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KETTERING is a town in Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
, England
England
, about 81 miles (130 km) north of London
London
and 15 miles (24 km) from Northampton
Northampton
. Kettering
Kettering
is mainly situated on the west side of the River Ise , a tributary of the River Nene
River Nene
which meets at Wellingborough
Wellingborough
. Originally named Cytringan, Kyteringas and Keteiringan in the 10th century, the name Kettering
Kettering
is now taken to mean 'the place (or territory) of Ketter's people (or kinsfolk)'.

At the 2001 census, the borough had a population of 81,844 whilst the town proper had a population of 51,063. The town is twinned with Lahnstein
Lahnstein
, in Germany
Germany
and Kettering, Ohio
Kettering, Ohio
, in the United States. Being part of the Milton Keynes South Midlands (MKSM) study area along with other towns in Northamptonshire, the town is due to get around 6,000 additional homes mainly to the east of the town. The town, like other towns in the area, has a growing commuter population as it is located on the Midland Main Line railway, which has fast InterCity trains directly into London
London
St Pancras International taking around 1 hour. This gives an interchange Eurostar
Eurostar
services to Continental Europe .

CONTENTS

* 1 Early history

* 1.1 Roman * 1.2 Saxon
Saxon
* 1.3 Medieval * 1.4 17th century

* 2 Recent history * 3 Governance * 4 Local economy and amenities * 5 Education * 6 Sport * 7 Transport * 8 People from Kettering
Kettering
* 9 Future growth

* 10 Geography

* 10.1 Climate * 10.2 Compass * 10.3 Town
Town
twinning

* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links

EARLY HISTORY

Once believed obscure, the placename Kettering
Kettering
is now taken to mean 'the place (or territory) of Ketter's people (or kinsfolk)'. Spelt variously Cytringan, Kyteringas and Keteiringan in the 10th century, although the origin of the name appears to have baffled place-name scholars in the 1930s, words and place-names ending with 'ing' usually derive from the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
or Old English
Old English
word inga or ingas meaning 'the people of the' or 'tribe'...

Before the Romans the Kettering
Kettering
area, like much of Northamptonshire's prehistoric countryside, appears to have remained somewhat intractable with regards to early human occupation, resulting in an apparently sparse population and relatively few finds from the Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
, Mesolithic
Mesolithic
and Neolithic
Neolithic
periods. About 500 BC the Iron Age
Iron Age
was introduced into the area by a continental people in the form of the Hallstatt culture
Hallstatt culture
, and over the next century a series of hillforts were constructed, the closest to Kettering
Kettering
being at nearby Irthlingborough .

ROMAN

Like most of what later became Northamptonshire, from early in the 1st century BC the Kettering
Kettering
area became part of the territory of the Catuvellauni
Catuvellauni
, a Belgic
Belgic
tribe, the Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
area forming their most northerly possession. The Catuvellauni
Catuvellauni
were in turn conquered by the Romans in 43 AD.

The town traces its origins to an early, unwalled Romano British settlement, the remnants of which lie under the northern part of the modern town. Occupied until the 4th century AD, there is evidence that a substantial amount of iron-smelting took place on the site. Along with the Forest of Dean
Forest of Dean
and the Weald
Weald
of Kent and Sussex, this area of Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
"was one of the three great centres of iron-working in Roman Britain". The settlement reached as far as the Weekley and Geddington
Geddington
parishes. However it is felt unlikely that the site was continuously occupied from the Romano British into the Anglo-Saxon era. Pottery kilns have also been unearthed at nearby Barton Seagrave and Boughton .

SAXON

Excavations in the early 20th century either side of Stamford road (A43 ), near the site of the former Prime Cut factory (now the Warren public house), revealed an extensive early Saxon
Saxon
burial site, consisting of at least a hundred cremation urns dating to the 5th century AD. This suggests that it may have been among the earliest Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
penetrations into the interior of what later became England. The prefix 'Wic-' of the nearby village of Weekley may also signify Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
activities in the area; Greenall reports that it could be "an indication of foederati , Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
mercenaries brought in to boost the defences of the Empire." This was established imperial policy, which the Romano British continued after Rome withdrew from Britain around 410 AD, with disastrous consequences for the Romano-Britons.

