\'s , Citibank
Citibank
, Aon Corporation , Huawei
Huawei
, Millicom International Cellular, Nissan Motor Corporation , Samsung Electronics , Pan American Silver Corporation , a Sumitomo Corporation branch, Ernst margin-right:auto; overflow:hidden; width:auto; max-width:1108px;"> View of La Paz at sunset, from the "Killi Killi" lookout.

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE

The city of La Paz
La Paz
has a consistently decreasing volume of colonial buildings, mostly centered around the vicinity of the Plaza Murillo. Due to a lack of funds and the inability of property owners to pay for restorations to colonial buildings, many have been torn down, or are in a dilapidated state. As historic buildings are more expensive to keep, land owners find it less of a burden to construct more modern buildings as opposed to keeping the old ones. Although there has been an increasing number of projects and propositions to restore some of the city's colonial buildings, the future of these historic edifices remains uncertain.

ECONOMY

Sopocachi
Sopocachi
is the financial center of La Paz
La Paz
The headquarters of the Central Bank of Bolivia
Bolivia
in Downtown La Paz
La Paz

The economy of La Paz
La Paz
has improved greatly in recent years, mainly as a result of improved political stability. Due to the long period of high inflation and economic struggle faced by Bolivians in the 1980s and early 1990s, a large informal economy developed. Evidence of this is provided by the markets found all around the city. While there are stable markets, almost every street in the downtown area and surrounding neighborhoods has at least one vendor on it. La Paz remains the principal center of manufacturing enterprises that produce finished-product goods for the country, with about two-thirds of Bolivia's manufacturing located nearby. Historically, industry in Bolivia
Bolivia
has been dominated by mineral processing and the preparation of agricultural products. However, in the urban centre of La Paz, small plants carry out a large portion of the industry. Food, tobacco products, clothing, various consumer goods, building materials, and agricultural tools are produced. "The tin quotations from London
London
are watched in La Paz
La Paz
with close interest as an index of the country's prosperity; a third of the national revenue and more than half of the total customs in 1925 were derived from tin; in short, that humble but indispensable metal is the hub around which Bolivia's economic life revolves. The tin deposits of Bolivia, second largest in the world, ... invite development."

SPORTS

La Paz
La Paz
is the home of some of the biggest football teams in Bolivia.

* The Strongest : Founded in 1908 the club hosts some of its games and trains on their home stadium named Rafael Mendoza after Don Rafael Mendoza, one of the most important presidents of the club. In 1968 an airplane accident took the life of almost all the players, but Rafael Mendoza made many efforts that allowed the team to rise again as one of the most important in the country. * Club Bolivar : Founded in 1925, it was named in honor of the Libertador Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
, the team has won most of the tournaments national and international championships in the last 20 years. In the year 1964 was a bad year, and it lost the category, playing the next year in the second category.

Estadio Hernando Siles

* La Paz F.C. : Founded in 1989, the club quickly rose through the ranks to become the third major club in the capital, only behind in popularity to the two well-established city rivals.

The city is host to several other teams that play in the first and second divisions such as:

* Academia de Balompié Boliviano * Always Ready * Chaco Petrolero * Club 31 de Octubre * Deportivo Municipal de La Paz * Fraternidad Tigres * Mariscal Braun * Universitario de La Paz * Unión Maestranza

With the exception of Deportivo Municipal and Unión Maestranza, all the other teams play the majority of their games in the city stadium, the Estadio Hernando Siles , which also hosts the national football team and international games. Always Ready frequently play at the Estadio Rafael Mendoza which belongs to The Strongest, who rarely use the stadium due to its relatively small capacity.

EDUCATION

The city hosts some of the most important universities of the country:

FOUNDATION UNIVERSITY WORLD RANKING 2012 (CSIC WEBOMETRICS) LATIN AMERICAN RANKING 2012 (CSIC WEBOMETRICS) ACADEMIC PRODUCTION(RANKING SCIMAGO LAB) NATIONAL RANKING LOGO WEB

