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Pope
Pope
Saint
Saint
John Paul II (Latin: Ioannes Paulus II; Italian: Giovanni Paolo II; Polish: Jan Paweł II; born Karol
Karol
Józef Wojtyła;[a] [ˈkarɔl ˈjuzɛv vɔjˈtɨwa];[b] 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope
Pope
of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and sovereign of Vatican City from 1978 to 2005. He is called Saint
Saint
John Paul the Great by some Catholics.[6][7][8] He was elected by the second Papal conclave of 1978, which was called after Pope
Pope
John Paul I, who had been elected in August to succeed Pope Paul VI, died after thirty-three days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted his predecessor's name in tribute to him.[9][10] John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland
Poland
and eventually all of Europe.[11] John Paul II significantly improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, Islam, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. He upheld the Church's teachings on such matters as artificial contraception and the ordination of women, but also supported the Church's Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
and its reforms. He was one of the most travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate. As part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 people and canonised 483 saints, more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the preceding five centuries. By the time of his death, he had named most of the College of Cardinals, consecrated or co-consecrated a large number of the world's bishops, and ordained many priests.[12] A key goal of John Paul's papacy was to transform and reposition the Catholic Church. His wish was "to place his Church at the heart of a new religious alliance that would bring together Jews, Muslims and Christians in a great religious armada".[13][14] John Paul II was the second longest-serving pope in modern history after Pope
Pope
Pius IX, who served for nearly 32 years from 1846 to 1878. Born in Poland, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Pope
Pope
Adrian VI, who served from 1522 to 1523. John Paul II's cause for canonisation commenced in 2005 one month after his death with the traditional five-year waiting period waived. On 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed Venerable
Venerable
by his successor Pope Benedict XVI and was beatified on 1 May 2011 (Divine Mercy Sunday) after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints attributed one miracle to his intercession, the healing of a French nun from Parkinson's disease. A second miracle attributed to John Paul II's intercession was approved on 2 July 2013, and confirmed by Pope Francis two days later (two miracles must be attributed to a person's intercession to be declared a saint). John Paul II was canonised on 27 April 2014 (again Divine Mercy Sunday), together with Pope
Pope
John XXIII.[15] On 11 September 2014, Pope Francis
Pope Francis
added John Paul II's optional memorial feast day to the worldwide General Roman Calendar
General Roman Calendar
of saints, in response to worldwide requests.[16] It is traditional to celebrate saints' feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, but that of John Paul II (22 October) is celebrated on the anniversary of his papal inauguration.[17][18]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Presbyterate 3 Episcopate and cardinalate 4 Papacy

4.1 Election 4.2 Pastoral
Pastoral
trips

5 Teachings

5.1 Moral stances 5.2 Apartheid in South Africa 5.3 Capital punishment 5.4 European Union 5.5 Evolution 5.6 Iraq War 5.7 Liberation theology 5.8 Organised crime 5.9 Persian Gulf War 5.10 Rwandan genocide 5.11 Views on sexuality

6 Reform of canon law

6.1 1983 Code of Canon Law 6.2 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches 6.3 Pastor Bonus

7 Catechism of the Catholic Church 8 Role in the collapse of dictatorships

8.1 Chile 8.2 Haiti 8.3 Paraguay

9 Role in the fall of Communism

9.1 Communist attempt to humiliate John Paul II

10 Relations with other denominations and religions

10.1 Anglicanism 10.2 Animism 10.3 Armenian Apostolic Church 10.4 Buddhism 10.5 Eastern Orthodox Church 10.6 Islam 10.7 Jainism 10.8 Judaism 10.9 Lutheranism

11 Assassination attempts and plots 12 Apologies 13 Health 14 Death and funeral

14.1 Final months 14.2 Final illness and death 14.3 Aftermath

15 Posthumous recognition

15.1 Title "the Great"

15.1.1 Institutions named after Saint
Saint
John Paul the Great

15.2 Beatification 15.3 Canonisation

16 Criticism and controversy

16.1 Child sex abuse scandals 16.2 Opus Dei
Opus Dei
controversies 16.3 Banco Ambrosiano
Banco Ambrosiano
scandal 16.4 Problems with traditionalists 16.5 Religion and AIDS 16.6 Social programmes 16.7 Ian Paisley 16.8 Međugorje
Međugorje
apparitions 16.9 Beatification
Beatification
controversy

17 Stolen relic 18 Personal life 19 See also 20 References

20.1 Notes 20.2 Sources 20.3 Bibliography

21 Further reading 22 External links

Early life Main article: Early life of Pope
Pope
John Paul II

The wedding portrait of John Paul II's parents, Emilia and Karol Wojtyła Snr

The courtyard within the family home of the Wojtyłas in Wadowice, Poland

Karol
Karol
Józef Wojtyła was born in the Polish town of Wadowice.[19][20] He was the youngest of three children born to Karol
Karol
Wojtyła (1879–1941), an ethnic Pole,[21] and Emilia Kaczorowska (1884–1929), whose mother's maiden surname was Scholz.[22] Emilia, who was a schoolteacher, died in childbirth in 1929[23] when Wojtyła was eight years old.[24] His elder sister Olga had died before his birth, but he was close to his brother Edmund, nicknamed Mundek, who was 13 years his senior. Edmund's work as a physician eventually led to his death from scarlet fever, a loss that affected Wojtyła deeply.[21][24] As a boy, Wojtyła was athletic, often playing football as goalkeeper.[25] During his childhood, Wojtyła had contact with Wadowice's large Jewish community.[26] School football games were often organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, and Wojtyła often played on the Jewish side.[21][25] "I remember that at least a third of my classmates at elementary school in Wadowice
Wadowice
were Jews. At elementary school there were fewer. With some I was on very friendly terms. And what struck me about some of them was their Polish patriotism."[27] It was around this time that the young Karol
Karol
had his first serious relationship with a girl. He became close to a girl called Ginka Beer, described as "a Jewish beauty, with stupendous eyes and jet black hair, slender, a superb actress."[28] In mid-1938, Wojtyła and his father left Wadowice
Wadowice
and moved to Kraków, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages, he worked as a volunteer librarian and was required to participate in compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but he refused to fire a weapon. He performed with various theatrical groups and worked as a playwright.[29] During this time, his talent for language blossomed, and he learned as many as 12 languages — Polish, Latin, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, English, German, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak and Esperanto,[30] nine of which he used extensively as pope. In 1939, Nazi German occupation forces closed the university after invading Poland.[19] Able-bodied males were required to work, so from 1940 to 1944 Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual labourer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory, to avoid deportation to Germany.[20][29] In 1940 he was struck by a tram, suffering a fractured skull. The same year he was hit by a lorry in a quarry, which left him with one shoulder higher than the other and a permanent stoop.[31] His father, a former Austro-Hungarian non-commissioned officer and later officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941,[22] leaving Wojtyła as the immediate family's only surviving member.[21][23][32] "I was not at my mother's death, I was not at my brother's death, I was not at my father's death," he said, reflecting on these times of his life, nearly forty years later, "At twenty, I had already lost all the people I loved."[32]

The tomb of the parents of John Paul II at Rakowicki Cemetery
Rakowicki Cemetery
in Kraków, Poland

After his father's death, he started thinking seriously about the priesthood.[33] In October 1942, while the war continued, he knocked on the door of the Bishop's Palace in Kraków
Kraków
and asked to study for the priesthood.[33] Soon after, he began courses in the clandestine underground seminary run by the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Kraków, Adam
Adam
Stefan Cardinal Sapieha. On 29 February 1944, Wojtyła was hit by a German truck. German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
officers tended to him and sent him to a hospital. He spent two weeks there recovering from a severe concussion and a shoulder injury. It seemed to him that this accident and his survival was a confirmation of his vocation. On 6 August 1944, a day known as "Black Sunday",[34] the Gestapo
Gestapo
rounded up young men in Kraków
Kraków
to curtail the uprising there, [34] similar to the recent uprising in Warsaw.[35][36] Wojtyła escaped by hiding in the basement of his uncle's house at 10 Tyniecka Street, while the German troops searched above.[33][35][36] More than eight thousand men and boys were taken that day, while Wojtyła escaped to the Archbishop's Palace,[33][34][35] where he remained until after the Germans had left.[21][33][35] On the night of 17 January 1945, the Germans fled the city, and the students reclaimed the ruined seminary. Wojtyła and another seminarian volunteered for the task of clearing away piles of frozen excrement from the toilets.[37] Wojtyła also helped a 14-year-old Jewish refugee girl named Edith Zierer,[38] who had escaped from a Nazi labour camp in Częstochowa.[38] Edith had collapsed on a railway platform, so Wojtyła carried her to a train and stayed with her throughout the journey to Kraków. Edith credits Wojtyła with saving her life that day.[39][40][41] B'nai B'rith
B'nai B'rith
and other authorities have said that Wojtyła helped protect many other Polish Jews from the Nazis. During the Nazi occupation of Poland, a Jewish family sent its son, Stanley Berger, to be hidden by a Gentile Polish family. Berger's biological Jewish parents died during the Holocaust, and after the war Berger's new Christian parents asked a young Polish priest named Karol Wojtyła, the future Pope
Pope
John Paul II, to baptise the boy. The future pope refused, claiming that the child should be raised in the Jewish faith of his birth parents and nation, not as a Catholic.[42] In September 2003, Emmanuelle Pacifici, the head of Italy's Jewish community, proposed that John Paul II receive the medal of a Righteous Among the Nations for saving a two-year-old Jewish boy by giving him to a Gentile Polish family to be hidden in 1942, when Karol
Karol
Wojtyła was just a seminarian. After the war, this boy's Christian adopted parents asked the future Pope
Pope
John Paul II to baptise the boy, yet once again he refused, as with Berger. After the war, Karol
Karol
Wojtyła did everything he could to ensure that this Jewish boy he saved leave Poland
Poland
to be raised by his Jewish relatives in the United States.[43] In April 2005, shortly after John Paul II's death, the Israeli government created a commission to honour the legacy of John Paul II. One of the proposed ways of honouring him was to give him the medal of the Righteous Among the Nations.[44] In Wojtyła's last book, Memory and Identity, he described the 12 years of the Nazi régime as "bestiality",[45] quoting from the Polish theologian and philosopher Konstanty Michalski.[46] Presbyterate

Ordination
Ordination
history of Pope
Pope
John Paul II

History

Diaconal ordination

Ordained by Stefan Card Sapieha (Kraków)

Date of ordination 20 October 1946

Priestly ordination

Ordained by Adam Stefan Sapieha
Adam Stefan Sapieha
(Kraków)

Date of ordination 1 November 1946

Place of ordination Chapel of the Kraków
Kraków
Archbishop's residence

Episcopal consecration

Principal consecrator Eugeniusz Baziak
Eugeniusz Baziak
( Kraków
Kraków
AA)