By the 7th century the lands that would eventually become Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
formed part of the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
kingdom of Mercia
Mercia
. The Mercians converted to Christianity in 654 AD with the death of the pagan king Penda
Penda
. From about 889 the Kettering
Kettering
area, along with much of Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
(and at one point almost all of England
England
except for Athelney
Athelney
marsh in Somerset
Somerset
), was conquered by the Danes and became part of the Danelaw
Danelaw
, with the ancient trackway of Watling Street serving as the border, until being recaptured by the English under the Wessex
Wessex
king Edward the Elder
Edward the Elder
, son of Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
, in 917. Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
was conquered again in 940, this time by the Vikings of York, who devastated the area, only for the county to be retaken by the English in 942.

It is unlikely however that Kettering
Kettering
itself existed as a village earlier than the 10th century (the county of Northampton
Northampton
itself is not referenced in documents before 1011). Before this time the Kettering area was most likely populated by a thin scattering of family farmsteads. The first historical reference of Kettering
Kettering
is in a charter of 956 AD in which King Edwy granted ten "cassati" of land to Aelfsige the Goldsmith. The boundaries delineated in this charter would have been recognisable to most inhabitants for the last thousand years and can still be walked today. It is possible that Aelfsige the Goldsmith gave Kettering
Kettering
to the monastery of Peterborough
Peterborough
, as King Edgar in a charter dated 972 confirmed it to that monastery.

MEDIEVAL

At the Domesday survey in 1086, Kettering
Kettering
manor is listed as held by the Abbey of Peterborough, the church owning 10 hides of land. Kettering
Kettering
was valued at £11, with land for 16 ploughs. There were 107 acres of meadow, 3 of woodland, 2 mills, 31 villans with 10 ploughs and 1 female slave.

The nearby stately home of Boughton House
Boughton House
, sometimes described as the 'English Versailles ' has for centuries been the seat of the Dukes of Buccleuch
Dukes of Buccleuch
, major landowners in Kettering
Kettering
and most of the surrounding villages; along with the Watsons of Rockingham Castle
Rockingham Castle
, the two families were joint lords of the manor of Kettering.

Kettering
Kettering
is dominated by the crocketed spire of about 180 feet (55 m) of the Parish church of SS Peter and Paul . Little is known of the origins of the church, its first known priest becoming rector in 1219-20. The chancel is in the Early Decorated style of about 1300, the main fabric of the building being mostly Perpendicular
Perpendicular
, having been rebuilt in the mid 15th century (its tower and spire being remarkably similar to the tower and spire of St Peter's Oundle
Oundle
). Whether the current building replaced an earlier church on the site is unknown. Two medieval wall paintings, one of two angels with feathered wings, and one of a now faded saint, can still be seen inside the church.

The charter for Kettering's market was granted to the Bishop of Peterborough
Peterborough
by Henry III in 1227.

17TH CENTURY

In June 1607 at the nearby village of Newton, the Newton Rebellion broke out, causing a brief uprising known as the Midland Revolt , which involved several nearby villages. Protesting at land enclosures at Newton and Pytchley by local landlords the Treshams , on 8 June a pitched battle took place between Levellers
Levellers
- many from Kettering, Corby
Corby
and particularly Weldon , - and local gentry and their servants (local militias having refused the call to arms). Approximately 40-50 local men are said to have been killed and the ringleaders hanged, drawn and quartered . The Newton rebellion represents one of the last times that the English peasantry and the gentry were in open conflict.

By the 17th century the town was a centre for woollen cloth.

RECENT HISTORY

Corn Exchange, Market Square, Kettering, 1853 by E F Law . The upper floor was designed as a Town
Town
Hall. In use October 2012 as fitness centre and betting shop. The building is not listed .

The present town grew in the 19th century with the development of the boot and shoe industry, for which Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
as a whole became famous. Many large homes in both the Headlands and Rockingham Road were built for factory owners, while terraced streets provided accommodation for the workers. The industry has markedly declined since the 1970s, large footwear-manufacturers such as Dolcis , Freeman, Hardy and Willis , Frank Wright and Timpsons, having left the town or closed down in the face of stiff overseas competition, while others have outsourced their production to lower-cost countries. Only two smaller footwear-businesses remain.

Victorian-era
Victorian-era
Kettering
Kettering
was the centre of the 19th century religious non-conformism and the Christian missionary
Christian missionary
movement, and this has been preserved in many names. William Carey , born in 1761 at Paulerspury , spent his early life in Kettering
Kettering
before leaving for India as a missionary in 1793. Carey Mission House and Carey Street were named after him. Andrew Fuller helped Carey found the Baptist Missionary
Missionary
Society and he is remembered in the Fuller Church and Fuller Street. In 1803 William Knibb
William Knibb
was born in Market Street and became a missionary and emancipator of slaves; he is commemorated by the Knibb Centre and Knibb Street. Toller Chapel and Toller Place take their names from two ministers, father and son, who preached in Kettering
Kettering
for a total of 100 years. The chapel was built in 1723 for those who since 1662 had been worshipping in secret.

