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KATAKANA (片仮名, カタカナ) is a Japanese syllabary , one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana , kanji , and in some cases the Latin script (known as romaji ). The word _katakana_ means "fragmentary kana", as the katakana characters are derived from components of more complex kanji. Katakana and hiragana are both kana systems. With one or two minor exceptions, each syllable (strictly mora ) in the Japanese language is represented by one character, or _kana_, in each system. Each kana is either a vowel such as "_a_" (katakana ア); a consonant followed by a vowel such as "_ka_" (katakana カ); or "_n_" (katakana ン), a nasal sonorant which, depending on the context, sounds either like English _m_, _n_, or _ng_ (), or like the nasal vowels of Portuguese .

In contrast to the hiragana syllabary, which is used for Japanese language words that kanji does not cover and grammatical inflections, the katakana syllabary usage is quite similar to italics in English; specifically, it is used for transcription of foreign language words into Japanese and the writing of loan words (collectively _gairaigo _); for emphasis; to represent onomatopoeia ; for technical and scientific terms; and for names of plants, animals, minerals, and often Japanese companies.

Katakana are characterized by short, straight strokes and sharp corners, and are the simplest of the Japanese scripts. There are two main systems of ordering katakana : the old-fashioned iroha ordering, and the more prevalent gojūon ordering.

CONTENTS

* 1 Writing system

* 1.1 Script

* 1.2 Japanese

* 1.2.1 Syllabary and orthography * 1.2.2 Usage

* 1.3 Ainu * 1.4 Taiwanese * 1.5 Okinawan

* 2 Table of katakana * 3 History * 4 Stroke order

* 5 Computer encoding

* 5.1 Half-width kana * 5.2 Unicode

* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

WRITING SYSTEM

SCRIPT

Gojūon Katakana characters with nucleus

_A_ _I_ _U_ _E_ _O_

_K_

_S_

_T_

_N_

_H_

_M_

_Y_

_R_

_W_

Katakana coda character _N_

Katakana diacritics DAKUTEN ゛

HANDAKUTEN ゜

The complete katakana script consists of 48 characters, not counting functional and diacritic marks:

* 5 _nucleus _ vowels * 42 _core_ or _body_ (onset -nucleus) syllabograms, consisting of 9 consonants in combination with each of the 5 vowels, of which 3 possible combinations (_yi_, _ye_, _wu_) are not canonical * 1 _coda _ consonant

These are conceived as a 5×10 grid (_gojūon _, 五十音, literally "fifty sounds"), as shown in the adjacent table, read (_a_), イ (_i_), (_u_), (_e_), (_o_), (_ka_), (_ki_), ク (_ku_), (_ke_), (_ko_) and so on. The _gojūon_ inherits its vowel and consonant order from Sanskrit practice. In vertical text contexts, which used to be the default case, the grid is usually presented as 10 columns by 5 rows, with vowels on the right hand side and (_a_) on top. Katakana glyphs in the same row or column do not share common graphic characteristics. Three of the syllabograms to be expected, _yi_, _ye_ and _wu_, may have been used idiosyncratically with varying glyphs , but never became conventional in any language and are not present at all in modern Japanese.

The 50-sound table is often amended with an extra character, the nasal stop (_n_). This can appear in several positions, most often next to the _N_ signs or, because it developed from one of many _mu_ hentaigana , below the _u_ column. It may also be appended to the vowel row or the _a_ column. Here, it is shown in a table of its own.

The script includes two diacritic marks that change the initial sound of a syllabogram. Both appear mutually exclusive at the upper right of the base character. A double dot, called _dakuten _, indicates a primary alteration; most often it voices the consonant: _k_→_g_, _s_→_z_, _t_→_d_ and _h_→_b_; for example, (_ka_) becomes ガ (_ga_). Secondary alteration, where possible, is shown by a circular _handakuten _: _h_→_p_; For example; (_ha_) becomes パ (_pa_). Diacritics, though used for over a thousand years, only became mandatory in the Japanese writing system in the second half of the 20th century. Their application is strictly limited in proper writing systems, but may be more extensive in academic transcriptions.

Furthermore, some characters may have special semantics when used in smaller size after a normal one (see below), but this does not make the script truly bicameral .

