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Khas language
Khas language
and regional dialects (e.g; Doteli language) in Nepal Kumaoni and Garhwali in Uttarakhand

Religion

Hinduism

Related ethnic groups

Pahari people, Kumaoni people, Garhwali people, Other Indo-Aryan peoples

Khas
Khas
people (Nepali: खस) also called Khas
Khas
Arya[1][2] (Nepali: खस आर्य) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic native to the present-day Nepal
Nepal
as well as Kumaon and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand and speak the Khas language
Khas language
(modern Nepali language). They were also known as 'Parbatiyas' and 'Paharis'. The term "Khas" has now become obsolete, as the Khas
Khas
people have adopted other identities such as Chhetri
Chhetri
and Bahun, because of the negative stereotypes associated with the term Khas. The hill 'Khas' tribe who are in large part associated with the Gorkhali invaders are addressed with the term Partyā or Parbaté meaning hill-dweller by Newars.[3] The tribal designation Khas
Khas
refers to in some contexts only to the upper-class Khas
Khas
group, i.e. the Bahun and the Chhetri, but in other contexts may also include the low status (generally untouchable) occupational Khas
Khas
groups such as Kāmi (blacksmiths), Damāi (tailors), Sārki(shoemakers and leather workers).[3]

Contents

1 History 2 Modern

2.1 Nepal 2.2 India

3 Notable people 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links

History[edit]

Khas
Khas
man of Nepal, as depicted in The People of India
India
(1868-1875)

The origin of the Khas
Khas
people is uncertain, they are expected to arrive in the western reaches of Nepal
Nepal
in beginning of first millennium B.C from the north-west.[4] They have been connected to the Khasas
Khasas
mentioned in the ancient Hindu
Hindu
literature, as well as the medieval Khasa Malla kingdom.[5] It is likely that they absorbed people from different ethnic groups during this immigration.[6] Traditionally, the Khas
Khas
were divided into " Khas
Khas
Brahmins" (also called Bahuns and " Khas
Khas
Rajputs" (also called Chhetris). In the Kumaon and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
in India, the Khas
Khas
Brahmins and Khas Rajputs had a lower social status than the other Brahmins and Rajputs. However, in the present-day western Nepal, they had the same status as the other Brahmins and Rajputs, possibly as a result of their political power in the Khasa Malla kingdom.[7]

Copper Inscription by King of Doti, Raika Mandhata Shahi at Saka Era 1612 (शाके १६१२) (or 1747 Bikram Samvat) in old Khas language using Devanagari
Devanagari
script

Until the 19th century, the Gorkhali referred to their country as Khas des (" Khas
Khas
country").[8] As they annexed the various neighbouring countries (such as Newar
Newar
of the Newar
Newar
people) to the Gorkha kingdom, the terms such as "Khas" and "Newar" ceased to be used as the names of countries. The 1854 legal code (Muluki Ain), promulgated by the Nepali Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana, himself a Khas,[9] no longer referred to "Khas" as a country, rather as a jāt (species or community) within the Gorkha kingdom.[10] The Shah dynasty
Shah dynasty
of the Gorkha Kingdom, as well as the succeeding Rana dynasty, spoke the Khas language
Khas language
(now called the Nepali language). However, they claimed to be Rajputs of western Indian origin, rather than the native Khas
Khas
Kshatriyas.[11] Since outside Nepal, the Khas social status was seen as inferior to that of the Rajputs, the rulers started describing themselves as natives of the Hill country, rather than that of the Khas
Khas
country. Most people, however, considered the terms Khas
Khas
and Parbatiya (Pahari or Hill people) as synonymous.[8] The Khas
Khas
people originally referred to their language as Khas
Khas
kurā (" Khas
Khas
speech"), which was also known as Parbatiya ("language of the Hill country"). The Newar
Newar
people used the term "Gorkhali" as a name for this language, as they identified it with the Gorkhali conquerors. The Gorkhalis themselves started using this term to refer to their language at a later stage.[12] In an attempt to disassociate himself with his Khas
Khas
past, the Rana monarch Jung Bahadur decreed that the term Gorkhali be used instead of Khas
Khas
kurā to describe the language. Meanwhile, the British Indian administrators had started using the term "Nepal" (after Newar) to refer to the Gorkha kingdom. In the 1930s, the Gorkha government also adopted this term to describe their country. Subsequently, the Khas language
Khas language
also came to be known as "Nepali language".[13] Jung Bahadur also re-labeled the Khas
Khas
jāt as Chhetri
Chhetri
in present-day Nepal.[11] Originally, the Brahmin
Brahmin
immigrants from the plains considered the Khas
Khas
as low-caste because of the latter's neglect of high-caste taboos (such as alcohol abstinence).[14] The upper-class Khas
Khas
people commissioned the Bahun
Bahun
(Brahmin) priests to initiate them into the high-caste Chhetri
Chhetri
order, and adopted high-caste manners. Other Khas
Khas
families, which could not afford to (or did not care to) pay the Bahun
Bahun
priests also attempted to assume the Chhetri
Chhetri
status, but were not recognized as such by others. They are now called Matwali (alcohol-drinking) Chhetris.[15]