1830-10-25 Universidad Mayor de San Andrés UMSA Estatal 2266 182 - 2

UMSA

1994-03-21 Universidad Católica Boliviana San Pablo UCB Privada 3449 308 - 3

UCB

- Universidad Central de Bolivia
Bolivia
UNICEN Privada 4919 489 - 5

UNICEN

- Universidad Privada del Valle UPV Privada 7686 757 - 8

UPV

- UP Boliviana UPB Privada 8206 822 - 9

Universidad Privada Boliviana

1950 Escuela Militar de Ingeniería EMI Estatal 10670 1103 - 13

EMI

- Universidad Salesiana de Bolivia
Bolivia

Privada 11280 1174 - 16

Salesiana

- Universidad Nur Bolivia
Bolivia

Privada 12461 1333 - 18

NUR

- Universidad Loyola

Privada 13398 1499 - 20

Loyola

- Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar
Simón Bolívar
Bolivia
Bolivia
UASB Estatal 13418 1506 - 21

UASB

TOURISM

Tiwanaku Square in front of the football stadium

La Paz
La Paz
is an important cultural center of Bolivia. The city hosts several cathedrals belonging to the colonial times, such as the San Francisco Cathedral and the Metropolitan Cathedral, this last one located on Murillo Square, which is also home of the political and administrative power of the country. Hundreds of different museums can be found across the city, the most notable ones on Jaén Street, which street design has been preserved from the Spanish days and is home of 10 different museums.

The home of the Bolivian government is located on Murillo Square and is known as "Palacio Quemado" (Burnt Palace) as it has been on fire several times. The palace has been restored many times since, but the name has remained untouched.

PRINCIPAL ATTRACTIONS

Museums And Cultural Centers

* The former home of Pedro Domingo Murillo , martyr of the independence revolution of 1809, has been preserved and is now a museum. The house displays a collection of furniture, textiles, and art from colonial times. * Museo Costumbrista: Displays ceramic dolls wearing traditional customs that show how was life in the early 19th century. Also on display are photos of old La Paz. * Museo Nacional de Arqueología (National Museum of Archeology): Depicts a collection of artifacts of the Tiawanaku culture. * Museo del Litoral (Museum of the Litoral Coastal Region): Displays objects from the 1879 war in which Bolivia
Bolivia
lost its sea coast to Chile . * Museo del Oro (Gold Museum): Depicts pre-Conquest works made of gold, silver and copper. * Museo de Etnografía y Folklore (Ethnography and Folkolore Museum): Located in a house built during the late 18th century, it exhibits customs and art of two ethnic groups: Chipayas and Ayoreos. * Museo del Charango (Museum of Charango): Located in Calle Linares, the museum displays an important variety of charangos. Other native instruments are displayed as well. * Museo de Historia Natural (Natural History Museum): Exhibits on Bolivian paleontology, geology, zoology and botanical elements of interest. * Casa Museo Marina Nuñez del Prado (Marina Nuñez del Prado House Museum): Displays Quechua and Aymara-theme sculptures by Bolivian artist Marina Nuñez del Prado. * Museo Nacional de Arte (National Art Museum): Located in Calle Comercio, on a former palace built in 1775, displays works by Melchor Perez de Holguín and Marina Nuñez del Prado, among others. * Mercado de Brujas (Witches\' Market ): Merchandise sold here includes herbs, remedies as well as other ingredients used in Aymara traditions. * Feria de Alasitas: This fair is celebrated for two weeks each year, beginning January 24. The central figure is a little god of abundance known as Ekeko , which means dwarf in Aymara . * Museo San Francisco Cultural Center

Churches And Cathedrals

Metropolitan Cathedral San Francisco Church

* Metropolitan Cathedral, built in 1835 and located next to the Presidential Palace, on Murillo Square; * San Francisco Church , founded in 1548 and rebuilt 1784.

Other Attractions

* Bolivian Presidential Palace , also known as "Burned Palace". * Parque Urbano Central (Central Urban Park)

