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KARL ERNST HAUSHOFER (27 August 1869 – 10 March 1946) was a German general, geographer and politician. Through his student Rudolf Hess , Haushofer's ideas influenced the development of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
's expansionist strategies, although Haushofer denied direct influence on the Nazi regime . Under the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
, Haushofer's wife and children were categorized as _Mischlinge _. His son, Albrecht , was issued a German Blood Certificate through the help of Hess.

CONTENTS

* 1 Life and career * 2 Geopolitics
Geopolitics
* 3 Contacts with Nazi leadership * 4 Works * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

LIFE AND CAREER

Haushofer belonged to a family of artists and scholars. He was born in Munich
Munich
to Max Haushofer, a professor of economics, and Frau Adele Haushofer (née Fraas). On his graduation from the Munich
Munich
Gymnasium (high school), Haushofer contemplated an academic career. However, service with the Bavarian Army proved so interesting that he stayed to work, with great success, as an instructor in military academies and on the general staff.

In 1887, Haushofer entered the 1st Field Artillery
Artillery
regiment "Prinzregent Luitpold" and completed _Kriegsschule _, _Artillerieschule_ and _ War Academy (Kingdom of Bavaria) _. In 1896, he married Martha Mayer-Doss (1877–1946) whose father was Jewish. They had two sons, Albrecht Haushofer and Heinz Haushofer (1906–1988).

Haushofer continued his career as a professional soldier, serving in the army of Imperial Germany and rising through the Staff Corp by 1899. In 1903, he began teaching at the Bavarian _ War
War
Academy_.

In November 1908, the army sent him to Tokyo
Tokyo
to study the Japanese army and to advise it as an artillery instructor. He travelled with his wife via India and South East Asia and arrived in February 1909. He was received by the Japanese emperor and became acquainted with many important people in politics and the armed forces. In autumn 1909, he travelled with his wife for a month to Korea and Manchuria
Manchuria
on the occasion of a railway construction. In June 1910, they returned to Germany via Russia
Russia
and arrived one month later.

Shortly afterwards, he began to suffer from several severe diseases and was given a leave from the army for three years. From 1911 to 1913, Haushofer would work on his doctorate of philosophy from Munich University for a thesis on Japan
Japan
titled _Dai Nihon, Betrachtungen über Groß-Japans Wehrkraft, Weltstellung und Zukunft_ ("Reflections on Greater Japan's Military
Military
Strength, World Position, and Future"). By World War I
World War I
, he had attained the rank of General
General
, and commanded a brigade on the western front . He became disillusioned after Germany's loss and severe sanctioning; he retired with the rank of major general in 1919. At this time, he forged a friendship with the young Rudolf Hess , who would become his scientific assistant.

Haushofer entered academia with the aim of restoring and regenerating Germany. Haushofer believed the Germans' lack of geographical knowledge and geopolitical awareness to be a major cause of Germany’s defeat in World War
War
I, as Germany had found itself with a disadvantageous alignment of allies and enemies. The fields of political and geographical science thus became his areas of specialty. In 1919, Haushofer became Privatdozent for political geography at Munich
Munich
University and in 1933 professor.

Louis Pauwels , in his book _Monsieur Gurdjieff_, describes Haushofer as a former student of George Gurdjieff
George Gurdjieff
. Others, including Pauwels, said that Haushofer created a Vril society and that he was a secret member of the Thule Society
Thule Society
. Stefan Zweig speaks warmly of him but says history will have to judge how far he knowingly contributed to Nazi doctrine, as more documentation becomes available. Zweig credits him with the concept of Lebensraum , used in a psychological sense of a nation's relative energies.

After the establishment of the Nazi regime, Haushofer remained friendly with Hess, who protected Haushofer and his wife from the racial laws of the Nazis, which deemed her a "half-Jew". During the prewar years, Haushofer was instrumental in linking Japan
Japan
to the Axis powers , acting in accordance with the theories of his book _ Geopolitics
Geopolitics
of the Pacific Ocean_.