Co-consecrators Franciszek Jop (Sandomierz aux) Bolesław Kominek

Date of consecration 28 September 1958

Place of consecration Wawel Cathedral, Kraków

Cardinalate

Elevated by Paul VI

Date of elevation 26 June 1967

Episcopal succession

Bishops consecrated by Pope
Pope
John Paul II as principal consecrator

Piotr Bednarczyk 21 April 1968

Józef Rozwadowski 24 November 1968

Stanislaw Smolenski 5 April 1970

Albin Małysiak CM 5 April 1970

Paweł Socha CM 26 December 1973

Józef Marek 27 December 1973

Franciszek Macharski 6 January 1979

Justo Mullor García 27 May 1979

Alfio Rapisarda 27 May 1979

Achille Silvestrini 27 May 1979

Samuel
Samuel
Seraphimov Djoundrine AA 27 May 1979

Rubén López Ardón 27 May 1979

Paulino Lukudu Loro FSCJ 27 May 1979

Vincent Mojwok Nyiker 27 May 1979

Armido Gasparini FSCJ 27 May 1979

Michael Hughes Kenny 27 May 1979

William Russell Houck 27 May 1979

José Cardoso Sobrinho OCarm 27 May 1979

Gerhard Ludwig Goebel MSF 27 May 1979

Décio Pereira 27 May 1979

Fernando José Penteado 27 May 1979

Girolamo Grillo 27 May 1979

Paciano Basilio Aniceto 27 May 1979

Alan Basil de Lastic 27 May 1979

William Thomas Larkin 27 May 1979

John Joseph O'Connor 27 May 1979

Jean-Marie Lafontaine 27 May 1979

Ladislau Biernaski CM 27 May 1979

Newton Holanda Gurgel 27 May 1979

Matthew Harvey Clark 27 May 1979

Alejandro Goic Karmelic 27 May 1979

Pedro G. Magugat MSC 27 May 1979

Ramón López Carrozas OdeM 27 May 1979

Jozef Tomko 15 September 1979

Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky 12 November 1979

Giovanni Coppa 6 January 1980

Carlo Maria Cardinal Martini SJ 6 January 1980

Christian Wiyghan Tumi 6 January 1980

Marcel Bam'ba Gongoa 4 May 1980

Louis Nkinga Bondala CICM 4 May 1980

Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya 4 May 1980

Paride Taban 4 May 1980

Roger Mpungu 4 May 1980

Michel-Joseph-Gérard Gagnon MAfr 4 May 1980

Dominique Kimpinde Amando 4 May 1980

Joseph Nduhirubusa 4 May 1980

Vicente Joaquim Zico CM 6 January 1981

Sergio Goretti 6 January 1981

Giulio Sanguineti 6 January 1981

Francesco Voto 6 January 1981

Gregory Obinna Ochiagha 6 January 1981

Anicetus Bongsu Antonius Sinaga OFM Cap 6 January 1981

Lucas Luis Dónnelly Carey OdeM 6 January 1981

Filippo Giannini 6 January 1981

Ennio Appignanesi 6 January 1981

Martino Scarafile 6 January 1981

Alessandro Plotti 6 January 1981

Stanisław Szymecki 12 April 1981

Charles Louis Joseph Vandame SJ 6 January 1982

John Bulaitis 6 January 1982

Traian Crişan 6 January 1982

Charles Kweku Sam 6 January 1982

Thomas Joseph O'Brien 6 January 1982

Antônio Alberto Guimarães Rezende CSS 6 January 1982

Francis George Adeodatus Micallef OCD 6 January 1982

Anthony Michael Milone 6 January 1982

Salim Sayegh 6 January 1982

Virgilio Noè 6 March 1982

Antonio Vitale Bommarco OFM Conv 6 January 1983

José Sebastián Laboa Gallego 6 January 1983

Karl-Josef Rauber 6 January 1983

Francesco Monterisi 6 January 1983

Kevin Joseph Aje 6 January 1983

John Olorunfemi Onaiyekan 6 January 1983

Pietro Rossano 6 January 1983

Anacleto Sima Ngua 6 January 1983

Ildefonso Obama Obono 6 January 1983

Jaroslav Škarvada 6 January 1983

Dominik Hrušovský 6 January 1983

Luigi del Gallo Roccagiovine 6 January 1983

Zenon Grocholewski 6 January 1983

Juliusz Paetz 6 January 1983

Alfons Maria Stickler
Alfons Maria Stickler
SDB 1 November 1983

Paolo Romeo 6 January 1984

Paul Kim Tchang-ryeol 6 January 1984

Polycarp
Polycarp
Pengo 6 January 1984

Nicolas Okioh 6 January 1984

Eugenio Binini 6 January 1984

Ernest Kombo SJ 6 January 1984

Jan Pieter Schotte
Jan Pieter Schotte
CICM 6 January 1984

Mathai Kochuparampil SDB 6 January 1984

Domenico Pecile 6 January 1984

Bernard Patrick Devlin 6 January 1985

Kazimierz Górny 6 January 1985

Aloysius Balina 6 January 1985

Afonso Nteka OFM Cap 6 January 1985

Pellegrino Tomaso Ronchi OFM Cap 6 January 1985

Fernando Sáenz Lacalle 6 January 1985

Jorge Medina Estévez 6 January 1985

Justin Francis Rigali 14 September 1985

Pier Luigi Celata 6 January 1986

Franjo Komarica 6 January 1986

Walmir Alberto Valle IMC 6 January 1986

Norbert Wendelin Mtega 6 January 1986

John Bosco Manat Chuabsamai 6 January 1986

Donald William Wuerl 6 January 1986

Felipe González González
Felipe González González
OFM Cap 6 January 1986

Józef Michalik 16 October 1986

Gilberto Agustoni 6 January 1987

Franc Perko 6 January 1987

Dino Monduzzi 6 January 1987

Joseph Sangval Surasarang 6 January 1987

George Biguzzi SX 6 January 1987

Benedict Dotu Sekey 6 January 1987

Julio Edgar Cabrera Ovalle 6 January 1987

William Jerome
Jerome
McCormack 6 January 1987

Emmanuel A. Mapunda 6 January 1987

Dominic Su Haw Chiu 6 January 1987

John Magee SPS 17 March 1987

Beniamino Stella 5 September 1987

René Pierre Louis Joseph Séjourné 5 September 1987

Giulio Nicolini 5 September 1987

Giovanni Battista Re 7 November 1987

Michel Sabbah 6 January 1988

Marian Oles 6 January 1988

Emery Kabongo Kanundowi 6 January 1988

Luís d'Andrea OFM Conv 6 January 1988

Victor Adibe Chikwe 6 January 1988

Athanasius Atule Usuh 6 January 1988

Srecko Badurina T.O.R 6 January 1988

José Raúl Vera López, O.P. 6 January 1988

Luigi Belloli 6 January 1988

John Gavin Nolan 6 January 1988

Audrys Bačkis 4 October 1988

Pasquale Macchi 6 January 1989

Francesco Marchisano 6 January 1989

Justin Tetmu Samba 6 January 1989

John Mendes 6 January 1989

Leon Augustine Tharmaraj 6 January 1989

Tarcisius Ngalalekumtwa 6 January 1989

Raffaele Calabro 6 January 1989

Francisco José Arnáiz Zarandona S.J. 6 January 1989

Ramón Benito de La Rosa y Carpio 6 January 1989

Cipriano Calderón Polo 6 January 1989

Alvaro Leonel Ramazzini Imeri 6 January 1989

Andrea Maria Erba 6 January 1989

Józef Kowalczyk 6 January 1989

Edmond Farhat 6 January 1989

Edmond Farhat 6 January 1989

Janusz Bolonek 6 January 1989

Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz 6 January 1989

Giovanni Tonucci 6 January 1990

Ignazio Bedini S.D.B. 6 January 1990

Mario Milano 6 January 1990

Giovanni Ceirano 6 January 1990

Oscar Rizzato 6 January 1990

Antonio Ignacio Velasco Garcia S.D.B 6 January 1990

Paul R. Ruzoka 6 January 1990

Marian Błażej Kruszyłowicz O.F.M. Conv. 6 January 1990

Pierre François Marie Joseph Duprey 6 January 1990

Domenico Umberto D'Ambrosio 6 January 1990

Edward Dajczak 6 January 1990

Benjamin J. Almoneda 6 January 1990

Francesco Gioia O.F.M. Cap. 5 April 1990

Edward Nowak 5 April 1990

Giacinto Berloco 5 April 1990

Erwin Josef Ender 5 April 1990

Jean-Louis Tauran 6 January 1991

Vinko Puljic 6 January 1991

Marcello Costalunga 6 January 1991

Osvaldo Padilla 6 January 1991

Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa 6 January 1991

Bruno Pius Ngonyani 6 January 1991

Francis Emmanuel Ogbonna Okobo 6 January 1991

Andrea Gemma F.D.P 6 January 1991

Joseph Habib Hitti 6 January 1991

Jacinto Guerrero Torres 6 January 1991

Álvaro del Portillo 6 January 1991

Julián Herranz Casado 6 January 1991

Bruno Bertagna 6 January 1991

Source(s): [47][48]

After finishing his studies at the seminary in Kraków, Wojtyła was ordained as a priest on All Saints' Day, 1 November 1946,[23] by the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Kraków, Cardinal Sapieha.[20][49][50] Sapieha sent Wojtyła to Rome's Pontifical International Athenaeum Angelicum, the future Pontifical University of Saint
Saint
Thomas Aquinas, to study under the French Dominican Fr. Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange
Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange
beginning on 26 November 1946. He resided in the Belgian Pontifical College
Belgian Pontifical College
during this time, under presidency of Mgr Maximilien de Furstenberg.[51] Wojtyła earned a licence in July 1947, passed his doctoral exam on 14 June 1948, and successfully defended his doctoral thesis titled Doctrina de fide apud S. Ioannem a Cruce (The Doctrine of Faith in St. John of the Cross) in philosophy on 19 June 1948.[52] The Angelicum preserves the original copy of Wojtyła's typewritten thesis.[53] Among other courses at the Angelicum, Wojtyła studied Hebrew with the Dutch Dominican Peter G. Duncker, author of the Compendium grammaticae linguae hebraicae biblicae.[54] According to Wojtyła's schoolmate the future Austrian Cardinal Alfons Stickler, in 1947 during his sojourn at the Angelicum Wojtyła visited Padre Pio, who heard his confession and told him that one day he would ascend to "the highest post in the Church".[55] Cardinal Stickler added that Wojtyła believed that the prophecy was fulfilled when he became a Cardinal.[56] Wojtyła returned to Poland
Poland
in the summer of 1948 for his first pastoral assignment in the village of Niegowić, fifteen miles (24 kilometres) from Kraków, at the Church of the Assumption. He arrived at Niegowić
Niegowić
at harvest time, where his first action was to kneel and kiss the ground.[57] He repeated this gesture, which he adapted from the French saint Jean Marie Baptiste Vianney,[57] throughout his papacy.

The Pontifical International Athenaeum Angelicum in Rome, Italy

In March 1949, Wojtyła was transferred to the parish of Saint
Saint
Florian in Kraków. He taught ethics at Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
and subsequently at the Catholic University of Lublin. While teaching, he gathered a group of about 20 young people, who began to call themselves Rodzinka, the "little family". They met for prayer, philosophical discussion, and to help the blind and sick. The group eventually grew to approximately 200 participants, and their activities expanded to include annual skiing and kayaking trips.[58] In 1953, Wojtyła's habilitation thesis was accepted by the Faculty of Theology
Theology
at the Jagiellonian University. In 1954, he earned a Doctorate in Sacred Theology,[59] evaluating the feasibility of a Catholic ethic based on the ethical system of the phenomenologist Max Scheler with a dissertation titled "Reevaluation of the possibility of founding a Catholic ethic on the ethical system of Max Scheler"[60] (Ocena możliwości zbudowania etyki chrześcijańskiej przy założeniach systemu Maksa Schelera).[61] Scheler was a German philosopher who founded a broad philosophical movement that emphasised the study of conscious experience. However, the Communist authorities abolished the Faculty of Theology
Theology
at the Jagellonian University, thereby preventing him from receiving the degree until 1957.[50] Wojtyła developed a theological approach that combined traditional Catholic Thomism
Thomism
with the ideas of personalism, a philosophical approach deriving from phenomenology, which was popular among Catholic intellectuals in Kraków
Kraków
during Wojtyła's intellectual development. He translated Scheler's Formalism and the Ethics of Substantive Values.[62] During this period, Wojtyła wrote a series of articles in Kraków's Catholic newspaper, Tygodnik Powszechny
Tygodnik Powszechny
("Universal Weekly"), dealing with contemporary church issues.[63] He focused on creating original literary work during his first dozen years as a priest. War, life under Communism, and his pastoral responsibilities all fed his poetry and plays. Wojtyła published his work under two pseudonyms—Andrzej Jawień and Stanisław Andrzej Gruda[29][63]—to distinguish his literary from his religious writings (under his own name), and also so that his literary works would be considered on their merits.[29][63] In 1960, Wojtyła published the influential theological book Love and Responsibility, a defence of traditional Church teachings on marriage from a new philosophical standpoint.[29][64] While a priest in Kraków, groups of students regularly joined Wojtyła for hiking, skiing, bicycling, camping and kayaking, accompanied by prayer, outdoor Masses and theological discussions. In Stalinist-era Poland, it was not permitted for priests to travel with groups of students. Father Wojtyła asked his younger companions to call him "Wujek" (Polish for "Uncle") to prevent outsiders from deducing he was a priest. The nickname gained popularity among his followers. In 1958, when Wojtyła was named auxiliary bishop of Kraków, his acquaintances expressed concern that this would cause him to change. Wojtyła responded to his friends, "Wujek will remain Wujek," and he continued to live a simple life, shunning the trappings that came with his position as Bishop. This beloved nickname stayed with Wojtyła for his entire life and continues to be affectionately used, particularly by the Polish people.[65][66] Episcopate and cardinalate

Where John Paul II once lived as priest and bishop on Kanonicza Street, Kraków
Kraków
(now an Archdiocese Museum)

On 4 July 1958,[50] while Wojtyła was on a kayaking holiday in the lakes region of northern Poland, Pope
Pope
Pius XII appointed him as the Auxiliary Bishop
Auxiliary Bishop
of Kraków. He was then summoned to Warsaw
Warsaw
to meet the Primate of Poland, Stefan Cardinal Wyszyński, who informed him of his appointment.[67][68] He agreed to serve as Auxiliary Bishop
Auxiliary Bishop
to Kraków's Archbishop
Archbishop
Eugeniusz Baziak, and he received episcopal consecration (as Titular Bishop of Ombi) on 28 September 1958. Baziak was the principal consecrator. Principal co-consecrators were Bishop Boleslaw Kominek
Boleslaw Kominek
(Titular Bishop of Sophene
Sophene
and Vågå, auxiliary of the Catholic Archdiocese of Wrocław, and future Cardinal and Archbishop
Archbishop
of Wrocław) and then- Auxiliary Bishop
Auxiliary Bishop
Franciszek Jop of the Catholic Diocese of Sandomierz (Titular Bishop of Daulia; later Auxiliary Bishop
Auxiliary Bishop
of the Archdiocese of Wrocław and then Bishop of the Catholic Diocese of Opole).[50] At the age of 38, Wojtyła became the youngest bishop in Poland. The following year, 1959, Wojtyla held Nowa Huta's first ever Mass, a Midnight Mass
Mass
on Christmas Day. Baziak died in June 1962 and on 16 July Wojtyła was selected as Vicar Capitular (temporary administrator) of the Archdiocese until an Archbishop
Archbishop
could be appointed.[19][20] In October 1962, Wojtyła took part in the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965),[19][50] where he made contributions to two of its most historic and influential products, the Decree on Religious Freedom (in Latin, Dignitatis humanae) and the Pastoral
Pastoral
Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium et spes).[50] Wojtyła and the Polish bishops contributed a draft text to the Council for Gaudium et spes. According to the historian John W. O'Malley, the draft text Gaudium et spes that Wojtyła and the Polish delegation sent "had some influence on the version that was sent to the council fathers that summer but was not accepted as the base text".[69] According to John F. Crosby, as pope, John Paul II used the words of Gaudium et spes
Gaudium et spes
later to introduce his own views on the nature of the human person in relation to God: man is "the only creature on earth that God
God
has wanted for its own sake", but man "can fully discover his true self only in a sincere giving of himself".[70] He also participated in the assemblies of the Synod
Synod
of Bishops.[19][20] On 13 January 1964, Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
appointed him Archbishop
Archbishop
of Kraków.[71] On 26 June 1967, Paul VI announced Archbishop
Archbishop
Karol
Karol
Wojtyła's promotion to the Sacred College of Cardinals.[50][71] Wojtyła was named Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
of the titulus of San Cesareo in Palatio. In 1967, he was instrumental in formulating the encyclical Humanae vitae, which dealt with the same issues that forbid abortion and artificial birth control.[50][72][73] In 1970, according to a contemporary witness, Cardinal Wojtyła was against the distribution of a letter around Kraków, stating that the Polish Episcopate was preparing for the 50th anniversary of the Polish–Soviet War. In 1973 Cardinal Wojtyła met philosopher Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, the wife of Hendrik S. Houthakker, Professor of Economy at Stanford University and Harvard University, and member of President Nixon's Council of Economic Advisers[74][75][76] Tymieniecka collaborated with Wojtyła on a number of projects including an English translation of Wojtyła's book „Osoba i czyn” (Person and Act). Person and Act, one of Pope
Pope
John Paul II's foremost literary works, was initially written in Polish.[75] Tymieniecka produced the English-language version.[75] The two of them corresponded over the years, and grew to be good friends.[75][77] When Wojtyła visited New England, USA in summer 1976, Tymieniecka put him up as a guest in her family home.[75][77] Wojtyła enjoyed his holiday in Pomfret, Vermont kayaking and enjoying[clarification needed] as he had done in his beloved Poland.[75][77][68] Photos of the two friends on holiday together; skiing, camping and picnicking, show Cardinal Wojtyła in his shorts, in his most relaxed state.[75][76][77] During Wojtyła's visits to Pomfret, Tymieniecka also organised his meeting with the American Cardinals through connections of her husband. These same Cardinals would be the ones who would give him most support at his eventual election to the papacy[78] Papacy Election Main article: Papal conclave, October 1978

The newly elected Pope
Pope
John Paul II stands on the balcony at St. Peter's Basilica on 16 October 1978 in Vatican City.

The coat of arms of Pope
Pope
John Paul II displaying the Marian Cross with the letter M signifying the Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus

In August 1978, following the death of Pope
Pope
Paul VI, Cardinal Wojtyła voted in the papal conclave, which elected Pope
Pope
John Paul I. John Paul I died after only 33 days as pope, triggering another conclave.[20][50][79] The second conclave of 1978 started on 14 October, ten days after the funeral. It was split between two strong candidates for the papacy: Giuseppe Cardinal Siri, the conservative Archbishop
Archbishop
of Genoa, and the liberal Archbishop
Archbishop
of Florence, Giovanni Cardinal Benelli, a close friend of John Paul I.[80] Supporters of Benelli were confident that he would be elected, and in early ballots, Benelli came within nine votes of success.[80] However, both men faced sufficient opposition for neither to be likely to prevail. Giovanni Colombo, the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Milan
Milan
was considered as a compromise candidate among the Italian cardinal-electors, but when he started to receive votes, he announced that, if elected, he would decline to accept the papacy.[81] Franz Cardinal König, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Vienna, suggested to his fellow electors another compromise candidate: the Polish Cardinal Karol
Karol
Józef Wojtyła.[80] Wojtyła won on the eighth ballot on the third day 16 October, coincidentally the day that evangelical preacher Billy Graham
Billy Graham
had just concluded a 10-day pilgrimage to Poland, with, according to the Italian press, 99 votes from the 111 participating electors. Also among those cardinals who rallied behind Wojtyła were supporters of Giuseppe Siri, Stefan Wyszyński, most of the American cardinals (led by John Krol), and other moderate cardinals. He accepted his election with these words: "With obedience in faith to Christ, my Lord, and with trust in the Mother of Christ and the Church, in spite of great difficulties, I accept.[82][83]" The pope, in tribute to his immediate predecessor, then took the regnal name of John Paul II,[50][80] also in honour of the late Pope
Pope
Paul VI, and the traditional white smoke informed the crowd gathered in St. Peter's Square that a pope had been chosen. There had been rumours that the new pope wished to be known as Pope
Pope
Stanislaus I in honour of the Polish saint of the name, but was convinced by the cardinals that it was not a Roman name.[79] When the new pontiff appeared on the balcony, he broke tradition by addressing the gathered crowd:[82]