LOCAL FESTIVALS

* January: Achocalla Festival: Occurs during the first week of January. The city of La Paz
La Paz
comes together to celebrate this religious festival with traditional dances, music, and a parade. In Bolivia’s harvest calendar, Achocalla marks the time when potato fields begin to bloom. People dance the traditional folklore dance known as “tarqueada” during the festival. * January 24: Alasitas is a yearly fair where people buy miniature gifts and praise the god of prosperity, Ekeko . The fair begins every January 24 and lasts for a month. * February 2: Virgen de Copacabana , (Villa Copacabana) * May 1: San José Obrero (V. Nuevo Potosí) * May 3: Señor de la Santa Cruz (Calvario, Tacagua, Calacoto) * May 13: Virgen de Fátima (Villa Fátima) * May 14: San Isidro, Labrador (San Isidro) * May 17: Señor de la Sentencia (Villa Armonía) * May: Jesus, Señor del Gran Poder (movible, Gran Poder) La Fiesta del Gran Poder occurs according to the Saint’s calendar. Therefore, it happens on different dates every year. But the festival typically occurs during late May to early June. This festival pays homage to El Señor del Gran Poder. During the festival, over 30,000 dancers take the streets of La Paz
La Paz
performing dances with themes that represent both Aymara folktales and Catholic traditions. The dancers wear colorful homemade costumes. The Parade lasts all day throughout the night. * June 13: San Antonio de Padua (San Antonio) * June 24: San Juan Bautista (Valle Hermoso, San Juan) * June 29: San Pedro Apóstol (San Pedro) * July 16: Virgen del Carmen, Patroness of Bolivia
Bolivia
and the Armed Forces of the Nation Efemerides of La Paz * July 25: Apóstol Santiago
Santiago
(Munaypata, Pampahasi, Pasankeri, Periférica, Alto Delicias) * August 15: Virgen de Urqupiña (Urkupiña) * August 15: Virgen de la Asunción
Asunción
(Villa Victoria) * September 8: Virgen de las Nieves (V. Copacabana, M. Paredes, La Portada, Achachicala, Alto Irpavi, Cotahuma, Las Nieves) * September 8: Virgen de los Remedios (Miraflores) * September 14: Señor de la Exaltación (Obrajes, G. de Lima, Bajo Tejar, Vino Tinto) * September 24: Virgen de la Merced (Cota Cota) * October 7: Virgen del Rosario (El Rosario) * November: Cristo Rey (Pura Pura) * December 4: Santa Barbara (Santa Bárbara, Llojeta) * December 8: Virgen de la Concepción (Kupini, Sopocachi, Achumani)

TRANSPORTATION

Automobiles and public transportation are still the main means to get into the city. In March 2012, more than 1.5 million vehicles were registered. Heavy traffic is common in the city center and traffic jams occur on peak hours.

HIGHWAYS

Avenida Kantutani.

The La Paz- El Alto Highway is a toll road that connects the city of La Paz
La Paz
with the neighboring city of El Alto . It is the city's main highway. It allows easy access to El Alto International Airport . The highway runs 11,7 km and crosses the city of El Alto:

* Autopista La Paz-El Alto/RN-3 (La Paz- El Alto Highway) - Connects La Paz
La Paz
with El Alto. * Autovía La Paz
La Paz
Oruro/A-1 (La Paz-Oruro Highway) - Connects La Paz with the cities of Oruro , Patacamaya and Caracollo . It then connects with Ruta Nacional 1/RN-1 (National Highway 1) heading south to the cities of Potosí , Camargo , Tarija .

The Southern District, one of La Paz's most affluent and commercial neighborhoods, is relatively separated from the rest of the city, including the CBD . The Avenida Costanera and Avenida Kantutani (Costanera and Kantutani Avenues) connect the southern district with the rest of the metropolitan area.

AIR

El Alto International Airport

El Alto International Airport (IATA code: LPB) is La Paz's national and international airport and a principal hub for Línea Aérea Amaszonas and Transporte Aéreo Militar . It also serves as a focus city for Boliviana de Aviación
Boliviana de Aviación
, Bolivia's flag-carrier and largest airline. The airport is located in the city of El Alto and is (13 km) south-west of La Paz's city center. At an elevation of 4,061 metres (13,323 feet), it is the highest international airport and fifth highest commercial airport in the world. The runway has a length of 4,000 metres (2.5 mi). It is one of Bolivia's three main international gateways, along with Jorge Wilstermann International Airport and Viru Viru International Airport .

International carriers serving El Alto International Airport include American Airlines , Avianca
Avianca
, Avianca
Avianca
Ecuador
Ecuador
, LAN Airlines , LAN Perú , Peruvian Airlines and Sky Airline , which offer direct flights from La Paz
La Paz
to cities such as Miami
Miami
, Bogotá , Lima
Lima
, Iquique , Santiago
Santiago
and Cusco
Cusco
. However, most international traffic, including flights to Europe
Europe
, operates out of Viru Viru International Airport in Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Santa Cruz de la Sierra
which is at a much lower altitude and is capable of handling larger aircraft.