After the July 20 Plot to assassinate Hitler, Haushofer's son l, Albrecht (1903–1945), went into hiding but was arrested on 7 December 1944 and put into the Moabit prison in Berlin
Berlin
. During the night of 22–23 April 1945, he and other selected prisoners, such as Klaus Bonhoeffer . were walked out of the prison by an SS -squad and were shot. Beginning on 24 September 1945, Karl Haushofer
Karl Haushofer
was informally interrogated by Father Edmund A. Walsh on behalf of the Allied forces to determine whether he should stand trial at Nuremberg for war crimes; Walsh determined that he had not committed any.

On the night of 10–11 March 1946, he and his wife committed suicide in a secluded hollow on their Hartschimmelhof estate at Pähl /Ammersee. Both drank arsenic and his wife then hanged herself while Haushofer was obviously too weak to do so.

GEOPOLITICS

Main article: Geopolitik

Haushofer developed Geopolitik from widely varied sources, including the writings of Oswald Spengler , Alexander Humboldt , Karl Ritter , Friedrich Ratzel , Rudolf Kjellén , and Halford J. Mackinder .

Geopolitik contributed to Nazi foreign policy chiefly in the strategy and justifications for lebensraum . The theories contributed five ideas to German foreign policy in the interwar period :

* organic state * lebensraum * autarky * pan-regions * land power/sea power dichotomy .

Geostrategy
Geostrategy
as a political science is both descriptive and analytical like political geography but adds a normative element in its strategic prescriptions for national policy. While some of Haushofer's ideas stem from earlier American and British geostrategy , German geopolitik adopted an essentialist outlook toward the national interest, oversimplifying issues and representing itself as a panacea . As a new and essentialist ideology , geopolitik found itself in a position to prey upon the post- World War I
World War I
insecurity of the populace.

Haushofer's position in the University of Munich
Munich
served as a platform for the spread of his geopolitical ideas, magazine articles, and books. In 1922, he founded the Institute of Geopolitics
Geopolitics
in Munich, from which he proceeded to publicize geopolitical ideas. By 1924, as the leader of the German geopolitik school of thought, Haushofer would establish the _Zeitschrift für Geopolitik_ monthly devoted to geopolitik. His ideas would reach a wider audience with the publication of _Volk ohne Raum_ by Hans Grimm in 1926, popularizing his concept of lebensraum. Haushofer exercised influence both through his academic teachings, urging his students to think in terms of continents and emphasizing motion in international politics , and through his political activities. While Hitler's speeches would attract the masses, Haushofer's works served to bring the remaining intellectuals into the fold.

Geopolitik was essentially a consolidation and codification of older ideas, given a scientific gloss:

* Lebensraum was a revised colonial imperialism; * Autarky a new expression of tariff protectionism ; * Strategic control of key geographic territories exhibiting the same thought behind earlier designs on the Suez and Panama Canals ; a view of controlling the land in the same way as those choke points control the sea * Pan-regions (_Panideen_) based upon the British Empire
British Empire
, and the American Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
, Pan-American Union and hemispheric defense , whereby the world is divided into spheres of influence. * Frontiers – His view of barriers between peoples not being political (iborders) or natural placements of races or ethnicities but as being fluid and determined by the will or needs of ethnic/racial groups.

The key reorientation in each dyad is that the focus is on land-based empire rather than naval imperialism.

Ostensibly based upon the geopolitical theory of American naval expert Alfred Thayer Mahan , and British geographer Halford J. Mackinder , German geopolitik adds older German ideas. Enunciated most forcefully by Friedrich Ratzel and his Swedish student Rudolf Kjellén, they include an organic or anthropomorphized conception of the state, and the need for self-sufficiency through the top-down organization of society. The root of uniquely German geopolitik rests in the writings of Karl Ritter who first developed the organic conception of the state that would later be elaborated upon by Ratzel and accepted by Hausfhofer. He justified lebensraum, even at the cost of other nations' existence because conquest was a biological necessity for a state's growth.

Ratzel's writings coincided with the growth of German industrialism after the Franco-Prussian war and the subsequent search for markets that brought it into competition with Britain . His writings served as welcome justification for imperial expansion. Influenced by Mahan, Ratzel wrote of aspirations for German naval reach, agreeing that sea power was self-sustaining, as the profit from trade would pay for the merchant marine , unlike land power. Haushofer was exposed to Ratzel, who was friends with Haushofer's father, a teacher of economic geography , and would integrate Ratzel's ideas on the division between sea and land powers into his theories, saying that only a country with both could overcome this conflict.