Dear brothers and sisters, we are saddened at the death of our beloved Pope
Pope
John Paul I, and so the cardinals have called for a new bishop of Rome. They called him from a faraway land—far and yet always close because of our communion in faith and Christian traditions. I was afraid to accept that responsibility, yet I do so in a spirit of obedience to the Lord and total faithfulness to Mary, our most Holy Mother. I am speaking to you in your—no, our Italian language. If I make a mistake, please 'corrict' me ....[84][82][85][86][deliberately mispronouncing the word 'correct']

Wojtyła became the 264th pope according to the chronological list of popes, the first non-Italian in 455 years.[87] At only 58 years of age, he was the youngest pope since Pope
Pope
Pius IX in 1846, who was 54.[50] Like his predecessor, John Paul II dispensed with the traditional Papal coronation
Papal coronation
and instead received ecclesiastical investiture with a simplified Papal inauguration
Papal inauguration
on 22 October 1978. During his inauguration, when the cardinals were to kneel before him to take their vows and kiss his ring, he stood up as the Polish prelate Stefan Cardinal Wyszyński knelt down, stopped him from kissing the ring, and simply hugged him.[88] Pastoral
Pastoral
trips Main article: List of pastoral visits of Pope
Pope
John Paul II outside Italy

A statue of Pope
Pope
John Paul II with an image of the Virgin of Guadalupe, near the Metropolitan Cathedral in Mexico
Mexico
City. The statue was made entirely of metal keys donated by the Mexican people.[89]

During his pontificate, Pope
Pope
John Paul II made trips to 129 countries,[90] travelling more than 1,100,000 kilometres (680,000 mi) while doing so. He consistently attracted large crowds, some among the largest ever assembled in human history, such as the Manila
Manila
World Youth Day, which gathered up to four million people, the largest Papal gathering ever, according to the Vatican.[91][92] John Paul II's earliest official visits were to the Dominican Republic and Mexico
Mexico
in January 1979.[93] While some of his trips (such as to the United States
United States
and the Holy Land) were to places previously visited by Pope
Pope
Paul VI, John Paul II became the first pope to visit the White House
White House
in October 1979, where he was greeted warmly by then-President Jimmy Carter. He was the first pope ever to visit several countries in one year, starting in 1979 with Mexico[94] and Ireland.[95] He was the first reigning pope to travel to the United Kingdom, in 1982, where he met Queen Elizabeth II, the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. While in Britain he also visited Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
and knelt in prayer with Robert Runcie, the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Canterbury, at the spot where Thomas à Becket had been killed,[96] as well as holding several large-scale open air masses, including one at Wembley Stadium, which was attended by some 80,000 people.[97] He travelled to Haiti
Haiti
in 1983, where he spoke in Creole to thousands of impoverished Catholics gathered to greet him at the airport. His message, "things must change in Haiti," referring to the disparity between the wealthy and the poor, was met with thunderous applause.[98] In 2000, he was the first modern pope to visit Egypt,[99] where he met with the Coptic pope, Pope Shenouda III[99] and the Greek Orthodox Patriarch
Patriarch
of Alexandria.[99] He was the first Catholic pope to visit and pray in an Islamic mosque, in Damascus, Syria, in 2001. He visited the Umayyad Mosque, a former Christian church where John the Baptist
John the Baptist
is believed to be interred,[100] where he made a speech calling for Muslims, Christians and Jews to live together.[100] On 15 January 1995, during the X World Youth Day, he offered Mass
Mass
to an estimated crowd of between five and seven million in Luneta Park,[92] Manila, Philippines, which was considered to be the largest single gathering in Christian history.[92] In March 2000, while visiting Jerusalem, John Paul became the first pope in history to visit and pray at the Western Wall.[101][102] In September 2001, amid post-11 September concerns, he travelled to Kazakhstan, with an audience largely consisting of Muslims, and to Armenia, to participate in the celebration of 1,700 years of Armenian Christianity.[103] In June 1979, Pope
Pope
John Paul II travelled to Poland, where ecstatic crowds constantly surrounded him.[104] This first papal trip to Poland uplifted the nation's spirit and sparked the formation of the Solidarity movement in 1980, which later brought freedom and human rights to his troubled homeland.[72] Poland's Communist leaders intended to use the pope's visit to show the people that although the pope was Polish it did not alter their capacity to govern, oppress, and distribute the goods of society. They also hoped that if the pope abided by the rules they set, that the Polish people would see his example and follow them as well. If the pope's visit inspired a riot, the Communist leaders of Poland
Poland
were prepared to crush the uprising and blame the suffering on the pope.[105]

"The pope won that struggle by transcending politics. His was what Joseph Nye
Joseph Nye
calls 'soft power' — the power of attraction and repulsion. He began with an enormous advantage, and exploited it to the utmost: He headed the one institution that stood for the polar opposite of the Communist way of life that the Polish people hated. He was a Pole, but beyond the regime's reach. By identifying with him, Poles
Poles
would have the chance to cleanse themselves of the compromises they had to make to live under the regime. And so they came to him by the millions. They listened. He told them to be good, not to compromise themselves, to stick by one another, to be fearless, and that God
God
is the only source of goodness, the only standard of conduct. 'Be not afraid,' he said. Millions shouted in response, 'We want God! We want God! We want God!' The regime cowered. Had the Pope
Pope
chosen to turn his soft power into the hard variety, the regime might have been drowned in blood. Instead, the Pope
Pope
simply led the Polish people to desert their rulers by affirming solidarity with one another. The Communists managed to hold on as despots a decade longer. But as political leaders, they were finished. Visiting his native Poland
Poland
in 1979, Pope
Pope
John Paul II struck what turned out to be a mortal blow to its Communist regime, to the Soviet Empire, [and] ultimately to Communism."[105]

According to John Lewis Gaddis, one of the most influential historians of the Cold War, the trip led to the formation of Solidarity and would begin the process of Communism's demise in Eastern Europe:

When Pope
Pope
John Paul II kissed the ground at the Warsaw
Warsaw
airport he began the process by which Communism in Poland—and ultimately elsewhere in Europe—would come to an end.[106]

On later trips to Poland, he gave tacit support to the Solidarity organisation.[72] These visits reinforced this message and contributed to the collapse of East European Communism that took place between 1989/1990 with the reintroduction of democracy in Poland, and which then spread through Eastern Europe (1990–1991) and South-Eastern Europe (1990–1992).[85][90][104][107][108] Teachings

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As pope, John Paul II wrote 14 papal encyclicals and taught about sexuality in what is referred as the " Theology
Theology
of the Body". Some key elements of his strategy to "reposition the Catholic Church" were encyclicals such as Ecclesia de Eucharistia, Reconciliatio et paenitentia and Redemptoris Mater. In his At the beginning of the new millennium (Novo Millennio Ineunte), he emphasised the importance of "starting afresh from Christ": "No, we shall not be saved by a formula but by a Person." In The Splendour of the Truth (Veritatis Splendor), he emphasised the dependence of man on God
God
and His Law ("Without the Creator, the creature disappears") and the "dependence of freedom on the truth". He warned that man "giving himself over to relativism and scepticism, goes off in search of an illusory freedom apart from truth itself". In Fides et Ratio (On the Relationship between Faith and Reason) John Paul promoted a renewed interest in philosophy and an autonomous pursuit of truth in theological matters. Drawing on many different sources (such as Thomism), he described the mutually supporting relationship between faith and reason, and emphasised that theologians should focus on that relationship. John Paul II wrote extensively about workers and the social doctrine of the Church, which he discussed in three encyclicals: Laborem exercens, Sollicitudo rei socialis, and Centesimus annus. Through his encyclicals and many Apostolic Letters and Exhortations, John Paul II talked about the dignity of women and the importance of the family for the future of humanity.[72] Other encyclicals include The Gospel of Life (Evangelium Vitae) and Ut Unum Sint (That They May Be One). Though critics accused him of inflexibility in explicitly re-asserting Catholic moral teachings against abortion and euthanasia that have been in place for well over a thousand years, he urged a more nuanced view of capital punishment.[72] In his second encyclical Dives in misericordia
Dives in misericordia
he stressed that divine mercy is the greatest feature of God, needed especially in modern times. Moral stances Main article: Social and political stances of Pope
Pope
John Paul II

During a visit to Germany, 1980

John Paul II was considered a conservative on doctrine and issues relating to human sexual reproduction and the ordination of women.[109] While he was visiting the United States
United States
in 1977, the year before becoming pope, Wojtyla said: "All human life, from the moments of conception and through all subsequent stages, is sacred."[110] A series of 129 lectures given by John Paul II during his Wednesday audiences in Rome
Rome
between September 1979 and November 1984 were later compiled and published as a single work titled Theology
Theology
of the Body, an extended meditation on human sexuality. He extended it to the condemnation of abortion, euthanasia and virtually all capital punishment,[111] calling them all a part of the "culture of death" that is pervasive in the modern world. He campaigned for world debt forgiveness and social justice.[72][109] He coined the term "social mortgage", which related that all private property had a social dimension, namely, that "the goods of this are originally meant for all."[112] In 2000, he publicly endorsed the Jubilee 2000 campaign on African debt relief fronted by Irish rock stars Bob Geldof
Bob Geldof
and Bono, once famously interrupting a U2 recording session by telephoning the studio and asking to speak to Bono.[113] Pope
Pope
John Paul II, who was present and very influential at the 1962–65 Second Vatican Council, affirmed the teachings of that Council and did much to implement them. Nevertheless, his critics often wished that he would embrace the so-called "progressive" agenda that some hoped would evolve as a result of the Council. In fact, the Council did not advocate "progressive" changes in these areas; for example, they still condemned abortion as an unspeakable crime. Pope John Paul II continued to declare that contraception, abortion, and homosexual acts were gravely sinful, and, with Joseph Ratzinger (future Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI), opposed liberation theology. Following the Church's exaltation of the marital act of sexual intercourse between a baptised man and woman within sacramental marriage as proper and exclusive to the sacrament of marriage, John Paul II believed that it was, in every instance, profaned by contraception, abortion, divorce followed by a 'second' marriage, and by homosexual acts. In 1994, John Paul II asserted the Church's lack of authority to ordain women to the priesthood, stating that without such authority ordination is not legitimately compatible with fidelity to Christ. This was also deemed a repudiation of calls to break with the constant tradition of the Church by ordaining women to the priesthood.[114] In addition, John Paul II chose not to end the discipline of mandatory priestly celibacy, although in a small number of unusual circumstances, he did allow certain married clergymen of other Christian traditions who later became Catholic to be ordained as Catholic priests. Apartheid in South Africa Pope
Pope
John Paul II was an outspoken opponent of apartheid in South Africa. In 1985, while visiting the Netherlands, he gave an impassioned speech condemning apartheid at the International Court of Justice, proclaiming that "No system of apartheid or separate development will ever be acceptable as a model for the relations between peoples or races."[115] In September 1988, Pope
Pope
John Paul II made a pilgrimage to ten Southern African countries, including those bordering South Africa, while demonstratively avoiding South Africa. During his visit to Zimbabwe, John Paul II called for economic sanctions against South Africa's government.[116] After John Paul II's death, both Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
and Archbishop
Archbishop
Desmond Tutu praised the pope for defending human rights and condemning economic injustice.[117] Capital punishment Pope
Pope
John Paul II was an outspoken opponent of the death penalty, although previous popes had accepted the practice. At a papal mass in St. Louis, Missouri, in the United States
United States
he said:

A sign of hope is the increasing recognition that the dignity of human life must never be taken away, even in the case of someone who has done great evil. Modern society has the means of protecting itself, without definitively denying criminals the chance to reform. I renew the appeal I made most recently at Christmas for a consensus to end the death penalty, which is both cruel and unnecessary.[118]

During that visit, John Paul II convinced the then governor of Missouri, Mel Carnahan, to reduce the death sentence of convicted murderer Darrell J. Mease to life imprisonment without parole.[119] John Paul II's other attempts to reduce the sentence of death-row inmates were unsuccessful. In 1983, John Paul II visited Guatemala
Guatemala
and unsuccessfully asked the country's president, Efraín Ríos Montt, to reduce the sentence for six left-wing guerrillas sentenced to death.[120] In 2002, John Paul II again travelled to Guatemala. At that time, Guatemala
Guatemala
was one of only two countries in Latin
Latin
America
America
(the other being Cuba) to apply capital punishment. John Paul II asked the Guatemalan president, Alfonso Portillo, for a moratorium on executions.[121] European Union Pope
Pope
John Paul II pushed for a reference to Europe's Christian cultural roots in the draft of the European Constitution. In his 2003 apostolic exhortation Ecclesia in Europa, John Paul II wrote that he "fully (respected) the secular nature of (European) institutions". However, he wanted the EU Constitution to enshrine religious rights, including acknowledging the rights of religious groups to organise freely, recognise the specific identity of each denomination and allow for a "structured dialogue" between each religious community and the EU, and extend across the European Union the legal status enjoyed by religious institutions in individual member states. "I wish once more to appeal to those drawing up the future European Constitutional Treaty so that it will include a reference to the religion and in particular to the Christian heritage of Europe," John Paul II said. The pope's desire for a reference to Europe's Christian identity in the Constitution was supported by non-Catholic representatives of the Church of England
Church of England
and Eastern Orthodox Churches
Eastern Orthodox Churches
from Russia, Romania, and Greece.[122] John Paul II's demand to include a reference to Europe's Christian roots in the European Constitution
European Constitution
was supported by some non-Christians, such as Joseph Weiler, a practising Orthodox Jew and renowned constitutional lawyer, who said that the Constitution's lack of a reference to Christianity was not a "demonstration of neutrality," but, rather, "a Jacobin attitude".[123] At the same time, however, John Paul II was an enthusiastic supporter of European integration; in particular, he supported his native Poland's entry into the bloc. On 19 May 2003, three weeks before a referendum was held in Poland
Poland
on EU membership, the Polish pope addressed his compatriots and urged them to vote for Poland's EU membership at St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
in Vatican City
Vatican City
State. While some conservative, Catholic politicians in Poland
Poland
opposed EU membership, John Paul II said:

I know that there are many in opposition to integration. I appreciate their concern about maintaining the cultural and religious identity of our nation. However, I must emphasise that Poland
Poland
has always been an important part of Europe. Europe needs Poland. The Church in Europe needs the Poles' testimony of faith. Poland
Poland
needs Europe.[124]

The Polish pope compared Poland's entry into the EU to the Union of Lublin, which was signed in 1564 and united the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
into one nation and created an elective monarchy.[125] Evolution On 22 October 1996, in a speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences plenary session at the Vatican, John Paul II said of evolution that "this theory has been progressively accepted by researchers, following a series of discoveries in various fields of knowledge. The convergence, neither sought nor fabricated, of the results of work that was conducted independently is in itself a significant argument in favour of this theory." John Paul II's embrace of evolution was enthusiastically praised by American palaeontologist and evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould,[126] with whom he had an audience in 1984.[127] Although generally accepting the theory of evolution, John Paul II made one major exception—the human soul. "If the human body has its origin in living material which pre-exists it, the spiritual soul is immediately created by God."[128][129][130] Iraq War In 2003 John Paul II criticised the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq, saying in his State of the World address "No to war! War is not always inevitable. It is always a defeat for humanity."[131] He sent Pío Cardinal Laghi, the former Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to the United States, to talk with George W. Bush, the American President, to express opposition to the war. John Paul II said that it was up to the United Nations to solve the international conflict through diplomacy and that a unilateral aggression is a crime against peace and a violation of international law. The pope's opposition to the Iraq War
Iraq War
led to him being a candidate to win the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize, which was ultimately awarded to Iranian attorney/judge and noted human rights advocate, Shirin Ebadi.[132][133] Liberation theology In 1984 and 1986, through Cardinal Ratzinger (future Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI) as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, John Paul II officially condemned aspects of liberation theology, which had many followers in South America. Visiting Europe, Óscar Romero unsuccessfully attempted to obtain a Vatican condemnation of El Salvador's regime, for violations of human rights and its support of death squads. In his travel to Managua, Nicaragua, in 1983, John Paul II harshly condemned what he dubbed the "popular Church"[134] (i.e. "ecclesial base communities" supported by the CELAM), and the Nicaraguan clergy's tendencies to support the leftist Sandinistas, reminding the clergy of their duties of obedience to the Holy See.[134] During that visit Ernesto Cardenal, a priest and minister in the Sandinista government, knelt to kiss his hand. John Paul withdrew it, wagged his finger in Cardenal's face, and told him, "You must straighten out your position with the church."[135] Organised crime Pope
Pope
John Paul II was the first pontiff to actively fight against Mafia violence in Southern Italy. In 1993, during a pilgrimage to Agrigento, Sicily, he appealed to the Mafiosi: "I say to those responsible: 'Convert! One day, the judgment of God
God
will arrive!'" In 1994, John Paul II visited Catania
Catania
and told victims of Mafia violence to "rise up and cloak yourself in light and justice!"[136] In 1995, the Mafia bombed two historical churches in Rome. Some believed that this was the mob's vendetta against the pope for his denunciations of organised crime.[137] Persian Gulf War Between 1990 and 1991, a 34-nation coalition led by the United States waged a war against Saddam Hussein's Iraq, which had invaded and annexed Kuwait. Pope
Pope
John Paul II was a staunch opponent of the Gulf War. Throughout the conflict, he appealed to the international community to stop the war, and after it was over led diplomatic initiatives to negotiate peace in the Middle East.[138] In his 1991 encyclical Centesimus Annus, John Paul II harshly condemned the conflict:

