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(*)=Financial Vventures by EJVs/CJVs (**)=Approved JVs

Foreign investment companies limited by shares (FICLBS)

These enterprises are formed under the Sino-Foreign Investment Act. The capital is composed of value of stock in exchange for the value of the property given to the enterprise. The liability of the shareho

These enterprises are formed under the Sino-Foreign Investment Act. The capital is composed of value of stock in exchange for the value of the property given to the enterprise. The liability of the shareholders, including debt, is equal to the number of shares purchased by each partner.

The registered capital of the company the share of the paid-in capital. The minimum amount of the registered capital of the company should be RMB 30 million. These companies can be listed on the only two PRC Stock Exchanges – the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges. Shares of two types are permitted on these Exchanges – Types "A" and Type "B" shares.

Type A are only to be used by Chinese nationals and can be traded only in RMB. Type "B" shares are denominated in Renminbi but can be traded in foreign e

The registered capital of the company the share of the paid-in capital. The minimum amount of the registered capital of the company should be RMB 30 million. These companies can be listed on the only two PRC Stock Exchanges – the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges. Shares of two types are permitted on these Exchanges – Types "A" and Type "B" shares.

Type A are only to be used by Chinese nationals and can be traded only in RMB. Type "B" shares are denominated in Renminbi but can be traded in foreign exchange and by Chinese nationals having foreign exchange. Further, State enterprises which have been approved for corporatization can trade in Hong Kong in "H" share and in NYSE exchanges.

"A" shares are issued to and traded by Chinese nationals. They are issued and traded in Renminbi. "B" shares are denominated in Renminbi but are traded in foreign currency. From March 2001, in addition to foreign investors, Chinese nationals with foreign currency can also trade "B" shares.

Investment companies are those established in China by sole foreign-funded business or jointly with Chinese partners who engage in direct investment. It has to be incorporated as a company with limited liability.

The total amount of the investor's assets during the year preceding the application to do business in China has to be no less than US$400 million within the territory of China. The paid-in capital contribution has to exceed $10 million. Furthermore, more than 3 project proposals of the investor's intended investment projects must have been approved. The shares subscribed and held by foreign Investment Companies by Foreign Investors (ICFI) should be 25%. The investment firm can b

The total amount of the investor's assets during the year preceding the application to do business in China has to be no less than US$400 million within the territory of China. The paid-in capital contribution has to exceed $10 million. Furthermore, more than 3 project proposals of the investor's intended investment projects must have been approved. The shares subscribed and held by foreign Investment Companies by Foreign Investors (ICFI) should be 25%. The investment firm can be established as an EJV.

On March 15, 2019, China's National People's Congress adopted a unified Foreign Investment Law,[18] which comes into effect on January 1, 2020.

JV companies are the preferred form of corporate investment but there are no separate laws for joint ventures. Companies which are incorporated in India are treated on par as domestic companies.

  • The above two parties subscribe to the shares of the JV company in agreed proportion, in cash, and start a new business.
  • Two parties, (individuals or companies), incorporate a company in India. Business of one party is transferred to the company and as consideration for such transfer, shares are issued by the company and subscribed by that party. The other party subscribes for the shares in cash.
  • Promoter shareholder of an existing Indian company and a third party, who/which may be individual/company, one of them non-resident or both residents, collaborate to jointly carry on the business of that company and its shares are taken by the said third party through payment in cash.

Private companies (only about $2500 is the lower limit of capital, no upper limit) are allowed[19] in India together with and public companies, limited or not, likewise with partnerships. sole proprietorship too are allowed. However, the latter are reserved for NRIs.

Through capital market operations foreign companies can transact on the two exchanges without prior permission of RBI but they cannot own more than 10 percent equity in paid-up capital of Indian enterprises, while aggregate foreign institutional investment (FII) in an enterprise is capped at 24 percent.

The establishment of wholly owned subsidiaries (WOS) and project offices and branch offices, incorporated in India or not. Sometimes, it is understood, that branches are started to test the market and get its flavor. Equity transfer from residents to non-residents in mergers and acquisitions (M&A) is usually permitted under the automatic route. However, if the M&As are in sectors and activities requiring prior government permission (Appendix 1 of the Policy) then transfer can proceed only after permission.[20]

Joint ventures with trading companies are allowed together with imports of secondhand plants and machinery.

It is expected that in a JV, the foreign partner supplies technical collaboration and the pricing includes the foreign exchange component, while the Indian partner makes available the factory or building site and locally made machinery and product parts. Many JVs are formed as public limited companies (LLCs) because of the advantages of limited liability.[21]

Ukraine

In Ukraine most of joint ventures are operated in the form of Limited liability company,[22] as there is no legal entity form as Joint venture. Protection of the rights of foreign investors is guaranteed by Law of Ukraine "On Foreign Investment". In Ukraine, JV can be established without legal entity formation and act under so called Cooperation Agreement[23] (Dogovir pro spilnu diyalnist; Ukr. Договір про спільну діяльність). Under Ukraine civil code, CA can be established by two or more parties; rights and obligations of the parties are regulated by the agreement. Cooperation agreement has been widely spread in Ukraine, mainly in the field of oil and gas production.

See also

References

  1. ^ Roos, Alexander; Khanna, Dinesh; Verma, Sharad; Lang, Nikolaus; Dolya, Alex; Nath, Gaurav; Hammoud, Tawfik. "Getting More Value from Joint Ventures". Transaction Advisors. ISSN 2329-9134.