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A monarchical system of government existed in Ireland
Ireland
from ancient times until, for what became the Republic of Ireland, the mid-twentieth century. Northern Ireland, as part of the United Kingdom, remains under a monarchical system of government. The Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland
Ireland
ended with the Norman invasion of Ireland, when the kingdom became a fief of the Holy See
Holy See
under the Lordship of the King of England. This lasted until the Parliament of Ireland
Ireland
conferred the Crown of Ireland
Ireland
upon King Henry VIII of England
King Henry VIII of England
during the English Reformation. The monarch of England held the crowns of England and Ireland
Ireland
in a personal union. The Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns
in 1603 expanded the personal union to include Scotland. The personal union between England and Scotland
Scotland
became a political union with the enactments of the Acts of Union 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. The crowns of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
remained in personal union until it was ended by the Acts of Union 1800, which united Ireland
Ireland
and Great Britain into the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
from January 1801 until December 1922. After that date, most of Ireland
Ireland
left the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to become the independent Irish Free State; the remaining part, Northern Ireland, elected to remain in the United Kingdom. Both the Free State and the United Kingdom, which changed its name to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Ireland
in 1927, had the same person as monarch: George V. In 1937, the year after George V's death, the Free State adopted a new constitution which changed the state's name to Ireland (or Éire) and removed all mention of the monarch. In April 1949, Ireland
Ireland
was declared a republic, with the description of the Republic of Ireland. Since April 1949, the only part of the island of Ireland that has retained a monarchical system is Northern Ireland
Ireland
(as part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland).

Contents

1 Gaelic kingdoms

1.1 Ard Rí co febressa: High Kings with opposition

1.1.1 High Kings of Ireland
Ireland
846–1198 1.1.2 Ruaidhrí, King of Ireland

2 Lordship of Ireland: 1198–1542

2.1 Lords of Ireland
Ireland
1177–1542

3 Kingdom of Ireland: 1542–1800

3.1 Re-creation of title 3.2 Union with Great Britain 3.3 Partition: Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
(1922–1936) 3.4 Abdication crisis, President of Ireland
Ireland
and Republic of Ireland Act (1936–1949) 3.5 List of monarchs of Ireland

3.5.1 Monarchs of Ireland 3.5.2 Monarchs of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and Ireland 3.5.3 Monarchs of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 3.5.4 King's title, George I – George VI

4 References

Gaelic kingdoms[edit] Gaelic Ireland
Ireland
consisted of as few as five and as many as nine Primary kingdoms (Cuaighe) which were often subdivided into many minor smaller kingdoms (Tutha). The primary kingdoms were Ailech, Airgíalla, Connacht, Leinster, Mide, Osraige, Munster, Thomond
Thomond
and Ulster. Until the end of Gaelic Ireland
Ireland
they continued to fluctuate, expand and contract in size, as well as dissolving entirely or being amalgamated into new entities. The role of High King of Ireland
Ireland
was primarily titular and rarely (if ever) absolute. Gaelic Ireland
Ireland
was not ruled as a unitary state.

Map of Ireland
Ireland
(900 AD)

The names of Connacht, Ulster, Leinster
Leinster
and Munster
Munster
are still in use, now applied to the four modern provinces of Ireland. The following is a list of the main Irish kingdoms and their kings.

Kings of Ailech
Ailech
(5th century to 1185) Kings of Airgíalla
Airgíalla
( –1590) Kings of Connacht
Connacht
(406–1474) Kings of Leinster
Leinster
(634 to 1603 or 1632 (de facto)) Kings of Mide
Mide
(8th–12th centuries) Kings of Osraige
Osraige
( –12th century) Kings of Munster
Munster
(4th century to 1138 or 1194 (claimant)) Kings of Thomond
Thomond
(1118–1543) Kings of Ulster
Ulster
(5th–12th centuries)

