A KITE is traditionally a tethered heavier-than-air craft with wing
surfaces that react against the air to create lift and drag. A kite
consists of wings, tethers, pulleys, and anchors. Kites often have a
bridle to guide the face of the kite at the correct angle so the wind
can lift it. A kite's wing also may be so designed so a bridle is not
needed; when kiting a sailplane for launch, the tether meets the wing
at a single point. A kite may have fixed or moving anchors.
Untraditionally in technical kiting, a kite consists of
tether-set-coupled wing sets; even in technical kiting, though, a wing
in the system is still often called the kite.
The lift that sustains the kite in flight is generated when air moves
around the kite's surface, producing low pressure above and high
pressure below the wings. The interaction with the wind also
generates horizontal drag along the direction of the wind. The
resultant force vector from the lift and drag force components is
opposed by the tension of one or more of the lines or tethers to which
the kite is attached. The anchor point of the kite line may be static
or moving (e.g., the towing of a kite by a running person, boat,
free-falling anchors as in paragliders and fugitive parakites or
The same principles of fluid flow apply in liquids and kites are also
used under water.
A hybrid tethered craft comprising both a lighter-than-air balloon as
well as a kite lifting surface is called a kytoon .
Kites have a long and varied history and many different types are
flown individually and at festivals worldwide. Kites may be flown for
recreation , art or other practical uses.
Sport kites can be flown in
aerial ballet , sometimes as part of a competition. Power kites are
multi-line steerable kites designed to generate large forces which can
be used to power activities such as kite surfing , kite landboarding ,
kite fishing , kite buggying and a new trend snow kiting . Even
Man-lifting kites have been made.
* 1 History
* 2 Materials
* 3 Practical uses
* 3.2 Science and meteorology
* 3.3 Radio aerials and light beacons
* 3.5 Underwater kites
* 4 Cultural uses
* 4.1 Asia
* 4.4 South America
* 5 Popular culture
Kite altitude record
* 7 Record - largest kite
* 8 General safety issues
* 9 Designs
* 10 Types
* 11 Records
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 External links
Woodcut print of a kite from John Bate's 1635 book, The
Mysteries of Nature and
Art in which the kite is titled How to make
Kites were invented in
China , where materials ideal for kite
building were readily available: silk fabric for sail material; fine,
high-tensile-strength silk for flying line; and resilient bamboo for a
strong, lightweight framework.
The kite has been claimed as the invention of the 5th-century BC
Mozi (also Mo Di) and
Lu Ban (also Gongshu Ban).
By 549 AD paper kites were certainly being flown, as it was recorded
that in that year a paper kite was used as a message for a rescue
mission. Ancient and medieval Chinese sources describe kites being
used for measuring distances, testing the wind, lifting men,
signaling, and communication for military operations. The earliest
known Chinese kites were flat (not bowed) and often rectangular.
Later, tailless kites incorporated a stabilizing bowline. Kites were
decorated with mythological motifs and legendary figures; some were
fitted with strings and whistles to make musical sounds while flying.
From China, kites were introduced to Cambodia, Thailand, India,
Japan, Korea and the western world.
Kite Flying by Suzuki
Harunobu , 1766 (Metropolitan Museum of
Kite maker from
India, image from Travels in India, including Sinde and the Punjab by
H. E. Lloyd, 1845
After its introduction into
India , the kite further evolved into the
fighter kite , known as the patang in India, where thousands are flown
every year on festivals such as
Makar Sankranti .
Kites were known throughout
Polynesia , as far as
New Zealand , with
the assumption being that the knowledge diffused from
China along with
the people . Anthropomorphic kites made from cloth and wood were used
in religious ceremonies to send prayers to the gods. Polynesian kite
traditions are used by anthropologists get an idea of early
"primitive" Asian traditions that are believed to have at one time
existed in Asia. Boys flying a kite. Engraving published in
Germany in 1828 by
Johann Michael Voltz
Kites were late to arrive in
Europe , although windsock-like banners
were known and used by the Romans. Stories of kites were first brought
Europe by Marco Polo towards the end of the 13th century, and kites
were brought back by sailors from
Malaysia in the 16th and
Konrad Kyeser described dragon kites in Bellifortis
about 1400 AD. Although kites were initially regarded as mere
curiosities, by the 18th and 19th centuries they were being used as
vehicles for scientific research.