Airport facilities include ATMs , cafés and restaurants, car rentals, duty-free shops , and free Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
internet. Additionally, the airport supplies travelers with oxygen for those who suffer from altitude sickness .

BUS

Bus Station

La Paz
La Paz
Bus Station, originally a bus and train station, was built by the French architect Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
. It is the main gateway for inter-city buses with several daily departures to all the main Bolivian cities, and routes to Chile
Chile
and Peru
Peru
. The city is connected by road with the city of Oruro from where there are routes to Sucre, Potosí and the south of the country. Another highway branches off before Oruro to reach Cochabamba
Cochabamba
and Santa Cruz . Roads to the west go to Copacabana and Tiwanaku , near Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
, and continue to Cuzco
Cuzco
, Peru
Peru
via the border town of Desaguadero . There are also roads north to get to Yungas
Yungas
crossing the Andes Mountains .

Departures to smaller cities and towns within the department use informal stations located in Villa Fátima (departures to Los Yungas, Beni and Pando ), Upper San Pedro (for Apolo ) and near the General Cemetery (for Copacabana, Lake Titicaca, or via Tiwanaku to Desaguadero on the Peruvian border).

CABLE CAR SYSTEM

Red line cable car connecting La Paz
La Paz
and El Alto Main article: Mi Teleférico

A system of urban transit aerial cable cars called Mi Teleférico ("My Cable Car") was opened in 2014. Currently three lines are in operation, and six more lines are in the planning stage. The initial three lines were built by the Austrian company Doppelmayr . The first two lines (Red and Yellow) connect La Paz
La Paz
with El Alto .

Cable car system La Paz
La Paz
LINE LENGTH TRAVEL TIME STATIONS OPENED

Red Line 2.4 km 10 min 3 May 2014

Yellow Line 3.9 km 13.5 min 4 September 2014

Green Line 3.7 km 16.6 min 4 December 2014

LA PAZ TRAFFIC ZEBRAS

Main article: La Paz traffic zebras
La Paz traffic zebras
A traffic zebra or cebrita in El Prado avenue in La Paz
La Paz

The LA PAZ TRAFFIC ZEBRAS are a team of young people who dress in full-body zebra costumes with the goal of educating pedestrians and drivers and helping schoolchildren, the elderly and the disabled to cross the busy streets of La Paz. The zebra costume was inspired from the pattern of the zebra crossing . They play an important role in La Paz as they have become urban educators and have changed the chaotic face of the vehicular traffic in La Paz.

The program generally employs young people from disadvantaged or troubled backgrounds who receive a small stipend and health insurance, given the risky nature of the job, in exchange for working part-time as cebritas for four hours a day. However, tourists and locals alike can also dress up as zebras and get a taste of the experience under the Zebra
Zebra
for a Day program.

The cebritas don't have any policing powers like issuing infractions or making arrests and they have been known to irk the local police as officers feel that they interrupt with law enforcement, however, surveys indicate that the zebras' unique and entertaining method of enforcing laws and spreading public-service messages is well received and well respected by the citizens.

The La Paz traffic zebras
La Paz traffic zebras
have received worldwide attention, appearing on numerous international shows and news articles. In December 2016, the cebritas won the Guangzhou International Award for Urban Innovation , recognizing cities with innovative approaches to improving public life.

COMMUNICATIONS AND MEDIA

* The postal service is run by ECOBOL (National Company) which has its headquarters in La Paz. There are other companies offering courier and transport logistics courier nationally and internationally. * The private telecommunications company Entel is located in the city and provides telephony, Internet, cell phone , data and voice services. The telephone cooperative Cotel is responsible for managing much of their phones and now offers Internet services and cable television among others. * Area Code: 2 * Country Code: 591 * The main daily newspapers in circulation are: Página Siete, La Razon, El Diario, La Prensa, Jornada and El Alteño. Other papers of local importance are: Extra and Gente. There are also several other publications and weekly magazines. * There are 18 television channels with offices in La Paz. Channel 7 is state property. The main ones are: Unitel , ATB Bolivia
Bolivia
, Red Uno , Bolivision , Red PAT . Channel 13 is managed by the Universidad Mayor de San Andres . Two local companies offer cable television service as Multivision and Cotel TV.