No, never again war, which destroys the lives of innocent people, teaches how to kill, throws into upheaval even the lives of those who do the killing and leaves behind a trail of resentment and hatred, thus making it all the more difficult to find a just solution of the very problems which provoked the war.[139]

In April 1991, during his Urbi et Orbi
Urbi et Orbi
Sunday message at St. Peter's Basilica, John Paul II called for the international community to "lend an ear" to "the long-ignored aspirations of oppressed peoples". He specifically named the Kurds, a people who were fighting a civil war against Saddam Hussein's troops in Iraq, as one such people, and referred to the war as a "darkness menacing the earth". During this time, the Vatican had expressed its frustration with the international ignoring of the pope's calls for peace in the Middle East.[140] Rwandan genocide John Paul II was the first world leader to describe as genocide the massacre by Hutus
Hutus
of Tutsis
Tutsis
in the mostly Catholic country of Rwanda, which started in 1990 and reached its height in 1994. He called for a ceasefire and condemned the massacres on 10 April and 15 May 1990.[141] In 1995, during his third visit to Kenya
Kenya
before an audience of 300,000, John Paul II pleaded for an end to the violence in Rwanda and Burundi, pleading for forgiveness and reconciliation as a solution to the genocide. He told Rwandan and Burundian refugees that he "was close to them and shared their immense pain". He said:

What is happening in your countries is a terrible tragedy that must end. During the African Synod, we, the pastors of the church, felt the duty to express our consternation and to launch an appeal for forgiveness and reconciliation. This is the only way to dissipate the threats of ethnocentrism that are hovering over Africa these days and that have so brutally touched Rwanda
Rwanda
and Burundi.[142]

Views on sexuality Main article: Theology
Theology
of the Body While taking a traditional position on human sexuality, maintaining the Church's moral opposition to homosexual acts, John Paul II asserted that people with homosexual inclinations possess the same inherent dignity and rights as everybody else.[143] In his book Memory and Identity he referred to the "strong pressures" by the European Parliament to recognise homosexual unions as an alternative type of family, with the right to adopt children. In the book, as quoted by Reuters, he wrote: "It is legitimate and necessary to ask oneself if this is not perhaps part of a new ideology of evil, more subtle and hidden, perhaps, intent upon exploiting human rights themselves against man and against the family."[72][144] A 1997 study determined that 3% of the pope's statements were about the issue of sexual morality.[145] Reform of canon law

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Main article: Canon law (Catholic Church) John Paul II completed a full-scale reform of the Catholic Church's legal system, Latin
Latin
and Eastern, and a reform of the Roman Curia. On 18 October 1990, when promulgating the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, John Paul II stated

By the publication of this Code, the canonical ordering of the whole Church is thus at length completed, following as it does...the "Apostolic Constitution on the Roman Curia" of 1988, which is added to both Codes as the primary instrument of the Roman Pontiff for 'the communion that binds together, as it were, the whole Church'[146]

In 1998 Pope
Pope
John Paul II issued the motu proprio Ad tuendam fidem, which amended two canons (750 and 1371) of the 1983 Code of Canon Law and two canons (598 and 1436) of the 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. 1983 Code of Canon Law Main article: 1983 Code of Canon Law On 25 January 1983, with the Apostolic Constitution Sacrae disciplinae leges John Paul II promulgated the current Code of Canon Law for all members of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
who belonged to the Latin
Latin
Church. It entered into force the first Sunday of the following Advent,[147] which was 27 November 1983.[148] John Paul II described the new Code as "the last document of Vatican II".[147] Edward N. Peters has referred to the 1983 Code as the "Johanno-Pauline Code"[149] (Johannes Paulus is Latin
Latin
for "John Paul"), paralleling the "Pio-Benedictine" 1917 code that it replaced. Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches Main article: Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches Pope
Pope
John Paul II promulgated the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (CCEO) on 18 October 1990, by the document Sacri Canones.[150] The CCEO came into force of law on 1 October 1991.[151] It is the codification of the common portions of the Canon Law for the 23 of the 24 sui iuris churches in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
that are the Eastern Catholic Churches. It is divided into 30 titles and has a total of 1540 canons.[152] Pastor Bonus Main article: Pastor bonus John Paul II promulgated the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus on 28 June 1988. It instituted a number of reforms in the process of running the Roman Curia. Pastor Bonus laid out in considerable detail the organisation of the Roman Curia, specifying precisely the names and composition of each dicastery, and enumerating the competencies of each dicastery. It replaced the previous special law, Regimini Ecclesiæ universæ, which was promulgated by Paul VI in 1967.[153] Catechism of the Catholic Church Main article: Catechism of the Catholic Church On 11 October 1992, in his apostolic constitution Fidei depositum
Fidei depositum
(The Deposit of Faith), John Paul ordered the publication of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. He declared the publication to be "a sure norm for teaching the faith … a sure and authentic reference text for teaching Catholic doctrine and particularly for preparing local catechisms". It was "meant to encourage and assist in the writing of new local catechisms [both applicable and faithful]" rather than replacing them. Role in the collapse of dictatorships Pope
Pope
John Paul II has been credited with inspiring political change that not only led to the collapse of Communism in his native Poland and eventually all of Eastern Europe, but also in many countries ruled by dictators. In the words of Joaquín Navarro-Valls, John Paul II's press secretary:

The single fact of John Paul II's election in 1978 changed everything. In Poland, everything began. Not in East Germany or Czechoslovakia. Then the whole thing spread. Why in 1980 did they lead the way in Gdansk? Why did they decide, now or never? Only because there was a Polish pope. He was in Chile and Pinochet was out. He was in Haiti
Haiti
and Duvalier was out. He was in the Philippines and Marcos was out. On many of those occasions, people would come here to the Vatican thanking the Holy Father for changing things.[154]

Chile Before John Paul II's pilgrimage to Latin
Latin
America, during a meeting with reporters, he criticised Augusto Pinochet's regime as "dictatorial". In the words of The New York Times, he used "unusually strong language" to criticise Pinochet and asserted to journalists that the Church in Chile must not only pray, but actively fight for the restoration of democracy in Chile.[155] During his visit to Chile in 1987, John Paul II asked Chile's 31 Catholic bishops to campaign for free elections in the country.[156] According to George Weigel
George Weigel
and Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, he encouraged Pinochet to accept a democratic opening of the regime, and may even have called for his resignation[157] According to Monsignor Sławomir Oder, the postulator of John Paul II's beatification cause, John Paul's words to Pinochet had a profound impact on the Chilean dictator. The pope confided to a friend: "I received a letter from Pinochet in which he told me that as a Catholic he had listened to my words, he had accepted them, and he had decided to begin the process to change the leadership of his country."[158] During his visit to Chile, John Paul II supported the Vicariate of Solidarity, the Church-led pro-democracy, anti-Pinochet organisation. John Paul II visited the Vicariate of Solidarity's offices, spoke with its workers, and "called upon them to continue their work, emphasizing that the Gospel consistently urges respect for human rights".[159] While in Chile, Pope
Pope
John Paul II made gestures of public support of Chile's anti-Pinochet democratic opposition. For instance, he hugged and kissed Carmen Gloria Quintana, a young student burned alive by Chilean police and told her that "We must pray for peace and justice in Chile."[160] Later, he met with several opposition groups, including those that had been declared illegal by Pinochet's government. The opposition praised John Paul II for denouncing Pinochet as a "dictator", for many members of Chile's opposition were persecuted for much milder statements. Bishop Carlos Camus, one of the harshest critics of Pinochet's dictatorship within the Chilean Church, praised John Paul II's stance during the papal visit: "I am quite moved, because our pastor supports us totally. Never again will anyone be able to say that we are interfering in politics when we defend human dignity." He added: "No country the Pope
Pope
has visited has remained the same after his departure. The Pope's visit is a mission, an extraordinary social catechism, and his stay here will be a watershed in Chilean history."[161] Some have erroneously accused John Paul II of affirming Pinochet's regime by appearing with the Chilean ruler in public. However, Cardinal Roberto Tucci, the organiser of John Paul II's visits, revealed that Pinochet tricked the pontiff by telling him he would take him to his living room, while in reality he took him to his balcony. Tucci claims that the pontiff was "furious".[162] Haiti Pope
Pope
John Paul II visited Haiti
Haiti
on 9 March 1983, when the country was ruled by Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier. He bluntly criticised the poverty of the country, directly addressing Baby Doc
Baby Doc
and his wife, Michèle Bennett
Michèle Bennett
in front of a large crowd of Haitians:

Yours is a beautiful country, rich in human resources, but Christians cannot be unaware of the injustice, the excessive inequality, the degradation of the quality of life, the misery, the hunger, the fear suffered by the majority of the people.[163]

John Paul II spoke in French and occasionally in Creole, and in the homily outlined the basic human rights that most Haitians lacked: "the opportunity to eat enough, to be cared for when ill, to find housing, to study, to overcome illiteracy, to find worthwhile and properly paid work; all that provides a truly human life for men and women, for young and old." Following John Paul II's pilgrimage, the Haitian opposition to Duvalier frequently reproduced and quoted the pope's message. Shortly before leaving Haiti, John Paul II called for social change in Haiti
Haiti
by saying: "Lift up your heads, be conscious of your dignity of men created in God's image...."[164] John Paul II's visit inspired massive protests against the Duvalier dictatorship. In response to the visit, 860 Catholic priests and Church workers signed a statement committing the Church to work on behalf of the poor.[165] In 1986, Duvalier was deposed in an uprising. Paraguay The collapse of the dictatorship of General Alfredo Stroessner
Alfredo Stroessner
of Paraguay was linked, among other things, to Pope
Pope
John Paul II's visit to the South American country in 1989. Since Stroessner's taking power through a coup d'état in 1954, Paraguay's bishops increasingly criticised the regime for human rights abuses, rigged elections, and the country's feudal economy. During his private meeting with Stroessner, John Paul II told the dictator:

Politics has a fundamental ethical dimension because it is first and foremost a service to man. The Church can and must remind men—and in particular those who govern—of their ethical duties for the good of the whole of society. The Church cannot be isolated inside its temples just as men's consciences cannot be isolated from God.[166]

Later, during a Mass, Pope
Pope
John Paul II criticised the regime for impoverishing the peasants and the unemployed, claiming that the government must give people greater access to the land. Although Stroessner tried to prevent him from doing so, Pope
Pope
John Paul II met opposition leaders in the one-party state.[166] Role in the fall of Communism

Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
meeting John Paul II in June 2000

Main article: Holy See–Soviet Union relations John Paul II has been credited with being instrumental in bringing down Communism in Central and Eastern Europe,[72][85][90][107][108][167] by being the spiritual inspiration behind its downfall and catalyst for "a peaceful revolution" in Poland. Lech Wałęsa, the founder of Solidarity and the first post-Communist President of Poland, credited John Paul II with giving Poles
Poles
the courage to demand change.[72] According to Wałęsa, "Before his pontificate, the world was divided into blocs. Nobody knew how to get rid of Communism. In Warsaw, in 1979, he simply said: 'Do not be afraid', and later prayed: 'Let your Spirit descend and change the image of the land … this land'."[167] It has also been widely alleged that the Vatican Bank
Vatican Bank
covertly funded Solidarity.[168][169]

US President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom to John Paul II in June 2004

US President Ronald Reagan's correspondence with the pope reveals "a continuous scurrying to shore up Vatican support for U.S. policies. Perhaps most surprisingly, the papers show that, as late as 1984, the pope did not believe the Communist Polish government could be changed."[170] The British historian Timothy Garton Ash, who describes himself as an "agnostic liberal", said shortly after John Paul II's death:

No one can prove conclusively that he was a primary cause of the end of communism. However, the major figures on all sides—not just Lech Wałęsa, the Polish Solidarity leader, but also Solidarity's arch-opponent, General Wojciech Jaruzelski; not just the former American president George Bush Senior but also the former Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev—now agree that he was. I would argue the historical case in three steps: without the Polish Pope, no Solidarity revolution in Poland
Poland
in 1980; without Solidarity, no dramatic change in Soviet policy towards eastern Europe under Gorbachev; without that change, no velvet revolutions in 1989.[171]

Graffiti showing Pope
Pope
John Paul II with quote "Do not be afraid" in Rijeka, Croatia

In December 1989, John Paul II met with the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev at the Vatican and each expressed his respect and admiration for the other. Gorbachev once said "The collapse of the Iron Curtain would have been impossible without John Paul II."[85][107] On John Paul II's death, Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
said: " Pope
Pope
John Paul II's devotion to his followers is a remarkable example to all of us."[108][167] On 4 June 2004 US President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honour, to John Paul II during a ceremony at the Apostolic Palace. The president read the citation that accompanied the medal, which recognised "this son of Poland" whose "principled stand for peace and freedom has inspired millions and helped to topple communism and tyranny".[172] After receiving the award, John Paul II said, "May the desire for freedom, peace, a more humane world symbolised by this medal inspire men and women of goodwill in every time and place."[173] Communist attempt to humiliate John Paul II In 1983 Poland's Communist government unsuccessfully tried to humiliate John Paul II by falsely saying he had fathered an illegitimate child. Section D of Służba Bezpieczeństwa (SB), the security service, had an action named "Triangolo" to carry out criminal operations against the Catholic Church; the operation encompassed all Polish hostile actions against the pope.[174] Captain Grzegorz Piotrowski, one of the murderers of Jerzy Popiełuszko, was the leader of section D. They drugged Irena Kinaszewska, the secretary of the Kraków-based weekly Catholic magazine Tygodnik Powszechny where Karol
Karol
Wojtyła had worked, and unsuccessfully attempted to make her admit to having had sexual relations with him.[175] The SB then attempted to compromise Cracow priest Andrzej Bardecki, an editor of Tygodnik Powszechny
Tygodnik Powszechny
and one of the closest friends of Cardinal Karol
Karol
Wojtyła before he became pope, by planting false memoirs in his dwelling, but Piotrowski was exposed and the forgeries were found and destroyed before the SB could "discover" them.[175] Relations with other denominations and religions John Paul II travelled extensively and met with believers from many divergent faiths. At the World Day of Prayer
Day of Prayer
for Peace, held in Assisi
Assisi
on 27 October 1986, more than 120 representatives of different religions and denominations spent a day of fasting and prayer.[176] Anglicanism John Paul II had good relations with the Church of England. He was the first reigning pope to travel to the United Kingdom, in 1982, where he met Queen Elizabeth II, the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. He preached in Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
and received Robert Runcie, the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Canterbury. He said that he was disappointed by the Church of England's decision to ordain women and saw it as a step away from unity between the Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
and the Catholic Church.[177] In 1980 John Paul II issued a Pastoral
Pastoral
Provision allowing married former Episcopal priests to become Catholic priests, and for the acceptance of former Episcopal Church parishes into the Catholic Church. He allowed the creation of the Anglican Use
Anglican Use
form of the Latin Rite, which incorporates the Anglican Book
Book
of Common Prayer. He helped establish Our Lady of the Atonement Catholic Church, together with Archbishop
Archbishop
Patrick Flores of San Antonio, Texas, as the inaugural parish for the Anglican Use
Anglican Use
liturgy.[178] Animism In his book-length interview Crossing the Threshold of Hope with the Italian journalist Vittorio Messori
Vittorio Messori
published in 1995, John Paul II draws parallels between animism and Christianity. He says:

… it would be helpful to recall … the animist religions which stress ancestor worship. It seems that those who practice them are particularly close to Christianity, and among them, the Church's missionaries also find it easier to speak a common language. Is there, perhaps, in this veneration of ancestors a kind of preparation for the Christian faith in the Communion of Saints, in which all believers—whether living or dead—form a single community, a single body? […] There is nothing strange, then, that the African and Asian animists would become believers in Christ more easily than followers of the great religions of the Far East.[179]

In 1985, the pope visited the African country of Togo, where 60 per cent of the population espouses animist beliefs. To honour the pope, animist religious leaders met him at a Catholic Marian shrine in the forest, much to the pontiff's delight. John Paul II proceeded to call for the need for religious tolerance, praised nature, and emphasised common elements between animism and Christianity, saying:

Nature, exuberant and splendid in this area of forests and lakes, impregnates spirits and hearts with its mystery and orients them spontaneously toward the mystery of He who is the author of life. It is this religious sentiment that animates you and one can say that animates all of your compatriots.[180]

During the investiture of President Thomas Boni Yayi
Thomas Boni Yayi
of Benin
Benin
as a titled Yoruba chieftain on 20 December 2008, the reigning Ooni of Ile-Ife, Nigeria, Olubuse II, referred to Pope
Pope
John Paul II as a previous recipient of the same royal honour.[181] Armenian Apostolic Church John Paul II had good relations with the Armenian Apostolic Church. In 1996, he brought the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the Armenian Church closer by agreeing with Armenian Archbishop
Archbishop
Karekin II
Karekin II
on Christ's nature.[182] During an audience in 2000, John Paul II and Karekin II, by then the Catholicos of All Armenians, issued a joint statement condemning the Armenian genocide. Meanwhile, the pope gave Karekin the relics of St. Gregory the Illuminator, the first head of the Armenian Church that had been kept in Naples, Italy, for 500 years.[183] In September 2001, John Paul II went on a three-day pilgrimage to Armenia
Armenia
to take part in an ecumenical celebration with Karekin II
Karekin II
in the newly consecrated St. Gregory the Illuminator
Gregory the Illuminator
Cathedral in Yerevan. The two Church leaders signed a declaration remembering the victims of the Armenian genocide. [184] Buddhism Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, visited John Paul II eight times. The two men held many similar views and understood similar plights, both coming from nations affected by Communism and both serving as heads of major religious bodies.[185][186] As Archbishop
Archbishop
of Kraków, long before the 14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
was a world-famous figure, Wojtyła held special Masses to pray for the Tibetan people's non-violent struggle for freedom from Maoist China.[187] During his 1995 visit to Sri Lanka, a country where a majority of the population adheres to Theravada Buddhism, John Paul II expressed his admiration for Buddhism:

In particular I express my highest regard for the followers of Buddhism, the majority religion in Sri Lanka, with its … four great values of … loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity; with its ten transcendental virtues and the joys of the Sangha expressed so beautifully in the Theragathas. I ardently hope that my visit will serve to strengthen the goodwill between us, and that it will reassure everyone of the Catholic Church's desire for interreligious dialogue and cooperation in building a more just and fraternal world. To everyone I extend the hand of friendship, recalling the splendid words of the Dhammapada: "Better than a thousand useless words is one single word that gives peace...."[188]

Eastern Orthodox Church Main article: Pope
Pope
John Paul II's relations with the Eastern Orthodox Church In May 1999, John Paul II visited Romania
Romania
on the invitation from Patriarch
Patriarch
Teoctist Arăpaşu
Teoctist Arăpaşu
of the Romanian Orthodox Church. This was the first time a pope had visited a predominantly Eastern Orthodox country since the Great Schism in 1054.[189] On his arrival, the Patriarch
Patriarch
and the President of Romania, Emil Constantinescu, greeted the pope.[189] The Patriarch
Patriarch
stated, "The second millennium of Christian history began with a painful wounding of the unity of the Church; the end of this millennium has seen a real commitment to restoring Christian unity."[189] On 23–27 June 2001 John Paul II visited Ukraine, another heavily Orthodox nation, at the invitation of the President of Ukraine and bishops of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.[190] The Pope spoke to leaders of the All-Ukrainian Council of Churches and Religious Organisations, pleading for "open, tolerant and honest dialogue".[190] About 200 thousand people attended the liturgies celebrated by the Pope
Pope
in Kiev, and the liturgy in Lviv
Lviv
gathered nearly one and a half million faithful.[190] John Paul II said that an end to the Great Schism was one of his fondest wishes.[190] Healing divisions between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches regarding Latin
Latin
and Byzantine
Byzantine
traditions was clearly of great personal interest. For many years, John Paul II sought to facilitate dialogue and unity stating as early as 1988 in Euntes in mundum, "Europe has two lungs, it will never breathe easily until it uses both of them." During his 2001 travels, John Paul II became the first pope to visit Greece
Greece
in 1291 years.[191][192] In Athens, the pope met with Archbishop
Archbishop
Christodoulos, the head of the Church of Greece.[191] After a private 30-minute meeting, the two spoke publicly. Christodoulos read a list of "13 offences" of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
against the Eastern Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
since the Great Schism,[191] including the pillaging of Constantinople by crusaders in 1204, and bemoaned the lack of apology from the Catholic Church, saying "Until now, there has not been heard a single request for pardon" for the "maniacal crusaders of the 13th century".[191] The pope responded by saying "For the occasions past and present, when sons and daughters of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
have sinned by action or omission against their Orthodox brothers and sisters, may the Lord grant us forgiveness", to which Christodoulos immediately applauded. John Paul II said that the sacking of Constantinople was a source of "profound regret" for Catholics.[191] Later John Paul II and Christodoulos met on a spot where Saint
Saint
Paul had once preached to Athenian Christians. They issued a 'common declaration', saying "We shall do everything in our power, so that the Christian roots of Europe and its Christian soul may be preserved.... We condemn all recourse to violence, proselytism and fanaticism, in the name of religion."[191] The two leaders then said the Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer
together, breaking an Orthodox taboo against praying with Catholics.[191] The pope had said throughout his pontificate that one of his greatest dreams was to visit Russia, but this never occurred. He attempted to solve the problems that had arisen over centuries between the Catholic and Russian Orthodox churches, and in 2004 gave them a 1730 copy of the lost icon of Our Lady of Kazan. Islam

John Paul II was the first Pope
Pope
to enter and pray in a mosque, visiting the tomb of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
at Damascus' Umayyad Mosque.

John Paul II made considerable efforts to improve relations between Catholicism and Islam.[193] On 6 May 2001 he became the first Catholic pope to enter and pray in a mosque, namely the Umayyad Mosque
Umayyad Mosque
in Damascus, Syria. Respectfully removing his shoes, he entered the former Byzantine
Byzantine
era Christian church dedicated to John the Baptist, who is also revered as a prophet of Islam. He gave a speech including the statement: "For all the times that Muslims and Christians have offended one another, we need to seek forgiveness from the Almighty and to offer each other forgiveness."[100] He kissed the Qur'an
Qur'an
in Syria, an act that made him popular among Muslims but that disturbed many Catholics.[194] In 2004 John Paul II hosted the "Papal Concert of Reconciliation", which brought together leaders of Islam
Islam
with leaders of the Jewish community and of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
at the Vatican for a concert by the Kraków
Kraków
Philharmonic Choir from Poland, the London Philharmonic Choir from the United Kingdom, the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra from the United States, and the Ankara State Polyphonic Choir of Turkey.[195][196][197][198] The event was conceived and conducted by Sir Gilbert Levine, KCSG and was broadcast throughout the world.[195][196][197][198] John Paul II oversaw the publication of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, which makes a special provision for Muslims; therein, it is written, "together with us they adore the one, merciful God, mankind's judge on the last day."[199] Jainism In 1995, Pope
Pope
John Paul II held a meeting with 21 Jains, a sect that broke away from mainstream Hinduism in 600 BC, organised by the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. He praised Mohandas Gandhi for his "unshakeable faith in God", assured the Jains that the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
will continue to engage in dialogue with their religion and spoke of the common need to aid the poor. The Jain leaders were impressed with the pope's "transparency and simplicity", and the meeting received much attention in the Gujarat
Gujarat
state in western India, home to many Jains.[200] Judaism Main article: Pope
Pope
John Paul II and Judaism Relations between Catholicism and Judaism
Judaism
improved dramatically during the pontificate of John Paul II.[72][102] He spoke frequently about the Church's relationship with the Jewish faith.[72] In 1979 John Paul II visited the Auschwitz concentration camp
Auschwitz concentration camp
in Poland, where many of his compatriots (mostly Jews) had perished during the Nazi occupation in World War II, the first pope to do so. In 1998 he issued We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah, which outlined his thinking on the Holocaust.[201] He became the first pope known to have made an official papal visit to a synagogue, when he visited the Great Synagogue of Rome
Rome
on 13 April 1986.[202][203] On 30 December 1993 John Paul II established formal diplomatic relations between the Holy See
Holy See
and the State of Israel, acknowledging its centrality in Jewish life and faith.[202] On 7 April 1994 he hosted the Papal Concert to Commemorate the Holocaust. It was the first-ever Vatican event dedicated to the memory of the six million Jews murdered in World War II. This concert, which was conceived and conducted by American conductor Gilbert Levine, was attended by the Chief Rabbi of Rome
Rome
Elio Toaff, the President of Italy Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, and survivors of the Holocaust from around the world. The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, actor Richard Dreyfuss and cellist Lynn Harrell performed on this occasion under Levine's direction.[204][205] On the morning of the concert, the pope received the attending members of survivor community in a special audience in the Apostolic Palace. In March 2000 John Paul II visited Yad Vashem, the national Holocaust memorial in Israel, and later made history by touching one of the holiest sites in Judaism, the Western Wall
Western Wall
in Jerusalem,[102] placing a letter inside it (in which he prayed for forgiveness for the actions against Jews).[101][102][202] In part of his address he said: "I assure the Jewish people the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
… is deeply saddened by the hatred, acts of persecution and displays of anti-Semitism directed against the Jews by Christians at any time and in any place," he added that there were "no words strong enough to deplore the terrible tragedy of the Holocaust."[101][102] Israeli cabinet minister Rabbi Michael Melchior, who hosted the pope's visit, said he was "very moved" by the pope's gesture.[101][102]

It was beyond history, beyond memory.[101]

We are deeply saddened by the behaviour of those who in the course of history have caused these children of yours to suffer, and asking your forgiveness we wish to commit ourselves to genuine brotherhood with the people of the Covenant.[206]

In October 2003, the Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
(ADL) issued a statement congratulating John Paul II on entering the 25th year of his papacy. In January 2005, John Paul II became the first pope known to receive a priestly blessing from a rabbi, when Rabbis Benjamin Blech, Barry Dov Schwartz, and Jack Bemporad visited the Pontiff at Clementine Hall
Clementine Hall
in the Apostolic Palace.[207] Immediately after John Paul II's death, the ADL said in a statement that he had revolutionised Catholic-Jewish relations, saying, "more change for the better took place in his 27-year Papacy than in the nearly 2,000 years before."[208] In another statement issued by the Australia/Israel & Jewish Affairs Council, Director Dr Colin Rubenstein said, "The Pope
Pope
will be remembered for his inspiring spiritual leadership in the cause of freedom and humanity. He achieved far more in terms of transforming relations with both the Jewish people and the State of Israel than any other figure in the history of the Catholic Church."[202]

With Judaism, therefore, we have a relationship which we do not have with any other religion. You are our dearly beloved brothers, and in a certain way, it could be said that you are our elder brothers.[209]

In an interview with the Polish Press Agency, Michael Schudrich, chief rabbi of Poland, said that never in history did anyone do as much for Christian-Jewish dialogue as Pope
Pope
John Paul II, adding that many Jews had a greater respect for the late pope than for some rabbis. Schudrich praised John Paul II for condemning anti-Semitism as a sin, which no previous pope had done.[210] On John Paul II's beatification the Chief Rabbi of Rome
Rome
Riccardo Di Segni said in an interview with the Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano that "John Paul II was revolutionary because he tore down a thousand-year wall of Catholic distrust of the Jewish world." Meanwhile, Elio Toaff, the former Chief Rabbi of Rome, said that:

Remembrance of the Pope
Pope
Karol
Karol
Wojtyła will remain strong in the collective Jewish memory because of his appeals to fraternity and the spirit of tolerance, which excludes all violence. In the stormy history of relations between Roman popes and Jews in the ghetto in which they were closed for over three centuries in humiliating circumstances, John Paul II is a bright figure in his uniqueness. In relations between our two great religions in the new century that was stained with bloody wars and the plague of racism, the heritage of John Paul II remains one of the few spiritual islands guaranteeing survival and human progress.[211]

Lutheranism From 15 to 19 November 1980, John Paul II visited West Germany[212] on his first trip to a country with a large Lutheran
Lutheran
Protestant population. In Mainz, he met with leaders of the Evangelical Church in Germany, and with representatives of other Christian denominations. On 11 December 1983, John Paul II participated in an ecumenical service in the Evangelical Lutheran
Lutheran
Church in Rome,[213] the first papal visit ever to a Lutheran
Lutheran
church. The visit took place 500 years after the birth of Martin Luther, the German Augustinian
Augustinian
monk who initiated the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation. In his apostolic pilgrimage to Norway, Iceland, Finland, Denmark and Sweden of June 1989,[214] John Paul II became the first pope to visit countries with Lutheran
Lutheran
majorities. In addition to celebrating Mass with Catholic believers, he participated in ecumenical services at places that had been Catholic shrines before the Reformation: Nidaros Cathedral in Norway; near St. Olav's Church at Thingvellir in Iceland; Turku Cathedral
Turku Cathedral
in Finland; Roskilde Cathedral
Roskilde Cathedral
in Denmark; and Uppsala Cathedral in Sweden. On 31 October 1999, (the 482nd anniversary of Reformation
Reformation
Day, Martin Luther's posting of the 95 Theses), representatives of the Vatican and the Lutheran
Lutheran
World Federation (LWF) signed a Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, as a gesture of unity. The signing was a fruit of a theological dialogue that had been going on between the LWF and the Vatican since 1965. Assassination attempts and plots Main articles: 1981 Pope
Pope
John Paul II assassination attempt, Juan María Fernández y Krohn, and Bojinka Plot

The Fiat Popemobile
Popemobile
that carried John Paul II during the 1981 assassination attempt on his life in St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
in Vatican City

As he entered St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
to address an audience on 13 May 1981,[215] Pope
Pope
John Paul II was shot and critically wounded by Mehmet Ali Ağca,[19][90][216] an expert Turkish gunman who was a member of the militant fascist group Grey Wolves.[217] The assassin used a Browning 9 mm semi-automatic pistol,[218] shooting the pope in the abdomen and perforating his colon and small intestine multiple times.[85] John Paul II was rushed into the Vatican complex and then to the Gemelli Hospital. On the way to the hospital, he lost consciousness. Even though the two bullets missed his mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta, he lost nearly three-quarters of his blood. He underwent five hours of surgery to treat his wounds.[219] Surgeons performed a colostomy, temporarily rerouting the upper part of the large intestine to let the damaged lower part heal.[219] When he briefly regained consciousness before being operated on, he instructed the doctors not to remove his Brown Scapular during the operation.[220] One of the few people allowed in to see him at the Gemelli Clinic was one of his closest friends philosopher Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, who arrived on Saturday 16 May and kept him company while he recovered from emergency surgery.[76] The pope later stated that Our Lady of Fátima
Our Lady of Fátima
helped keep him alive throughout his ordeal.[90][216][221]

Small marble tablet in St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
indicating where the shooting of John Paul II occurred. The tablet bears John Paul's personal papal arms and the date of the shooting in Roman numerals.

