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KITAKYUSHU (Japanese : 北九州市, Hepburn : Kitakyūshū-shi, lit. "North Kyushu
Kyushu
City") is one of two designated cities in Fukuoka Prefecture , Japan, together with Fukuoka
Fukuoka
, with a population of just under 1 million people.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Kokura Prefecture * 1.2 World War II * 1.3 City

* 2 Wards * 3 Demographics

* 4 Culture

* 4.1 Festivals * 4.2 Center for Contemporary Art (CCA) Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu

* 5 Notable places * 6 Economy

* 7 Transportation

* 7.1 Rail * 7.2 Air * 7.3 Sea

* 7.4 Roads

* 7.4.1 Expressways * 7.4.2 Bridges

* 8 Notable figures

* 8.1 Samurai * 8.2 Writers * 8.3 Scientists * 8.4 Musicians * 8.5 Competitive eaters

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Universities and colleges

* 9.1.1 National universities * 9.1.2 Public universities * 9.1.3 Private universities * 9.1.4 Junior colleges * 9.1.5 Technology colleges * 9.1.6 Vocational colleges

* 9.2 Research Institutes and graduate Schools

* 10 Sports

* 10.1 Professional teams * 10.2 Sporting venues

* 11 Sister cities * 12 References * 13 External links

HISTORY

KOKURA PREFECTURE

Kokura Prefecture was founded separately from Fukuoka Prefecture
Fukuoka Prefecture
in 1871 when the clan system was abolished. The old wooden-built Kokura Prefectural Office is still standing and is being restored. It is opposite Riverwalk Kitakyūshū . In 1876, Kokura Prefecture was absorbed by Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Prefecture. The city of Kokura
Kokura
was founded in 1900.

WORLD WAR II

Yahata in Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
was the target for the beginning of the US bombing raids on the home islands on June 16, 1944, when 75 Boeing B-29 Superfortresses flew out from mainland China.

Kokura
Kokura
was the primary target of the nuclear weapon " Fat Man
Fat Man
" on August 9, 1945. Major Charles Sweeney
Charles Sweeney
had orders to drop the bomb visually. All three attempts failed due to clouds and smoke from Yahata , which is only 7 km west of Kokura
Kokura
and had air raids on the previous day, preventing him from identifying the target clearly. Additionally, a smoke screen was created by industrial workers burning barrels of coal tar and/or electric plant workers releasing steam. The bomb was ultimately dropped on the city of Nagasaki
Nagasaki
, the secondary target, at 11:02 JST.

CITY

The city of Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
was founded on February 10, 1963 and was designated on April 1, 1963 by government ordinance . The city was born from the merger of five municipalities (Moji, Kokura, Tobata, Yahata and Wakamatsu) centered around the ancient feudal city of Kokura. The city's symbol mark is a flower with the character "north" (北, kita) in the middle and five petals representing the towns that merged.

WARDS

Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
has seven wards (ku):

NAME JAPANESE AREA (KM²)

Kokurakita-ku (administrative center) 小倉北区 39.27

Kokuraminami-ku 小倉南区 170.25

Moji-ku 門司区 73.37

Tobata-ku 戸畑区 16.66

Yahatahigashi-ku 八幡東区 36.36

Yahatanishi-ku 八幡西区 83.04

Wakamatsu-ku 若松区 67.86

The city of Nakama, Fukuoka
Fukuoka
was to become the eighth ward of Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
in 2005 (to be called Nakama-ku). However, the merger was rejected on December 24, 2004 by Nakama's city council, despite having been initiated by Nakama City.

DEMOGRAPHICS

As of April 1, 2014, the city had an estimated population of 963,267 and a total area of 489.60 km². The average population density is thus 1,967 persons per km². It is now the country's 15th most populated city. It has a much larger total area than that of Fukuoka which is only 340.03 km².

CULTURE

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The 1986 family movie Koneko Monogatari was filmed here. The English version of the film, which is the story of the friendship of a kitten and a pug dog, was released in America in 1989 as The Adventures of Milo and Otis .

The 1958 comedy Rickshaw Man is based on a local folk hero of Kokura called Muhomatsu or "Wild Pine" and has been called the Japanese "Desperado." He is celebrated in the Kokura
Kokura
Gion Yamagasa festival. Toshiro Mifune plays the taiko drum in this movie.

FESTIVALS

There are festivals (matsuri) held in the summer in the city, including the Tobata Gion Yamagasa festival in Tobata-ku, Kitakyūshū . Kurosaki Gion (July)

It has been designated as an intangible cultural asset of Fukuoka Prefecture. People spin highly decorated “battle floats” as they pull them through the streets. Tobata Gion (July)

People carry yamagasa (tiered floats decorated with flags by day and lanterns by night) on their shoulders. Kokura
Kokura
Gion (July)

People pull yamagasa parade floats along the street.