The layout of the _gojūon_ table promotes a systematic view of kana syllabograms as being always pronounced with the same single consonant followed by a vowel, but this is not exactly the case (and never has been). Existing schemes for the romanization of Japanese either are based on the systematic nature of the script, e.g. nihon-siki チ _ti_, or they apply some Western graphotactics , usually the English one, to the common Japanese pronunciation of the kana signs, e.g. Hepburn-shiki _chi_. Both approaches conceal the fact, though, that many consonant-based katakana signs, especially those canonically ending in _u_, can be used in coda position, too, where the vowel is unvoiced and therefore barely perceptible.

JAPANESE

Syllabary And Orthography

Katakana used in Japanese orthography

_A_ _I_ _U_ _E_ _O_

_K_

_G_ ガ ギ グ ゲ ゴ

_S_

_Z_ ザ ジ ズ ゼ ゾ

_T_

_D_ ダ ヂ ヅ デ ド

_N_

_H_

_B_ バ ビ ブ ベ ボ

_P_ パ ピ プ ペ ポ

_M_

_Y_

_R_

_W_

_N_

_unused/obsolete_

Katakana functional characters SOKUON

CHōONPU

ITERATION MARK

Of the 48 katakana syllabograms described above, only 46 are used in modern Japanese, and one of these is preserved for only a single use:

* _wi_ and _we_ are pronounced as vowels in modern Japanese and are therefore obsolete, being supplanted by _i_ and _e_ respectively. * _wo_ is now used only as a particle , and is normally pronounced the same as vowel _o_. As a particle, it is usually written in hiragana (を) and the katakana form, ヲ, is uncommon.

A small version of the katakana for _ya_, _yu_ or _yo_ (ャ, ュ or ョ respectively) may be added to katakana ending in _i_. This changes the _i_ vowel sound to a glide (palatalization ) to _a_, _u_ or _o_, e.g. キャ (_ki + ya_) /kja/. Addition of the small _y_ kana is called yōon .

Small versions of the five vowel kana are sometimes used to represent trailing off sounds (ハァ _haa_, ネェ _nee_), but in katakana they are more often used in yōon-like extended digraphs designed to represent phonemes not present in Japanese; examples include チェ (_che_) in チェンジ _chenji_ ("change"), and ウィ (_wi_) and ディ (_di_) in ウィキペディ _ Wikipedia _.

A character called a _sokuon _, which is visually identical to a small _tsu_ ッ, indicates that the following consonant is geminated (doubled); this is represented in rōmaji by doubling the consonant that follows the _sokuon_. In Japanese this is an important distinction in pronunciation; for example, compare サ _saka_ "hill" with サッ _sakka_ "author". Geminated consonants are common in transliterations of foreign loanwords; for example English "bed" is represented as ベッド (_beddo_). The sokuon also sometimes appears at the end of utterances, where it denotes a glottal stop . However, it cannot be used to double the _na_, _ni_, _nu_, _ne_, _no_ syllables' consonants – to double these, the singular _n_ (ン) is added in front of the syllable. The _sokuon_ may also be used to approximate a non-native sound; Bach is written バッ (_Bahha_); Mach as マッ (_Mahha_).

Both katakana and hiragana usually spell native long vowels with the addition of a second vowel kana. However, in foreign loanwords katakana instead uses a vowel extender mark, called a _chōonpu _ ("long vowel mark"). This is a short line (ー) following the direction of the text, horizontal for _yokogaki_ (horizontal text), and vertical for _tategaki_ (vertical text). For example, メール _mēru_ is the _gairaigo_ for e-mail taken from the English word "mail"; the lengthens the _e_. There are some exceptions, such as ローソ (_rōsoku_ (蝋燭, "candle")) or ケータイ(_kētai_ (携帯, "mobile phone")), where Japanese words written in katakana use the elongation mark, too.

Standard and voiced iteration marks are written in katakana as ヽ and respectively.

Usage

Main article: Japanese writing system _ All Katakana writing (in 1940 )

In modern Japanese, katakana is most often used for transcription of words from foreign languages (other than words historically imported from Chinese), called _gairaigo_. For example, "television" is written テレビ (_terebi_). Similarly, katakana is usually used for country names, foreign places, and foreign personal names. For example, the United States is usually referred to as アメリカ _Amerika_, rather than in its ateji kanji spelling of 亜米利加 _Amerika_.