Could I forget that the event in St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
took place on the day and at the hour when the first appearance of the Mother of Christ to the poor little peasants has been remembered for over sixty years at Fátima, Portugal? For in everything that happened to me on that very day, I felt that extraordinary motherly protection and care, which turned out to be stronger than the deadly bullet.[222]

Ağca was caught and restrained by a nun and other bystanders until police arrived. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. Two days after Christmas in 1983, John Paul II visited Ağca in prison. John Paul II and Ağca spoke privately for about twenty minutes.[90][216] John Paul II said, "What we talked about will have to remain a secret between him and me. I spoke to him as a brother whom I have pardoned and who has my complete trust." Numerous other theories were advanced to explain the assassination attempt, some of them controversial. One such theory, advanced by Michael Ledeen and heavily pushed by the United States
United States
Central Intelligence Agency at the time of the assassination but never substantiated by evidence, was that the Soviet Union was behind the attempt on John Paul II's life in retaliation for the pope's support of Solidarity, the Catholic, pro-democratic Polish workers' movement.[217][223] This theory was supported by the 2006 Mitrokhin Commission, set up by Silvio Berlusconi
Silvio Berlusconi
and headed by Forza Italia senator Paolo Guzzanti, which alleged that Communist Bulgarian security departments were utilised to prevent the Soviet Union's role from being uncovered, and concluded that Soviet military intelligence (Glavnoje Razvedyvatel'noje Upravlenije), not the KGB, were responsible.[223] Russian Foreign Intelligence Service spokesman Boris Labusov called the accusation "absurd".[223] The pope declared during a May 2002 visit to Bulgaria that the country's Soviet-bloc-era leadership had nothing to do with the assassination attempt.[217][223] However, his secretary, Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, alleged in his book A Life with Karol, that the pope was convinced privately that the former Soviet Union was behind the attack.[224] It was later discovered that many of John Paul II's aides had foreign-government attachments;[225] Bulgaria and Russia
Russia
disputed the Italian commission's conclusions, pointing out that the pope had publicly denied the Bulgarian connection.[223] A second assassination attempt was made on 12 May 1982, just a day before the anniversary of the first attempt on his life, in Fátima, Portugal when a man tried to stab John Paul II with a bayonet.[226][227][228] He was stopped by security guards. Stanisław Dziwisz later said that John Paul II had been injured during the attempt but managed to hide a non-life-threatening wound.[226][227][228] The assailant, a traditionalist Catholic Spanish priest named Juan María Fernández y Krohn,[226] had been ordained as a priest by Archbishop
Archbishop
Marcel Lefebvre
Marcel Lefebvre
of the Society of Saint
Saint
Pius X and was opposed to the changes made by the Second Vatican Council, claiming that the pope was an agent of Communist Moscow and of the Marxist Eastern Bloc.[229] Fernández y Krohn subsequently left the priesthood and served three years of a six-year sentence.[227][228][229] The ex-priest was treated for mental illness and then expelled from Portugal to become a solicitor in Belgium.[229] The Al-Qaeda-funded Bojinka plot
Bojinka plot
planned to kill John Paul II during a visit to the Philippines during World Youth Day
World Youth Day
1995 celebrations. On 15 January 1995 a suicide bomber was planning to dress as a priest and detonate a bomb when the pope passed in his motorcade on his way to the San Carlos Seminary in Makati City. The assassination was supposed to divert attention from the next phase of the operation. However, a chemical fire inadvertently started by the cell alerted police to their whereabouts, and all were arrested a week before the pope's visit, and confessed to the plot.[230] In 2009 John Koehler, a journalist and former army intelligence officer, published Spies in the Vatican: The Soviet Union's Cold War Against the Catholic Church.[231] Mining mostly East German and Polish secret police archives, Koehler says the assassination attempts were "KGB-backed" and gives details.[232] During John Paul II's papacy there were many clerics within the Vatican who on nomination, declined to be ordained, and then mysteriously left the church. There is wide speculation that they were, in reality, KGB
KGB
agents. Apologies Main article: Apologies by Pope
Pope
John Paul II John Paul II apologised to many groups that had suffered at the hands of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
through the years.[72][233] Before becoming pope he had been a prominent editor and supporter of initiatives such as the Letter of Reconciliation of the Polish Bishops to the German Bishops from 1965. As pope, he officially made public apologies for over 100 wrongdoings, including:[234][235][236][237]

The legal process on the Italian scientist and philosopher Galileo Galilei, himself a devout Catholic, around 1633 (31 October 1992).[238][239] Catholics' involvement with the African chiefs who sold their subjects and captives in the African slave trade
African slave trade
(9 August 1993). The Church Hierarchy's role in burnings at the stake and the religious wars that followed the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
(May 1995, in the Czech Republic). The injustices committed against women, the violation of women's rights and the historical denigration of women (10 July 1995, in a letter to "every woman"). The inactivity and silence of many Catholics during the Holocaust (see the article Religion in Nazi Germany) (16 March 1998).

On 20 November 2001, from a laptop in the Vatican, Pope
Pope
John Paul II sent his first e-mail apologising for the Catholic sex abuse cases, the Church-backed "Stolen Generations" of Aboriginal children in Australia, and to China for the behaviour of Catholic missionaries in colonial times.[240] Health Main article: Pope
Pope
John Paul II's health

An ailing John Paul II riding in the Popemobile
Popemobile
in September 2004 in St. Peter's Square

When he became pope in 1978 at the age of 58, John Paul II was an avid sportsman. He was extremely healthy and active, jogging in the Vatican gardens, weight training, swimming, and hiking in the mountains. He was fond of football. The media contrasted the new pope's athleticism and trim figure to the poor health of John Paul I
John Paul I
and Paul VI, the portliness of John XXIII and the constant claims of ailments of Pius XII. The only modern pope with a fitness regimen had been Pope
Pope
Pius XI (1922–1939), who was an avid mountaineer.[241][242] An Irish Independent article in the 1980s labelled John Paul II the keep-fit pope. However, after over twenty-five years as pope, two assassination attempts, one of which injured him severely, and a number of cancer scares, John Paul's physical health declined. In 2001 he was diagnosed as suffering from Parkinson's disease.[243] International observers had suspected this for some time, but it was only publicly acknowledged by the Vatican in 2003. Despite difficulty speaking more than a few sentences at a time, trouble hearing, and severe osteoarthrosis, he continued to tour the world although rarely walking in public. Death and funeral Main article: Funeral of Pope
Pope
John Paul II Final months Pope
Pope
John Paul II was hospitalised with breathing problems caused by a bout of influenza on 1 February 2005.[244] He left the hospital on 10 February, but was subsequently hospitalised again with breathing problems two weeks later and underwent a tracheotomy.[245] Final illness and death On 31 March 2005 following a urinary tract infection,[246] he developed septic shock, a form of infection with a high fever and low blood pressure, but was not hospitalised. Instead, he was monitored by a team of consultants at his private residence. This was taken as an indication by the pope, and those close to him, that he was nearing death; it would have been in accordance with his wishes to die in the Vatican.[246] Later that day, Vatican sources announced that John Paul II had been given the Anointing of the Sick
Anointing of the Sick
by his friend and secretary Stanisław Dziwisz. The day before his death, one of his closest personal friends, Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka
Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka
visited him at his bedside.[247][248] During the final days of the pope's life, the lights were kept burning through the night where he lay in the Papal apartment on the top floor of the Apostolic Palace. Tens of thousands of people assembled and held vigil in St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
and the surrounding streets for two days. Upon hearing of this, the dying pope was said to have stated: "I have searched for you, and now you have come to me, and I thank you."[249] On Saturday, 2 April 2005, at approximately 15:30 CEST, John Paul II spoke his final words in Polish, "Pozwólcie mi odejść do domu Ojca" ("Allow me to depart to the house of the Father"), to his aides, and fell into a coma about four hours later.[249][250] The Mass
Mass
of the vigil of the Second Sunday of Easter commemorating the canonisation of Saint
Saint
Maria Faustina on 30 April 2000, had just been celebrated at his bedside, presided over by Stanisław Dziwisz
Stanisław Dziwisz
and two Polish associates. Present at the bedside was a cardinal from Ukraine, who served as a priest with John Paul in Poland, along with Polish nuns of the Congregation of the Sisters Servants of the Most Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus, who ran the papal household. Pope
Pope
John Paul II died in his private apartment at 21:37 CEST (19:37 UTC) of heart failure from profound hypotension and complete circulatory collapse from septic shock, 46 days before his 85th birthday.[250][251][252] His death was verified when an electrocardiogram that ran for 20 minutes showed a flatline.[253] He had no close family by the time of his death; his feelings are reflected in his words written in 2000 at the end of his Last Will and Testament.[254] Stanisław Dziwisz
Stanisław Dziwisz
later said he had not burned the pontiff's personal notes despite the request being part of the will.[255]

(l-r) George W. Bush, Laura Bush, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Condoleezza Rice, and Andrew Card, US dignitaries paying respects to John Paul II on 6 April 2005 at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City

Aftermath The death of the pontiff set in motion rituals and traditions dating back to medieval times. The Rite of Visitation took place from 4 April 2005 to 7 April 2005 at St. Peter's Basilica. John Paul II's testament, published on 7 April 2005,[256] revealed that the pontiff contemplated being buried in his native Poland
Poland
but left the final decision to The College of Cardinals, which in passing, preferred burial beneath St. Peter's Basilica, honouring the pontiff's request to be placed "in bare earth". The Requiem Mass
Mass
held on 8 April 2005 was said to have set world records both for attendance and number of heads of state present at a funeral.[238][257][258][259] (See: List of Dignitaries.) It was the single largest gathering of heads of state in history, surpassing the funerals of Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1965) and Josip Broz Tito (1980). Four kings, five queens, at least 70 presidents and prime ministers, and more than 14 leaders of other religions attended alongside the faithful.[257] It is likely to have been the largest single pilgrimage of Christianity ever with numbers estimated in excess of four million mourners gathering in and around Vatican City.[238][258][259][260] Between 250,000 and 300,000 watched the event from within the Vatican's walls.[259] The Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, conducted the ceremony. John Paul II was interred in the grottoes under the basilica, the Tomb of the Popes. He was lowered into a tomb created in the same alcove previously occupied by the remains of Pope John XXIII. The alcove had been empty since John XXIII's remains had been moved into the main body of the basilica after his beatification. Posthumous recognition

John Paul II

Pope
Pope
and Saint

Born 18 May 1920 Wadowice, Poland

Died 2 April 2005 (aged 84) Apostolic Palace, Vatican City

Venerated in Catholic Church

Beatified 1 May 2011, St. Peter's Square, Vatican City
Vatican City
by Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI

Canonized 27 April 2014, St. Peter's Square, Vatican City
Vatican City
by Pope
Pope
Francis

Feast 22 October

Attributes Papal ferula, Papal vestments

Patronage Kraków, Poland, World Youth Day, young Catholics, Świdnica, families, World Meeting of Families
World Meeting of Families
2015

Title "the Great" Upon the death of John Paul II, a number of clergy at the Vatican and laymen throughout the world[85][238][261] began referring to the late pontiff as "John Paul the Great"—only the fourth pope to be so acclaimed, and the first since the first millennium.[85][261][262][263] Scholars of Canon Law say that there is no official process for declaring a pope "Great"; the title simply establishes itself through popular and continued usage,[238][264][265] as was the case with celebrated secular leaders (for example, Alexander III of Macedon became popularly known as Alexander the Great). The three popes who today commonly are known as "Great" are Leo I, who reigned from 440–461 and persuaded Attila the Hun
Attila the Hun
to withdraw from Rome; Gregory I, 590–604, after whom the Gregorian Chant is named; and Pope
Pope
Nicholas I, 858–867, who consolidated the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the Western world
Western world
in the Middle Ages.[261] His successor, Benedict XVI, referred to him as "the great Pope
Pope
John Paul II" in his first address from the loggia of St. Peter's Basilica, and Cardinal Angelo Sodano
Angelo Sodano
referred to John Paul as "the Great" in his published written homily for the pope's funeral Mass
Mass
of Repose.[266][267]

The tomb of John Paul II in the Vatican Chapel of St. Sebastian
St. Sebastian
within St. Peter's Basilica

Since giving his homily at the funeral of Pope
Pope
John Paul, Pope Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
continued to refer to John Paul II as "the Great". At the 20th World Youth Day
World Youth Day
in Germany 2005, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI, speaking in Polish, John Paul's native language, said, "As the Great Pope
Pope
John Paul II would say: Keep the flame of faith alive in your lives and your people." In May 2006, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
visited John Paul's native Poland. During that visit, he repeatedly made references to "the great John Paul" and "my great predecessor".[268] Two newspapers have called him "the Great" or "the Greatest". The Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera
Corriere della Sera
called him "the Greatest"[citation needed] and the South African Catholic newspaper, The Southern Cross, called him "John Paul II the Great".[269] Some Catholic institutions changed their names to incorporate "the Great", including John Paul the Great Catholic University
John Paul the Great Catholic University
and schools called some variant of John Paul the Great High School. Institutions named after Saint
Saint
John Paul the Great

John Paul the Great Catholic University John Paul the Great Catholic High School (Indiana) Saint
Saint
John Paul the Great Catholic High School (Virginia) Scoil Eoin Phóil, Leixlip, Ireland

Beatification Main article: Beatification
Beatification
of Pope
Pope
John Paul II

1.5 million St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
attendees witness the beatification of John Paul II on 1 May 2011 in Vatican City[270][271]

A monument to John Paul II in Poznań, Poland

Inspired by calls of "Santo Subito!" ("[Make him a] Saint Immediately!") from the crowds gathered during the funeral Mass
Mass
that he performed,[272][273][274][275] Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
began the beatification process for his predecessor, bypassing the normal restriction that five years must pass after a person's death before beginning the beatification process.[273][274][276][277] In an audience with Pope Benedict XVI, Camillo Ruini, Vicar General of the Diocese of Rome, who was responsible for promoting the cause for canonisation of any person who died within that diocese, cited "exceptional circumstances", which suggested that the waiting period could be waived.[20][238][278] This decision was announced on 13 May 2005, the Feast of Our Lady of Fátima and the 24th anniversary of the assassination attempt on John Paul II at St. Peter's Square.[279] In early 2006 it was reported that the Vatican was investigating a possible miracle associated with John Paul II. Sister Marie Simon-Pierre, a French nun and member of the Congregation of Little Sisters of Catholic Maternity Wards, confined to her bed by Parkinson's disease,[274][280] was reported to have experienced a "complete and lasting cure after members of her community prayed for the intercession of Pope
Pope
John Paul II".[168][238][272][274][281][282] As of May 2008[update], Sister Marie-Simon-Pierre, then 46,[272][274] was working again at a maternity hospital run by her religious institute.[277][280][283][284] "I was sick and now I am cured," she told reporter Gerry Shaw. "I am cured, but it is up to the church to say whether it was a miracle or not."[280][283] On 28 May 2006, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
celebrated Mass
Mass
before an estimated 900,000 people in John Paul II's native Poland. During his homily, he encouraged prayers for the early canonisation of John Paul II and stated that he hoped canonisation would happen "in the near future".[280][285] In January 2007 Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz
Stanisław Dziwisz
announced that the interview phase of the beatification process, in Italy
Italy
and Poland, was nearing completion.[238][280][286] In February 2007, second class relics of Pope
Pope
John Paul II—pieces of white papal cassocks he used to wear—were freely distributed with prayer cards for the cause, a typical pious practice after a saintly Catholic's death.[287][288] On 8 March 2007, the Vicariate of Rome
Rome
announced that the diocesan phase of John Paul's cause for beatification was at an end. Following a ceremony on 2 April 2007—the second anniversary of the Pontiff's death—the cause proceeded to the scrutiny of the committee of lay, clerical, and episcopal members of the Vatican's Congregation for the Causes of Saints, to conduct a separate investigation.[273][280][286] On the fourth anniversary of Pope
Pope
John Paul's death, 2 April 2009, Cardinal Dziwisz, told reporters of a presumed miracle that had recently occurred at the former pope's tomb in St. Peter's Basilica.[283][289][290][291] A nine-year-old Polish boy from Gdańsk, who was suffering from kidney cancer and was completely unable to walk, had been visiting the tomb with his parents. On leaving St. Peter's Basilica, the boy told them, "I want to walk," and began walking normally.[289][290][291][292] On 16 November 2009, a panel of reviewers at the Congregation for the Causes of Saints voted unanimously that Pope
Pope
John Paul II had lived a life of heroic virtue.[293][294] On 19 December 2009, Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
signed the first of two decrees needed for beatification and proclaimed John Paul II "Venerable", asserting that he had lived a heroic, virtuous life.[293][294] The second vote and the second signed decree certifying the authenticity of the first miracle, the curing of Sister Marie Simon-Pierre, a French nun, from Parkinson's disease. Once the second decree is signed, the positio (the report on the cause, with documentation about his life and writings and with information on the cause) is complete.[294] He can then be beatified.[293][294] Some speculated that he would be beatified sometime during (or soon after) the month of the 32nd anniversary of his 1978 election, in October 2010. As Monsignor Oder noted, this course would have been possible if the second decree were signed in time by Benedict XVI, stating that a posthumous miracle directly attributable to his intercession had occurred, completing the positio.