All the Gion festivals date back about 400 years. They were instituted to celebrate surviving an epidemic. Moji Minato Festival (May)

This port-city festival involves colorfully costumed people pulling floats through the streets. Wakamatsu Minato Festival (July)

This port-city festival celebrates fire, drums, and kappa (mythical amphibious creatures who love cucumbers). Wasshoi Hyakuman Festival (August)

The Wasshoi Hyakuman Natsumatsuri
Wasshoi Hyakuman Natsumatsuri
brings all the festivals together for a grand parade and finale near City Hall in Kokura
Kokura
Kita ward . Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
was formed by the merging of Kokura, Yahata, Wakamatsu, Moji, and Tobata. As a result, the city began, on its tenth anniversary, to combine these local festivals into one. On the 25th anniversary, it was renamed Wasshoi Hyakuman because the city population had reached one million. Green Park Flea Market (monthly, except August and December)

There are over 200 shops.

CENTER FOR CONTEMPORARY ART (CCA) KITAKYUSHU

The Center for Contemporary Art opened in May 1997 and has shown works of internationally renowned artists, e.g., Maurizio Cattelan
Maurizio Cattelan
and Anri Sala
Anri Sala
.

NOTABLE PLACES

Kokura
Kokura
Castle in central Kokura
Kokura

Kokura
Kokura
Castle (小倉城, Kokura-jō) was built by Hosokawa Tadaoki in 1602. It was the property of the Ogasawara clan (from Harima) between 1632 and 1860. The castle was burnt down in 1865 in the war between the Kokura
Kokura
and Choshu clans.

Hiraodai (平尾台, lit. Flat Tail Plateau) karst plateau and Mount Adachi (足立山, Adachi-san) in Kokura
Kokura
Minami ward and Mount Sarakura (皿倉山, Sarakura-san) and Kawachi Dam (河内貯水池, Kawachi-chosuichi) in Yahata Higashi ward are noted walking areas with fine scenery. The limestone outcroppings on Hiraodai are said to resemble grazing sheep, so the plateau, the highest in Kyushu
Kyushu
at 400–600 meters, is also known as the Yogun Plain. Some of the limestone caverns are open to the public. The area contains the Sugao and Nanae Waterfalls. Sugao is about 20 meters. Nanae means "seven stages."

Space World is an ice rink and amusement park in Kitayusha. In November 2016 the rink froze 5,000 fish under the ice. This sparked protests and Space World apologized.

ECONOMY

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Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
MEA

Nippon Steel Corporation is a major employer, but the Yahata and Tobata plants are much reduced from their heyday of the 1960s. The Zenrin
Zenrin
company known for its mapping and navigation software is based here and so is Toto Ltd. and Yaskawa Electric Corporation . StarFlyer
StarFlyer
, an airline, is headquartered on the grounds of Kitakyushu Airport in Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyūshū
Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyūshū
. Previously the airline's headquarters were in the Shin Kokura
Kokura
Building (新小倉ビル, Shin- Kokura
Kokura
Biru) in Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyūshū
Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyūshū
. Colet Izutsuya department store (formerly Isetan and originally Sogo department store)

A smaller scale shopping centre called Cha Cha Town was created by the Nishi-Nippon Railroad
Nishi-Nippon Railroad
and bus company next to the Sunatsu bus depot in Kokura
Kokura
Kita ward. Riverwalk Kitakyūshū and Kokura Castle moat

In 2009 Bridgestone
Bridgestone
Corporation opened a plant in Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
to produce large and ultralarge off-the-road radial tires for construction and mining vehicles.

The GDP
GDP
in Greater Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
Metropolitan Employment Area was US$55.7 billion in 2010.

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transport in Fukuoka-Kitakyushu
Transport in Fukuoka-Kitakyushu

Located at a strategic position on the south side of the Kanmon Straits , Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
is an important transport hub for traffic between Honshu
Honshu
and Kyushu
Kyushu
and has a large port.

RAIL

Kokura
Kokura
Station , the city's central train station, is the penultimate stop on the JR West
JR West
Sanyō Shinkansen
Sanyō Shinkansen
before the Fukuoka
Fukuoka
terminus and all Shinkansen
Shinkansen
services stop here. It is served by local and express trains on JR Kyushu
Kyushu
's Kagoshima
Kagoshima
and Nippō Main Lines. In the city, transport is provided the Kitakyushu Monorail and buses.

Mojikō Station
Mojikō Station
in Moji-ku is the northern terminus of the Kagoshima Main Line, the most important line in the JR Kyushu
Kyushu
network.

A tram network operated by the Nishi-Nippon Railroad
Nishi-Nippon Railroad
known as the Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
Line once operated in the city; after dwindling passenger numbers in the 1970s the line was shut down in stages between 1980 and 2000. A railway using tram cars, the Chikuhō Electric Railroad , runs between Kurosaki-Ekimae and Chikuhō-Nōgata stations, serving Yahatanishi-ku and the neighboring city of Nōgata .