Katakana are also used for onomatopoeia, words used to represent sounds – for example, ピンポ (_pinpon_), the "ding-dong" sound of a doorbell.

Technical and scientific terms, such as the names of animal and plant species and minerals , are also commonly written in katakana. Homo sapiens , as a species, is written ヒ (_hito_), rather than its kanji 人.

Katakana are also often (but not always) used for transcription of Japanese company names. For example, Suzuki is written スズキ, and Toyota is written トヨタ. Katakana are also used for emphasis , especially on signs, advertisements, and hoardings (i.e., billboards ). For example, it is common to see コ _koko_ ("here"), ゴミ _gomi_ ("trash"), or メガ _megane_ ("glasses"). Words the writer wishes to emphasize in a sentence are also sometimes written in katakana, mirroring the European usage of italics .

Pre- World War II official documents mix katakana and kanji in the same way that hiragana and kanji are mixed in modern Japanese texts, that is, katakana were used for _okurigana _ and particles such as _wa_ or _o_.

Katakana were also used for telegrams in Japan before 1988, and for computer systems – before the introduction of multibyte characters – in the 1980s. Most computers in that era used katakana instead of kanji or hiragana for output.

Although words borrowed from ancient Chinese are usually written in kanji, loanwords from modern Chinese dialects which are borrowed directly use katakana instead.

Examples of modern Chinese loanwords in Japanese JAPANESE RōMAJI MEANING CHINESE ROMANIZATION SOURCE LANGUAGE

マージャン _mājan_ mahjong 麻將 _májiàng_ Mandarin

ウーロン茶 _ūroncha_ Oolong tea 烏龍茶 _wūlóngchá_

チャーハン _chāhan_ fried rice 炒飯 _chǎofàn_

チャーシュー _chāshū_ barbecued pork 叉焼 _cha siu _ Cantonese

シューマイ _shūmai_ shumai 焼賣 _siu maai_

The very common Chinese loanword _rāmen _, written in katakana as ラーメ , is rarely written with its kanji (拉麺).

There are rare instances where the opposite has occurred, with kanji forms created from words originally written in katakana. An example of this is コーヒ _kōhī_, ("coffee "), which can be alternatively written as 珈琲. This kanji usage is occasionally employed by coffee manufacturers or coffee shops for novelty.

Katakana are used to indicate the _on'yomi_ (Chinese-derived readings) of a kanji in a kanji dictionary . For instance, the kanji 人 has a Japanese pronunciation, written in hiragana as ひと _hito_ (person), as well as a Chinese derived pronunciation, written in katakana as ジ _jin_ (used to denote groups of people). Katakana are sometimes used instead of hiragana as furigana to give the pronunciation of a word written in Roman characters, or for a foreign word, which is written as kanji for the meaning, but intended to be pronounced as the original. In this travel warning, the kanji for "fog" (霧) has been written in katakana (キリ) to make it more immediately readable

Katakana are also sometimes used to indicate words being spoken in a foreign or otherwise unusual accent. For example, in a manga , the speech of a foreign character or a robot may be represented by コンニチ _konnichiwa_ ("hello") instead of the more typical hiragana こんにちは. Some Japanese personal names are written in katakana. This was more common in the past, hence elderly women often have katakana names. This was particularly common among women in the Meiji and Taishō periods, when many poor, illiterate parents were unwilling to pay a scholar to give their daughters names in kanji. Katakana is also used to denote the fact that a character is speaking a foreign language, and what is displayed in katakana is only the Japanese "translation" of his or her words.

Some frequently used words may also be written in katakana in dialogs to convey an informal, conversational tone. Some examples include マンガ ("manga"), アイ _aitsu_ ("that guy or girl; he/him; her"), バ _baka_ ("fool"), etc.

Words with difficult-to-read kanji are sometimes instead written in katakana (hiragana is also used for this purpose). This phenomenon is often seen with medical terminology . For example, in the word 皮膚科 _hifuka_ ("dermatology "), the second kanji, 膚, is considered difficult to read, and thus the word _hifuka_ is commonly written 皮フ科 or ヒフ科, mixing kanji and katakana. Similarly, the difficult-to-read kanji such as 癌 _gan_ ("cancer ") are often written in katakana or hiragana.

