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Joseph Fesch, Prince
Prince
of France
France
(3 January 1763 – 13 May 1839) was a French cardinal and diplomat, Prince
Prince
of France
France
and a member of the Imperial House of the First French Empire, Peer of France, Roman Prince, and the uncle of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte. He was also one of the most famous art collectors of his period, remembered for having established the Musée Fesch
Musée Fesch
in Ajaccio, which remains one of the most important Napoleonic collections of art. Born in Corsica, he was the son of Swiss-born Franz Faesch
Faesch
and Angela Maria Pietrasanta, and belonged on his father's side to the Faesch family, one of the most prominent patrician families of Basel, which had been ennobled in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1562. Like other of Napoleon's family members, he rose to great prominence in France following Napoleon's coup d'état of 1799. Fesch became Archbishop of Lyon
Lyon
in 1802, was named a Cardinal in 1803, became French Ambassador to Rome
Rome
in 1804, became a French senator and count in 1805, became Grand Almoner of France in 1805, obtained the rank of a sovereign prince in 1806, was named a Prince
Prince
of France
France
in 1807 (a dignity he shared only with Napoleon's siblings, brother-in-law Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
and adopted son Eugène de Beauharnais), became a Peer of France
Peer of France
in 1815 and was named a Prince
Prince
of the Papal States
Papal States
by the Pope. He was a member of the Imperial House as well as of the order of succession to the French imperial throne in accordance with the French constitution of 1804 (Title III, Article 9, "The Imperial Family"). He was Napoleon's most important diplomat in regard to Pope Pius VII, but Napoleon's relationship with his uncle deteriorated as his relationship with the Pope soured. Nevertheless, Napoleon
Napoleon
remained loyal to his uncle. Fesch wed his nephew to Joséphine de Beauharnais in Paris
Paris
in 1804, the day before he was crowned as Emperor of the French,[1] and in 1810 he wed Napoleon
Napoleon
to Marie Louise of Austria. After the end of the French Empire, he relocated to Rome
Rome
with his sister Laetitia Bonaparte and took up residence at the Palazzo Falconieri, dedicating himself to art and to beneficence. Like the rest of the Imperial House, he was banished from France
France
from 1815.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Coat of arms 3 Paintings owned by Fesch 4 Honours 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Biography[edit]

Cardinal Joseph Fesch.

Fesch was born at Ajaccio
Ajaccio
in Corsica. His father was Franz Faesch, a Swiss officer in the service of the Genoese Republic
Genoese Republic
whose family, the Faesch
Faesch
family, belonged to the Basel
Basel
patriciate and were nobles of the Holy Roman Empire, and his mother was Nobile Angela Maria Pietrasanta. His mother had previously been married to Captain Giovanni Geronimo Ramolino, and he had an elder half-sister, Laetitia Bonaparte. Through his half-sister, he was the uncle of Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte. With support of Luciano Buonaparte (1718–1791), archdeacon of Ajaccio, he entered the seminary at Aix-en-Provence
Aix-en-Provence
in 1781. He was ordained as a priest in 1785, and 24 years old, he became himself the archdeacon of Ajaccio. After the 1791 death of Luciano Buonaparte, he became for a time the protector and patron of his sister's family. In 1789, when the French Revolution
French Revolution
broke out, he felt, like the majority of the Corsicans, repugnance for many of the acts of the French government during that period; in particular he protested against the application to Corsica
Corsica
of the act known as the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (July 1790). As provost of the "chapter" in that city he directly felt the pressure of events; for on the suppression of religious orders and corporations, he was constrained to retire into private life.