Ard Rí co febressa: High Kings with opposition[edit] Main article: High Kings of Ireland Maire Herbert has noted that "Annal evidence from the late eighth century in Ireland
Ireland
suggests that the larger provincial kingships were already accruing power at the expense of smaller political units. Leading kings appear in public roles at church-state proclamations...and at royal conferences with their peers." (2000, p. 62). Responding to the assumption of the title ri hErenn uile ("king of all Ireland") by Mael Sechlainn I in 862, she furthermore states that

the ninth-century assumption of the title of "ri Erenn" was a first step towards the definition of a national kingship and a territorially-based Irish realm. Yet change only gained ground after the stranglehold of Uí Néill power-structures was broken in the eleventh century. ...The renaming of a kingship ... engendered a new self-perception which shaped the future definition of a kingdom and of its subjects.

(Herbert, 2000, p. 72) Nevertheless, the achievements of Mael Sechlainn and his successors were purely personal, and open to destruction upon their deaths. Between 846–1022, and again from 1042–1166, kings from the leading Irish kingdoms made greater attempts to compel the rest of the island's populace to their rule, with varying degrees of success, until the inauguration of Ruaidri Ua Conchobair
Ruaidri Ua Conchobair
(Rory O'Connor) in 1166, High Kings of Ireland
Ireland
846–1198[edit]

Mael Sechnaill mac Maele Ruanaid, 846–860 Aed Findliath, 861–876 Flann Sinna, 877–914 Niall Glundub, 915–917 Donnchad Donn, 918–942 Congalach Cnogba, 943–954 Domnall ua Neill, 955–978 Mael Sechnaill mac Domnaill, 979–1002; 1014–1022 Brian Boru, 1002–1014 Donnchad mac Briain, died 1064 Diarmait mac Mail na mBo, died 1072 Toirdelbach Ua Briain, died 1086 Muirchertach Ua Briain, died 1119 Domnall Ua Lochlainn, died 1121 Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair, died 1156 Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn, died 1166 Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, died 1198

Ruaidhrí, King of Ireland[edit]

Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair

Upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166, Ruaidhrí, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin
Dublin
where he was inaugurated King of Ireland
Ireland
without opposition. He was arguably the first undisputed full king of Ireland. He was also the only Gaelic one, as the events of the Norman invasion of 1169–1171 brought about the destruction of the high-kingship, and the direct involvement of the Kings of England
Kings of England
in Irish politics. One of Ruaidrí's first acts as King was the conquest of Leinster, which resulted in the exile of its king, Dermot MacMurrough. Ruaidrí then obtained terms and hostages from all the notable kings and lords. He then celebrated the Oneach Tailtann, a recognised prerogative of the High Kings, and made a number of notable charitable gifts and donations. However, his caput remained in his home territory in central Connacht
Connacht
(County Galway). Ireland's recognised capital, Dublin, was ruled by Ascall mac Ragnaill, who had submitted to Ruaidri. Only with the arrival of MacMurrough's Anglo-Norman allies in May 1169 did Ruaidrí's position begin to weaken. A series of disastrous defeats and ill-judged treaties lost him much of Leinster, and encouraged uprisings by rebel lords. By the time of the arrival of Henry II in 1171, Ruaidrí's position as king of Ireland
Ireland
was increasingly untenable. Ruaidrí at first remained aloof from engagement with King Henry, though many of the lesser kings and lords welcomed his arrival as they wished to see him curb the territorial gains made by his vassals. Through the intercession of Lorcán Ua Tuathail
Lorcán Ua Tuathail
(Laurence O'Toole), the Archbishop of Dublin, Ruaidrí and Henry came to terms with the Treaty of Windsor in 1175. Ruaidrí agreed to recognise Henry as his lord; in return, Ruaidrí was allowed to keep all Ireland
Ireland
as his personal kingdom outside the petty kingdoms of Laigin (Leinster) and Mide
Mide
as well as the city of Waterford. Henry was unwilling or unable to enforce the terms of the treaty on his barons in Ireland, who continued to gain territory in Ireland. A low point came in 1177 with a successful raid into the heart of Connacht
Connacht
by a party of Anglo-Normans, led by one of Ruaidrí's sons, Prince Muirchertach. They were expelled, Ruaidhrí ordering the blinding of Muirchertach, but over the next six years his rule was increasingly diminished by internal dynastic conflict and external attacks. Finally, in 1183, he abdicated. He was twice briefly returned to power in 1185 and 1189, but even within his home kingdom of Connacht
Connacht
he had become politically marginalized. He lived quietly on his estates, and died at the monastery of Cong in 1198 and was buried at Clonmacnoise. With the possible exception of Brian Ua Néill (Brian O'Neill; died 1260), no other Gaelic king was ever again recognised as king or high king of Ireland. Lordship of Ireland: 1198–1542[edit] Main article: Lordship of Ireland By the time of Ruairi's death in 1198, King Henry II of England
Henry II of England
had invaded Ireland
Ireland
and given the part of it he controlled to his son John as a Lordship when John was just 10 in 1177. When John succeeded to the English throne in 1199, he remained Lord of Ireland
Ireland
thereby bringing the kingdom of England and the lordship of Ireland
Ireland
into personal union. By the mid-13th century, while the island was nominally ruled by the king of England, from c.1260 the effective area of control began to recede. As various Cambro-Norman
Cambro-Norman
noble families died out in the male line, the Gaelic nobility began to reclaim lost territory. Successive English kings did little to stem the tide, instead using Ireland
Ireland
to draw upon men and supplies in the wars in Scotland
Scotland
and France. By the 1390s the Lordship had effectively shrunk to the Pale with the rest of the island under the control of independent Gaelic-Irish or rebel Cambro-Norman
Cambro-Norman
noble families. King Richard II of England
Richard II of England
made two journeys to Ireland
Ireland
during his reign to rectify the situation; as a direct result of his second visit in 1399 he lost his throne to Henry Bolingbroke. This was the last time that a medieval king of England visited Ireland. For the duration of the 15th century, royal power in Ireland
Ireland
was weak, the country being dominated by the various clans and dynasties of Gaelic (O'Neill, O'Brien, MacCarthy) or Cambro-Norman
Cambro-Norman
(Burke, FitzGerald, Butler) origin. Affairs closer to London ensured, well into the 1530s, that Irish affairs remained at best a secondary concern. Lords of Ireland
Ireland
1177–1542[edit] See also: List of English monarchs

John (1177–1216)

First man to be made Lord of Ireland
Ireland
and established the precedent that that Lord would also be King of England.

Henry III (1216–72)

Henry III granted Ireland
Ireland
to his son, Edward I, in 1254 on condition that it would never be separated from the Crown. Brian Ua Néill claimed the title of High King of Ireland
Ireland
from 1258–60, until his defeat and death in the Battle of Druim Dearg

Edward I (1272–1307) Edward II (1307–27)

Edward Bruce, Earl of Carrick, declared himself High King of Ireland during a failed rebellion of 1315–18

Edward III (1327–77) Richard II (1377–99)

Robert de Vere was created Duke of Ireland
Ireland
in 1386, but forfeited his titles in 1388

Henry IV (1399–1413) Henry V (1413–22) Henry VI (1422–61) Edward IV (1461–70) Henry VI (1470–71) Edward IV (1471–83) Edward V (1483) Richard III (1483–85) Henry VII (1485–1509)

Lambert Simnel
Lambert Simnel
claimed to be Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick, and was crowned "King Edward VI" in Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin
Dublin
on 24 May 1487. His claim ended with the Battle of Stoke Field, 16 June 1487. Perkin Warbeck
Perkin Warbeck
claimed to be Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York ("Richard IV") and gained some Irish support before a failed invasion of England in 1495.

Henry VIII (1509–42)

The title of Lord of Ireland
Ireland
was abolished by Henry VIII, who was made King of Ireland
Ireland
by the Parliament of Ireland
Ireland
by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542. Kingdom of Ireland: 1542–1800[edit] Re-creation of title[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Ireland

Henry VIII claimed the title "King of Ireland" in 1542.