Haushofer's geopolitik expands upon that of Ratzel and Kjellén. While the latter two conceive of geopolitik as the state as an organism in space put to the service of a leader, Haushofer's Munich school specifically studies geography as it relates to war and designs for empire . The behavioral rules of previous geopoliticians were thus turned into dynamic normative doctrines for action on lebensraum and world power.

Haushofer defined geopolitik in 1935 as "the duty to safeguard the right to the soil, to the land in the widest sense, not only the land within the frontiers of the Reich
Reich
, but the right to the more extensive _Volk_ and cultural lands." Culture itself was seen as the most conducive element to dynamic special expansion. It provided a guide as to the best areas for expansion, and could make expansion safe, whereas projected military or commercial power could not. Haushofer even held that urbanization was a symptom of a nation's decline, evidencing a decreasing soil mastery, birthrate and effectiveness of centralized rule.

To Haushofer, the existence of a state depended on living space, the pursuit of which must serve as the basis for all policies. Germany had a high population density , but the old colonial powers had a much lower density, a virtual mandate for German expansion into resource-rich areas. Space was seen as military protection against initial assaults from hostile neighbors with long-range weaponry. A buffer zone of territories or insignificant states on one's borders would serve to protect Germany. Closely linked to that need was Haushofer's assertion that the existence of small states was evidence of political regression and disorder in the international system . The small states surrounding Germany ought to be brought into the vital German order. These states were seen as being too small to maintain practical autonomy even if they maintained large colonial possessions and would be better served by protection and organization within Germany. In Europe, he saw Belgium
Belgium
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Portugal
Portugal
, Denmark
Denmark
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, Greece
Greece
and the "mutilated alliance" of Austro-Hungary as supporting his assertion.

Haushofer's version of autarky was based on the quasi- Malthusian idea that the earth would become saturated with people and no longer able to provide food for all. There would essentially be no increases in productivity .

Haushofer and the Munich
Munich
school of geopolitik would eventually expand their conception of lebensraum and autarky well past the borders of 1914 and "a place in the sun" to a New European Order , then to a New Afro-European Order, and eventually to a Eurasian Order. That concept became known as a pan-region, taken from the American Monroe Doctrine, and the idea of national and continental self-sufficiency. Thay was a forward-looking refashioning of the drive for colonies , something that geopoliticians did not see as an economic necessity but more as a matter of prestige, putting pressure on older colonial powers. The fundamental motivating force would be not economic but cultural and spiritual. Haushofer was, what is called today, a proponent of "Eurasianism ", advocating a policy of German–Russian hegemony and alliance to offset an Anglo-American power structure's potentially dominating influence in Europe.

Beyond being an economic concept, pan-regions were a strategic concept as well. Haushofer acknowledges the strategic concept of the Heartland Theory put forward by the British geopolitician Halford Mackinder. If Germany could control Eastern Europe and subsequently Russian territory, it could control a strategic area to which hostile seapower could be denied. Allying with Italy
Italy
and Japan
Japan
would further augment German strategic control of Eurasia, with those states becoming the naval arms protecting Germany's insular position.

CONTACTS WITH NAZI LEADERSHIP

Evidence points to a disconnect between the advocates of geopolitik and Hitler, although their practical tactical goals were nearly indistinguishable.

Rudolf Hess , Hitler's secretary who would assist in the writing of _ Mein Kampf _, was a close student of Haushofer's. While Hess and Hitler were imprisoned after the Munich
Munich
Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, Haushofer spent six hours visiting the two, bringing along a copy of Friedrich Ratzel's _Political Geography_ and Clausewitz 's _On War
War
_. After World War
War
II , Haushofer would deny that he had taught Hitler, and claimed that the National Socialist Party perverted Hess's study of geopolitik. Hitler's biographers disagree somewhat on the extent of Haushofer's influence on Hitler: Ian Kershaw writes that " influence was probably greater than the Munich
Munich
professor was later prepared to acknowledge," while Joachim C. Fest says that "Hitler's version of ideas was distinctly his own." Haushofer himself viewed Hitler as a half-educated man who never correctly understood the geopolitik principles explained by Hess, and saw Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop as the principal distorter of geopolitik in Hitler's mind.