Benjamin Franklin published a proposal for an experiment to
prove that lightning was caused by electricity by flying a kite in a
storm that appeared capable of becoming a lightning storm. It is not
known whether Franklin ever performed his experiment, but on May 10,
Thomas-François Dalibard of France conducted a similar
experiment using a 40 feet (12 m) iron rod instead of a kite and
extracted electrical sparks from a cloud.
Kites were also instrumental in the research of the Wright brothers
as they developed the first airplane in the late 1800s. Over the next
70 years, many new kite designs were developed and often patented.
These included Eddy 's tail-less diamond kite, the tetrahedral kite,
the flexible kite, the sled kite, and the parafoil kite, which helped
to develop modern hang-gliders. In fact, the period from 1860 to
about 1910 became the "golden age of kiting". Kites started to be used
for scientific purposes, especially in meteorology, aeronautics,
wireless communications and photography ; many different designs of
man-lifting kite were developed as well as power kites .
The development of mechanically powered airplane diminished interest
World War II
World War II saw a limited use of kites for military
Focke Achgelis Fa 330 for an example). Since then they
are used mainly for recreation.
Designs often emulate flying insects, birds, and other beasts, both
real and mythical. The finest Chinese kites are made from split bamboo
(usually golden bamboo), covered with silk, and hand painted. On
larger kites, clever hinges and latches allow the kite to be
disassembled and compactly folded for storage or transport. Cheaper
mass-produced kites are often made from printed polyester rather than
Tails are used for some single-line kite designs to keep the kite's
nose pointing into the wind. Spinners and spinsocks can be attached to
the flying line for visual effect. There are rotating wind socks which
spin like a turbine . On large display kites these tails, spinners and
spinsocks can be 50 feet (15 m) long or more.
Modern aerobatic kites use two or four lines to allow fine control of
the kite's angle to the wind. Traction kites may have an additional
line to de-power the kite and quick-release mechanisms to disengage
flyer and kite in an emergency.
Kites have been used for human flight, military applications, science
and meteorology, photography, lifting radio antennas, generating
power, aerodynamics experiments, and much more. Chinese dragon
kite more than one hundred feet long which flew in the annual
Berkeley, California , kite festival in 2000
Kites have been used for military purposes in the past, such as
signaling, delivery of munitions , and for observation , both by
lifting an observer above the field of battle and by using kite aerial
Samguk Sagi , in 637
Kim Yu-sin , a Korean general of
Silla rallied his troops to defeat rebels by lofting a kite with a
straw man which looked like a burning ball flying to the sky.
Russian chronicles mention Prince
Oleg of Novgorod
Oleg of Novgorod use of kites
during the siege of
Constantinople in 906: "and he crafted horses and
men of paper, armed and gilded, and lifted them into the air over the
city; the Greeks saw them and feared them".
Kites were also used by
Admiral Yi of the Joseon Dynasty
(1392–1910) of Korea. During the Japanese invasions of Korea
Admiral Yi commanded his navy using kites. His kites
had specific markings directing his fleet to perform various orders.
One of Cody's "manlifter" kites in 1908
In the modern era the British Army used kites to haul human lookouts
into the air for observation purposes, using the kites developed by
Samuel Franklin Cody . Barrage kites were used to protect shipping
Second World War
Second World War . Kites were also used for anti-aircraft
target practice. Kites and kytoons were used for lofting
Submarines lofted observers in rotary kites.
SCIENCE AND METEOROLOGY
Kites have been used for scientific purposes, such as Benjamin
Franklin 's famous experiment proving that lightning is electricity .
Kites were the precursors to the traditional aircraft , and were
instrumental in the development of early flying craft. Alexander
Graham Bell experimented with very large man-lifting kites , as did
Wright brothers and
Lawrence Hargrave . Kites had a historical
role in lifting scientific instruments to measure atmospheric
conditions for weather forecasting .
Francis Ronalds and William
Radcliffe Birt described a very stable kite at Kew Observatory as
early as 1847 that was trialled for the purpose of supporting
self-registering meteorological instruments at height.
RADIO AERIALS AND LIGHT BEACONS
Kites can be used for radio purposes, by kites carrying antennas for
MF , LF or
VLF -transmitters. This method was used for the reception
station of the first transatlantic transmission by Marconi . Captive
balloons may be more convenient for such experiments, because
kite-carried antennas require a lot of wind, which may be not always
possible with heavy equipment and a ground conductor. It must be taken
into account during experiments, that a conductor carried by a kite
can lead to high voltage toward ground, which can endanger people and
equipment, if suitable precautions (grounding through resistors or a
parallel resonant-circuit tuned to transmission frequency) are not
Kites can be used to carry light effects such as lightsticks or
battery powered lights.