The title "King of Ireland" was created by an act of the Irish Parliament in 1541, replacing the Lordship of Ireland, which had existed since 1171, with the Kingdom of Ireland. The Crown of Ireland Act 1542 established a personal union between the English and Irish crowns, providing that whoever was King of England
King of England
was to be King of Ireland
Ireland
as well, and so its first holder was King Henry VIII of England. Henry's sixth and last wife, Katherine Parr, was the first Queen consort of Ireland
Ireland
following her marriage to King Henry in 1543.[1] This followed the failure of the plan to make The 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset (1519–1536), Henry VIII's illegitimate son, into the King of Ireland. Although Richmond was made Lord Lieutenant, the King's counsellors feared that creating a separate Kingdom of Ireland, with a ruler other than that of England, would create another threat like the King of Scotland.[2] The title of King of Ireland
Ireland
was created after Henry VIII had been excommunicated in 1538, so it was not recognised by European Catholic monarchs. Following the accession of the Catholic Mary I in 1553 and her marriage to Felipe, Prince of Asturias, in 1554, Pope Paul IV issued the papal bull "Ilius" in 1555, recognising them as Queen and King of Ireland
Ireland
together with her heirs and successors.[3] For a brief period in the 17th century, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms from the impeachment and execution of Charles I in 1649 to the Irish Restoration in May 1660, there was no 'King of Ireland'. After the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Irish Catholics, organised in Confederate Ireland, still recognised Charles I, and later Charles II, as legitimate monarchs, in opposition to the claims of the English Parliament, and signed a formal treaty with Charles I in 1648. But in 1649, the Rump Parliament, victorious in the English Civil War, executed Charles I, and made England a republic, or "Commonwealth". The Parliamentarian general Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
came across the Irish Sea to crush the Irish royalists, temporarily uniting England, Scotland, and Ireland
Ireland
under one government, and styling himself "Lord Protector" of the three kingdoms. (See also Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.) After Cromwell's death in 1658, his son Richard emerged as the leader of this pan- British and Irish Isles
British and Irish Isles
republic, but he was not competent to maintain it. The Parliament of England
Parliament of England
at Westminster
Westminster
voted to restore the monarchy, and in 1660 King Charles II returned from exile in France to become King of England, King of Scotland
Scotland
and King of Ireland. Union with Great Britain[edit] See also: List of British monarchs The Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
merged the kingdoms of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain, under the sovereignty of the British Crown. The effect was to create a personal union between the Crown of Ireland
Ireland
and the British Crown, instead of the English Crown. Later, from 1 January 1801, an additional merger took place between the two Kingdoms. By the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, the Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
merged with the Kingdom of Great Britain, thus creating the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the separation of most of Ireland
Ireland
from that kingdom in 1922, the remaining constituent parts were renamed the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Ireland
in 1927, five years after the establishment of the Irish Free State. Partition: Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
(1922–1936)[edit] Main article: Monarchy in the Irish Free State

Leinster
Leinster
House, Dublin, decorated for the visit of King George V
George V
and Queen Mary in 1911. Within a decade it was the seat of the Oireachtas
Oireachtas
of the Irish Free State.

