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James Arthur Lovell Jr. (born March 25, 1928) is a former NASA astronaut and a retired captain in the United States Navy. He is most famous as the commander of the Apollo 13
Apollo 13
mission, which suffered a critical failure en route to the Moon
Moon
but was brought back safely to Earth by the efforts of the crew and mission control. Lovell was also the command module pilot of Apollo 8, the first Apollo mission to enter lunar orbit. He is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He is one of only 24 people to have flown to the Moon. He is the first of only three people to fly to the Moon
Moon
twice, and the only one to have flown there twice without making a landing. Lovell was also the first person to fly in space four times.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Marriage and family 3 United States Navy 4 NASA
NASA
career

4.1 Gemini program 4.2 Apollo program

4.2.1 Apollo 8 4.2.2 Apollo 13

5 Later career 6 Tributes 7 Formal education 8 Awards and decorations

8.1 Military, federal service, and foreign awards 8.2 Other awards and accomplishments

9 In popular culture 10 References 11 External links

Early life Born in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1928, Lovell was the only child of his mother Blanche, who was of Czech descent, and his father, a coal furnace salesman, who died in a car accident in 1933.[1] For about two years, he and his mother resided with a relative in Terre Haute, Indiana. His mother then moved them to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he graduated from Juneau High School. He became an Eagle Scout.[2][3][4][5] As a child, Lovell was interested in rocketry, and built flying models.[6] From the fall of 1946 to the spring of 1948, he attended the University of Wisconsin–Madison
University of Wisconsin–Madison
for two years under the "Flying Midshipman" program. There he continued to play football and joined the Alpha Phi Omega
Alpha Phi Omega
fraternity. He later became an Eagle Scout.[1] While Lovell was attending pre-flight training in the summer of 1948, the Navy was beginning to make cutbacks in the program and cadets were under a great deal of pressure to transfer out. There were even worries that some or most of the pilots who graduated would not have pilot billets to fill. (This threat persisted until the outbreak of the Korean War
Korean War
in 1950.) He applied and was accepted to attend the United States Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy
in the fall of 1948. During his first year he wrote a treatise on the liquid fueled rocket engine. He attended Annapolis
Annapolis
for the full four years, graduating as an Ensign in the spring of 1952 with a B.S. degree. He then went to flight training at NAS Pensacola
NAS Pensacola
from October 1952 to February 1954.[1]

Lovell and his wife Marilyn in 2009

Marriage and family He married Marilyn Lillie Gerlach (b. July 11, 1930), the daughter of Lillie (née Nordrum 1891–1974) and Carl Gerlach. The two were high-school sweethearts at Juneau High School in Milwaukee.[7] Marilyn was hesitant initially about dating Jim because he was two years older, but the two became inseparable after their first date. She transferred from Wisconsin State Teachers College to George Washington University in Washington D.C.
Washington D.C.
so she could be near him while he was training in Annapolis. They married after his graduation from the Naval Academy on June 6, 1952.[8][9] They have four children: Barbara (born in 1953), James (1955), Susan (1958), and Jeffrey (1966). Due to her husband often being absent from their home because of training and missions, Marilyn was in charge of taking care of their household and the four children. The 1995 film Apollo 13
Apollo 13
portrayed the family's home life during the Apollo 13 mission of 1970. Actress Kathleen Quinlan
Kathleen Quinlan
was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
for her performance as Marilyn Lovell.[10] In 1999 the Lovell family opened Lovell's of Lake Forest, a fine dining restaurant in Lake Forest, Illinois. The restaurant displayed many artifacts from Lovell's time with NASA, as well as from the filming of Apollo 13. His son James "Jay" Lovell III was the executive chef.[11] He sold the restaurant to Jay and his wife Darice in 2006. The Lovell family announced that the restaurant building and surrounding property was on the market in February 2014.[12] The restaurant closed on April 12, 2015, and the property (but not the memorabilia) was auctioned on April 22, 2015.[13] United States Navy Lovell was designated a Naval Aviator on February 1, 1954. Upon completion of pilot training he was assigned to VC-3 at Moffett Field near San Francisco, California. From 1954 to 1956 he flew F2H-3 Banshee night fighters. This included a WestPac embarkation aboard the USS Shangri-La
USS Shangri-La
(CVA-38), when she emerged from refit as only the second USN carrier with the new angled deck. Upon his return ashore, he was reassigned to provide pilot transition training for the F3H Demon [14]. In January 1958, he entered a six-month test pilot training course at what was then the Naval Air Test Center (now the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School) at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, (also known as Pax River). Two of his classmates were Charles (Peter) Conrad and Wally Schirra. Lovell graduated first in his class.[6] Later that year, Lovell, Conrad, and Schirra became three of 110 military test pilots selected as potential astronaut candidates for Project Mercury. Schirra went on to become one of the Mercury Seven, but Lovell and Conrad failed to make the cut for medical reasons: Lovell because of a temporarily high bilirubin count in his blood[6] and Conrad for refusing to take the second round of invasive medical tests. At Pax River he was assigned to Electronics Test (later Weapons Test), using the call sign "Shaky", a nickname given him by Conrad.[15] He became F4H program manager, during which time John Young served under him. In 1961 he was ordered to VF-101 "Detachment Alpha" as an F4H instructor for the first East Coast squadron personnel. NASA
NASA
career In 1962 NASA
NASA
needed a second group of astronauts for the Gemini and Apollo programs. Lovell applied a second time and was accepted into NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Group 2, (The New Nine) as was Conrad.[16] Gemini program

Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin
and Lovell on the deck of their recovery ship after Gemini 12.

Lovell was selected as backup pilot for Gemini 4. This put him in position for his first space flight three missions later, as pilot of Gemini 7
Gemini 7
with Command Pilot Frank Borman
Frank Borman
in December 1965. The flight's objective was to evaluate the effects on the crew and spacecraft from fourteen days in orbit.[17] This fourteen-day flight set an endurance record making 206 orbits. It was also the target vehicle for the first space rendezvous with Gemini 6A.[18] Lovell was later scheduled to be the backup command pilot of Gemini 10. But after the deaths of the Gemini 9 prime crew Elliot See
Elliot See
and Charles Bassett, he replaced Thomas P. Stafford
Thomas P. Stafford
as backup commander of Gemini 9A. This again positioned Lovell for his second flight and first command, of Gemini 12
Gemini 12
in November 1966 with Pilot Buzz Aldrin. This flight had three extravehicular activities, made 59 orbits, and achieved the fifth space rendezvous and fourth space docking with an Agena target vehicle. This mission was successful because it proved that humans can work effectively outside the spacecraft, paved the way for the Apollo missions, and helped reach the goal of getting man on the moon by the end of the decade. Apollo program Apollo 8

Lovell at the Command Module Guidance and Navigation station during the Apollo 8
Apollo 8
mission.

Main article: Apollo 8 Lovell was originally chosen as Command Module pilot (CMP) on the backup crew for Apollo 9
Apollo 9
along with Neil Armstrong
Neil Armstrong
as commander and Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin
as lunar module pilot (LMP). Apollo 9
Apollo 9
was planned as a high-apogee Earth orbital test of the Lunar Module (LM). Lovell later replaced Michael Collins as CMP on the Apollo 9
Apollo 9
prime crew when Collins needed to have surgery for a bone spur on his spine. This reunited Lovell with his Gemini 7
Gemini 7
commander Frank Borman, and LM pilot William Anders.[19] Construction delays of the first manned LM prevented it from being ready in time to fly on Apollo 8, planned as a low Earth orbit test. It was decided to swap the Apollo 8
Apollo 8
and Apollo 9
Apollo 9
prime and backup crews in the flight schedule so that the crew trained for the low-orbit test could fly it as Apollo 9, when the LM would be ready. A lunar orbital flight, now Apollo 8
Apollo 8
replaced the original Apollo 9 medium Earth orbit test. Borman, Lovell and Anders were launched on December 21, 1968, becoming the first men to travel to the Moon.[20] As CM Pilot, Lovell served as the navigator, using the spacecraft's built-in sextant to determine its position by measuring star positions. This information was then used to calculate required mid-course corrections. The craft entered lunar orbit on Christmas Eve and made a total of ten orbits, most of them circular at an altitude of approximately 70 miles (110 km) for a total of twenty hours. They broadcast black-and-white television pictures of the lunar surface back to Earth. Lovell took his turn with Borman and Anders in reading a passage from the Biblical creation story in the Book
Book
of Genesis.[21] They began their return to Earth on Christmas Day with a rocket burn made on the Moon's far side, out of radio contact with Earth. (For this reason, the lunar orbit insertion and trans-Earth injection burns were the two most tense moments of this first lunar mission.) When contact was re-established, Lovell was the first to announce the good news, "Please be informed, there is a Santa Claus." The crew splashed down safely on Earth on December 27.[22] Apollo 13

Lovell in front of the launch pad before the Apollo 13
Apollo 13
mission

Lovell reads a newspaper account of Apollo 13's safe return aboard recovery vessel USS Iwo Jima.