Candles around monument to Pope
Pope
John Paul in Zaspa, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
at the time of his death

The Vatican announced on 14 January 2011 that Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
had confirmed the miracle involving Sister Marie Simon-Pierre
Sister Marie Simon-Pierre
and that John Paul II was to be beatified on 1 May, the Feast of Divine Mercy.[295] 1 May is commemorated in former communist countries, such as Poland, and some Western European countries as May Day, and John Paul II was well known for his contributions to communism's relatively peaceful demise.[85][107] In March 2011 the Polish mint issued a gold 1,000 Polish złoty
Polish złoty
coin (equivalent to US$350), with the Pope's image to commemorate his beatification.[296] On 29 April 2011 John Paul II's coffin was exhumed from the grotto beneath St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
ahead of his beatification, as tens of thousands of people arrived in Rome
Rome
for one of the biggest events since his funeral.[297] John Paul II's remains (in a closed coffin) were placed in front of the Basilica's main altar, where believers could pay their respect before and after the beatification mass in St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
on 1 May 2011. On 3 May 2011 his remains were reinterred in the marble altar in Pier Paolo Cristofari's Chapel of St. Sebastian, where Pope
Pope
Innocent XI was buried. This more prominent location, next to the Chapel of the Pietà, the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, and statues of Popes Pius XI and Pius XII, was intended to allow more pilgrims to view his memorial. In July 2012 Colombian man, Marco Fidel Rojas, the former mayor of Huila, Colombia, testified that he was "miraculously cured" of Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease
after a trip to Rome
Rome
where he met John Paul II and prayed with him. Dr. Antonio Schlesinger Piedrahita, a renowned neurologist in Colombia, has certified Fidel’s healing. The documentation has been sent to the Vatican office for sainthood cause's.[298] Canonisation Main article: Canonization
Canonization
of Pope
Pope
John XXIII and Pope
Pope
John Paul II

The canonisation of John Paul II and John XXIII

To be eligible for canonisation (being declared a saint) by the Catholic Church, two miracles must be attributed to a candidate. The first miracle attributed to John Paul was his healing a case of Parkinson's disease, which was recognised during the beatification process. According to an article on the Catholic News Service (CNS) dated 23 April 2013, a Vatican commission of doctors concluded that a healing had no natural (medical) explanation, which is the first requirement for a claimed miracle to be officially documented. [299][300][301] The second miracle was deemed to have taken place shortly after the late pope's beatification on 1 May 2011; it was reported to be the healing of Costa Rican woman Floribeth Mora of an otherwise terminal brain aneurysm.[302] A Vatican panel of expert theologians examined the evidence, determined that it was directly attributable to the intercession of John Paul II, and recognised it as miraculous.[300][301] The next stage was for Cardinals who compose the membership of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints to give their opinion to Pope Francis
Pope Francis
to decides whether to sign and promulgate the decree and set a date for canonisation.[300][301][303] On 4 July 2013, Pope Francis
Pope Francis
confirmed his approval of John Paul II's canonisation, formally recognising the second miracle attributed to his intercession. He was canonised together with Pope
Pope
John XXIII.[15][304] The date of the canonisation was on 27 April 2014, Divine Mercy Sunday.[305][306] The canonisation Mass
Mass
for Blessed Popes John Paul II and John XXIII, was celebrated by Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(with Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI), on 27 April 2014 in St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
at the Vatican ( Pope
Pope
John Paul had died on vigil of Divine Mercy Sunday
Divine Mercy Sunday
in 2005). About 150 cardinals and 700 bishops concelebrated the Mass, and at least 500,000 people attended the Mass, with an estimated 300,000 others watching from video screens placed around Rome.[307] Criticism and controversy Main articles: Criticism of Pope
Pope
John Paul II and Criticism of the Catholic Church John Paul II was widely criticised for a variety of his views, including his opposition to the ordination of women and use of contraception,[19][308] his support for the Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council
and its reform of the liturgy, and his response to child sexual abuse within the Church. Child sex abuse scandals Main article: Catholic sex abuse cases John Paul II was criticised by representatives of the victims of clergy sexual abuse[309] for failing to respond quickly enough to the Catholic sex abuse crisis. In his response, he stated that "there is no place in the priesthood and religious life for those who would harm the young."[310] The Church instituted reforms to prevent future abuse by requiring background checks for Church employees[311] and, because a significant majority of victims were boys, disallowing ordination of men with "deep-seated homosexual tendencies".[312][313] They now require dioceses faced with an allegation to alert the authorities, conduct an investigation and remove the accused from duty.[311][314] In 2008, the Church asserted that the scandal was a very serious problem and estimated that it was "probably caused by 'no more than 1 per cent' " (or 5,000) of the over 500,000 Catholic priests worldwide.[315][316] In April 2002, John Paul II, despite being frail from Parkinson's disease, summoned all the American cardinals to the Vatican to discuss possible solutions to the issue of sexual abuse in the American Church. He asked them to "diligently investigate accusations". John Paul II suggested that American bishops be more open and transparent in dealing with such scandals and emphasised the role of seminary training to prevent sexual deviance among future priests. In what The New York Times called "unusually direct language", John Paul condemned the arrogance of priests that led to the scandals:

Priests and candidates for the priesthood often live at a level both materially and educationally superior to that of their families and the members of their own age group. It is therefore very easy for them to succumb to the temptation of thinking of themselves as better than others. When this happens, the ideal of priestly service and self-giving dedication can fade, leaving the priest dissatisfied and disheartened.[317]

The pope read a statement intended for the American cardinals, calling the sex abuse "an appalling sin" and said the priesthood had no room for such men.[318] In 2002, Archbishop
Archbishop
Juliusz Paetz, the Catholic Archbishop
Archbishop
of Poznań, was accused of molesting seminarians.[319] Pope
Pope
John Paul II accepted his resignation, and placed sanctions on him, prohibiting Paetz from exercising his ministry as bishop.[320] These restrictions were lifted in 2010 by Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI.[321][322] In 2003 John Paul II reiterated that "there is no place in the priesthood and religious life for those who would harm the young."[310] and in April 2003, a three-day conference was held, titled "Abuse of Children and Young People by Catholic Priests and Religious", where eight non-Catholic psychiatric experts were invited to speak to near all Vatican dicasteries' representatives. The panel of experts overwhelmingly opposed implementation of policies of "zero-tolerance" such as was proposed by the US Conference of Catholic Bishops. One expert called such policies a "case of overkill" since they do not permit flexibility to allow for differences among individual cases.[323] In 2004 John Paul II recalled Bernard Francis Law
Bernard Francis Law
to be Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of Saint
Saint
Mary Major in Rome. Law had previously resigned as archbishop of Boston in 2002 in response to the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases after Church documents were revealed that suggested he had covered up sexual abuse committed by priests in his archdiocese.[324] Law resigned from this position in November 2011.[318] John Paul II was a firm supporter of the Legion of Christ, and in 1998 discontinued investigations into sexual misconduct by its leader Marcial Maciel, who in 2005 resigned his leadership and was later requested by the Vatican to withdraw from his ministry. Opus Dei
Opus Dei
controversies Main article: Controversies about Opus Dei John Paul II was criticised for his support of the Opus Dei
Opus Dei
prelature and the 2002 canonisation of its founder, Josemaría Escrivá, whom he called 'the saint of ordinary life.'[325][326] Other movements and religious organisations of the Church went decidedly under his wing Legion of Christ, the Neocatechumenal Way, Schoenstatt, the charismatic movement, etc.) and he was accused repeatedly of taking a soft hand with them, especially in the case of Marcial Maciel, founder of the Legion of Christ.[327] In 1984 John Paul II appointed Joaquín Navarro-Valls, a member of Opus Dei, as Director of the Vatican Press Office. An Opus Dei spokesman says "the influence of Opus Dei
Opus Dei
in the Vatican has been exaggerated."[328] Of the nearly 200 cardinals in the Catholic Church, only two are known to be members of Opus Dei.[329] Banco Ambrosiano
Banco Ambrosiano
scandal Main article: Banco Ambrosiano Pope
Pope
John Paul was alleged to have links with Banco Ambrosiano, an Italian bank that collapsed in 1982.[168] At the centre of the bank's failure was its chairman, Roberto Calvi, and his membership in the illegal Masonic Lodge
Masonic Lodge
Propaganda Due
Propaganda Due
(aka P2). The Vatican Bank
Vatican Bank
was Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder, and the death of Pope
Pope
John Paul I in 1978 is rumoured to be linked to the Ambrosiano scandal.[169] Calvi, often referred to as "God's Banker", was also involved the Vatican Bank, Istituto per le Opere di Religione, in his dealings, and was close to Bishop Paul Marcinkus, the bank's chairman. Ambrosiano also provided funds for political parties in Italy, and for both the Somoza
Somoza
dictatorship in Nicaragua and its Sandinista opposition. It has been widely alleged that the Vatican Bank
Vatican Bank
provided money for Solidarity in Poland.[168][169] Calvi used his complex network of overseas banks and companies to move money out of Italy, to inflate share prices, and to arrange massive unsecured loans. In 1978, the Bank of Italy
Italy
produced a report on Ambrosiano that predicted future disaster.[169] On 5 June 1982, two weeks before the collapse of Banco Ambrosiano, Calvi had written a letter of warning to Pope
Pope
John Paul II, stating that such a forthcoming event would "provoke a catastrophe of unimaginable proportions in which the Church will suffer the gravest damage".[330] On 18 June 1982 Calvi's body was found hanging from scaffolding beneath Blackfriars Bridge
Blackfriars Bridge
in the financial district of London. Calvi's clothing was stuffed with bricks, and contained cash valued at US$14,000, in three different currencies.[331] Problems with traditionalists In addition to all the criticism from those demanding modernisation, traditionalist Catholics sometimes denounced him as well. These issues included demanding a return to the Tridentine Mass[332] and repudiation of the reforms instituted after the Second Vatican Council, such as the use of the vernacular language in the formerly Latin
Latin
Roman Rite
Roman Rite
Mass, ecumenism, and the principle of religious liberty. He also was criticised for allowing and appointing liberal bishops in their sees and thus silently promoting Modernism, which was firmly condemned as the "synthesis of all heresies" by his predecessor Pope
Pope
St. Pius X. In 1988, the controversial traditionalist Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, founder of the Society of St. Pius X
Society of St. Pius X
(1970), was excommunicated under John Paul II because of the unapproved ordination of four bishops, which was called by the Holy See
Holy See
a "schismatic act". The World Day of Prayer
Day of Prayer
for Peace,[333] with a meeting in Assisi, Italy, in 1986, in which the pope prayed only with the Christians,[334] was criticised for giving the impression that syncretism and indifferentism were openly embraced by the Papal Magisterium. When a second ' Day of Prayer
Day of Prayer
for Peace in the World'[335] was held, in 2002, it was condemned as confusing the laity and compromising to false religions. Likewise criticised was his kissing[336] of the Qur'an
Qur'an
in Damascus, Syria, on one of his travels on 6 May 2001. His call for religious freedom was not always supported; bishops like Antônio de Castro Mayer
Antônio de Castro Mayer
promoted religious tolerance, but at the same time rejected the Vatican II principle of religious liberty as being liberalist and already condemned by Pope Pius IX in his Syllabus errorum (1864) and at the First Vatican Council.[337] Religion and AIDS Main article: Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and HIV/AIDS John Paul's position against artificial birth control, including the use of condoms to prevent the spread of HIV,[308] was harshly criticised by doctors and AIDS activists, who said that it led to countless deaths and millions of AIDS orphans.[338] Critics have also claimed that large families are caused by lack of contraception and exacerbate Third World
Third World
poverty and problems such as street children in South America. The Catholic Agency for Overseas Development published a paper stating, "Any strategy that enables a person to move from a higher-risk towards the lower end of the continuum, [we] believe, is a valid risk reduction strategy."[339] Social programmes There was strong criticism of the pope for the controversy surrounding the alleged use of charitable social programmes as a means of converting people in the Third World
Third World
to Catholicism.[340][341] The pope created an uproar in the Indian subcontinent when he suggested that a great harvest of faith would be witnessed on the subcontinent in the third Christian millennium.[342] Ian Paisley In 1988, when Pope
Pope
John Paul II was delivering a speech to the European Parliament, Ian Paisley, the leader of the Democratic Unionist Party and Moderator of the Free Presbyterian Church of Ulster, shouted "I denounce you as the Antichrist!"[343][344] and held up a red banner reading " Pope
Pope
John Paul II ANTICHRIST". Otto von Habsburg (the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary), an MEP for Germany, snatched Paisley's banner, tore it up and, along with other MEPs, helped eject him from the chamber.[343][345][346][347][348] The pope continued with his address after Paisley had been ejected.[345][349][350] Međugorje
Međugorje
apparitions A number of quotes about the apparitions of Međugorje, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, have been attributed to John Paul II.[351] In 1998, when a certain German gathered various statements that were supposedly made by the pope and Cardinal Ratzinger, and then forwarded them to the Vatican in the form of a memorandum, Ratzinger responded in writing on 22 July 1998: "The only thing I can say regarding statements on Međugorje
Međugorje
ascribed to the Holy Father and myself is that they are complete invention."[352] Beatification
Beatification
controversy Some Catholic theologians disagreed with the call for the beatification of John Paul II. Eleven dissident theologians, including Jesuit professor José María Castillo and Italian theologian Giovanni Franzoni, said that his stance against contraception and the ordination of women as well as the Church scandals during his pontificate presented "facts which according to their consciences and convictions should be an obstacle to beatification".[citation needed] Some traditionalist Catholics opposed his beatification and canonisation for his views on liturgy and participation in prayer with non-Christians.[353] Stolen relic On 27 January 2014, it was reported that a relic of John Paul II, a vial containing drops of his blood, had been stolen from the church of San Pietro della Ienca north of L'Aquila
L'Aquila
in the mountainous Abruzzo region of central Italy, a region where he had loved to go on skiing vacations. Cardinal Dziwisz had previously given the vial to the church in recognition of its connections to the Pontiff. Because there are only three relics containing his blood, few or no other items were disturbed, and it would be difficult to sell, the investigating Italian police believe it was a commissioned theft, and speculated that the blood might be used in Satanic rites. The theft sparked a major search for the culprits.[354] Two men confessed to the crime, and an iron reliquary and a stolen cross, but not the relic, were recovered from the grounds of a drug rehabilitation facility in L'Aquila
L'Aquila
on 30 January; the blood was recovered shortly after from rubbish bins near where the reliquary had been found.[355] Personal life

Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka.