WATER SUPPLY

The water supply of La Paz
La Paz
is threatened by the impact of climate change through the melting of glaciers. The city receives its drinking water from three water systems: El Alto, Achachicala and Pampahasi. La Paz shares the first and largest of these systems with its sister city El Alto . All three systems are fed by glaciers and rivers in the Cordillera mountain range. 20-28 % of its water is fed by glaciers, the remainder coming from rainfall and snowmelt. The glaciers recede as a result of climate change, initially increasing water availability during the dry season, but ultimately threatening a substantial decrease in dry season run-off when they completely disappear. A small glacier, the Chacaltaya near El Alto, already disappeared in 2008. The El Alto system receives its water from the Tuni Dam and two water channels. These channels divert water that flows from the Zongo Glacier on the slopes of Huayna Potosi and from Condoriri North of El Alto. The 2.9 km long Zongo glacier retreats at a rate of about 18 meters per year. The Tuni and Condoriri glaciers have lost 39% of their area between 1983 and 2006. According to a study by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), the El Alto system is the least resilient against the impact of climate change among the three systems. The study says that reducing water distribution losses is the most effective short-term strategy to deal with water scarcity. New water sources further to the North in the Cordillera include the Khara Kota and Taypicacha, but they are expensive to develop and their water supply is also affected by glacier melt.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South America

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

La Paz
La Paz
is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities from October 12, 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

* ANDORRA LA VELLA , Andorra * ARICA , Chile * ASUNCIóN , Paraguay * BOGOTá , Colombia * BUENOS AIRES , Argentina * CALAMA , Chile * CARACAS , Venezuela * CUZCO , Peru * ENSENADA , Mexico

* GUATEMALA CITY , Guatemala * HAVANA , Cuba * LISBON , Portugal * MADRID , Spain
Spain
* MANAGUA , Nicaragua * MéRIDA , Venezuela * MEXICO CITY , Mexico * MONTEVIDEO , Uruguay * PANAMA CITY , Panama

* QUITO , Ecuador * RIO DE JANEIRO , Brazil * SAN JOSE , Costa Rica * SAN JUAN , Puerto Rico * SAN SALVADOR , El Salvador * SANTIAGO , Chile * SANTO DOMINGO , Dominican Republic * SãO PAULO , Brazil
Brazil
(1999) * SUCRE , Bolivia * TEGUCIGALPA , Honduras

Additionally, agreement was reached by Twin Cities with:

* ANKARA , Turkey
Turkey
* BOLZANO , Italy * BONN , Germany * BUDAPEST , Hungary * DALIAN , China * DENVER , United States * DUBLIN , Ireland

* HANNOVER , Germany * LONDON , United Kingdom * MOSCOW , Russia * REYKJAVíK , Iceland * SANTA ANA DE CORO , Venezuela * STOCKHOLM , Sweden * TEHRAN , Iran

* TAIPEI , Taiwan
Taiwan
* TOKYO , Japan * VADUZ , Liechtenstein * WASHINGTON D.C. , USA * ZAGREB , Croatia * ZARAGOZA , Spain

La Paz
La Paz
is also a member of Merco Ciudades, a group of 180 cities within Mercosur
Mercosur
, since 1999.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

* Alcides Arguedas (1879-1946), writer and philosopher * Yolanda Bedregal (1916-1999), poet and poet, known as Yolanda de Bolivia * Rodolfo Illanes (1958-2016), lawyer and politician * Carlos Mesa (born 1953), former president of Bolivia * Víctor Montoya (born 1958), writer * Daniel Nuñez del Prado (1840-1891), Secretary of State, freedom fighter and doctor

Daniel Nunez del Prado 1865

* Wilfred von Oven (1912-2008), press officer at the Reich Propaganda Ministry, Journalist * Verona Pooth born, Feldbusch (born 1968), German presenter and businesswoman * Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada (born 1930), former president of Bolivia * Andrés de Santa Cruz (1792-1865), President of Peru
Peru
and Bolivia * Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas (1925-2005), lawyer, politician and former President of Bolivia * Alberto Villalpando (born 1940), composer * Emilio Villanueva (1882-1970), architect * Jaime Escalante (1930-2010), educator known for teaching students calculus from 1974 to 1991 at Garfield High School, East Los Angeles, California

IMAGE GALLERY

*

Plaza Murillo with Government and Legislative Palaces in the background *

Titicaca Lake
Titicaca Lake
near La Paz
La Paz
with the Andes in the background *

Calle Jaén. *

Downtown La Paz
La Paz
view.