After several false starts the Midland Railway Company opened Kettering
Kettering
station in 1857, providing a welcome economic stimulus to an ailing local economy, suffering as it was from the loss of wayfaring business since the introduction of railways nationwide. The line in 1857 ran through Kettering
Kettering
from Leicester
Leicester
to Hitchin, where it joined the Great Northern Railway. Trains ran from there into King's Cross Station, London. The line was finally linked to London
London
directly in 1868 when the Midland opened its own line from Bedford
Bedford
to St Pancras Station .

John Bartholomew's 1887 Gazetteer of the British Isles
British Isles
described Kettering
Kettering
as:

“ Kettering, market town and parish with railway station, Northamptonshire, 8 miles (13 km) N. of Wellingborough
Wellingborough
and 75 miles (121 km) from London, 2840 ac., pop. 11,095; P.O., T.O.; 3 Banks, 2 newspapers. Market-day, Friday. Kettering
Kettering
is an ancient place, and was called by the Saxons, "Kateringes". It is a fairly prosperous town, with tanning and currying, mfrs. of boots and shoes, stays, brushes, agricultural implements, and some articles of clothing. It has a handsome town hall, a cattle market, a corn exchange and a grammar school . Many Roman relics have been found in the vicinity. ”

Iron-ore quarrying began in the Kettering
Kettering
area, probably for the first time since Roman times, at Glendon to the north of the town in 1863. At that place the digging of a railway cutting had exposed the ore beds. Quarrying began a little north of what later became Glendon Junction on the west side of the main railway. The Glendon quarries continued in operation until 1980. The last ore was extracted a little to the east of the starting point on the west side of the A6003. Other quarries opened to the east, south and west of Kettering, all opening and closing at some time between 1875 and 1969. There were also two ironworks in or near the town which used local ore. The Cransley Ironworks stood on the north side of the A43 to the west of what is now the junction with the A14. It began smelting iron in 1877 and ceased production in 1959. The site later became a scrapyard. The Kettering
Kettering
Ironworks, on the west side of the main railway to the north of Rothwell Road, began smelting iron in 1878 and ceased production in 1959. The site is now part of an industrial estate. Various remains of the quarries and the railways that served them can be seen in the countryside around Kettering.

In 1921 Wicksteed Park , Britain's second-oldest theme park, was officially opened on the southern outskirts of the town; it remains popular to this day.

From 1942 to 1945 the town witnessed a large influx of American servicemen (including on several occasions Clark Gable
Clark Gable
), mainly from the US 8th Air Force at RAF Grafton Underwood , 3.7 miles (6.0 km) away. The airfield was soon nicknamed "Grafton Undermud" in reference to the perceived English weather of "rain, rain and more rain". The first bombing raid - targeting the marshalling yards at Rouen
Rouen
in northern France - was led by Major Paul W. Tibbets
Paul W. Tibbets
, who in 1945 piloted Enola Gay , the B-29
B-29
Superfortress that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima
Hiroshima
. Aircraft from Grafton Underwood dropped the 8th Air Force's first and last bombs of the Second World War.

GOVERNANCE

Further information: Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
Kettering
Kettering
Borough Council

In local government, Kettering
Kettering
falls within the areas of Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
County Council and Kettering
Kettering
Borough Council , which incorporates the small, satellite towns of Barton Seagrave , Burton Latimer , Desborough and Rothwell . The borough is split into 17 electoral wards , 10 of these in the town. These are All Saints, Avondale Grange, Barton, Brambleside, Northfield, Pipers Hill, Ise Lodge, St Michael "> Wicksteed Park

Kettering's economy was built on the boot and shoe industry . With the arrival of railways in the 19th century, industries such as engineering and clothing grew up. The clothing manufacturer Aquascutum built its first factory there in 1909. Kettering's economy is now based on service and distribution industries due to its central location and transport links.

Kettering's unemployment rate is amongst the lowest in the UK and has over 80% of its adults in full-time employment. It is home to a wide range of companies including Weetabix , Pegasus Software , RCI Europe, Timsons Ltd and Morrisons Distribution as well as Wicksteed Park , the United Kingdom's oldest theme park, which now plays host to one and a quarter million visitors every season. It has a very large free playground area, which was built by Wicksteed Playscapes, who are based in Kettering; the company is the world's oldest-known playground producer.