External video

Presentation by Carl Bernstein
Carl Bernstein
on His Holiness: John Paul II and the Hidden History of Our Time, September 24, 1996, C-SPAN

Having played the game himself as a goalkeeper, John Paul II was a fan of English football team Liverpool, where his compatriot Jerzy Dudek played in the same position.[356] In 1973, while still the archbishop of Kraków, Karol
Karol
Wojtyła befriended a Polish-born, later American philosopher, Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka. The thirty-two-year friendship (and occasional academic collaboration) lasted until his death.[74][75][76] She served as his host when he visited New England in 1976 and photos show them together on skiing and camping trips.[76] Letters that he wrote to her were part of a collection of documents sold by Tymieniecka’s estate in 2008 to the National Library of Poland.[76] According to the BBC the library had initially kept the letters from public view, partly because of John Paul’s path to sainthood, but a library official announced in February 2016 the letters would be made public.[76][357] In February 2016 the BBC documentary program Panorama reported that John Paul II had apparently had a 'close relationship' with the Polish-born philosopher.[76][77] The pair exchanged personal letters over 30 years, and Stourton believes that Tymieniecka had confessed her love for Wojtyła.[247][358] The Vatican described the documentary as "more smoke than mirrors", and Tymieniecka denied being involved with John Paul II.[359][360] Writers Carl Bernstein, the veteran investigative journalist of the Watergate scandal, and Vatican expert Marco Politi, were the first journalists to talk to Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka
Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka
in the 1990s about her importance in John Paul's life. They interviewed her and dedicated 20 pages to her in their 1996 book His Holiness.[247][248][361] Bernstein and Politi even asked her if she had ever developed any romantic relationship with John Paul II, "however one-sided it might have been." She responded, "No, I never fell in love with the cardinal. How could I fall in love with a middle-aged clergyman? Besides, I’m a married woman."[247][248] See also

Biography portal Christianity portal History portal

Beatifications by Pope
Pope
John Paul II Cardinals created by John Paul II Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church List of 10 longest-reigning popes List of Catholic saints List of peace activists List of places named after Pope
Pope
John Paul II List of popes The Rapid Development Museum of John Paul II and Primate Wyszynski Bolesław Taborski

References

^ English: Charles Joseph Wojtyła ^ In isolation, Józef is pronounced [ˈjuzɛf].

Notes

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Bertone, Tarcisio. "The Message of Fátima". The Holy See. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  "Cause for Beatification
Beatification
and Canonization
Canonization
of The Servant of God: John Paul II". Vicariato di Roma. Archived from the original on 30 December 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  "'Cured' Pope
Pope
Returns to Vatican". BBC News. 10 February 2005. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  Domínguez, Juan (4 April 2005). " Pope
Pope
John Paul II and Communism". religion-cults.com. Archived from the original on 6 April 2004. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  Dziwisz, Bishop Stanisław (13 May 2001). "13 May 1981 Conference of Bishop Stanisław Dziwisz
Stanisław Dziwisz
For Honorary Doctorate". CatholicCulture.org. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  "Frail Pope
Pope
Suffers Heart Failure". BBC News. 1 April 2005. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  "Half Alive: The Pope
Pope
Vs. His Doctors". Time magazine. 25 January 1982. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  (subscription required) " Pope
Pope
Back at Vatican by Easter? It's Possible". NBC News. Associated Press. 3 March 2005. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  Editorial (5 April 2005). " Pope
Pope
John Paul II". Voice Of America. Retrieved 2 February 2014.  " Pope
Pope
Returns to Vatican after op". BBC News. 13 March 2005. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  Sean Gannon (7 April 2006). "Papal Fallibility". Haaretz. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  "Stasi Files Implicate KGB
KGB
in Pope
Pope
Shooting". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 22 October 2014.  " Pope
Pope
John Paul II's Final Days". St Anthony Messenger Press. AmericanCatholic.org. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  Tchorek, Kamil; Roger Boyes (2 April 2005). "Kracow Lights a Candle for its Favourite Son's Last Fight". The Times. London. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  (subscription required) Vinci, Alessio (1 April 2005). "Vatican source: Pope
Pope
Given Last Rites". CNN. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  Alessio Vinci; Chris Burns; Jim Bittermann; Miguel Marquez; Walter Rodgers; Christiane Amanpour; John Allen (2 April 2005). "World Awaits Word on Pope's Condition". CNN. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 

Bibliography

Berry, Jason; Gerald Renner (2004). Vows of Silence: The Abuse of Power in the Papacy of John Paul II. New York, London, Toronto, Sydney: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-7432-4441-1.  Davies, Norman (2004). Rising '44: The Battle for Warsaw. London: Viking Penguin. ISBN 978-0-670-03284-6.  de Montfort, St. Louis-Marie Grignion (27 March 2007). True Devotion to Mary. Mark L. Jacobson (Translator). San Diego, California: Avetine Press. ISBN 978-1-59330-470-6.  Duffy, Eamon (2006). Saints and Sinners, a History of the Popes (Third ed.). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11597-0.  Hebblethwaite, Peter (1995). Pope
Pope
John Paul II and the Church. London: 1995 Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-55612-814-1.  Mannion, Gerard, ed. (2008). The Vision of John Paul II: Assessing His Thought and Influence. Collegeville, Mn.: Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-5309-8.  Maxwell-Stuart, P.G. (2006) [1997]. Chronicle of the Popes: Trying to Come Full Circle. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28608-1.  Menachery, Prof. George (11 November 1978). "John Paul II Election Surprises".  Menachery, Prof. George (11 April 2005). "Last days of Pope
Pope
John Paul II". [dead link] Meissen, Randall (2011). Living Miracles: The Spiritual Sons of John Paul the Great. Alpharetta, Ga.: Mission Network. ISBN 978-1-933271-27-9.  Noonan, Peggy (November 2005). John Paul the Great: Remembering a Spiritual Father. New York: Penguin Group (USA). ISBN 978-0-670-03748-3. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  Navarro-Valls, Joaquin (2 April 2005). Il Santo Padre è deceduto questa sera alle ore 21.37 nel Suo appartamento privato [The Holy Father passed away at 9:37 this evening in his private apartment.] (PDF) (in Italian). The Holy See.  O'Connor, Garry (2006). Universal Father: A Life of Pope
Pope
John Paul II. London: 2005 Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7475-8241-0. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  Pope
Pope
John Paul II (2005). Memory and Identity—Personal Reflections. London: 2006 Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-85075-5.  Renehan, Edward; Schlesinger, Arthur Meier (INT) (November 2006). Pope John Paul II. Chelsea House. ISBN 978-0-7910-9227-9. Retrieved 25 February 2010.  John Paul II, Pope
Pope
(2004). Rise, Let Us Be On Our Way. 2004 Warner Books. ISBN 978-0-446-57781-6.  Stanley, George E (January 2007). Pope
Pope
John Paul II: Young Man of the Church. Fitzgerald Books. ISBN 978-1-4242-1732-8. Retrieved 25 February 2010.  Stourton, Edward (2006). John Paul II: Man of History. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-90816-7.  Szulc, Tadeusz. Pope
Pope
John Paul II: The Biography. London: 2007 Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4165-8886-3.  The Poynter Institute (1 May 2005). Pope
Pope
John Paul II: 18 May 1920 - 2 April 2005 (First ed.). St. Petersburg, Florida: Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7407-5110-3. Retrieved 25 February 2010.  Weigel, George (2001). Witness to Hope. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-018793-4.  Wojtyła, Karol
Karol
(1981). Love and Responsibility. London: William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. ISBN 978-0-89870-445-7. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2009.  Yallop, David
David
(2007). The Power and the Glory. London: Constable & Robinson Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84529-673-5. Retrieved 1 January 2009. 

Further reading

For a comprehensive list of books written by and about Pope
Pope
John Paul II, please see Pope
Pope
John Paul II bibliography For other references see Pope
Pope
John Paul II in popular culture Works by or about Pope
Pope
John Paul II in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog)

External links

St. John Paul II at Encyclopædia Britannica John Paul the Great Catholic University The Holy See
Holy See
website Papal Transition 2005 Web Archive from the US Library of Congress Karol
Karol
Wojtyła on Culture.pl Tomb of John Paul II in St Peter's Text of the Apostolic Constitution Fidei Depositum Text of Laetamur magnopere, on the promulgation of the editio typica of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Appearances on C-SPAN Liturgical texts for the optional Memorial of St. John Paul II, Pope: Celebration of the Eucharist (English, Latin); Liturgy of the Hours (English, Latin) from The Holy See
Holy See
website.

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
titles

Preceded by Eugeniusz Baziak Archbishop
Archbishop
of Kraków 13 January 1964 – 16 October 1978 Succeeded by Franciszek Macharski

Preceded by John Paul I Pope 16 October 1978 – 2 April 2005 Succeeded by Benedict XVI

v t e

Pope
Pope
John Paul II

Born Karol
Karol
Józef Wojtyła, 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005

Pope
Pope
(1978–2005) Archbishop of Kraków
Archbishop of Kraków
(1963–1978)

Timeline

Emilia Wojtyła
Emilia Wojtyła
(mother) Karol
Karol
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and Canonisation

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Books

Love and Responsibility Crossing the Threshold of Hope Memory and Identity

Other writings

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Documents endorsed

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Related

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John Paul II College of Education

Airports

Bari Karol
Karol
Wojtyła Airport João Paulo II Airport John Paul II International Airport Kraków–Balice

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Peter Linus Anacletus Clement I Evaristus Alexander I Sixtus I Telesphorus Hyginus Pius I Anicetus Soter Eleutherius Victor I Zephyrinus Callixtus I Urban I Pontian Anterus Fabian Cornelius Lucius I Stephen I Sixtus II Dionysius Felix I Eutychian Caius Marcellinus Marcellus I Eusebius Miltiades Sylvester I Mark Julius I Liberius Damasus I Siricius Anastasius I

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9th–12th centuries Papal selection before 1059 Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012) Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044/1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)

Stephen IV Paschal I Eugene II Valentine Gregory IV Sergius II Leo IV Benedict III Nicholas I Adrian II John VIII Marinus I Adrian III Stephen V Formosus Boniface VI Stephen VI Romanus Theodore II John IX Benedict IV Leo V Sergius III Anastasius III Lando John X Leo VI Stephen VII John XI Leo VII Stephen VIII Marinus II Agapetus II John XII Benedict V Leo VIII John XIII Benedict VI Benedict VII John XIV John XV Gregory V Sylvester II John XVII John XVIII Sergius IV Benedict VIII John XIX Benedict IX Sylvester III Benedict IX Gregory VI Clement II Benedict IX Damasus II Leo IX Victor II Stephen IX Nicholas II Alexander II Gregory VII Victor III Urban II Paschal II Gelasius II Callixtus II Honorius II Innocent II Celestine II Lucius II Eugene III Anastasius IV Adrian IV Alexander III Lucius III Urban III Gregory VIII Clement III Celestine III Innocent III

13th–16th centuries Viterbo (1257–1281) Orvieto (1262–1297) Perugia (1228–1304) Avignon Papacy
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(1309–1378) Western Schism
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(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
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(1585–1689)

Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface VIII Benedict XI Clement V John XXII Benedict XII Clement VI Innocent VI Urban V Gregory XI Urban VI Boniface IX Innocent VII Gregory XII Martin V Eugene IV Nicholas V Callixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI Pius III Julius II Leo X Adrian VI Clement VII Paul III Julius III Marcellus II Paul IV Pius IV Pius V Gregory XIII Sixtus V Urban VII Gregory XIV Innocent IX Clement VIII

17th–20th centuries Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
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21st century

Benedict XVI Francis

History of the papacy

Antiquity and Early Middle Ages

During the Roman Empire (until 493)

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(493–537) Byzantine
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era (974–1012)

High and Late Middle Ages

Tusculan Papacy
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(1012–1044 / 1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257) Wandering Papacy

Viterbo, 1257–1281 Orvieto, 1262–1297 Perugia, 1228–1304

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(1309–1378) Western Schism
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(1378–1417)

Early Modern and Modern Era

Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689) Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
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Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

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Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

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Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

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Early Middle Ages

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High Middle Ages

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Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
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Innocent III Latin
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Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

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Alexander VI

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19th century

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Recipients of the Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Prize

1950–1975

1950 Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 1951 Hendrik Brugmans 1952 Alcide De Gasperi 1953 Jean Monnet 1954 Konrad Adenauer 1955 1956 Winston Churchill 1957 Paul-Henri Spaak 1958 Robert Schuman 1959 George Marshall 1960 Joseph Bech 1961 Walter Hallstein 1962 1963 Edward Heath 1964 Antonio Segni 1965 1966 Jens Otto Krag 1967 Joseph Luns 1968 1969 European Commission 1970 François Seydoux de Clausonne 1971 1972 Roy Jenkins 1973 Salvador de Madariaga 1974 1975

1976–2000

1976 Leo Tindemans 1977 Walter Scheel 1978 Konstantinos Karamanlis 1979 Emilio Colombo 1980 1981 Simone Veil 1982 King Juan Carlos I 1983 1984 1985 1986 People of Luxembourg 1987 Henry Kissinger 1988 François Mitterrand / Helmut Kohl 1989 Brother Roger 1990 Gyula Horn 1991 Václav Havel 1992 Jacques Delors 1993 Felipe González 1994 Gro Harlem Brundtland 1995 Franz Vranitzky 1996 Queen Beatrix 1997 Roman Herzog 1998 Bronisław Geremek 1999 Tony Blair 2000 Bill Clinton

2001–present

2001 György Konrád 2002 Euro 2003 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing 2004 Pat Cox / Pope
Pope
John Paul II1 2005 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 2006 Jean-Claude Juncker 2007 Javier Solana 2008 Angela Merkel 2009 Andrea Riccardi 2010 Donald Tusk 2011 Jean-Claude Trichet 2012 Wolfgang Schäuble 2013 Dalia Grybauskaitė 2014 Herman Van Rompuy 2015 Martin Schulz 2016 Pope
Pope
Francis 2017 Timothy Garton Ash

1 Received extraordinary prize.

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi
Mohandas Gandhi
(1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope
Pope
John XXIII (1962) Martin Luther
Martin Luther
King Jr. (1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope
Pope
John Paul II (1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David
David
Ho (1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

James Smithson Medal
James Smithson Medal
recipients

1965: Howard Florey 1968: Edgar P. Richardson 1976: Elizabeth II 1979: Pope
Pope
John Paul II 1986: Warren E. Burger 1991: Julie Johnson Kidd 1994: Robert McCormick Adams Jr. 1999: Ira Michael Heyman 2015: G. Wayne Clough

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Stages of canonization in the Catholic Church

Servant of God
God
  →   Venerable
Venerable
  →   Blessed   →   Saint

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 35605 LCCN: n78078345 ISNI: 0000 0001 2098 1449 GND: 118558064 SELIBR: 233162 SUDOC: 029093147 BNF: cb120790780 (data) BIBSYS: 90349498 ULAN: 500278046 MusicBrainz: b3e2a4cb-3e2b-4d77-b744-89dc43e8362b NLA: 35879484 NDL: 00444266 NKC: jn19981001536 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV00007 BNE: XX1054221 CiNii: DA02012

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