Main article: Apollo 13 Lovell was backup commander of Apollo 11
Apollo 11
and was scheduled to command Apollo 14. Instead, he and his crew swapped missions with the crew of Apollo 13, as it was felt the commander of the other crew, Alan Shepard, needed more time to train after having been grounded for a long period by an ear problem.[23] Lovell lifted off aboard Apollo 13 on April 11, 1970, with CM Pilot Jack Swigert
Jack Swigert
and LM Pilot Fred Haise.[24] He and Haise were to land on the Moon.[25] During a routine cryogenic oxygen tank stir in transit to the Moon, a fire started inside an oxygen tank. The most probable cause determined by NASA
NASA
was damaged electrical insulation on wiring that created a spark that started the fire.[26] Liquid oxygen
Liquid oxygen
rapidly turned into a high-pressure gas, which burst the tank and caused the leak of a second oxygen tank. In just over two hours, all on-board oxygen was lost, disabling the hydrogen fuel cells that provided electrical power to the Command/Service Module Odyssey. This required an immediate abort of the Moon
Moon
landing mission; the sole objective now was to safely return the crew to Earth. Using the LM as a "life boat" providing battery power, oxygen, and propulsion, Lovell and his crew re-established the free return trajectory that they had left, and swung around the Moon
Moon
to return home. Based on the flight controllers' calculations made on Earth, Lovell had to adjust the course twice by manually controlling the Lunar Module's thrusters and engine, using his watch for timing. Apollo 13
Apollo 13
returned safely to Earth on April 17. Lovell is one of only three men to travel to the Moon
Moon
twice, but unlike John Young and Eugene Cernan, he never walked on it. He accrued over 715 hours, and had seen a total of 269 sunrises from space, on his Gemini and Apollo flights. This was a personal record that stood until the Skylab 3
Skylab 3
mission in July through September 1973.[27] Apollo 13's flight trajectory gives Lovell, Haise, and Swigert the record for the farthest distance that humans have ever traveled from Earth.[28][29][30] Later career

Lovell speaking at the North Carolina Science Festival
North Carolina Science Festival
in April 2017

Lovell retired from the Navy and the space program in 1973 and went to work at the Bay- Houston
Houston
Towing Company in Houston, Texas, becoming CEO in 1975. He became president of Fisk Telephone Systems in 1977, and later worked for Centel, retiring as an executive vice president on January 1, 1991. Lovell, a recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award,[31] later served as the President of the National Eagle Scout Association in the mid-1990s. He was also recognized by the Boy Scouts of America with their prestigious Silver Buffalo
Silver Buffalo
Award.[32] Along with Jeffrey Kluger, Lovell wrote a book about the Apollo 13 mission, Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13.[6] It was the basis for the Ron Howard
Ron Howard
movie Apollo 13. Lovell's first impression on being approached about the film was that Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
would be a good choice to portray him, given the physical resemblance,[33] but Tom Hanks was cast in the role. In order to prepare, Hanks visited Lovell and his wife at their home in Texas and even flew with Lovell in his private airplane. In the film, Lovell has a cameo as the captain of the USS Iwo Jima, the naval vessel that led the operation to recover the Apollo 13 astronauts after their successful splashdown. Lovell can be seen as the naval officer shaking Hanks' hand, as Hanks speaks in voice-over, in the scene where the astronauts come aboard the Iwo Jima. Filmmakers initially offered to make Lovell's character an admiral aboard the ship (presumably Rear Admiral Donald C. Davis, Commander Task Force 130 (CTF 130), who was the senior officer aboard and welcomed them home). However, Lovell said "I retired as a Captain and a Captain I will be." He was cast as the ship's skipper, Captain Leland E. Kirkemo.[34] Along with his wife Marilyn, who also has a cameo in the film, he provided a commentary track on both the single disc and the two-disc special edition DVD.[35] He has served on the Board of Directors for several organizations, including Federal Signal Corporation
Federal Signal Corporation
in Chicago (1984–2003), Astronautics Corporation of America
Astronautics Corporation of America
in his hometown of Milwaukee (1990–1999), and Centel
Centel
Corporation in Chicago (1987–1991).[36][37][38][39][40] Lovell also visits colleges and universities where he gives speeches on his experiences as an astronaut and businessman. He strongly urges students to get involved in science and the space program, and he credits NASA
NASA
in the 1960s with bringing much of the country together for a common goal. Tributes A small crater on the far side of the Moon
Moon
is named Lovell in his honor.[41] North James Lovell Street is the stretch of 7th Street between W. State Street and W. Clybourn Street in downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin.[42] Discovery World
Discovery World
in Milwaukee
Milwaukee
was also named The James Lovell Museum of Science, Economics and Technology. It was located on James Lovell St., also named for Lovell.[43] The Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center
Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center
was completed in October 2010, merging the Naval Health Clinic Great Lakes and the North Chicago Veterans Affairs Medical Center.[44] Lovell Court is a street in the North Harbour Industrial Estate on the north shore of Auckland, New Zealand. Several streets in the area have names whose origins honor the US Apollo and Space Shuttle programs, including Armstrong Drive, Columbia Place, John Glenn
John Glenn
Avenue, and Ride Way.[45] Formal education Lovell's formal education consisted of the following:[46]