In early December 1922, most of Ireland
Ireland
(twenty-six of the country's thirty-two counties) left the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland. These 'Twenty-Six Counties' now became the Irish Free State, a self-governing dominion within the British Empire. Six of Ireland's north-eastern counties, all within the Province of Ulster, remained within the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as Northern Ireland. As a Dominion, the Free State was a constitutional monarchy with the British monarch as its head of state. The monarch was officially represented in the new Free State by the Governor-General of the Irish Free State. The King's title in the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
was exactly the same as it was elsewhere in the British Empire, being from 1922 to 1927: "By the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland
Ireland
and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India" and, from 1927 to 1937: "By the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland
Ireland
and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India". The change in the King's title was effected under an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom called the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act, 1927, intended to update the name of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as well as the King's title to reflect the fact that most of the island of Ireland
Ireland
had left the United Kingdom. The Act therefore provided that "Parliament shall hereafter be known as and styled the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Ireland
[instead of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland]" and "In every Act passed and public document issued after the passing of this Act the expression 'United Kingdom' shall, unless the context otherwise requires, mean Great Britain and Northern Ireland."[4] According to The Times, the " Imperial Conference
Imperial Conference
proposed that, as a result of the establishment of the Irish Free State, the title of the King should be changed to 'George V, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland, and the British Dominions beyond the seas King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.'"[4] The change did not mean that the King had now assumed different styles in the different parts of his Empire. That development did not formally occur until 1953, four years after the new Republic of Ireland
Ireland
had left the Commonwealth. Despite a lack of change in his title, George V's position as king of that country became separated from his place as King of the United Kingdom (as occurred with all the other British Dominions at the time). The Government of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
(also known as His Majesty's Government in the Irish Free State) was confident that the relationship of these independent countries under the Crown would function as a personal union.[5] Abdication crisis, President of Ireland
Ireland
and Republic of Ireland
Ireland
Act (1936–1949)[edit] Main article: Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949 The constitutional crisis resulting from the abdication of King Edward VIII in December 1936 was used by Éamon de Valera's government as a catalyst to amend the Constitution of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
by eliminating all but one of the King's official duties. This was achieved with the enactment on 11 December of the Constitution (Amendment No. 27) Act, which removed the monarch from the constitution and, on 12 December, the External Relations Act,[6] which provided that the monarch recognised by Britain and the rest of the Commonwealth could represent the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
"for the purposes of the appointment of diplomatic and consular representatives and the conclusion of international agreements" when authorised to do so by the Irish government. The following year, a new constitution was ratified, changing the name of the Free State to Éire, or "Ireland" in the English language, and establishing the office of President of Ireland. The King's role in Ireland
Ireland
was ambiguous. Whether the Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949 was George VI, or the President, was left unclear.[7][8] This ambiguity was eliminated with the enactment of the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1948, which came into force in April 1949 and declared the state to be a republic.[9] The External Relations Act was repealed, removing the remaining duties of the monarch, and Ireland
Ireland
formally withdrew from the British Commonwealth.[10] The position of the King in the Irish state was finally and formally ended by the Oireachtas
Oireachtas
with the repeal of the Crown of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1542 by the Statute Law Revision (Pre-Union Irish Statutes) Act 1962. The British monarchy, specifically, continued and continues in Northern Ireland, which remains a part of the sovereign state that is the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. From 1921 until 1973, the British monarch was officially represented in Northern Ireland
Ireland
by the Governor of Northern Ireland. List of monarchs of Ireland[edit] Monarchs of Ireland[edit]

An Irish groat depicting Philip and Mary

Henry VIII (1542–47); Lord of Ireland
Ireland
1509–42; made King by the Crown of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1542 Edward VI (1547–53) Lady Jane Grey
Lady Jane Grey
(1553; disputed) Mary I (1553–58)

Philip jure uxoris (1554–58); his role as King of Ireland
Ireland
was reinforced by the Treason Act 1554

Elizabeth I (1558–1603) James I (1603–25) Charles I (1625–49)

The Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
(incorporating the Irish Rebellion of 1641, Confederate Ireland, the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Ireland
and the Irish Confederate Wars) took place between 1639 and 1651. Charles I was executed in 1649 and his son Charles II was recognised by some Irish lords as King of Ireland. The Interregnum began with England, Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales ruled by the Council of State, then the Lord Protector
Lord Protector
Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
(1649–58) and his son Richard Cromwell (1658–59). The Restoration in Ireland
Ireland
was effected in 1660 without major opposition, Charles II being declared King on 14 May 1660 by the Irish Convention.

Charles II (1660–85) James II (1685–91) William III (1689–1702) & Mary II (1689–94)

The position of King of Ireland
Ireland
was contested by William III and James II between 1689 and 1691, after the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688. The Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689
Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689
made William King of Ireland, and this was reinforced by his victory at the Battle of the Boyne (part of the Williamite War in Ireland).