Khas
Khas
people of Nepal, as depicted in The People of India
India
(1868-1875)

Khas
Khas
women, photographed in 1880

Khas
Khas
language, shown as "Nepali", in purple

Because of the adoption of the "Chhetri" identity, the term Khas
Khas
is rapidly becoming obsolete.[16] According to Dor Bahadur Bista (1991), "the Khas
Khas
have vanished from the ethnographic map of Nepal".[15] Modern[edit] Nepal[edit] Modern day Khas
Khas
people are referred as Khas
Khas
Brahmin
Brahmin
(commonly called as Khas
Khas
Bahun) and Khas
Khas
Rajput
Rajput
(commonly called as Khas
Khas
Chhetri).[7]

Nepali Khas
Khas
Parbatiya peoples at wedding in Narayangarh, Chitwan

Procession of Nepali Hindu
Hindu
Wedding; groom wears Dhaka dress used only by Khas
Khas
Parbattia community

Senior offering Dashain Tika; a feature of Khas
Khas
Parbattia community

Jhakri, a shamanistic practice evident in modern Khas
Khas
people in Darjeeling, India

India[edit] In Kumaon and Garhwal regions of Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
in India, too, the term Khas
Khas
has become obsolete. The Khas
Khas
(or Khasia) people of Kumaon adopted the self-designation Kumaoni Jiagahari Rajput, after being elevated to the Rajput
Rajput
status by the Chand kings. The term Khas
Khas
is almost obsolete, and people resent being addressed as Khas
Khas
because of the negative stereotypes associated with this term.[17] Notable people[edit]

Bir Bhadra Thapa[18] Sanukaji Amar Singh Thapa[18] Bhimsen Thapa[18] and Thapa dynasty Jung Bahadur Rana[9] and Rana dynasty Basnyat family

See also[edit]

Nepali Brahmins Nepali language Madhesi people

References[edit]

^ Khadka, Suman (25 Feb 2015). "Drawing caste lines". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 25 January 2018.  ^ " The Kathmandu Post -PM briefs international community". kathmandupost.ekantipur.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.  ^ a b Whelpton 2005, p. 31. ^ Dor Bahadur Bista 1991, p. 15. ^ John T Hitchcock 1978, pp. 112-119. ^ John T Hitchcock 1978, p. 113. ^ a b John T Hitchcock 1978, pp. 116-119. ^ a b Richard Burghart 1984, p. 107. ^ a b Dor Bahadur Bista 1991, p. 37. ^ Richard Burghart 1984, p. 117. ^ a b Richard Burghart 1984, p. 119. ^ Richard Burghart 1984, p. 118. ^ Richard Burghart 1984, pp. 118-119. ^ Susan Thieme 2006, p. 83. ^ a b Dor Bahadur Bista 1991, p. 48. ^ William Brook Northey & C. J. Morris 1928, p. 123. ^ K. S. Singh 2005, p. 851. ^ a b c Pradhan 2012, p. 22.