Katakana is also used for traditional musical notations, as in the _Tozan-ryū _ of _shakuhachi _, and in _sankyoku _ ensembles with _koto _, _shamisen _ and _shakuhachi_.

Some instructors for Japanese as a foreign language "introduce _katakana_ after the students have learned to read and write sentences in _hiragana_ without difficulty and know the rules." Most students who have learned hiragana "do not have great difficulty in memorizing" katakana as well. Other instructors introduce the katakana first, because these are used with loanwords. This gives students a chance to practice reading and writing kana with meaningful words. This was the approach taken by the influential American linguistics scholar Eleanor Harz Jorden in _Japanese: The Written Language _ (parallel to _Japanese: The Spoken Language _).

AINU

Main article: Ainu language § Writing

Katakana is commonly used to write the Ainu language by Japanese linguists. In Ainu language katakana usage, the consonant that comes at the end of a syllable is represented by a small version of a katakana that corresponds to that final consonant and with an arbitrary vowel. For instance "up" is represented by ウㇷ゚ (ウプ ). Ainu also uses three handakuten modified katakana, セ゚ (), and ツ゚ or ト゚ (). In Unicode, the Katakana Phonetic Extensions block (U+31F0–U+31FF) exists for Ainu language support. These characters are used for the Ainu language only.

TAIWANESE

Main article: Taiwanese kana

TAIWANESE KANA (タ ヲァ ビェ ) is a katakana-based writing system once used to write Holo Taiwanese , when Taiwan was under Japanese control . It functioned as a phonetic guide for Chinese characters , much like furigana in Japanese or Zhuyin fuhao in Chinese. There were similar systems for other languages in Taiwan as well, including Hakka and Formosan languages .

Unlike Japanese or Ainu, Taiwanese kana are used similarly to the Zhùyīn fúhào characters, with kana serving as initials, vowel medials and consonant finals, marked with tonal marks. A dot below the initial kana represented aspirated consonants, and チ, ツ, サ, セ, ソ, and with a superpositional bar represented sounds found only in Taiwanese.

OKINAWAN

Main article: Okinawan scripts

Katakana is used as a phonetic guide for the Okinawan language , unlike the various other systems to represent Okinawan, which use hiragana with extensions. The system was devised by the Okinawa Center of Language Study of the University of the Ryukyus . It uses many extensions and yōon to show the many non- Japanese sounds of Okinawan.

TABLE OF KATAKANA

_For modern digraph additions that are used mainly to transcribe other languages, see Transcription into Japanese ._

This is a table of katakana together with their Hepburn romanization and rough IPA transcription for their use in Japanese. Katakana with _dakuten_ or _handakuten_ follow the _gojūon_ kana without them.

Characters _shi_ and _tsu_ ツ, and _so_ and _n(g)_ ン, look very similar in print except for the slant and stroke shape. These differences in slant and shape are more prominent when written with an ink brush .

Grey background indicates obsolete characters.

Katakana syllabograms

MONOGRAPHS (GOJūON ) DIGRAPHS (YōON )

_A_ _I_ _U_ _E_ _O_ _YA_ _YU_ _YO_

a i u e o

_K_ ka ki ku ke ko キャ kya キュ kyu キョ kyo

_S_ sa shi su se so シャ sha シュ shu ショ sho

_T_ ta chi tsu te to チャ cha チュ chu チョ cho

_N_ na ni nu ne no ニャ nya ニュ nyu ニョ nyo

_H_ ha hi fu he ho ヒャ hya ヒュ hyu ヒョ hyo

_M_ ma mi mu me mo ミャ mya ミュ myu ミョ myo

_Y_ ya yu yo

_R_ ra ri ru re ro リャ rya リュ ryu リョ ryo

_W_ wa wi we wo

FINAL NASAL MONOGRAPH FUNCTIONAL GRAPHEMES

n before stop consonants; elsewhere (before geminate consonant) (after long vowel) (reduplicates and unvoices syllable) (reduplicates and voices syllable)