Although Haushofer accompanied Hess on numerous propaganda missions, and participated in consultations between Nazis and Japanese leaders, he claimed that Hitler and the Nazis only seized upon half-developed ideas and catchwords . Furthermore, the Nazi party and government lacked any official organ that was receptive to geopolitik, leading to selective adoption and poor interpretation of Haushofer's theories. Ultimately, Hess and Konstantin von Neurath
Konstantin von Neurath
, Nazi Minister of Foreign Affairs, were the only officials Haushofer would admit had a proper understanding of geopolitik.

Father Edmund A. Walsh , professor of geopolitics and dean at Georgetown University
Georgetown University
, who interviewed Haushofer after the allied victory in preparation for the Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
, disagreed with Haushofer's assessment that geopolitik was terribly distorted by Hitler and the Nazis. He cites Hitler's speeches declaring that small states have no right to exist, and the Nazi use of Haushofer's maps, language and arguments. Even if distorted somewhat, Walsh felt that was enough to implicate Haushofer's geopolitik.

Haushofer also denied assisting Hitler in writing _Mein Kampf_, saying that he only knew of it once it was in print, and never read it. Walsh found that even if Haushofer did not directly assist Hitler, discernible new elements appeared in _Mein Kampf_, as compared to previous speeches made by Hitler. Geopolitical ideas of lebensraum, space for depth of defense, appeals for natural frontiers , balancing land and seapower, and geographic analysis of military strategy entered Hitler's thought between his imprisonment and publishing of _Mein Kampf_. Chapter XIV, on German policy in Eastern Europe , in particular displays the influence of the materials Haushofer brought Hitler and Hess while they were imprisoned.

Haushofer was never a member of the Nazi Party, and did voice disagreements with the party, leading to his brief imprisonment. Haushofer came under suspicion because of his contacts with left wing socialist figures within the Nazi movement (led by Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
) and his advocacy of essentially a German–Russian alliance. This Nazi left wing had some connections to the Communist Party of Germany and some of its leaders, especially those who were influenced by the National Bolshevist philosophy of a German–Russian revolutionary alliance, as advocated by Ernst Niekisch , Julius Evola , Ernst Jünger , Hielscher and other figures of the "conservative revolution." He did profess loyalty to the Führer and make anti-Semitic remarks on occasion. However, his emphasis was always on space over race , believing in environmental rather than racial determinism. He refused to associate himself with anti-Semitism as a policy, especially because his wife was half-Jewish. Haushofer admits that after 1933 much of what he wrote was distorted under duress: his wife had to be protected by Hess's influence (who managed to have her awarded 'honorary German' status); his son was implicated in the July 20 plot to assassinate Hitler and was executed by the Gestapo
Gestapo
; he himself was imprisoned in Dachau concentration camp for eight months; and his son and grandson were imprisoned for two-and-a-half months.

The idea of contact between Haushofer and the Nazi establishment has been stressed by several authors. These authors have expanded Haushofer's contact with Hitler to a close collaboration while Hitler was writing _ Mein Kampf _ and made him one of the 'future Chancellor's many mentors'. Haushofer may have been a short-term student of Gurdjieff
Gurdjieff
, that he had studied Zen Buddhism , and that he had been initiated at the hands of Tibetan lamas , although these notions are debated.

The influence of Haushofer on Nazi ideology is dramatized in the 1943 short documentary film, _ Plan for Destruction _, which was nominated for an Academy Award.