Kettering
Kettering
is the home of Kettering General Hospital , which provides Acute and Accident "> However, in 2011 the club moved out of the borough to Nene Park, Irthlingborough - the former ground of defunct rivals Rushden "> After a period of playing under Uppingham Public School Rules the club formally adopted RFU rules in 1875 and quickly became a significant participant in both the local community and the fast-developing Rugby scene in the East Midlands. In the early days games were played on a number of sites including farmers' fields and council-owned grounds. It was during this period, prior to adopting a home of their own, that the club developed its high profile in the town. Social occasions and players "meetings" were held traditionally at the Royal Hotel, later moving to the George, with more formal occasions such as the Annual Ball becoming the highlight of the local function calendar. KRFC currently plays in the Midlands 1st Division.

TRANSPORT

Roads

The A14 skirts the west and south of the town, links the town with the A45 dual carriageway , M1 and M6 motorways. The A6003 links Kettering
Kettering
to Corby
Corby
. The A43 links Kettering
Kettering
with Corby
Corby
and the county town of Northampton
Northampton
and the A509 (Kettering/ Wellingborough
Wellingborough
Road) links Kettering
Kettering
with Wellingborough
Wellingborough
. Buses

In April 1986 the bus station was relocated away from the market area to the Newland Street entrance of the modern Newlands shopping centre, causing a fatal decline in market trade. Although buses were re-allocated there in April 1987 before closing again in September 1989 and building a smaller version of a Bus Station on which it closed also in May 1999, buses since then have just served The Library and Newlands Shopping Centre. From May 2010 all buses now serve the new horsemarket bus interchange, as they don't serve the library any more this is due to public realem improvements. New bus stops have been installed around rail station and headlands.

The town is served by a local bus service under the name Stagecoach Kettering
Kettering
(united counites) with the following routes:

* Corby
Corby
X1 Corby- Kettering
Kettering
Burton Latimer Finedon – Wellingborough * Kettering
Kettering
15 Stamford road – Kettering
Kettering
Kettering
Kettering
Train Station – Highfield road- Tesco * Kettering
Kettering
19 Kettering
Kettering
– Ise lodge * Kettering
Kettering
49 Rushden Higham Ferrers Irthlingborough Finedon Kettering
Kettering
– Brambleside * Kettering
Kettering
50 Bedford
Bedford
town centre (bus station) – Rushden Higham Ferrers Irthlingborough Finedon – Kettering- Brambleside * Kettering
Kettering
X43/43 Market Harborough
Market Harborough
Desborough – Rothwell – Kettering * Kettering
Kettering
19 Kettering
Kettering
– Rothwell – Desborough – Rushton – Corby * Kettering
Kettering
X4 Gold Peterborough
Peterborough
Oundle
Oundle
Corby
Corby
– Kettering – Wellingborough
Wellingborough
Northampton
Northampton
– Milton Keynes * Kettering
Kettering
X43/43 Northampton
Northampton
– Moulton – Broughton – Kettering
Kettering
– Rothwell – Desborugh – Market Harbrough * Kettering
Kettering
39 Kettering
Kettering
Mawsley – Moulton – Northampton * Kettering
Kettering
34 Wellingborough
Wellingborough
– Little Harrowden – Orlingbury – Pytchley Kettering
Kettering
– Lake Avenue

The Town
Town
is also served by a local bus service ran by Centrebus Northamptonshire, with the following routes:

* Kettering
Kettering
8 Corby
Corby
– Stanion – Geddington
Geddington
Weekley – Kettering * Kettering
Kettering
16 Kettering
Kettering
– Cranford – Thrapston
Thrapston
– Raunds * Kettering
Kettering
34 Kettering
Kettering
– Wellingborough

Kettering railway station
Kettering railway station
platform Rail

Rail services operated by East Midlands
East Midlands
Trains depart every 30 minutes from Kettering
Kettering
to St Pancras International railway station , with an average journey time of 59 minutes. St Pancras also provides an interchange with the Eurostar
Eurostar
service to France and Belgium. Kettering
Kettering
is linked to Corby
Corby
, Leicester
Leicester
, Nottingham
Nottingham
, Derby
Derby
and Sheffield
Sheffield
to the north and Wellingborough
Wellingborough
, Bedford
Bedford
, Luton to the south. Because of good rail links, a large and growing commuter population takes advantage of Kettering's position on the Midland Main Line railway. Airports

Five large UK airports are within 2 hours' drive of the town, these being London
London
Heathrow , London
London
Luton , East Midlands
East Midlands
, Birmingham and London
London
Stansted . London
London
Luton can be reached directly by train while East Midlands
East Midlands
and London
London
Stansted can be reached by one change at Leicester. Sywell Aerodrome
Sywell Aerodrome
, located 6 miles (9.7 km) south-west of Kettering, caters for private flying , flight training and corporate flights.