MONOGRAPHS WITH DIACRITICS: GOJūON WITH (HAN )DAKUTEN DIGRAPHS WITH DIACRITICS: YōON WITH (HAN )DAKUTEN

_A_ _I_ _U_ _E_ _O_ _YA_ _YU_ _YO_

_G_ ガ ga ギ gi グ gu ゲ ge ゴ go ギャ gya ギュ gyu ギョ gyo

_Z_ ザ za ジ ji ズ zu ゼ ze ゾ zo ジャ ja ジュ ju ジョ jo

_D_ ダ da ヂ ji ヅ zu デ de ド do ヂャ ja ヂュ ju ヂョ jo

_B_ バ ba ビ bi ブ bu ベ be ボ bo ビャ bya ビュ byu ビョ byo

_P_ パ pa ピ pi プ pu ペ pe ポ po ピャ pya ピュ pyu ピョ pyo

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Theoretical combinations _yi_, _ye_ and _wu_ are unused . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ The characters in positions _wi_ and _we_ are obsolete in modern Japanese, and have been replaced by (_i_) and (_e_). The character _wo_, in practice normally pronounced _o_, is preserved in only one use: as a particle. This is normally written in hiragana (を), so katakana sees only limited use. See Gojūon and the articles on each character for details. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ The ヂ (_di_) and ヅ (_du_) kana (often romanised as _ji_ and _zu_) are primarily used for etymologic spelling , when the unvoiced equivalents (_ti_) and (_tu_) (often romanised as _chi_ and _tsu_) undergo a sound change (_rendaku _) and become voiced when they occur in the middle of a compound word. In other cases, the identically-pronounced ジ (_ji_) and ズ (_zu_) are used instead. ヂ (_di_) and ヅ (_du_) can never begin a word, and they are not common in katakana, since the concept of _rendaku_ does not apply to transcribed foreign words, one of the major uses of katakana.

HISTORY

Katakana was developed in the 9th century (during the early Heian period ) by Buddhist monks by taking parts of _man\'yōgana _ characters as a form of shorthand, hence this kana is so-called _kata_ (片, ‘partial, fragmented’).

For example, _ka_ (カ) comes from the left side of _ka_ (加, literally ‘increase’, but the original meaning is no longer applicable to kana). The adjacent table shows the origins of each katakana: the red markings of the original Chinese character (used as _man'yōgana_) eventually became each corresponding symbol.

Early on, katakana was almost exclusively used by men for official text and text imported from China.

Recent findings by Yoshinori Kobayashi, professor of Japanese at Tokushima Bunri University , suggest the possibility that the katakana-like annotations used in reading guide marks (乎古止点 / ヲコト点, _okototen_) may have originated in 8th-century Korea – possibly Silla – and then introduced to Japan through Buddhist texts.

STROKE ORDER

The following table shows the method for writing each katakana character. It is arranged in the traditional way, beginning top right and reading columns down. The numbers and arrows indicate the stroke order and direction respectively.

COMPUTER ENCODING

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In addition to fonts intended for Japanese text and Unicode catch-all fonts (like Arial Unicode MS ), many fonts intended for Chinese (such as MS Song) and Korean (such as Batang) also include katakana.

HALF-WIDTH KANA

Main article: Half-width kana

In addition to the usual full-width (全角, _zenkaku_) display forms of characters, katakana has a second form, half-width (半角, _hankaku_) (there are no kanji). The half-width forms were originally associated with the JIS X 0201 encoding. Although their display form is not specified in the standard, in practice they were designed to fit into the same rectangle of pixels as Roman letters to enable easy implementation on the computer equipment of the day. This space is narrower than the square space traditionally occupied by Japanese characters, hence the name "half-width". In this scheme, diacritics (dakuten and handakuten) are separate characters. When originally devised, the half-width katakana were represented by a single byte each, as in JIS X 0201, again in line with the capabilities of contemporary computer technology.

In the late 1970s, two-byte character sets such as JIS X 0208 were introduced to support the full range of Japanese characters, including katakana, hiragana and kanji. Their display forms were designed to fit into an approximately square array of pixels, hence the name "full-width". For backwards compatibility, separate support for half-width katakana has continued to be available in modern multi-byte encoding schemes such as Unicode, by having two separate blocks of characters – one displayed as usual (full-width) katakana, the other displayed as half-width katakana.