WORKS

* _English Translation and Analysis of Major General
General
Karl Ernst Haushofer's Geopolitics
Geopolitics
of the Pacific Ocean: Studies on the Relationship between Geography and History_ ISBN 0-7734-7122-7 * _Das Japanische Reich
Reich
in seiner geographischen Entwicklung_ (L.W. Seidel Berlin
Berlin
; Magdeburg : Vowinckel, 1939 * _Wehr- Geopolitik : Geogr. Grundlagen e. Wehrkunde_, Berlin
Berlin
: Junker u. Dünnhaupt, 1941 * _ Japan
Japan
baut sein Reich_, Berlin
Berlin
: Zeitgeschichte-Verlag Wilhelm Undermann, 1941 * _Das Werden des deutschen Volkes : Von d. Vielfalt d. Stämme zur Einheit d. Nation_, Berlin
Berlin
: Propyläen-Verl., 1941 * _Der Kontinentalblock : Mitteleuropa, Eurasien, Japan_, Berlin
Berlin
: Eher, 1941 * _Das Reich
Reich
: Großdeutsches Werder im Abendland_, Berlin
Berlin
: Habel, 1943 * _Geopolitische Grundlagen_, Verleger Berlin
Berlin
; Wien : Industrieverl. Spaeth -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ Pauwels, Louis and Bergier, Jacques. _The Morning of the Magicians_. Avon Books, 1973 * ^ Zweig, Stefan . _ The World of Yesterday
The World of Yesterday
_ New York: Viking, 1943 * ^ "Germany: Haushofer\'s Heritage". _Time _. March 25, 1946. Retrieved 2012-09-09. * ^ Walsh, Edmund A. "The Mystery of Haushofer" _Life _ (September 16, 1946) pp. 107–120 * ^ Saul Bernard Cohen (2003). " Geopolitics
Geopolitics
of the World System". Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc. pp. 21–23. ISBN 0-8476-9907-2 . Missing or empty url= (help ); access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Mattern, pp.40–41 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Walsh (1949), p.41 * ^ _A_ _B_ Mattern, p.32 * ^ Dorpalen, pp.16–17 * ^ Walsh (1949), pp.4–5 * ^ _A_ _B_ Beukema, Col. Herman. "Introduction" to Dorpalen, p.xiii * ^ Mattern, p.37 * ^ Walsh (1949), p.39 * ^ Mattern, p.60 * ^ Dorpalen, pp.66–67 * ^ Dorpalen, p.52 * ^ Dorpalen, pp.68–69 * ^ Dorpalen, pp.23–24 * ^ Dorpalen, p.54 * ^ Walsh (1949), p.48 * ^ Dorpalen, p.80 * ^ Dorpalen, p.78 * ^ Dorpalen, pp.38–39 * ^ Dorpalen, pp.94–95 * ^ Dorpalen, pp.205–06 * ^ Dorpalen, pp.207, 209 * ^ Dorpalen, p.231 * ^ Mattern, p.17 * ^ Mattern, p.39 * ^ Dorpalen, pp.235-6 * ^ Dorpalen, p.218 * ^ Mackinder, p.78 * ^ Walsh (1949), p.9 * ^ Walsh (1949), pp.14–15 * ^ Kershaw, Ian _Hitler: 1889-1936: Hubris_ New York: Norton, 1998. pp.248-249. ISBN 0-393-04671-0 * ^ Fest, Joachim C. and Winston, Richard and Winston, Clara (trans.) _Hitler_. New York: Vantage, 1975. (orig. published in German in 1973), p.217. ISBN 0-394-72023-7 * ^ Walsh (1949), p.15 * ^ Walsh (1949), p.8 * ^ Walsh (1949), pp.35–36 * ^ Walsh (1949), pp.41, 17 * ^ Walsh (1949), p. 36 * ^ Walsh (1949), p.42 * ^ Mattern, p.20 * ^ Walsh (1949), pp.40, 35 * ^ Walsh (1949), p.16

* ^ for example:

* Berzin, Alexander. "The Nazi Connection with Shambhala and Tibet" (May 2003) * FitzGerald, Michael. _Storm Troopers of Satan_ (Robert Hale, 1990) * FitzGerald, Michael. _Adolf Hitler: A Portrait_ (Spellmount, 2006) * Sklar, Dusty. _The Nazis and the Occult_ (Dorset Press, 1977) * Webb, James. _The Occult Establishment_ (Richard Drew, 1981)

* ^ _Weltpolitik von heute_

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Dorpalen, Andreas._The