CURIOSITIES

* La Paz
La Paz
has the highest elevation of any capital city in the world. * El Alto International Airport is the highest international airport in the world (13,325 feet, or 4061 metres, above mean sea level). Passengers may notice the drop in pressure when the aircraft doors are opened. * Water boils in La Paz
La Paz
at 88 °C (190 °F). * La Paz
La Paz
has the highest certified Olympic stadium. FIFA
FIFA
issued a rule forbidding the organization of official matches in stadiums with an altitude of more than 2,500 meters because players may be at greater health risk due to decreased oxygen pressure, but excluded La Paz's Hernando Siles Stadium from that regulation after intense lobbying by Bolivian authorities. * The La Paz
La Paz
central bus station was designed by Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel
, the designer of the Eiffel Tower .

SEE ALSO

* Paceña

REFERENCES

* ^ "Bolivia.com - Turismo : La Paz". * ^ "¿Quién es Luis Revilla?". Luchoporlapaz.com. Archived from the original on 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2010-07-04. * ^ A B "World Gazetteer". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. Retrieved 2010-01-31. * ^ "W.K. Kellogg Foundation: Overview – Bolivia: La Paz
La Paz
– El Alto". * ^ "La Paz". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ Morales, Salustiano Ayma (2011). Aymara aru thakhinchawi (PDF) (in Aymara). La Paz, Bolivia: Arcus Industria Gráfica for the Ministry of Education. p. 25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2016. * ^ "Bolivia: Proyecciones de población según departamento y municipio 2012-2020." (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística (National Institute of Statistics). Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016. * ^ " La Paz
La Paz
– profile of geographical entity including name variants". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on October 14, 2011. Retrieved 2010-07-04. * ^ " Bolivia
Bolivia
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La Paz
Archived 2009-11-01 at WebCite ," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2008. Archived 2009-10-31. * ^ "Climate: La Paz
La Paz
(altitude: 3610m) - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2014-01-05. * ^ " La Paz
La Paz
Climate La Paz
La Paz
Temperatures La Paz
La Paz
Weather Averages". * ^ "Klimatafel von La Paz
La Paz
- El Alto (Int. Flugh.) / Bolivien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved January 24, 2016.

* ^ "Station La Paz" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 11 June 2016. * ^ "BBC Weather - La Paz". BBC Weather. Retrieved 9 July 2013. * ^ A B IBCE (15 August 2009). "Bolivia: Ranking Mundial". Retrieved 7 May 2013. * ^ CSIC (15 August 2009). "Bolivia: Ranking Latinoamerica". Retrieved 7 May 2013. * ^ "Public Transport in La Paz". La Prensa. October 3, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2015. * ^ "The Highest International Airport In The World". Grand Escapades. * ^ "Bolivia: In Andean capital, dancing zebras direct traffic". The Christian Science Monitor. 27 October 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2017. * ^ "Big in Bolivia: Zebras in the Streets". The Atlantic. Retrieved 26 March 2017. * ^ "The Internet Is Using John Oliver’s Dancing Zebras to Make Reality More Appealing". Time. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017.

* ^ "Jury Report of the 3rd Guangzhou Award". Guangzhou International Award for Urban Innovation. 6 December 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2017. * ^ A B Nick Buxton; Maria Escobar; David Pureky; Nilo Lima
Lima
(2013). "Water scarcity, climate change and Bolivia: Planning for climate uncertainties". Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). Retrieved 10 March 2015. * ^ "Zongo Glacier retreat". 13 December 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2015. * ^ Shukman, David (2009-12-04). "Glacier threat to Bolivia capital". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-01-31. * ^ "Declaración de Hermanamiento múltiple y solidario de todas las Capitales de Iberoamérica (12-10-82)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2010-01-31. * ^ "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Archived from the original on 2012-05-26. * ^ "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal - No 14471" . Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo
São Paulo
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São Paulo
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Büyükşehir Belediyesi - Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 2013-07-21. * ^ " Taipei
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