A quad-line traction kite, commonly used as a power source for
Kites can be used to pull people and vehicles downwind. Efficient
foil-type kites such as power kites can also be used to sail upwind
under the same principles as used by other sailing craft, provided
that lateral forces on the ground or in the water are redirected as
with the keels, center boards, wheels and ice blades of traditional
sailing craft. In the last two decades several kite sailing sports
have become popular, such as kite buggying, kite landboarding, kite
boating and kite surfing.
Snow kiting has also become popular in
Kite sailing opens several possibilities not available in traditional
* Wind speeds are greater at higher altitudes
* Kites may be manoeuvered dynamically which increases the force
* There is no need for mechanical structures to withstand bending
forces; vehicles or hulls can be very light or dispensed with all
Underwater kites are being developed to harvest renewable power from
the flow of water.
Kite festivals are a popular form of entertainment throughout the
world. They include large local events, traditional festivals which
have been held for hundreds of years and major international festivals
which bring in kite flyers from Britain to display their unique art
kites and demonstrate the latest technical kites.
Making a traditional Wau jala budi kite in
Malaysia . The bamboo
frame is covered with plain paper and then decorated with multiple
layers of shaped paper and foil.
Kite flying is popular in many Asian countries, where it often takes
the form of "kite fighting ", in which participants try to snag each
other's kites or cut other kites down. Fighter kites are usually
small, flat, flattened diamond-shaped kites made of paper and bamboo.
Tails are not used on fighter kites so that agility and
maneuverability are not compromised.
Afghanistan , kite flying is a popular game, and is known in Dari
as Gudiparan Bazi. Some kite fighters pass their strings through a
mixture of ground glass powder and glue, which is legal. The resulting
strings are very abrasive and can sever the competitor's strings more
easily. The abrasive strings can also injure people. During the
Taliban rule in Afghanistan, kite flying was banned, among various
Pakistan , kite flying is often known as Gudi-Bazi or Patang-bazi.
Although kite flying is a popular ritual for the celebration of spring
festival known as
Jashn-e-Baharaan (lit. Spring Festival) or Basant ,
kites are flown throughout the year.
Kite fighting is a very popular
pastime all around Pakistan, but mostly in urban centers across the
Lahore ). The kite fights are at their highest
during the spring celebrations and the fighters enjoy competing with
rivals to cut-loose the string of the others kite, this is popularly
known as "Paecha". During the spring festival, kite flying
competitions are held across the country and the skies are colored
with kites. As people cut-loose an opponents kite, shouts of 'wo kata'
ring through the air. They reclaim the kites, after they have been
cut-loose, by running after them. This is a popular ritual especially
among the youth (similar to scenes depicted in the
Kite Runner which
is based in neighboring Afghanistan). Kites and strings are a big
business in the country and many types of strings are used:
glass-coated strings, metal strings and tandi. However, kite flying
was recently banned in Punjab due to recent motorcyclist deaths caused
by glass-coated or metal kite-strings. Kup, Patang, Guda, and Nakhlaoo
are some of the kites used. They vary in balance, weight and speed.
Various Balinese kites is on display in front of a store in
Indonesia kites is flown as both sport and recreation. One of the
most popular kites variants is from
Bali . Balinese kites are unique
and they has different design and forms; birds, butterflies, dragons,
ships, etc. In
Vietnam , kites are flown without tails. Instead small
flutes are attached allowing the wind to "hum" a musical tune. There
are other forms of sound-making kites. In Bali, large bows are
attached to the front of the kites to make a deep throbbing vibration,
Malaysia row of gourds with sound-slots are used to create a
whistle as the kite flies.
Malaysia has also the
Kite Museum in
Malacca . A kite shop in
Kites are very popular in
India , with the states of Bihar,
Jharkhand, Gujarat, West Bengal, Rajasthan and Punjab notable for
their kite fighting festivals. Highly maneuverable single-string paper
and bamboo kites are flown from the rooftops while using line friction
in an attempt to cut each other's kite lines, either by letting the
cutting line loose at high speed or by pulling the line in a fast and
repeated manner. During the Indian spring festival of Makar Sankranti
, near the middle of January, millions of people fly kites all over
Kite flying in Hyderabad starts a month before this,
but kite flying/fighting is an important part of other celebrations,
Republic Day , Independence Day,
Raksha Bandhan , Viswakarma
Puja day in late September and
Janmashtami . An international kite
festival is held every year before
Uttarayan for three days in
Kites have been flown in
China since ancient times.
