John Dalton FRS (/ˈdɔːltən/; 6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844)
was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist. He is best known
for proposing the modern atomic theory and for his research into
colour blindness, sometimes referred to as
Daltonism in his honour.
1 Early life
2 Early careers
3 Scientific contributions
3.1.1 Measuring mountains
3.2 Colour blindness
3.3 Gas laws
3.4 Atomic theory
3.5 Atomic weights
3.6 Other investigations
3.7 Experimental approach
4 Other publications
5 Public life
6 Personal life
7 Disability and death
9 See also
13 External links
John Dalton was born into a
Quaker family in Eaglesfield, near
Cockermouth, in Cumberland, England. His father was a weaver. He
received his early education from his father and from
Fletcher, who ran a private school in the nearby village of Pardshaw
Hall. Dalton's family was too poor to support him for long and he
began to earn his living at the age of ten in the service of a wealthy
local Quaker, Elihu Robinson. It is said he began teaching at a
local school at age 12, and became proficient in Latin at age 14.
When he was 15, Dalton joined his older brother Jonathan in running a
Quaker school in Kendal, Westmorland, about 45 miles (72 km) from
his home. Around the age of 23 Dalton may have considered studying law
or medicine, but his relatives did not encourage him, perhaps because
being a Dissenter, he was barred from attending English universities.
He acquired much scientific knowledge from informal instruction by
John Gough, a blind philosopher who was gifted in the sciences and
arts. At the age of 27 he was appointed teacher of mathematics and
natural philosophy at the "New College" in Manchester, a dissenting
academy (the lineal predecessor, following a number of changes of
location, of Harris
Manchester College, Oxford). He remained there
until the age of 34, when the college's worsening financial situation
led him to resign his post and begin a new career as a private tutor
in mathematics and natural philosophy.
Dalton's early life was influenced by a prominent Eaglesfield Quaker,
Elihu Robinson, a competent meteorologist and instrument maker, who
interested him in problems of mathematics and meteorology. During his
years in Kendal, Dalton contributed solutions to problems and answered
questions on various subjects in
The Ladies' Diary
The Ladies' Diary and the Gentleman's
Diary. In 1787 at age 21 he began his meteorological diary in which,
during the succeeding 57 years, he entered more than 200,000
observations. He rediscovered George Hadley's theory of atmospheric
circulation (now known as the Hadley cell) around this time. In
1793 Dalton's first publication, Meteorological Observations and
Essays, contained the seeds of several of his later discoveries but
despite the originality of his treatment, little attention was paid to
them by other scholars. A second work by Dalton, Elements of English
Grammar, was published in 1801.
After leaving the Lake District, Dalton returned annually to spend his
holidays studying meteorology, something which involved a lot of
hill-walking. Until the advent of aeroplanes and weather balloons, the
only way to make measurements of temperature and humidity at altitude
was to climb a mountain. Dalton estimated the height using a
Ordnance Survey did not publish maps for the Lake
District until the 1860s. Before then, Dalton was one of the few
authorities on the heights of the region's mountains. He was often
accompanied by Jonathan Otley, who also made a study of the heights of
the local peaks, using Dalton's figures as a comparison to check his
work. Otley published his information in his map of 1818. Otley became
both an assistant and a friend to Dalton.
In 1794, shortly after his arrival in Manchester, Dalton was elected a
member of the
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, the "Lit
& Phil", and a few weeks later he communicated his first paper on
"Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours", in which he
postulated that shortage in colour perception was caused by
discoloration of the liquid medium of the eyeball. As both he and his
brother were colour blind, he recognised that the condition must be
Although Dalton's theory lost credence in his lifetime, the thorough
and methodical nature of his research into his visual problem was so
broadly recognised that
Daltonism became a common term for colour
blindness.[a] Examination of his preserved eyeball in 1995
demonstrated that Dalton had a less common kind of colour blindness,
deuteroanopia, in which medium wavelength sensitive cones are missing
(rather than functioning with a mutated form of pigment, as in the
most common type of colour blindness, deuteroanomaly). Besides the
blue and purple of the optical spectrum he was only able to recognise
one colour, yellow, or, as he said in a paper,
That part of the image which others call red, appears to me little
more than a shade, or defect of light; after that the orange, yellow
and green seem one colour, which descends pretty uniformly from an
intense to a rare yellow, making what I should call different shades
Profiles in Chemistry:How John Dalton's meteorological studies led to
the discovery of atoms on YouTube, Chemical Heritage Foundation
In 1800, Dalton became secretary of the
Manchester Literary and
Philosophical Society, and in the following year he presented an
important series of lectures, entitled "Experimental Essays" on the
constitution of mixed gases; the pressure of steam and other vapours
at different temperatures in a vacuum and in air; on evaporation; and
on the thermal expansion of gases. The four essays, presented between
2 and 30 October 1801, were published in the Memoirs of the Literary
and Philosophical Society of
Manchester in 1802.