AIR

The Kitakyushu Airport opened on March 16, 2006. It is larger than the previous Kokura
Kokura
Airport and supports 24-hour operations thanks to its location on an artificial island in the Seto Inland Sea
Seto Inland Sea
. It will eventually be connected with Kokura
Kokura
Station by a new fast rail link. A new airline based in the city called StarFlyer
StarFlyer
began operations when the airport opened.

SEA

Wakato Ferry
Ferry

Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
is the largest ferry port in Kyushu
Kyushu
, Chūgoku , and Shikoku
Shikoku
. Ferry
Ferry
services operate between Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
and Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki
, Matsuyama , Tokushima , Kōbe , Ōsaka
Ōsaka
, Tokyo
Tokyo
, Ulsan
Ulsan
(Korea), Busan (Korea) and isolated islands in the city limits. The main ferry port is at Shin-Moji, and there are ferries at Moji and near Kokura
Kokura
Station .

In the Kanmon- Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
area, there are three commuter lines: the Wakato Ferry, the Kanmon Straits Ferry, and the Kanmon Straits Liner.

ROADS

Expressways

The metropolitan area of Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
is covered by the Kitakyushu Expressway , which has five routes serving the city, totaling 53 kilometers of four-lane expressways. Some of these expressways are elevated, especially around the city center. Route 1 serves the city center, while route 2 serves the port area. Route 3 is a short connector between routes 1 and 2, and route 4 is the longest of the Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
Expressway network, serving most of the city from north to south. Route 5 is a short link serving the inner port area.

In addition, Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
is bypassed by the Kyushu
Kyushu
Expressway , the main north-south route on the island of Kyushu. The new Higashikyushu Expressway begins in Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
and runs along the eastern coast of Kyushu. North of Kitakyushu, the Kyushu
Kyushu
Expressway crosses the six-lane Kanmonkyo Bridge
Kanmonkyo Bridge
and turns into the Chūgoku Expressway , the second longest in Japan, serving western Honshu.

Bridges

Wakato Bridge

There are several bridges in Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
and between the city and other places. The largest ones are the Kanmonkyo Bridge
Kanmonkyo Bridge
linking Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
and Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki
(on Kyushu
Kyushu
and Honshū respectively) via the Kanmon Straits and the Wakato Bridge linking the wards of Tobata and Wakamatsu. There are smaller bridges over the Onga River on the western border of the city.

On September 30, 2005, ownership of the Wakato Bridge was transferred from Japan
Japan
Highway Public Corporation to Kitakyushu; on April 1,2006 the bridge was transferred to the control of the Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
City Road Public Corporation .

NOTABLE FIGURES

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Mori Ōgai
Mori Ōgai
's house in Kokura
Kokura
Kita ward

SAMURAI

* Miyamoto Musashi
Miyamoto Musashi
, samurai swordsman, author of The Book of Five Rings and founder of the Hyoho Niten Ichi-ryū , famous for its use of two swords, lived in the Kokura
Kokura
castle under the patronage of the Ogasawara and Hosokawa clans from 1633 until his death.

WRITERS

* The novelist Mori Ōgai
Mori Ōgai
lived in Kokura
Kokura
for years and his house is open to the public in Kokura
Kokura
Kita ward . He wrote Kokura
Kokura
Nikki (Kokura diary) here. It is a ten-minute walk from Kokura
Kokura
Station . * The writer Seichō Matsumoto was born in Kokura. A museum dedicated to him is in the city centre near Kokura
Kokura
Castle . * The writer Ashihei Hino was born in Wakamatsu ward and his birthplace can be visited.

SCIENTISTS

* Professor Ted Fujita , called "Mr. Tornado" in America was born in Kikugaoka in what is now Kokura
Kokura
Minami ward.

MUSICIANS

* 175R , a Japanese punk band from Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
* 1000 Travels of Jawaharlal (emo punk)

COMPETITIVE EATERS

* Yuka Kinoshita , competitive eater and YouTuber.

EDUCATION

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES

National Universities

* Kyushu
Kyushu
Institute of Technology

Public Universities

* Kyushu
Kyushu
Dental University * University of Kitakyushu
University of Kitakyushu

Private Universities

* Kyushu
Kyushu
International University * Kyushu
Kyushu
Kyoritsu University * Kyushu
Kyushu
Nutrition Welfare University * Kyushu
Kyushu
Polytechnic College * Kyushu
Kyushu
Women\'s University * Nishinippon Institute of Technology * Seinan Women\'s University * University of Occupational and Environmental Health

Junior Colleges

* Higashi Chikushi Junior College * Kyushu
Kyushu
Women\'s Junior College * Orio Aishin Junior College * Seinan Jo Gakuin University Junior College

Technology Colleges

* Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
National College of Technology

Vocational Colleges

* Kyushu
Kyushu
Medical Sports School

RESEARCH INSTITUTES AND GRADUATE SCHOOLS

* Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
Science and Research Park

* Graduate School of International Environmental Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu * Fukuoka
Fukuoka
University Institute for Recycling and Environmental Control Systems * Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology * Graduate School of Information, Production and Systems/Information, Production and Systems Research Center, Waseda University

SPORTS

PROFESSIONAL TEAMS

* Giravanz Kitakyushu - Soccer , J3

SPORTING VENUES

Honjo stadium.