Anne (1702–14)

The Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
united the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. However, the Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
remained a separate state.

George I (1714–27) George II (1727–60) George III (1760–1800)

The Acts of Union 1800, instituted in reaction to the Irish Rebellion of 1798, created the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Ireland. Monarchs of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and Ireland[edit]

The royal arms of Ireland
Ireland
– Badge of Ireland, used during the period of the Kingdom of Ireland
Ireland
on coins, etc.

George V
George V
(1922–1936) (The Irish Free State
Irish Free State
became a self-governing Dominion
Dominion
of the British Empire
British Empire
and subsequently, in 1931, a legislatively independent country) Edward VIII
Edward VIII
(1936) Arguably George VI
George VI
(1936–1949), whose status was diminished

Monarchs of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[edit]

George VI
George VI
(1949–1952) (Following the Ireland
Ireland
Act 1949, only that part of Ireland
Ireland
known as Northern Ireland
Ireland
remained part of a monarchy.) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952–)

King's title, George I – George VI[edit] The king's title in the Irish Free State, when it became a self-governing Dominion
Dominion
of the British Empire, and its constitutional successor from December 1936 to April 1949, was the same as elsewhere in the British Commonwealth,[11] but it was unclear whether the President of Ireland
Ireland
was Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949 or the King, George VI. The changes in the royal style in the 20th century took into account the emergence of independence for the dominions from the Imperial Parliament of the United Kingdom. The kings successively and their advisers and governments in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
were fully aware that the republican intent of the representatives of the Irish Free State was in marked contrast to the intent of the governments of certain other dominions, such as Canada.[12] and such differences were manifested in this period in the design and use of flags and other national symbols for the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and other dominions.[13] References[edit]

^ Katherine Parr, editor, Janel Mueller. Katherine Parr: Complete Works and Correspondence, University of Chicago Press, 2011. pg 178. Last Will and Testament of Dowager Queen Katherine Parr ^ J.J. Scarisbrick, English Monarchs: Henry VIII, University of California Press ^ The papal bull "ILIUS" of 1555 conferring the title of King of Ireland
Ireland
upon Philip, Prince of Asturias
Prince of Asturias
(later Philip II of Spain) ^ a b The Times, 4 March 1927 ^ "Black v Chrétien: Suing a Minister of the Crown for Abuse of Power, Misfeasance in Public Office and Negligence". Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law. 9 (3). September 2002. Retrieved 2 October 2008.  ^ Edward VIII
Edward VIII
(12 December 1936). Executive Authority (External Relations) Act, 1936. Dublin: Irish Statute Book. 3.2. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ McMahon, Deirdre (1984). Republicans and Imperialists: Anglo-Irish Relations in the 1930's. p. 181. ISBN 0300030711.  ^ In the words of Mary E. Daly (January 2007). "The Irish Free State/Éire/Republic of Ireland/Ireland: "A Country by Any Other Name"?". Journal of British Studies. 46 (1): 72–90. doi:10.1086/508399. JSTOR 10.1086/508399. : "After the enactment of the 1936 External Relations Act and the 1937 Constitution, Ireland's only remaining link with the crown had been the accreditation of diplomats. The president of Ireland
Ireland
was the head of state. When opposition deputies asked de Valera whether Ireland
Ireland
was a republic—a favorite pastime in the mid-1940s—he tended to resort to dictionary definitions showing that Ireland
Ireland
had all the attributes of a republic." ^ Section 1 of the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1948. ^ Kondō, Atsushi (2001). Citizenship in a Global World: Comparing Citizenship Rights for Aliens. Hampshire: Palgrave. p. 120. ISBN 0-333-80265-9. Ireland
Ireland
reluctantly remained a member of the Commonwealth as Irish citizens remained British Subjects. However, Irish representatives stopped attending Commonwealth meetings in 1937 and Ireland
Ireland
adopted a position of neutrality in World War II. Ireland became a Republic in 1949 and formally left the Commonwealth.  ^ Proclamation altering the Style and Titles appertaining to the Crown, London, 13 May 1927.[1] ^ Heads of government attending the 1926 Imperial Conference
Imperial Conference
included W. T. Cosgrave, then serving as President of the Executive Council (prime minister) from 1922 to 1932. It was recorded that the distinct characteristics and histories of each was recognised by the parties attending the Conference, ^ See "The Flags of Canada", Alistair B. Fraser, 1998, [2] 1_For the chronology of Canadian flags from 1870, at the time of the Irish republican movement, see Appendix III [3]. 2_For explanation of the distinction between national flags and monarchical badges or blazons of arms see Chapter I: ___"...a nation needs emblems and symbols to preserve traditions and inspire love of country. Of these symbols, the coat of arms and the flag are the chief." Charles Frederick Hamilton, Assistant Comptroller, R.C.M.P (1921) ___"The function of a flag is to send the simple message of identity. The function of arms is to dignify an individual, or institution, or country by special identifying symbolism and by appropriate reference to ancestry." John Ross Matheson, Canada's Flag: A Search for a Country (Boston G.K. Hall, 1980), p. 7. ___"Canada's flag serves to identify something Canadian. More specialized in its use, Canada's arms identify national authority and jurisdiction. Leaving aside strictly decorative uses of either, the flag is used wherever one wishes to make the simple statement: Canada or Canadian; the arms only where the authority of the nation is asserted." Alistair B. Fraser, 1998, op.cit.