The second essay opens with the remark,
There can scarcely be a doubt entertained respecting the reducibility
of all elastic fluids of whatever kind, into liquids; and we ought not
to despair of effecting it in low temperatures and by strong pressures
exerted upon the unmixed gases further.
After describing experiments to ascertain the pressure of steam at
various points between 0 and 100 °C (32 and 212 °F),
Dalton concluded from observations of the vapour pressure of six
different liquids, that the variation of vapour pressure for all
liquids is equivalent, for the same variation of temperature,
reckoning from vapour of any given pressure.
In the fourth essay he remarks,
I see no sufficient reason why we may not conclude, that all elastic
fluids under the same pressure expand equally by heat—and that for
any given expansion of mercury, the corresponding expansion of air is
proportionally something less, the higher the temperature. ... It
seems, therefore, that general laws respecting the absolute quantity
and the nature of heat, are more likely to be derived from elastic
fluids than from other substances.
He enunciated Gay-Lussac's law, published in 1802 by Joseph Louis
Gay-Lussac credited the discovery to unpublished work from
the 1780s by Jacques Charles). In the two or three years following the
lectures, Dalton published several papers on similar topics. "On the
Absorption of Gases by Water and other Liquids" (read on 21 October
1803, published until 1805) contained his law of partial pressures
now known as Dalton's law.
The most important of all Dalton's investigations are concerned with
the atomic theory in chemistry. While his name is inseparably
associated with this theory, the origin of Dalton's atomic theory is
not fully understood. The theory may have been suggested to him
either by researches on ethylene (olefiant gas) and methane
(carburetted hydrogen) or by analysis of nitrous oxide (protoxide of
azote) and nitrogen dioxide (deutoxide of azote), both views resting
on the authority of Thomas Thomson.
From 1814 to 1819, Irish chemist William Higgins claimed that Dalton
had plagiarised his ideas, but Higgins' theory did not address
relative atomic mass. However, recent evidence suggests that
Dalton’s development of thought may have been influenced by the
ideas of another Irish chemist Bryan Higgins, who was William’s
uncle. Bryan believed that an atom was a heavy central particle
surrounded by an atmosphere of caloric, the supposed substance of heat
at the time. The size of the atom was determined by the diameter of
the caloric atmosphere. Based on the evidence, Dalton was aware of
Bryan’s theory and adopted very similar ideas and language, but he
never acknowledged Bryan’s anticipation of his caloric
A study of Dalton's laboratory notebooks, discovered in the rooms of
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, concluded that
so far from Dalton being led by his search for an explanation of the
law of multiple proportions to the idea that chemical combination
consists in the interaction of atoms of definite and characteristic
weight, the idea of atoms arose in his mind as a purely physical
concept, forced on him by study of the physical properties of the
atmosphere and other gases. The first published indications of this
idea are to be found at the end of his paper "On the Absorption of
Gases by Water and other Liquids" already mentioned. There he
Why does not water admit its bulk of every kind of gas alike? This
question I have duly considered, and though I am not able to satisfy
myself completely I am nearly persuaded that the circumstance depends
on the weight and number of the ultimate particles of the several
The main points of Dalton's atomic theory are:
Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms.
Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass and other
properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass and other
Atoms cannot be subdivided, created or destroyed.
Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to
form chemical compounds.
In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated or rearranged.
Dalton proposed an additional controversial "rule of greatest
simplicity" that could not be independently confirmed.
When atoms combine in only one ratio, "..it must be presumed to be a
binary one, unless some cause appear to the contrary".
For elements that combined in multiple ratios, their combinations were
assumed to be the simplest ones possible. Two combinations resulted in
a binary and a ternary compound. This was merely an assumption,
derived from faith in the simplicity of nature. No evidence was then
available to scientists to deduce how many atoms of each element
combine to form compound molecules. But this or some other such rule
was absolutely necessary to any incipient theory, since one needed an
assumed molecular formula in order to calculate relative atomic
weights. Dalton's "rule of greatest simplicity" caused him to assume
that the formula for water was OH and ammonia was NH, quite different
from our modern understanding (H2O, NH3). Despite the uncertainty at
the heart of Dalton's atomic theory, the principles of the theory
Various atoms and molecules as depicted in John Dalton's A New System
of Chemical Philosophy (1808).
