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(i) (i)

Disputed :

* Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples * Prince
Prince
Amedeo, Duke of Aosta
Aosta

The MONARCHY OF ITALY (Italian : Monarchia italiana) was the system of government in which a hereditary monarch was the sovereign the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 to 1946, also if its antecedents started in 476.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Full title * 3 See also * 4 References

HISTORY

After the deposition of the last Western Emperor in 476, Heruli leader Odoacer was appointed Dux Italiae ("Duke of Italy") by the reigning Byzantine Emperor Zeno . Later, the Germanic foederati , the Scirians and the Heruli, as well as a large segment of the Italic Roman army, proclaimed Odoacer Rex Italiae ("King of Italy"). In 493, the Ostrogothic king Theoderic the Great killed Odoacer, and set up a new dynasty of kings of Italy. Ostrogothic rule ended when Italy
Italy
was reconquered by the Byzantine Empire in 552.

In 568, the Lombards entered the peninsula and ventured to recreate a barbarian kingdom in opposition to the Empire, establishing their authority over much of Italy, except the Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
and the duchies of Rome
Rome
, Venetia , Naples and the southernmost portions. In the 8th century, estrangement between the Italians and the Byzantines allowed the Lombards to capture the remaining Roman enclaves in northern Italy. However, in 774, they were defeated by the Franks under Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, who deposed their king and took up the title "king of the Lombards". After the death of Charles III the Fat in 887, Italy fell into instability and a number of kings attempted to establish themselves as independent Italian monarchs. During this period, known as the Feudal Anarchy (888-962), the title Rex Italicorum ("King of the Italians" or "King of the Italics") was introduced. After the breakup of the Frankish empire, Otto I added Italy
Italy
to the Holy Roman Empire and continued the use of the title Rex Italicorum. The last to use this title was Henry II (1004-1024). Subsequent emperors used the title "king of Italy" until Charles V . At first they were crowned in Pavia , later Milan
Milan
, and Charles was crowned in Bologna
Bologna
.

In 1805, Napoleon I was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy at the Milan
Milan
Cathedral . The next year, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated his imperial title. From the deposition of Napoleon I (1814) until the Italian Unification (1861), there was no Italian monarch claiming the overarching title. The Risorgimento successfully established a dynasty, the House of Savoy , over the whole peninsula, uniting the kingdoms of Sardinia and the Two Sicilies to form the modern Kingdom of Italy . The monarchy was superseded by the Italian Republic , after a constitutional referendum was held on 2 June 1946 after the World War II
World War II
. The Italian monarchy formally ended on 12 June of that year, and Umberto II left the country.

FULL TITLE

Up until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1946, full title of the Kings of Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) was:

, by the Grace of God and the will of the Nation, King of Italy, King of Sardinia , Cyprus , Jerusalem , Armenia , Duke of Savoy, count of Maurienne , Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire ) in Italy; Prince
Prince
of Piedmont
Piedmont
, Carignano , Oneglia
Oneglia
, Poirino
Poirino
, Trino ; Prince
Prince
and Perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Prince
Prince
of Carmagnola , Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, Prince
Prince
bailiff of the Duchy of Aosta
Aosta
, Prince
Prince
of Chieri , Dronero
Dronero
, Crescentino
Crescentino
, Riva di Chieri and Banna, Busca
Busca
, Bene , Bra , Duke of Genoa , Monferrat , Aosta
Aosta
, Duke of Chablais , Genevois , Duke of Piacenza , Marquis of Saluzzo (Saluces), Ivrea
Ivrea
, Susa , of Maro, Oristano , Cesana , Savona
Savona
, Tarantasia , Borgomanero and Cureggio , Caselle , Rivoli , Pianezza , Govone , Salussola , Racconigi
Racconigi
over Tegerone, Migliabruna and Motturone, Cavallermaggiore
Cavallermaggiore
, Marene , Modane and Lanslebourg , Livorno Ferraris
Livorno Ferraris
, Santhià , Agliè , Centallo
Centallo
and Demonte
Demonte
, Desana
Desana
, Ghemme
Ghemme
, Vigone , Count of Barge , Villafranca , Ginevra , Nizza , Tenda , Romont , Asti , Alessandria , of Goceano , Novara , Tortona
Tortona
, Bobbio
Bobbio
, Soissons
Soissons
, Sant\'Antioco , Pollenzo , Roccabruna
Roccabruna
, Tricerro , Bairo , Ozegna , delle Apertole, Baron
Baron
of Vaud and of Faucigni , Lord of Vercelli , Pinerolo
Pinerolo
, of Lomellina
Lomellina
, of Valle Sesia , of the Marquisate of Ceva
Ceva
, Overlord of Monaco
Monaco
, Roccabruna
Roccabruna
and eleven-twelfths of Menton
Menton
, Noble Patrician of Venice
Venice
, Patrician of Ferrara
Ferrara
.

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to MONARCHS OF ITALY .

* List of Italian monarchs * List of heads of state of Italy
Italy
* List of heirs to the Italian throne

REFERENCES

* ^ Bury, History, vol. 1 p. 406 * ^ Nohlen, D ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Heads of State of Italy
Italy
(List )

Kingdom 1861–1946

* Victor Emmanuel II * Umberto I * Victor Emmanuel III * Umberto II

Republic 1946–

* Alcide De Gasperi
Alcide De Gasperi
^* * Enrico De Nicola
Enrico De Nicola
* Luigi Einaudi
Luigi Einaudi
* Giovanni Gronchi * Antonio Segni
Antonio Segni
* Cesare Merzagora ^* * Giuseppe Saragat
Giuseppe Saragat
* Giovanni Leone
Giovanni Leone
* Amintore Fanfani
Amintore Fanfani
^* * Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
* Francesco Cossiga * Giovanni Spadolini
Giovanni Spadolini
^* * Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
* Nicola Mancino
Nicola Mancino
^* * Carlo Azeglio Ciampi * Giorgio Napolitano * Pietro Grasso
Pietro Grasso
^* * Sergio Mattarella

^* Acting President

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