Weifang is home
to the largest kite museum in the world. It also hosts an annual
international kite festival on the large salt flats south of the city.
There are several kite museums in Japan, UK,
Malaysia , Indonesia,
Taiwan, Thailand and the USA.
In the olden days, Malays in
Singapore , kites were used for fishing.
Traditional Japanese kites
In Japan, kite flying is traditionally a children's play in New Year
holidays and in the Boys' Festival in May. In some areas, there is a
tradition to celebrate a new boy baby with a new kite (祝い凧).
There are many kite festivals throughout Japan. The most famous one is
Kite Festival" in
Higashiōmi, Shiga , which started
in 1841. The largest kite ever built in the festival is 62 feet (19
m) wide by 67 feet (20 m) high and weighs 3,307 pounds (1,500 kg). In
Hamamatsu Kite Festival in
Hamamatsu, Shizuoka , more than 100
kites are flown in the sky over the
Nakatajima Sand Dunes , one of the
three largest sand dunes in Japan, which overlooks the Enshunada Sea.
The parents who had a new baby prepare a new kite with their baby's
name and fly it in the festival. Those kites are traditional ones
made from bamboo and paper.
Cyprus , flying kites is a tradition for
Clean Monday ,
the first day of
Lent . In the
British Overseas Territory
British Overseas Territory of
Bermuda kites are made and flown at
Easter , to symbolise
Bermuda kites hold the world records for altitude and
Fuerteventura a kite festival is usually held on the
weekend nearest to 8 November lasting for 3 days.
Polynesian traditional kites are sometimes used at ceremonies and
variants of traditional kites for amusement. Older pieces are kept in
museums. These are treasured by the people of Polynesia.
Brazil , flying a kite is a very popular leisure activity for
children, teenagers and even young adults. Mostly these are boys, and
it is overwhelmingly kite fighting a game whose goal is to maneuver
their own kites to cut the other persons' kites' strings during
flight, and followed by kite running where participants race through
the streets to steal the free-drifting kites. As in other countries
with similar traditions, injuries are common and motorcyclists in
particular need to take precautions.
Chile , kites are very popular, especially during Independence Day
festivities (September 18).
Colombia , kites can be seen flown in parks and recreation areas
during August which is known to be windy. It is during this month that
most people, especially the young ones would fly kites.
Guyana , kites are flown at Easter, an activity in which all
ethnic and religious groups participate. Kites are generally not flown
at any other time of year. Kites start appearing in the sky in the
weeks leading up to
Easter and school children are taken to parks for
the activity. It all culminates in a massive airborne celebration on
Easter Monday especially in Georgetown, the capital, and other coastal
areas. The history of the practice is not entirely clear but given
Easter is a Christian festival, it is said that kite flying is
symbolic of the Risen Lord. Moore describes the phenomenon in the
19th century as follows:
A very popular Creole pastime was the flying of kites.
a public holiday, was the great kite-flying day on the sea wall in
Georgetown and on open lands in villages. Young and old alike, male
and female, appeared to be seized by kite-flying mania.
serves as a good example. "The appearance of the sky all over
Georgetown, but especially towards the Sea Wall, was very striking,
the air being thick with kites of all shapes and sizes, covered with
gaily coloured paper, all riding bravely on the strong wind.
— (His quotation is from a letter to The Creole newspaper of
December 29, 1858.)
The exact origins of the practice of kite flying (exclusively) at
Easter are unclear. Brereton and Yelvington speculate that kite
flying was introduced by Chinese indentured immigrants to the then
colony of British Guiana in the mid 19th century. The author of an
article in the
Guyana Chronicle newspaper of May 6, 2007 is more
Kite flying originated as a Chinese tradition to mark the beginning
of spring. However, because the plantation owners were suspicious of
the planter class (read "plantation workers"), the Chinese claimed
that it represented the resurrection of
Jesus Christ . It was a clever
argument, as at that time, Christians celebrated
Easter to the glory
of the risen Christ. The Chinese came to
Guyana from 1853–1879.
The Kite Runner , a 2005 novel by
Khaled Hosseini dramatizes the
role of kite fighting in pre-war
Peanuts cartoon character
Charlie Brown was often depicted
having flown his kite into a tree as a metaphor for life's
* Mary Poppins : Let's Go Fly A
Kite scene where The Banks Family
sings while flying a kite.
* Mulan : In the parade scene, you'll see some kites flying.