Although often said to be obsolete, in fact the half-width katakana are still used in many systems and encodings. For example, the titles of mini discs can only be entered in ASCII or half-width katakana, and half-width katakana are commonly used in computerized cash register displays, on shop receipts, and Japanese digital television and DVD subtitles. Several popular Japanese encodings such as EUC-JP , Unicode and Shift JIS have half-width katakana code as well as full-width. By contrast, ISO-2022-JP has no half-width katakana, and is mainly used over SMTP and NNTP .

UNICODE

Main articles: Katakana ( Unicode block) , Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms ( Unicode block) , Enclosed CJK Letters and Months (Unicode block) , Katakana Phonetic Extensions ( Unicode block) , and Kana Supplement ( Unicode block)

Katakana was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 1991 with the release of version 1.0.

The Unicode block for (full-width) katakana is U+30A0–U+30FF.

Encoded in this block along with the katakana are the _nakaguro_ word-separation middle dot , the _chōon_ vowel extender, the katakana iteration marks , and a ligature of コ sometimes used in vertical writing.

KATAKANA Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+30Ax ゠ ァ ア ィ イ ゥ ウ ェ エ ォ オ カ ガ キ ギ ク

U+30Bx グ ケ ゲ コ ゴ サ ザ シ ジ ス ズ セ ゼ ソ ゾ タ

U+30Cx ダ チ ヂ ッ ツ ヅ テ デ ト ド ナ ニ ヌ ネ ノ ハ

U+30Dx バ パ ヒ ビ ピ フ ブ プ ヘ ベ ペ ホ ボ ポ マ ミ

U+30Ex ム メ モ ャ ヤ ュ ユ ョ ヨ ラ リ ル レ ロ ヮ ワ

U+30Fx ヰ ヱ ヲ ン ヴ ヵ ヶ ヷ ヸ ヹ ヺ ・ ー ヽ ヾ ヿ

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0

Half-width equivalents to the usual full-width katakana also exist in Unicode. These are encoded within the Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms block (U+FF00–U+FFEF) (which also includes full-width forms of Latin characters, for instance), starting at U+FF65 and ending at U+FF9F (characters U+FF61–U+FF64 are half-width punctuation marks). This block also includes the half-width dakuten and handakuten. The full-width versions of these characters are found in the Hiragana block.

Katakana subset of HALFWIDTH AND FULLWIDTH FORMS Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

... (U+FF00–U+FF64 omitted)

U+FF6x

・ ヲ ァ ィ ゥ ェ ォ ャ ュ ョ ッ

U+FF7x ー ア イ ウ エ オ カ キ ク ケ コ サ シ ス セ ソ

U+FF8x タ チ ツ テ ト ナ ニ ヌ ネ ノ ハ ヒ フ ヘ ホ マ

U+FF9x ミ ム メ モ ヤ ユ ヨ ラ リ ル レ ロ ワ ン ゙ ゚

... (U+FFA0–U+FFEF omitted)

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0

Circled katakana are code points U+32D0–U+32FE in the Enclosed CJK Letters and Months block (U+3200–U+32FF). A circled (n) is not included.

Katakana subset of ENCLOSED CJK LETTERS AND MONTHS Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

... (U+3200–U+32CF omitted)

U+32Dx ㋐ ㋑ ㋒ ㋓ ㋔ ㋕ ㋖ ㋗ ㋘ ㋙ ㋚ ㋛ ㋜ ㋝ ㋞ ㋟

U+32Ex ㋠ ㋡ ㋢ ㋣ ㋤ ㋥ ㋦ ㋧ ㋨ ㋩ ㋪ ㋫ ㋬ ㋭ ㋮ ㋯

U+32Fx ㋰ ㋱ ㋲ ㋳ ㋴ ㋵ ㋶ ㋷ ㋸ ㋹ ㋺ ㋻ ㋼ ㋽ ㋾

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Extensions to Katakana for phonetic transcription of Ainu and other languages were added to the Unicode standard in March 2002 with the release of version 3.2.

The Unicode block for Katakana Phonetic Extensions is U+31F0–U+31FF:

KATAKANA PHONETIC EXTENSIONS Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+31Fx ㇰ ㇱ ㇲ ㇳ ㇴ ㇵ ㇶ ㇷ ㇸ ㇹ ㇺ ㇻ ㇼ ㇽ ㇾ ㇿ

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0

Historic and variant forms of Japanese kana characters were added to the Unicode standard in October 2010 with the release of version 6.0.