Dalton published his table of relative atomic weights containing six
elements, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, sulfur and phosphorus,
with the atom of hydrogen conventionally assumed to weigh 1. Dalton
provided no indication in this paper how he had arrived at these
numbers but in his laboratory notebook, dated 6
September 1803, is a list in which he set out the relative weights
of the atoms of a number of elements, derived from analysis of water,
ammonia, carbon dioxide, etc. by chemists of the time.
The extension of this idea to substances in general necessarily led
him to the law of multiple proportions, and the comparison with
experiment brilliantly confirmed his deduction. In the paper "On
the Proportion of the Several Gases in the Atmosphere", read by him in
November 1802, the law of multiple proportions appears to be
anticipated in the words:
The elements of oxygen may combine with a certain portion of nitrous
gas or with twice that portion, but with no intermediate quantity.
But there is reason to suspect that this sentence may have been added
some time after the reading of the paper, which was not published
Compounds were listed as binary, ternary, quaternary, etc. (molecules
composed of two, three, four, etc. atoms) in the New System of
Chemical Philosophy depending on the number of atoms a compound had in
its simplest, empirical form.
Dalton hypothesised the structure of compounds can be represented in
whole number ratios. So, one atom of element X combining with one atom
of element Y is a binary compound. Furthermore, one atom of element X
combining with two atoms of element Y or vice versa, is a ternary
compound. Many of the first compounds listed in the New System of
Chemical Philosophy correspond to modern views, although many others
Dalton used his own symbols to visually represent the atomic structure
of compounds. They were depicted in the New System of Chemical
Philosophy, where he listed 20 elements and 17 simple molecules.
Dalton published papers on such diverse topics as rain and dew and the
origin of springs (hydrosphere); on heat, the colour of the sky, steam
and the reflection and refraction of light; and on the grammatical
subjects of the auxiliary verbs and participles of the English
As an investigator, Dalton was often content with rough and inaccurate
instruments, even though better ones were obtainable. Sir Humphry Davy
described him as "a very coarse experimenter", who almost always found
the results he required, trusting to his head rather than his hands.
On the other hand, historians who have replicated some of his crucial
experiments have confirmed Dalton's skill and precision.
In the preface to the second part of Volume I of his New System, he
says he had so often been misled by taking for granted the results of
others that he determined to write "as little as possible but what I
can attest by my own experience", but this independence he carried so
far that it sometimes resembled lack of receptivity. Thus he
distrusted, and probably never fully accepted, Gay-Lussac's
conclusions as to the combining volumes of gases.
He held unconventional views on chlorine. Even after its elementary
character had been settled by Davy, he persisted in using the atomic
weights he himself had adopted, even when they had been superseded by
the more accurate determinations of other chemists.
He always objected to the chemical notation devised by Jöns Jakob
Berzelius, although most thought that it was much simpler and more
convenient than his own cumbersome system of circular symbols.
Rees's Cyclopædia Dalton contributed articles on Chemistry and
Meteorology, but the topics are not known.
He contributed 117 Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society
Manchester from 1817 until his death in 1844 while president of
that organisation. Of these the earlier are the most important. In one
of them, read in 1814, he explains the principles of volumetric
analysis, in which he was one of the earliest researchers. In 1840 a
paper on phosphates and arsenates, often regarded as a weaker work,
was refused by the Royal Society, and he was so incensed that he
published it himself. He took the same course soon afterwards with
four other papers, two of which ("On the quantity of acids, bases and
salts in different varieties of salts" and "On a new and easy method
of analysing sugar") contain his discovery, regarded by him as second
in importance only to atomic theory, that certain anhydrates, when
dissolved in water, cause no increase in its volume, his inference
being that the salt enters into the pores of the water.
Even before he had propounded the atomic theory, Dalton had attained a
considerable scientific reputation. In 1803, he was chosen to give a
series of lectures on natural philosophy at the
Royal Institution in
London, and he delivered another series of lectures there in
1809–1810. Some witnesses reported that he was deficient in the
qualities that make an attractive lecturer, being harsh and indistinct
in voice, ineffective in the treatment of his subject, and singularly
wanting in the language and power of illustration.