* "Shooter": Kites are flown showing Bob Lee Swagger the types of
wind at the assassionation location.
KITE ALTITUDE RECORD
Launch of ram-air inflated
Peter Lynn single-line kite, shaped
like an octopus and 90 feet (27 m) long
The World record for the highest single kite was set on September 23,
2014. A team of four kite enthusiasts flew a 120 square feet (11 m2)
kite to 16,009 feet (4,880 m) above ground level. The record altitude
was reached after 8 series of attempts over a ten-year period from a
remote location in western NSW, Australia. The 8.2 feet (2 m) tall and
19.6 feet (6 m) wide Dunton-Taylor delta kite's flight was controlled
by a winch system using 40,682 feet (12,400 m) of ultra high strength
Dyneema line. The flight took about eight hours from ground and
return. The height was measured with on-board GPS telemetry
transmitting positional data in real time to a ground based computer
and also back-up GPS data loggers for later analysis.
RECORD - LARGEST KITE
Kite Festival 2011 ended, the world record for the
biggest-ever kite flown for at least 20 minutes was a kite with
lifting area of 10,971 square feet (1,019 m2).
GENERAL SAFETY ISSUES
A man flying a kite on the beach , a good location for flying as
winds travelling across the sea contain few up or down draughts which
cause kites to fly erratically
There are safety issues involved in kite-flying.
Kite lines can
strike and tangle on electrical power lines, causing power blackouts
and running the risk of electrocuting the kite flier. Wet kite lines
or wire can act as a conductor for static electricity and lightning
when the weather is stormy. Kites with large surface area or powerful
lift can lift kite fliers off the ground or drag them into other
objects. In urban areas there is usually a ceiling on how high a kite
can be flown, to prevent the kite and line infringing on the airspace
of helicopters and light aircraft. It is also possible for Fighter
kites to kill people, as happened in
India when three spectators were
killed in separate incidents during Independence Day, August, 2016 —
precipitating a ban on certain types of enhanced line.
Delta kite Train of connected kites
Bowed kite , e.g. Rokkaku
* Cellular or box kite
* Delta kite
* Foil , parafoil or bow kite
Leading edge inflatable kite
Malay kite see also wau bulan
* Traditional kite
* Moon kite
* Expanded polystyrene kite
Inflatable single-line kite
* Rogallo parawing kite
* Stunt (sport) kite
* Water kite
* Tobago kite
A kite in the shape of the flag of Kuwait . The size when flat
is 42m x 25m, 1,050 square meters (11,300 sq ft). While flying it
becomes a little smaller (about 900 square meters (9,700 sq ft)) due
to curvature of the edges when inflated.
Kite Festival 2011 ended, the world record for the
biggest-ever kite flown for at least 20 minutes was a kite with
lifting area of 10,971 square feet (1,019 m2).
On the 23rd of September 2014 a team of enthusiasts led by Robert
Moore, flew a 129 square feet (12 m2) kite to 16,009 feet (4,880 m)
above ground level.
Morro Bay, California
Kite Festival 2014
Airborne wind turbine — conceptual for wind generator flown as
High altitude wind power
Kite aerial photography
Kite ice skating
Kite shape (geometry)
Kitelife — an American magazine devoted to kites.
List of books about kites
List of kite festivals
Sea Tails , video installation
Solar balloon A solar-heated hot air balloon that can be flown
like a kite, but on windless days.
Uttarayan The kite flying festival of western India
* ^ Giant
Kite Festival in Higashiomi
* ^ Eden, Maxwell (2002). The Magnificent Book of Kites:
Explorations in Design, Construction, Enjoyment & Flight. 387 Park
Avenue South, New York, New York 10016: Sterling Publishing Company,
Inc. p. 18. ISBN 9781402700941 .
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* ^ "Beginner\'s Guide to Aeronautics". NASA. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
* ^ Flying High, Down Under
* ^ Woglom, Gilbert Totten (1896). Parakites: A treatise on the
making and flying of tailless kites for scientific purposes and for
OCLC 2273288 .
* ^ Science in the Field: Ben Balsley, CIRES Scientist in the Field
Gathering atmospheric dynamics data using kites. Kites are anchored to
boats on the Amazon River employed to sample levels of certain gases
in the air.
* ^ "The Bachstelze Article describes the Fa-330 Rotary
towed by its mooring to the submarine. The kite was a man-lifter
modeled after the autogyro principle". Uboat.net. Retrieved
Kite Fashions: Above, Below, Sideways. Expert kite fliers
sometimes tie a flying kite to a tree to have the kite fly for days on
end. Archived July 23, 2011, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Underwater kiting". 2lo.de. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
* ^ "Hydro kite angling device Jason C. Hubbart". Google.com.