Palais Fesch, Ajaccio, now houses the Musée Fesch

Thereafter he shared the fortunes of the Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
family in the intrigues and strifes which ensued. Drawn gradually into espousing the French cause against Pasquale Paoli
Pasquale Paoli
and the Anglophiles, he was forced to leave Corsica
Corsica
and to proceed with Laetitia and her son to Toulon, in early autumn, 1793. Failing to find clerical duties at that time (the Reign of Terror), he took several posts in civil life, until on the appointment of Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
to the command of the French "Army of Italy" he became a commissary attached to that army. This part of his career is obscure, but his fortunes rose rapidly when Napoleon
Napoleon
became First Consul, after the coup d'état of 18 Brumaire (November 1799). When the restoration of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
religion was in the mind of the First Consul, Fesch resumed his clerical vocation and took an active part in the complex negotiations which led to the signing of the Concordat with the Holy See
Holy See
on 15 July 1801. His reward came in being made Archbishop of Lyon
Archbishop of Lyon
in August 1802. Six months later he received a further reward for his past services, being raised to the dignity of cardinal. Appointed by Napoleon
Napoleon
on 4 April 1803 to succeed Cacault on the latter's retirement from the position of French ambassador at Rome,[2] Fesch was assisted by Chateaubriand, but soon sharply differed with him on many questions. Towards the close of 1804, Napoleon
Napoleon
entrusted to Fesch the difficult task of securing the presence of Pope Pius VII at the forthcoming coronation of the emperor at Notre Dame, Paris
Paris
(2 December 1804). His tact in overcoming the reluctance of the pope (it was only eight months after the execution of the duc d'Enghien) received further recognition. He received the grand cordon of the Legion d'Honneur, became grand-almoner of the empire and had a seat in the French senate. He was to receive further honours. In 1806 one of the most influential of the German clerics, Karl von Dalberg, then prince-bishop of Regensburg, chose him to be his coadjutor and designated him as his successor. Subsequent events damaged his prospects. In the course of the years 1806-1807 Napoleon
Napoleon
came into sharp collision with the pope on various matters both political and religious. Fesch sought in vain to reconcile them. Napoleon
Napoleon
was inexorable in his demands, and Pius VII refused to give way where the discipline and vital interests of the church seemed to be threatened. The emperor several times rebuked Fesch for what he thought to be weakness and ingratitude. It is clear, however, that the cardinal went as far as possible in counselling the submission of the spiritual to the civil power. For a time he was not on speaking terms with the pope; and Napoleon
Napoleon
recalled him from Rome. Affairs came to a crisis in the year 1809, when Napoleon
Napoleon
issued at Vienna
Vienna
the decree of 17 May, ordering the annexation of the Papal States to the French empire. In that year Napoleon
Napoleon
conferred on Fesch the archbishopric of Paris, but he refused the honour. Fesch did however consent to take part in an ecclesiastical commission formed by the emperor from among the dignitaries of the Gallican Church, but in 1810 the commission was dissolved. The hopes of Fesch with respect to Regensburg were also damped by an arrangement of the year 1810 whereby Regensburg was absorbed in Bavaria. In the year 1811 the emperor convoked a national council of Gallican clerics for the discussion of church affairs, and Fesch was appointed to preside over their deliberations. Here again, however, he failed to satisfy the inflexible emperor and was dismissed to his diocese. The friction between uncle and nephew became more acute in the following year. In June 1812 Pius VII was brought from his first place of detention, Savona, to Fontainebleau, where he was kept under surveillance in the hope that he would give way in certain matters relating to the Concordat and in other clerical affairs. Fesch ventured to write to the aged pontiff a letter which came into the hands of the emperor. His anger against Fesch was such that he stopped the sum of 150,000 forms which had been accorded to him. The disasters of the years 1812-1813 brought Napoleon
Napoleon
to treat Pius VII with more lenity and the position of Fesch thus became for a time less difficult. On the first abdication of Napoleon
Napoleon
(11 April 1814) and the restoration of the Bourbons, he, however, retired to Rome where he received a welcome. The events of the Hundred Days (March–June 1815) brought him back to France; he resumed his archiepiscopal duties at Lyon
Lyon
and was further named a member of the senate and a peer of France. On the second abdication of the emperor (22 June 1815) Fesch retired to Rome
Rome
along with his older sister Letizia Bonaparte, where he spent the rest of his days in dignified ease, surrounded by numerous masterpieces of art, many of which he bequeathed to the cities of Lyon
Lyon
and Ajaccio. He died at Rome. Coat of arms[edit]

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Cardinal Joseph Fesch

As a member of the imperial family of France, he was given a new coat of arms based on the imperial coat of arms of France
France
(cf. House of Bonaparte). The Faesch
Faesch
family traditionally used a different coat of arms. Paintings owned by Fesch[edit] The Fesch collection included almost 16,000 paintings (not all at the same time). The core was Italian works of the Renaissance to the 18th century, but Fesch also had a number of Dutch Golden Age paintings and contemporary French works,[3] as well as a number of classical sculptures. Fesch was a fairly early collector of Quattrocento paintings, or "Italian Primitives". The Musée Fesch, Ajaccio
Ajaccio
contains much of Fesch's collection, including works by Botticelli, Giovanni Bellini, Titian
Titian
and others. Another part, including the works considered most important, was sold by auction in 1845. Paintings not in Lyons or Ajaccio
Ajaccio
include:[4]