In 1810, Sir
Humphry Davy asked him to offer himself as a candidate
for the fellowship of the Royal Society, but Dalton declined, possibly
for financial reasons. In 1822 he was proposed without his knowledge,
and on election paid the usual fee. Six years previously he had been
made a corresponding member of the French Académie des Sciences, and
in 1830 he was elected as one of its eight foreign associates in place
of Davy. In 1833, Earl Grey's government conferred on him a pension of
£150, raised in 1836 to £300. Dalton was elected a Foreign Honorary
Member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1834.
A young James Prescott Joule, who later studied and published (1843)
on the nature of heat and its relationship to mechanical work, was a
pupil of Dalton in his last years.
Dalton in later life by Thomas Phillips, National Portrait Gallery,
Dalton never married and had only a few close friends. As a Quaker, he
lived a modest and unassuming personal life.
For the 26 years prior to his death, Dalton lived in a room in the
home of the Rev W. Johns, a published botanist, and his wife, in
George Street, Manchester. Dalton and Johns died in the same year
Dalton's daily round of laboratory work and tutoring in
broken only by annual excursions to the
Lake District and occasional
visits to London. In 1822 he paid a short visit to Paris, where he met
many distinguished resident men of science. He attended several of the
earlier meetings of the British Association at York, Oxford, Dublin
Disability and death
Dalton suffered a minor stroke in 1837, and a second in 1838 left him
with a speech impairment, although he remained able to perform
experiments. In May 1844 he had another stroke; on 26 July 1844 he
recorded with trembling hand his last meteorological observation. On
27 July 1844, in Manchester, Dalton fell from his bed and was found
lifeless by his attendant.
Dalton was accorded a civic funeral with full honours. His body lay in
Manchester Town Hall for four days and more than 40,000
people filed past his coffin. The funeral procession included
representatives of the city’s major civic, commercial, and
scientific bodies. He was buried in
Manchester in Ardwick
cemetery. The cemetery is now a playing field, but pictures of the
original grave may be found in published materials.
Bust of Dalton by Chantrey, 1854
Statue of Dalton by Chantrey.
Much of Dalton's written work, collected by the
and Philosophical Society, was damaged during bombing on 24 December
1940. It prompted
Isaac Asimov to say, "John Dalton's records,
carefully preserved for a century, were destroyed during the World War
II bombing of Manchester. It is not only the living who are killed in
war". The damaged papers are in the John Rylands Library.
A bust of Dalton, by Chantrey, paid for by public subscription was
placed in the entrance hall of the Royal
Chantrey's large statue of Dalton, erected while Dalton was alive was
Manchester Town Hall in 1877. He "is probably the only
scientist who got a statue in his lifetime".
The Manchester-based Swiss phrenologist and sculptor William Bally
made a cast of the interior of Dalton's cranium and of a cyst therein,
having arrived at the
Manchester Royal Infirmary too late to make a
caste of the head and face. A cast of the head was made, by a Mr
Politi, whose arrival at the scene preceded that of Bally.
John Dalton Street connects
Deansgate and Albert Square in the centre
John Dalton building at
Manchester Metropolitan University is
occupied by the Faculty of Science and Engineering. Outside it stands
William Theed's statue of Dalton, erected in Piccadilly in 1855, and
moved there in 1966 .
A blue plaque commemorates the site of his laboratory at 36 George
Street in Manchester.
The University of
Manchester established two Dalton Chemical
Scholarships, two Dalton Mathematical Scholarships, and a Dalton Prize
for Natural History. A hall of residence is named Dalton Hall.
The Dalton Medal, has been awarded only twelve times by the Manchester
Literary and Philosophical Society.
A lunar crater was named after Dalton.
"Daltonism" became a common term for colour blindness and daltonien is
the French word for "colour blind".
The inorganic section of the UK's
Royal Society of Chemistry is named
after Dalton (Dalton Division), and the society's academic journal for
inorganic chemistry also bears his name (Dalton Transactions).
In honour of Dalton's work, many chemists and biochemists use the
(unofficial) designation dalton (abbreviated Da) to denote one atomic
mass unit (1/12 the weight of a neutral atom of carbon-12).
Quaker schools have named buildings after Dalton: for example, a
school house in the primary sector of Ackworth School, is called
Dalton Township in southern Ontario was named after him. In 2001 the
name was lost when the township was absorbed into the City of Kawartha
Lakes but in 2002 the Dalton name was affixed to a new park, Dalton
Digby Wildlands Provincial Park.