* ^ Streeter, Tal (Fall 2002). "Domina Jalbert: Brother of the
Wind" (PDF). Drachen Foundation Journal (10): 41–44. Retrieved
* ^ Yinke, Deng (2005). Ancient Chinese inventions. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-521-18692-6 .
* ^ A B C Needham, Volume 4, Part 1, 127.
* ^ A B "Amazing Musical Kites", Cambodia Philately
Kite Flying for Fun and Science, 1907, The New York Times.
* ^ A B "Khmer Kites", Sim Sarak and Cheang Yarin, Ministry of
Culture and Fine Arts, Cambodia 2002
* ^ Tripathi, Piyush Kumar (7 January 2012). "
Kite fights to turn
skies colourful on
Makar Sankranti - Professional flyers to showcase
flying skills; food lovers can relish delicacies at snack huts". The
Telegraph. Calcutta, India.
* ^ Tarlton, John. "Ancient Maori Kites". Ancient Maori Kites.
Retrieved 19 October 2011.
* ^ Chadwick, Nora K. (July 1931). "The Kite: A Study in Polynesian
Tradition". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 61: 455.
doi :10.2307/2843932 . ISSN 0307-3114 .
* ^ A B Anon. "
Kite History: A Simple History of Kiting". G-Kites.
Retrieved 20 June 2010.
* ^ Ley, Willy (December 1961). "Dragons and Hot-Air Balloons". For
Your Information. Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 79–89.
* ^ A B "Franklin\'s Kite". Mos.org. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
* ^ "Bolt Of Fate:
Benjamin Franklin And His Electric
Tommy N. Tucker". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
* ^ "History of Kites". Retrieved 18 April 2012.
* ^ "연 鳶 (Yeon)" (in Korean). Nate / Encyclopedia of Korean
Culture . Retrieved July 30, 2009.
* ^ "신호연신호 개요 (Summary of sending a signal with a
kite)" (in Korean). Korea Culture & Contents Agency. Retrieved July
* ^ M. Robinson. "Kites On The Winds of War".
Members.bellatlantic.net. Archived from the original on 2012-01-21.
* ^ Saul, Trevor (August 2004). "Henry C Sauls Barrage Kite". Soul
Search. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
* ^ Grahame, Arthur (May 1945). "Target
Kite Imitates Plane\'s
Flight". Popular Science. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
* ^ "World
Kite Museum". World
Kite Museum. Archived from the
original on 2009-04-06. Retrieved 2012-10-03.
Focke Achgelis Fa 330
* ^ Ronalds, B.F. (2016). Sir Francis Ronalds: Father of the
Electric Telegraph. London: Imperial College Press. ISBN
* ^ Wales launches £25m underwater kite-turbine scheme The
Guardian (retrieved 17 November 2015)
* ^ Underwater Kites Can Harness Ocean Currents to Create Clean
Energy Smithsonian.com (retrieved 17 November 2015)
* ^ "Kite.(2007) Encyclopædia Britannica Online". Britannica.com.
* ^ Pogadaev, Victor. Svetly Mesyatz-Zmei Kruzhitsa (My Lord Moon
Kite) - "Vostochnaya Kollektsia" (Oriental Collection). M.: Russian
State Library. N 4 (38), 2009, 129-134. ISSN 1681-7559
* ^ Skeat, Walter William (1965). Malay Magic: An Introduction to
the Folklore and Popular Religion of the Malay Peninsular. p. 485.
ISBN 978-0-7146-2026-8 .
* ^ 八日市大凧まつり
* ^ GIANT KITE FESTIVALS IN JAPAN Japanese
* ^ A spectacular festival of some 100 large kites flying over sand
Japan National Tourism Organization
* ^ Hamamatsu Matsuri
* ^ "mirantesmt.com".
* ^ Moore, Brian L. (1995). Cultural Power, Resistance, and
Guyana 1838-1900. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP,
* ^ Brereton, Bridget; Yelvington, Kevin A. (1999). The Colonial
Caribbean in Transition. University Press of Florida, ISBN
Guyana Chronicle. Archived April 16, 2008, at the Wayback
* ^ "Highest altitude by a single kite".
* ^ Moore, R. "Untitled Page".
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- larger than a football pitch - fails to soar at
Daily Mail. London.
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