PEOPLE FROM KETTERING

For a full list, see Category:People from Kettering
Kettering

FUTURE GROWTH

In mid-2003, the population of the Borough of Kettering was estimated at 86,000, with 51,063 residing in the town proper. Kettering
Kettering
along with the neighboroughing town of Corby
Corby
is located in North Northamptonshire, the fastest growing place in England
England
and Wales, with the East Kettering
Kettering
development area covers 300 hectares and extends from the A43 in the north to the A14 in the south. In March 2007, a project was revealed to refurbish and bring new leisure and shopping to the town centre, including water features, public art, sculptures, street furniture, trees, plants and an innovative pavement lighting scheme. In 2017, is expected that the famous Spanish engineers PGP and IGG are going to meet in this town as a part of their European Tour. The local authorities are confident this event will bring Kettering
Kettering
international recognition. .

GEOGRAPHY

CLIMATE

Kettering
Kettering
experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification ) which is similar to most of the British Isles
British Isles
.

CLIMATE DATA FOR KETTERING, GBR

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 7 (45) 8 (46) 11 (52) 13 (55) 17 (63) 19 (66) 22 (72) 23 (73) 19 (66) 14 (57) 10 (50) 7 (45) 14.2 (57.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 2 (36) 2 (36) 4 (39) 4 (39) 7 (45) 10 (50) 12 (54) 12 (54) 10 (50) 8 (46) 5 (41) 3 (37) 6.6 (43.9)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION CM (INCHES) 4.51 (1.776) 3.39 (1.335) 2.87 (1.13) 4.39 (1.728) 3.49 (1.374) 4.66 (1.835) 4.21 (1.657) 4.69 (1.846) 5.49 (2.161) 5.68 (2.236) 4.8 (1.89) 4.98 (1.961) 53.16 (20.929)

Source:

COMPASS

Kettering's nearest towns are Desborough , Burton Latimer and Rothwell with the larger towns of Corby
Corby
and Wellingborough
Wellingborough
a bit further away. ‹ The template below (Geographic location ) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

DESTINATIONS FROM KETTERING

Rothwell , Desborough , Market Harborough
Market Harborough
, Leicester
Leicester
Cottingham , Leicestershire
Leicestershire
villages Geddington
Geddington
, Corby
Corby

Broughton , Mawsley , Rugby

Thrapston
Thrapston
, Huntingdon
Huntingdon

KETTERING

Pytchley , Northampton
Northampton
Burton Latimer , Islip , Wellingborough
Wellingborough
Finedon , Irthlingborough , Rushden , London
London

TOWN TWINNING

Kettering
Kettering
is twinned with:

* Kettering, Ohio
Kettering, Ohio
, United States * Lahnstein
Lahnstein
, Germany

SEE ALSO

* Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
portal

* Kettering Ironstone Railway * Kettering Grammar School

REFERENCES

* ^ A B R.L. Greenall: A History of Kettering, Phillimore & Co. Ltd, 2003, ISBN 1-86077-254-4 . p.7. * ^ UK Statistics: Kettering
Kettering
Retrieved 3 May 2010 * ^ Office for National Statistics (ONS) Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved on 17 July 2013. * ^ Live in Kettering:3D Map Retrieved 1 May 2010 * ^ East Midlands
East Midlands
Trains: Interchange with Eurostar
Eurostar
Retrieved 1 May 2010 Archived 16 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
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England
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London
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Corby
Area. Cheltenham: Runpast. pp. 85–123. ISBN 1-870754-06-9 . * ^ Tonks, Eric (1991). The Ironstone Quarries of the Midlands:part 5 The Kettering
Kettering
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Kettering
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- fastest growing place in England
England
and Wales". Corby Borough Council. Retrieved 30 July 2010. The statistics highlight North Northamptonshire's emergence as the biggest single growth area outside London
London
* ^ "East Kettering: Land use map". Retrieved 30 July 2010. * ^ "A new dawn" by Monique Cleaver in Northants Evening Telegraph, 21 March 2007 * ^ Gómez and García ready for their European Tour 2017 Retrieved 1 April 2016 * ^ "Average weather for Kettering". MSN weather.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to KETTERING .

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for KETTERING .

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