Bibliography[edit]

Dor Bahadur Bista (1991). Fatalism and Development: Nepal's Struggle for Modernization. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-0188-1.  John T Hitchcock (1978). "An Additional Perspective on the Nepali Caste System". In James F. Fisher. Himalayan Anthropology: The Indo-Tibetan Interface. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-90-279-7700-7.  K. S. Singh (2005). People of India: Uttar Pradesh. Anthropological Survey of India. ISBN 978-81-7304-114-3.  Pradhan, Kumar L. (2012), Thapa Politics in Nepal: With Special Reference to Bhim Sen Thapa, 1806–1839, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, p. 278, ISBN 9788180698132  Richard Burghart (1984). "The Formation of the Concept of Nation-State in Nepal". The Journal of Asian Studies. 44 (1): 101–125. doi:10.2307/2056748.  Susan Thieme (2006). Social Networks and Migration: Far West Nepalese Labour Migrants in Delhi. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3-8258-9246-3.  William Brook Northey; C. J. Morris (1928). The Gurkhas: Their Manners, Customs, and Country. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-1577-9.  Whelpton, John (2005). A History of Nepal. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521804707. 

External links[edit]

Khas
Khas
people of Uttarakhand

v t e

Ethnic groups in Nepal
Nepal
by by language family

Sino-Tibetan (Trans-Himalayan)

High altitudes

Darchula Bhotiya Lo (Mustang) Bhotiya Sherpa (Bhotia) Hyolmo Jirel Nepalese Central Tibetic

Lhomi (Sing Saapa) Siyar (Chumba) Larke Dolpa, etc.

Central Tibetans Kachee

Burig

Sunuwar and Rai Yakthung

South East

Sunuwar Bahing

Central Rai

Khambu Rai

Kulung

Bantawa

Eastern Rai

Lohorung Yakha

Limbu (Yakthung)

Tamangic

Chhantyal Gurung (Tamu)

Manang bas

Tamang

Ghale Lama clan (Tamang)

Thakali Kaike Magar

Magar

Dhut Kham/Pang

Chepang Bhujel Raji–Raute

Raji Raute Rawat

Dura Lepcha (Rong) Dhimal Koch Meche

Indo-Aryan

Eastern Pahari

Khas

Palpa-speakers Jumli-speakers

Miyan

Nepalese Madhesi

Maithil Bhojpuri Rajbansi

Newars

Newar
Newar
community

Over 25 distinct castes, major being Shresthas, Chathariya, Jyapu, Vajracharya, Rajopadhyaya Brahmins, Chitrakar, Khadgi, Manandhar, Dhobi, Pode, Ranjitkar, Mali, etc.

Newar
Newar
Muslim

Indian Madhesi

Indian Maithil Bihari

Bhojpuri Bajjika etc.

Awadhi other Madhesi

H U

Kumauni Kashmiris Kumhali Kushbadiya (Guhari)

Indo-Aryan of a distinct origin

Danuar Rai Bote Kuswaric Majhi Darai Tharu Hill Khadiya/Bankariya Rajbansi Kisan of Oraon Sadri Kushbadiya (Guhari)

Other peoples (M, D, i) of Indus-Ganga

Kusunda Munda Satar Dudh and Dhelki Khadiya/Bankariya Jangad/Dhangad/Uraun

Kisan

Immigrants

Korean Filipino Russian

Other basis

By Caste

Kshetri Rajopadhyaya Bahun Shresthas Jyapu Vajracharya Pulami Kami Damai/Dholi Thakuri Sarki Unspecified Dalit Kalwar Dhobi Mali Gaine/Gandarbha

By geography

Mountain people (Buddhist/Animism) Hill people (Eastern Paharis and Newars, Hindu/Buddhist) Kirati (East, mostly Mundhum/Buddhist) Terai
Terai
(Madhesi, Tharu, Danuwar and Dhimal) (Lowland) Western Nepal
Nepal
( Hindu
Hindu
dominant) Nepali Muslim (South)

By law

Janajati

Madheshi Janajati

Misc

Adivasi Simantakrit

About one third of Madhesi people
Madhesi people
are of Indian ancestry while the other two thir

.