The Unicode block for Kana Supplement is U+1B000–U+1B0FF:

KANA SUPPLEMENT Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+1B00x 𛀀 𛀁 𛀂 𛀃 𛀄 𛀅 𛀆 𛀇 𛀈 𛀉 𛀊 𛀋 𛀌 𛀍 𛀎 𛀏

U+1B01x 𛀐 𛀑 𛀒 𛀓 𛀔 𛀕 𛀖 𛀗 𛀘 𛀙 𛀚 𛀛 𛀜 𛀝 𛀞 𛀟

U+1B02x 𛀠 𛀡 𛀢 𛀣 𛀤 𛀥 𛀦 𛀧 𛀨 𛀩 𛀪 𛀫 𛀬 𛀭 𛀮 𛀯

U+1B03x 𛀰 𛀱 𛀲 𛀳 𛀴 𛀵 𛀶 𛀷 𛀸 𛀹 𛀺 𛀻 𛀼 𛀽 𛀾 𛀿

U+1B04x 𛁀 𛁁 𛁂 𛁃 𛁄 𛁅 𛁆 𛁇 𛁈 𛁉 𛁊 𛁋 𛁌 𛁍 𛁎 𛁏

U+1B05x 𛁐 𛁑 𛁒 𛁓 𛁔 𛁕 𛁖 𛁗 𛁘 𛁙 𛁚 𛁛 𛁜 𛁝 𛁞 𛁟

U+1B06x 𛁠 𛁡 𛁢 𛁣 𛁤 𛁥 𛁦 𛁧 𛁨 𛁩 𛁪 𛁫 𛁬 𛁭 𛁮 𛁯

U+1B07x 𛁰 𛁱 𛁲 𛁳 𛁴 𛁵 𛁶 𛁷 𛁸 𛁹 𛁺 𛁻 𛁼 𛁽 𛁾 𛁿

U+1B08x 𛂀 𛂁 𛂂 𛂃 𛂄 𛂅 𛂆 𛂇 𛂈 𛂉 𛂊 𛂋 𛂌 𛂍 𛂎 𛂏

U+1B09x 𛂐 𛂑 𛂒 𛂓 𛂔 𛂕 𛂖 𛂗 𛂘 𛂙 𛂚 𛂛 𛂜 𛂝 𛂞 𛂟

U+1B0Ax 𛂠 𛂡 𛂢 𛂣 𛂤 𛂥 𛂦 𛂧 𛂨 𛂩 𛂪 𛂫 𛂬 𛂭 𛂮 𛂯

U+1B0Bx 𛂰 𛂱 𛂲 𛂳 𛂴 𛂵 𛂶 𛂷 𛂸 𛂹 𛂺 𛂻 𛂼 𛂽 𛂾 𛂿

U+1B0Cx 𛃀 𛃁 𛃂 𛃃 𛃄 𛃅 𛃆 𛃇 𛃈 𛃉 𛃊 𛃋 𛃌 𛃍 𛃎 𛃏

U+1B0Dx 𛃐 𛃑 𛃒 𛃓 𛃔 𛃕 𛃖 𛃗 𛃘 𛃙 𛃚 𛃛 𛃜 𛃝 𛃞 𛃟

U+1B0Ex 𛃠 𛃡 𛃢 𛃣 𛃤 𛃥 𛃦 𛃧 𛃨 𛃩 𛃪 𛃫 𛃬 𛃭 𛃮 𛃯

U+1B0Fx 𛃰 𛃱 𛃲 𛃳 𛃴 𛃵 𛃶 𛃷 𛃸 𛃹 𛃺 𛃻 𛃼 𛃽 𛃾 𛃿

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0

Katakana in other Unicode blocks:

* Dakuten and handakuten diacritics are located in the Hiragana block :

* U+3099 COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA VOICED SOUND MARK (non-spacing dakuten): ゙ * U+309A COMBINING KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK (non-spacing handakuten): ゚ * U+309B KATAKANA-HIRAGANA VOICED SOUND MARK (spacing dakuten): ゛ * U+309C KATAKANA-HIRAGANA SEMI-VOICED SOUND MARK (spacing handakuten): ゜