The standard author abbreviation Jn.Dalton is used to indicate this
person as the author when citing a botanical name.
Atomic mass unit
Atomic mass unit (dalton) – the atomic mass unit
Dalton Minimum – a period of low solar activity
^ Dalton believed that his vitreous humour possessed an abnormal blue
tint, causing his anomalous colour perception, and he gave
instructions for his eyes to be examined on his death, to test this
hypothesis. His wishes were duly carried out, but no blue colouration
was found, and Dalton's hypothesis was refuted. The shrivelled remains
of one eye have survived to this day, and now belong to the Manchester
Literary and Philosophical Society." see "John Dalton’s Colour
Book Review by Benedict Regan at bjo.bmj.com
^ a b "John Dalton". Science History Institute. Retrieved 20 March
^ "Pardshaw –
Quaker Meeting House". Retrieved 18 January
^ Davis, Peter. "Robinson, Elihu".
Oxford Dictionary of National
Biography (online ed.).
Oxford University Press.
doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/53552. (Subscription or UK public library
^ Smith, R. Angus (1856). Memoir of
John Dalton and History of the
Atomic Theory. London: H. Bailliere. p. 279.
ISBN 1-4021-6437-8. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
George Hadley Encyclopædia Britannica. Accessed 30 April 2009.
^ "Thomas West's Guide to the Lakes, 1778/1821". Archived from the
original on 25 November 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
^ Thomas Fletcher Smith Jonathan Otley, Man of Lakeland, publ.
Bookcase, 2007ISBN 978-1-904147-23-7
^ a b "Life and work of
John Dalton – Colour Blindness". BBC News.
^ Dalton, John (1798). "Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of
colours: with observations". Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical
Society of Manchester. 5: 28–45.
^ Dalton, John (1802). "Essay II. On the Force of Steam or
Water and Various other Liquids, both is a
Vacuum and in Air". Memoirs
of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. 2nd. 5:
^ Dalton, John (1802). "Essay IV. On the Expansion of Elastic Fluids
by Heat". Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of
Manchester. 2nd. 5: 600.
^ a b Dalton, John (1805). "On the Absorption of Gases by Water and
other Liquids". Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of
Manchester. 2nd. 6: 271–287.
^ Thackray, Arnold W. (1966). "The Origin of Dalton's Chemical Atomic
Theory: Daltonian Doubts Resolved". Isis. The University of Chicago
Press on behalf of The History of Science Society. 57 (1): 35–55.
doi:10.1086/350077. ISSN 0021-1753. JSTOR 228689.
^ Thomson, Thomas (1810). The Elements of Chemistry. J. & A.Y.
Humphreys. p. 480.
^ Wheeler, T. S and Partington, J. R. (1960). The life and work of
William Higgins, chemist, 1763-1825 including reprints of "A
comparative view of the phlogistic and antiphlogistic theories" and
"Observations on the atomic theory and electrical phenomena" by
William Higgins. Pergamon Press. CS1 maint: Multiple names:
authors list (link)
^ Grossman, Mark I. (2010-12-20). "William Higgins at the Dublin
Society, 1810–20: the loss of a professorship and a claim to the
atomic theory". Notes and Records. 64 (4): 417–434.
doi:10.1098/rsnr.2010.0020. ISSN 0035-9149.
^ Grossman, Mark I. (2014-12-20). "
John Dalton and the London
atomists: William and Bryan Higgins, William Austin, and new Daltonian
doubts about the origin of the atomic theory". Notes Rec. 68 (4):
339–356. doi:10.1098/rsnr.2014.0025. ISSN 0035-9149.
PMC 4213434 .
^ Grossman, Mark I. (December 2017). "
John Dalton and the origin of
the atomic theory: reassessing the influence of Bryan Higgins". The
British Journal for the History of Science. 50 (4): 657–676.
^ Roscoe & Harden 1896.
^ Levere, Trevor (2001). Transforming Matter: A History of Chemistry
from Alchemy to the Buckyball. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins
University Press. pp. 84–86. ISBN 0-8018-6610-3.
^ Roscoe & Harden 1896, p. 83.
^ Roscoe & Harden 1896, pp. 50-51.
^ Dalton, John (1805). "On the Proportion of the Several Gases in the
Atmosphere". Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of
Manchester. 2nd. 6: 244–258.
Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter D" (PDF). American Academy of
Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
^ Smith, Robert Angus (1856). "Memoir of
John Dalton and History of
the Atomic Theory up to his time". Memoirs of the Literary and
Philosophical Society of
Manchester (hardcover)format= requires url=
(help). Second. London: H. Bailliere. 13: 298.
^ "Dalton, John". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles
Scribner's Sons. 2008. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
^ a b King, Kristine (10 October 2003). "Science celebrates 'father of
nanotech'". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-11-09.
^ Patterson, Elizabeth C. (1970).
John Dalton and the Atomic Theory.
Garden City, New York: Doubleday.
^ Elliott, T. Lenton (1953). "John Dalton's Grave". Journal of
Chemical Education. 30 (11): 569. Bibcode:1953JChEd..30..569E.
doi:10.1021/ed030p569. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008.
Retrieved 24 December 2007.
^ Millington, John Price (1906). John Dalton. London: J. M. Dent &
Company. pp. 201–208. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
^ "The Late Dr Dalton". The
Manchester Guardian. 3 August 1844.
John Dalton blue plaque". openplaques.org. Retrieved 26 August
^ Limited, Alamy. "Stock Photo -
Blue plaque for John Dalton, 36
George St. Manchester". Alamy. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
^ IPNI. Jn.Dalton.
Greenaway, Frank (1966).
John Dalton and the Atom. Ithaca, New York:
Cornell University Press.
Henry, William C. (1854). Memoirs of the Life and Scientific
Researches of John Dalton. London: Cavendish Society. Retrieved 24
Hunt, D. M.; Dulai, K. S.; Bowmaker, J. K.; Mollon, J. D. (1995). "The
Chemistry of John Dalton's Color Blindness". Science. 267 (5200):
984–988. Bibcode:1995Sci...267..984H. doi:10.1126/science.7863342.
Lonsdale, Henry (1874). The Worthies of Cumberland: John Dalton.
George Routledge and Sons: George. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
Millington, John Price (1906). John Dalton. London: J. M. Dent &
Company. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
Patterson, Elizabeth C. (1970).
John Dalton and the Atomic Theory.
Garden City, New York: Anchor.
Rocke, A. J. (2005). "In Search of El Dorado:
John Dalton and the
Origins of the Atomic Theory". Social Research. 72: 125–158.
Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 24 December
Roscoe, Henry E. (1895).
John Dalton and the Rise of Modern Chemistry.
London: Macmillan. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
Roscoe, Henry E. & Harden, Arthur (1896). A New View of the Origin
of Dalton's Atomic Theory. London: Macmillan. ISBN 1-4369-2630-0.
Retrieved 24 December 2007.
Smith, R. Angus (1856). Memoir of
John Dalton and History of the
Atomic Theory. London: H. Bailliere. ISBN 1-4021-6437-8.
Retrieved 24 December 2007.
Smyth, A. L. (1998). John Dalton, 1766–1844: A Bibliography of Works
by and About Him, With an Annotated List of His Surviving Apparatus
and Personal Effects. ISBN 1-85928-438-8. - Original edition
Manchester University Press in 1966
Thackray, Arnold (1972). John Dalton: Critical Assessments of His Life
and Science. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-47525-9.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Dalton
Media related to
John Dalton at Wikimedia Commons
Works written by or about
John Dalton at Wikisource
"Dalton, John (1766–1844)". Dictionary of National Biography.
Dalton, John (1834). Meteorological Observations and Essays (2 ed.).
Manchester: Harrison and Crosfield. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
Dalton, John (1893). Foundations of the Atomic Theory. Edinburgh:
William F. Clay. Retrieved 24 December 2007. – Alembic Club
reprint with some of Dalton's papers, along with some by William Hyde
Wollaston and Thomas Thomson
Dalton, John (1808). A new system of chemical philosophy.
ISBN 1-153-05671-2. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
John Dalton Papers at John Rylands Library, Manchester.
Dalton model (Billiard ball model)
Thomson model (Plum pudding model)
Lewis model (
Cubical atom model)
Nagaoka model (Saturnian model)
Rutherford model (Planetary model)
Bohr model (Rutherford–Bohr model)
Bohr–Sommerfeld model (Refined Bohr model)
Gryziński model (Free-fall model)
Schrodinger model (Electron cloud model)
Dirac-Gordon model (Relativistic atomic model)
Atoms in solids
Free electron model
Nearly free electron model
Density functional theory
Atoms in fluids
Van der Waals gas
Gilbert N. Lewis
J. J. Thomson
Johannes Diderik van der Waals
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