The Entombment, Michelangelo, National Gallery, London St. Jerome in the Wilderness, Leonardo da Vinci, Vatican Museums Adoration of the Shepherds, Giorgione, NGA, Washington, who also have a Nativity by Perino del Vaga, Saint Martin Dividing His Cloak by Jan Boeckhorst and The Larder by Antonio Maria Vassallo.[5] Mond Crucifixion, Raphael, National Gallery, London Portrait of a Seated Woman with a Handkerchief, now attributed to Carel Fabritius
Carel Fabritius
rather than Rembrandt, Art Gallery of Ontario, Totonto. Adoration of the Magi, Bramantino, National Gallery, London, who have other works including a Philippe de Champaigne
Philippe de Champaigne
Vision of St Joseph, a Vincenzo Foppa
Vincenzo Foppa
& a Botticelli. Last Judgement Fra Angelico, in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. The Broken Mirror, Greuze, Wallace Collection, London, who have another Greuze, an Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
Virgin and Child, a Philippe de Champaigne Annunciation, and a Hobbema. Hunting in the Lagoon, Vittore Carpaccio, Getty Museum, originally part of the same composition as his Two Venetian Ladies Saints George and Dominic, side panels from an altarpiece, Carlo Crivelli, Metropolitan Museum of Art.[6] Lamentation of Christ, Scipione Pulzone, MMA.

Honours[edit]

Great Eagle (Grand Cross) of the Legion of Honour.[7] Knight of the Order of the Golden Spur
Order of the Golden Spur
(1802) Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece
(1805)

See also[edit]

François Carlo Antommarchi Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Catholic Church

Notes[edit]

^ Compare: Bingham, Denis Arthur, ed. (1884). A Selection from the Letters and Despatches of the First Napoleon: With Explanatory Notes. Cambridge Library Collection - European History. 3. Cambridge University Press (published 2010). p. 5. ISBN 9781108023429. Retrieved 2014-11-29. [I]t is still a matter of doubt whether Napoleon and Josephine were ever married at the altar. There is not a scrap of evidence to prove it. The official account relates that on the eve of the coronation the Pope refused to officiate unless the Emperor made Josephine his wife, the Church not recognising the[ir] civil marriage. To avoid a scandal Napoleon
Napoleon
consented, and the religious ceremony was secretly performed at the Tuileries by Cardinal Fesch, with the consent of the Pope, and in the presence of Duroc, Berthier, and Talleyrand, on the night of the 1st December, 1804.  ^ Goyau, Catholic Encyclopedia. ^ Cardinal Fesch and the art of his time, exhibition Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Standard STAR Web Error Page".  ^ NGA Fesch Archived 2009-05-09 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Carlo Crivelli
Carlo Crivelli
- Saint George - The Met". The Metropolitan Museum of Art, i.e. The Met Museum.  ^ Almanach Du Département de L'Escaut Pour L'an 1809-1815, Volume 1;Volume 1809. lA.B. Stéven. p. 6. 

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fesch, Joseph". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 292–293. The following references are given for the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article on Joseph Fesch:

Jean Baptiste Lyonnet, Le Cardinal Fesch (2 vols., Lyon, 1841) Louis Gustave Ricard, Le Cardinal Fesch (Paris, 1893) Henri Welschinger, Le Pape et l'empereur, 1804-1815 (Paris, 1905) Frédéric Masson, Napoleon
Napoleon
et sa famille (4 vols., Paris, 1897–1900)

 Pierre-Louis-Théophile-Georges Goyau (1913). "Joseph Fesch". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  access-date= requires url= (help)

External links[edit] Media related to Joseph Fesch
Joseph Fesch
at Wikimedia Commons

The Age of Napoleon, which includes an entire chapter on Fesch  "Fesch, Joseph". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.  Spencer Napoleonica Collection at Newberry Library

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris
Paris
Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count
Count
of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count
Count
von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince
Prince
of Lambesc (French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince
Prince
Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince
Prince
Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince
Prince
Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince
Prince
of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince
Prince
of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince
Prince
of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince
Prince
of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

v t e

Imperial House of France
France
of the First French Empire

Emperor and immediate family

Napoleon, Emperor of the French Joséphine, Empress of the French Marie Louise, Empress of the French Napoleon, King of Rome

French Princes

Joseph Bonaparte Louis Bonaparte Joachim Murat Eugène de Beauharnais Elisa Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Lucien Bonaparte

Several family members held additional titles in vassal states

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 92145857803723020209 LCCN: no2006085593 ISNI: 0000 0000 6130 1211 GND: 116473894 SUDOC: 028205529 BNF: cb12008789w (data) ULAN: 500317650 Léonore: LH/965/30 RKD: 434

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