* Anō Dome * Honjō Athletic Stadium - Home stadium for Giravanz Kitakyushu * Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
Media Dome - Indoor Keirin stadium * Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
Municipal Baseball Stadium * Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
Municipal Gymnasium * JRA Kokura
Kokura
Racecourse * Sayagatani Stadium * Wakamatsu Kyōteijō - Wakamatsu Boat Races

SISTER CITIES

Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
is twinned with the following cities outside Japan.

* Surabaya
Surabaya
, Indonesia
Indonesia
(Since 1992) * Dalian
Dalian
, China * Incheon
Incheon
, South Korea * Norfolk, Virginia
Norfolk, Virginia
, United States * Tacoma, Washington
Tacoma, Washington
, United States * Haiphong , Vietnam

One city in Japan
Japan
is twinned with Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
city.

* Minamikyushu, Kagoshima , Japan
Japan

REFERENCES

* ^ Kitakyushu\'s official English name * ^ Shigeru Mizuki
Shigeru Mizuki
, A History of Japan
Japan
Vol 3 Showa 1944-1953, p.152 * ^ "Steel mill worker reveals blocking view of U.S. aircraft on day of Nagasaki
Nagasaki
atomic bombing". Mainichi. Mainichi Japan. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014. * ^ "Nagasaki: The Last Bomb". The New Yorker. The New Yorker. 7 August 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2015. * ^ A B http://www.city.yokohama.lg.jp/ex/stat/jinko/city/new-j.html * ^ Kurosaki Gion Yamakasa (Float) Festival Event Information Fukuoka Prefecture
Fukuoka Prefecture
Sightseeing Information Crossroad Fukuoka. Crossroadfukuoka.jp. Retrieved on 2013-12-09. * ^ Kokura
Kokura
Gion Fukuoka
Fukuoka
Internet TV. Webtv.pref.fukuoka.lg.jp. Retrieved on 2013-12-09. * ^ 北九州ぐるりん観光ナビ【門司みなと祭】. Kitakyushu-area.jp. Retrieved on 2013-12-09. * ^ Festivals. Kqkicks.antazi.com. Retrieved on 2013-12-09. * ^ フリーマーケット出店者の皆様へお知らせ - グリーンパーク【響灘緑地】. Kpfmmf.jp. Retrieved on 2013-12-09. * ^ Kyushu's Must-See Tourist Spots. 2010. first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help ); Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ " Japan
Japan
skating rink criticised for freezing 5,000 fish in ice". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2016-11-28. * ^ "Corporate Data." TOTO . Retrieved on April 9, 2014. * ^ "Corporate Data." Yaskawa Electric Corporation . Retrieved on April 9, 2014. * ^ "会社概要." StarFlyer. Retrieved on December 20, 2010. "本社 〒800-0306 福岡県北九州市小倉南区空港北町6番 北九州空港スターフライヤー本社ビル" * ^ "Company Profile." StarFlyer. Retrieved on May 26, 2009. Location Shin- Kokura
Kokura
Bldg., 2-2-1 Komemachi Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyusyu-shi Fukuoka
Fukuoka
802-0003 JPN * ^ "会社概要." StarFlyer. March 24, 2008. Retrieved on December 20, 2010. "本社 〒802-0003 福岡県北九州市小倉北区米町二丁目2番1号 新小倉ビル JR小倉駅より徒歩10分." * ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo
Tokyo
. * ^ Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data * ^ 175R – Free listening, concerts, stats, & pictures at. Last.fm. Retrieved on 2013-12-09. * ^ "1000 Travels of Jawaharlal". Last.fm. * ^ http://www.city.kitakyushu.lg.jp/soumu/file_0233.html Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
Sister Cities. Retrieved 25 January 2015/ (in Japanese) * ^ "姉妹都市・交流都市". Minamikyushu city official site. Minamikyushu city. Retrieved 23 February 2015.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to KITAKYUSHU .

* Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
travel guide from Wikivoyage * Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
City official website (in Japanese) * Official website in English (in English) * Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
page of Fukuoka Prefecture
Fukuoka Prefecture
Tourism Association website (in English) * Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
Science and Research Park (in English) * CCA Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
(in Japanese