Synchronismen der irischen Konige, Rudolf Thurneysen, ZCP 19, 1933, pp. 81–99 The Uí Brian Kingship in Telach Oc, James Hogan, in Feil-Sgrighinn Eoin Mhic Neill, pp. 406–444, ed. John Ryan, Dublin, 1938 Early Irish History and Mythology, T.F. O'Rahilly, 1946 The heir-designate in early medieval Ireland, Gearóid Mac Niocaill, Irish Jurist 3 (1968), pp. 326–29. The rise of the Uí Néill and the high-kingship of Ireland, Francis John Byrne, O'Donnell Lecture, 1969; published Dublin, 1970 Irish regnal succession – a reappraisal, Donnchadh O Corrain, Studia Hibernica 11, 1971, pp7–39 Gaelic and Gaelicised Ireland, Kenneth Nicholls, 1972 Rí Éirenn, Rí Alban, kingship and identity in the night and tenth centuries, Maire Herbert, in Kings clerics and chronicles in Scotland, pp. 62–72, ed. S. Taylor, Dublin, 2000 Irish Kings and High Kings, Francis John Byrne, 1973; 3rd reprint, Dublin, 2001 Dal Cais, church and dynasty, Donnachadh O Corrain, Eiru 24, 1973, pp. 1–69 Nationality and kingship in pre-Norman Ireland, Donnchadh O Corrain, in Nationality and the pursuit of national independence, pp. 1–35, Historical Studies 11, ed. T.W. Moody, Belfast, 1978 The Irish royal sites in history and archaeology, B. Wailes, CMCS 3, 1982, pp. 1–29 A New History of Ireland
Ireland
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in the Later Middle Ages, Katharine Simms, Dublin, 1987 The King as Judge in early Ireland, Marilyn Gerriets, CMCS 13 (1987), pp. 39–72. High Kingship and Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus, A.T. Fear, in EtC 30 (1994), pp. 165–68. Kingship, society and sacrality:rank, power and ideology in early medieval Ireland, N.B. Aitchison, in Traditio 49 (1994) pp. 45–47 Kings and kingship in Early Medieval Ireland, pp. 63–84, Daibhi O Croinin, 1995 The Kingship of Tara in Early Christian Ireland, Thomas Charles-Edwards, 1995 Kings over overkings. Propaganda for pre-eminence in early medieval Ireland, Bart Jaski, in The Propagation of Power in the Medieval West, ed. M. Gosman, A. Vanderjagt, J. Veenstra, pp. 163–76, Groningen, 1996 An inaugural ode to Hugh O'Connor (King of Connacht
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states and kings in Christian times pp. 33–52, The Ua Maelechlainn kings of Meath, pp. 90–107, Christian kings of Connacht, pp. 177–194, Paul Walsh, in Irish Leaders and Learning Through the Ages, ed. Nollaig O Muraile, 2003 Finghin MacCarthaigh, king of Desmond, and the mystery of the second nunnery at Clonmacnoise, Conleth Manning, in Regions and Rulers in Ireland
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1100–1650, ed. David Edwards, pp. 20–26, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2004 Kingship in Early Ireland, Charles Doherty, in The Kingship and Landscape of Tara, pp. 3–31, ed. Edel Bhreathnach, Four Courts Press, Dublin, 2005 Kings named in "Baile Chuinn Chechathaig" and the Airgialla
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Charter Poem, Ailbhe Mac Shamhrain and Paul Byrne, in op.cit., pp. 159–224. High-Kings with Opposition, Maire-Therese Flannagan, in A New History of Ireland, Volume One:Pre-Historic and Early Ireland, 2008