* Two katakana-based emoji are in the Enclosed Ideographic Supplement block :

* U+1F201 SQUARED KATAKANA KOKO ('here' sign): 🈁 * U+1F202 SQUARED KATAKANA SA ('service' sign): 🈂

* A katakana-based Japanese TV symbol from the ARIB STD-B24 standard is in the Enclosed Ideographic Supplement block :

* U+1F213 SQUARED KATAKANA DE ('data broadcasting service linked with a main program' symbol): 🈓

Furthermore, as of Unicode 10.0, the following combinatory sequences have been explicitly named, despite having no precomposed symbols in the katakana block. Font designers may want to optimize the display of these composed glyphs. Some of them are mostly used for writing the Ainu language , the others are called _bidakuon_ in Japanese. Other, arbitrary combinations with U+309A handakuten are also possible, of course.

KATAKANA NAMED SEQUENCES Unicode Named Character Sequences Database

Sequence name Codepoints Glyph

KATAKANA LETTER BIDAKUON NGA U+30AB U+309A カ゚

KATAKANA LETTER BIDAKUON NGI U+30AD U+309A キ゚

KATAKANA LETTER BIDAKUON NGU U+30AF U+309A ク゚

KATAKANA LETTER BIDAKUON NGE U+30B1 U+309A ケ゚

KATAKANA LETTER BIDAKUON NGO U+30B3 U+309A コ゚

KATAKANA LETTER AINU CE U+30BB U+309A セ゚

KATAKANA LETTER AINU TU U+30C4 U+309A ツ゚

KATAKANA LETTER AINU TO U+30C8 U+309A ト゚

KATAKANA LETTER AINU P U+31F7 U+309A ㇷ゚

SEE ALSO

* Japanese phonology * Hiragana * Historical kana usage * Rōmaji * Gugyeol * _ Tōdaiji Fujumonkō _, oldest example of kanji text with katakana annotations * File:Beschrijving van Japan - ABC (cropped).jpg for the kana as described by Engelbert Kaempfer in 1727

REFERENCES

* ^ Thomas E. McAuley (2001) _Language change in East Asia_. Routledge. ISBN 0700713778 . p. 90 * ^ Roy Andrew Miller (1966) _A Japanese Reader: Graded Lessons in the Modern Language_, Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Company, Tokyo, Japan, p. 28, Lesson 7 : Katakana : _a—no_. "Side by side with hiragana, modern Japanese writing makes use of another complete set of similar symbols called the katakana." * ^ Miller, p. 28. "The katakana symbols, rather simpler, more angular and abrupt in their line than the hiragana..." * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "The Japanese Writing System (2) Katakana", p. 29 in _Yookoso! An Invitation to Contemporary Japanese_. McGraw-Hill, 1993, ISBN 0070722935 * ^ "Hiragana, Katakana & Kanji". Japanese Word Characters. Retrieved 15 October 2011. * ^ Tackett, Rachel. "Why old Japanese women have names in katakana". _RocketNews24_. Retrieved 19 September 2015. * ^ Mutsuko Endo Simon (1984) Section 3.3 "Katakana", p. 36 in _A Practical Guide for Teachers of Elementary Japanese_, Center for Japanese Studies, the University of Michigan . ISBN 0939512165 * ^ Simon, p. 36 * ^ Reading Japanese, Lesson 1. joyo96.org * ^ Japanese katakana. Omniglot.com * ^ Taku Sugimoto; James A. Levin (2000). "Global Literacies and the World-Wide Web". London: Routledge. p. 137. Missing or empty url= (help ); access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ _ Japan Times_, " Katakana system may be Korean, professor says" * ^ Yoshinori Kobayashi, 日本のヲコト点の起源と古代韓国語の点吐との関係 ("Relationship between _tento_ in Ancient Korean and the origin of Japan's _okoto_ point)

EXTERNAL LINKS

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* Real Kana Practice katakana using different typefaces. * Katakana Unicode chart * Japanese, including "practice kana" links, at DMOZ * Learn Katakana with Audio Slideshow * KanaTeacher - Practice and learn Katakana online. * Japanese dictionary with Katakana, Hiragana and Kanji on-screen keyboards * Animated Katakana stroke orders with audio

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