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(i) (i)

Disputed :

* Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
* Prince
Prince
Amedeo, Duke of Aosta
Aosta

The MONARCHY OF ITALY (Italian : Monarchia italiana) was the system of government in which a hereditary monarch was the sovereign of the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
from 1861 to 1946, also if its antecedents started in 476.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Full title * 3 See also * 4 References

HISTORY

After the deposition of the last Western Emperor in 476, Heruli leader Odoacer
Odoacer
was appointed Dux Italiae ("Duke of Italy") by the reigning Byzantine Emperor Zeno . Later, the Germanic foederati , the Scirians
Scirians
and the Heruli, as well as a large segment of the Italic Roman army, proclaimed Odoacer
Odoacer
Rex Italiae ("King of Italy"). In 493, the Ostrogothic king Theoderic the Great
Theoderic the Great
killed Odoacer, and set up a new dynasty of kings of Italy. Ostrogothic rule ended when Italy
Italy
was reconquered by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in 552.

In 568, the Lombards
Lombards
entered the peninsula and ventured to recreate a barbarian kingdom in opposition to the Empire, establishing their authority over much of Italy, except the Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
and the duchies of Rome
Rome
, Venetia , Naples and the southernmost portions. In the 8th century, estrangement between the Italians and the Byzantines allowed the Lombards
Lombards
to capture the remaining Roman enclaves in northern Italy. However, in 774, they were defeated by the Franks under Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, who deposed their king and took up the title "king of the Lombards". After the death of Charles III the Fat in 887, Italy fell into instability and a number of kings attempted to establish themselves as independent Italian monarchs. During this period, known as the Feudal Anarchy (888-962), the title Rex Italicorum ("King of the Italians" or "King of the Italics") was introduced. After the breakup of the Frankish empire, Otto I added Italy
Italy
to the Holy Roman Empire and continued the use of the title Rex Italicorum. The last to use this title was Henry II (1004-1024). Subsequent emperors used the title "king of Italy" until Charles V . At first they were crowned in Pavia
Pavia
, later Milan
Milan
, and Charles was crowned in Bologna
Bologna
.

In 1805, Napoleon I
Napoleon I
was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy at the Milan
Milan
Cathedral . The next year, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated his imperial title. From the deposition of Napoleon I
Napoleon I
(1814) until the Italian Unification
Italian Unification
(1861), there was no Italian monarch claiming the overarching title. The Risorgimento
Risorgimento
successfully established a dynasty, the House of Savoy
House of Savoy
, over the whole peninsula, uniting the kingdoms of Sardinia and the Two Sicilies to form the modern Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
. The monarchy was superseded by the Italian Republic , after a constitutional referendum was held on 2 June 1946 after the World War II
World War II
. The Italian monarchy formally ended on 12 June of that year, and Umberto II left the country.

FULL TITLE

Up until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1946, full title of the Kings of Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
(1861–1946) was:

, by the Grace of God and the will of the Nation, King of Italy, King of Sardinia , Cyprus , Jerusalem , Armenia , Duke of Savoy, count of Maurienne , Marquis
Marquis
(of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
) in Italy; Prince
Prince
of Piedmont
Piedmont
, Carignano , Oneglia , Poirino , Trino ; Prince
Prince
and Perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Prince
Prince
of Carmagnola
Carmagnola
, Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, Prince
Prince
bailiff of the Duchy of Aosta
Aosta
, Prince
Prince
of Chieri , Dronero , Crescentino , Riva di Chieri and Banna, Busca , Bene , Bra , Duke of Genoa , Monferrat , Aosta
Aosta
, Duke of Chablais , Genevois , Duke of Piacenza
Piacenza
, Marquis
Marquis
of Saluzzo (Saluces), Ivrea
Ivrea
, Susa , of Maro, Oristano
Oristano
, Cesana , Savona
Savona
, Tarantasia , Borgomanero
Borgomanero
and Cureggio , Caselle , Rivoli , Pianezza , Govone , Salussola , Racconigi
Racconigi
over Tegerone, Migliabruna and Motturone, Cavallermaggiore , Marene , Modane and Lanslebourg , Livorno Ferraris , Santhià , Agliè , Centallo and Demonte , Desana , Ghemme
Ghemme
, Vigone , Count of Barge , Villafranca , Ginevra , Nizza , Tenda , Romont , Asti , Alessandria , of Goceano , Novara
Novara
, Tortona
Tortona
, Bobbio
Bobbio
, Soissons
Soissons
, Sant\'Antioco , Pollenzo , Roccabruna , Tricerro , Bairo , Ozegna , delle Apertole, Baron
Baron
of Vaud
Vaud
and of Faucigni , Lord of Vercelli
Vercelli
, Pinerolo
Pinerolo
, of Lomellina , of Valle Sesia , of the Marquisate of Ceva
Ceva
, Overlord of Monaco
Monaco
, Roccabruna and eleven-twelfths of Menton
Menton
, Noble Patrician of Venice
Venice
, Patrician of Ferrara
Ferrara
.

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to MONARCHS OF ITALY .

* List of Italian monarchs * List of heads of state of Italy
Italy
* List of heirs to the Italian throne

REFERENCES

* ^ Bury, History, vol. 1 p. 406 * ^ Nohlen, D ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Heads of State of Italy
Italy
(List )

Kingdom 1861–1946

* Victor Emmanuel II * Umberto I * Victor Emmanuel III * Umberto II

Republic 1946–

* Alcide De Gasperi
Alcide De Gasperi
^* * Enrico De Nicola * Luigi Einaudi * Giovanni Gronchi
Giovanni Gronchi
* Antonio Segni
Antonio Segni
* Cesare Merzagora ^* * Giuseppe Saragat * Giovanni Leone * Amintore Fanfani
Amintore Fanfani
^* * Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
* Francesco Cossiga
Francesco Cossiga
* Giovanni Spadolini ^* * Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
* Nicola Mancino ^* * Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
* Giorgio Napolitano
Giorgio Napolitano
* Pietro Grasso
Pietro Grasso
^* * Sergio Mattarella
Sergio Mattarella

^* Acting