v t e

Kingdom of Ireland

History

Timeline of Irish history History of Ireland
Ireland
(1536–1691) History of Ireland
Ireland
(1691–1801)

General and events

Lordship of Ireland British Empire Poynings' Law Crown of Ireland
Ireland
Act 1542 Tudor conquest of Ireland New English Surrender and regrant Protestantism Desmond Rebellions Plantations of Ireland
Ireland
(Ulster) Nine Years' War (Flight of the Earls) Penal Laws Irish Rebellion of 1641 Irish Confederate Wars Wars of the Three Kingdoms Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Ireland
(Settlement and Barbadosed) Williamite–Jacobite War (Wild Geese) Popery Act Constitution of 1782 Irish Rebellion of 1798 Acts of Union 1800 United Kingdom

Gaelic conquests

Tuadhmhumhain (1543) Uí Echach (1543) Loígis (1543) Uí Failghe (1550) Uí Díarmata
Uí Díarmata
(1574) Clann Aodha Buidhe (1574) Magh Luirg (1585) Airgíalla
Airgíalla
(1585) Iar Connacht
Connacht
(1589) Umhaill
Umhaill
(1593) Deasmhumhain (1596) Mac William Íochtar
Mac William Íochtar
(1602) Laigin (1603) Bréifne Uí Ruairc (1605) Cairbrigh (1606) Tír Chonaill (1607) Tír Eoghain (1607) Fear Manach (1607) Uí Catháin (1607) Bréifne Uí Raghallaigh (1607) Uí Maine
Uí Maine
(1611)

Politics and society

Dublin
Dublin
Castle administration Parliament of Ireland
Ireland
( Irish House of Lords
Irish House of Lords
and Irish House of Commons) Privy Council of Ireland Four Courts
Four Courts
(King's Bench, Exchequer, Chancery and Common Pleas) Court of Castle Chamber Peerage of Ireland Army Church of Ireland Grand Lodge of Ireland Trinity College, Dublin Order of St Patrick Jacobites Whigs Tories Irish Patriots Defenders Orangism United Irishmen

Monarchs and rulers

Henry VIII (1542–47) Edward VI (1547–53) Lady Jane Grey
Lady Jane Grey
(1553; disputed) Mary I (1553–58) & Philip jure uxoris (1554–58) Elizabeth I (1558–1603) James I (1603–25) Charles I (1625–49) Commonwealth (1649–53) Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
(1653–58) Richard Cromwell
Richard Cromwell
(1658–59) Commonwealth (1659–60) Charles II (1660–85) James II (1685–91) William III (1689–1702) & Mary II (1689–94) Anne (1702–14) George I (1714–27) George II (1727–60) George III (1760–1800)

British Empire
British Empire
portal Ireland
Ireland
portal Cat

.