University of Wisconsin–Madison United States Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy
(BS, 1952) United States Naval Test Pilot School, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland
Maryland
(1958) Aviation Safety School, University of Southern California
University of Southern California
(1961) Advanced Management Program, Harvard Business School
Harvard Business School
(1978)

Awards and decorations Lovell's awards and decorations include:[47][48] Military, federal service, and foreign awards

Naval Astronaut
Astronaut
Badge Naval Aviator Badge

Navy Distinguished Service Medal with star[36]

Distinguished Flying Cross with star[36] Air Medal Navy Commendation Medal

Presidential Medal of Freedom[36] Congressional Space Medal of Honor NASA
NASA
Distinguished Service Medal[36]

NASA
NASA
Exceptional Service Medal with star China Service Medal World War II Victory Medal

National Defense Service Medal with star Navy Expeditionary Medal Légion d'honneur (Commandeur)

Other awards and accomplishments

Eagle Scout (Boy Scouts of America)
Eagle Scout (Boy Scouts of America)
(1943) and Distinguished Eagle Scout Award (1976)[49] Silver Buffalo
Silver Buffalo
(Boy Scouts of America) (1992)[50] Harmon International Trophy (1966, 1967 and 1969)[36] Alpha Phi Omega
Alpha Phi Omega
Fall Pledge Class Namesake (1967)[51] Robert J. Collier Trophy
Collier Trophy
(1968)[36] Dr. Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy (1969)[36] Henry H. Arnold
Henry H. Arnold
Trophy (1969)[52] General Thomas D. White
Thomas D. White
USAF
USAF
Space Trophy (1969)[36] City of Houston
Houston
Medal for Valor (1969)[36] American Academy of Achievement Golden Plate Award[36] City of New York Gold Medal (1969)[36] National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences Special
Special
Trustees Award (1969)[36] Institute of Navigation Award (1969)[36] University of Wisconsin's Distinguished Alumni Service Award (1970)[36] AIAA Haley Astronautics Award (1970)[36] Awarded an honorary doctor of laws degree at William Paterson College's commencement exercises (June 15, 1974) NASA
NASA
Ambassadors of Exploration Award[53] Fédération Aéronautique Internationale
Fédération Aéronautique Internationale
(FAI) De Laval Medal & Gold Space Medals[47] National Geographic Society's Hubbard Medal[54] Space Foundation's General James E. Hill
James E. Hill
Lifetime Space Achievement Award (2003)[55] In a 2010 Space Foundation survey, Lovell was ranked as the #4 most popular space hero[56] Laureate of the Order of Lincoln—the highest honor awarded by the state of Illinois (2012)[57] Fellow in the Society of Experimental Test Pilots[36] Time Magazine Person of the Year (1968; with Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts Frank Borman and William Anders)[58] Cover of Time magazine on January 3, 1969 and April 27, 1970[59] Cover of Life magazine on April 24, 1970[60] United States Astronaut
Astronaut
Hall of Fame, March 19, 1993[61] The Honourable Company of Air Pilots Award of Honour, presented by His Royal Highness
Royal Highness
the Duke of York, October 2013[62] Member of Toastmasters International[63] Trustee of the National Space Institute[36] Chairman of the National Eagle Scouts Association[36]

In popular culture About a month after the return to Earth of Apollo 13, Lovell and his crewmates, Fred Haise
Fred Haise
and Jack Swigert, appeared on The Tonight Show with host Johnny Carson. The introduction of this segment of the show is featured on Lost Moon: The Triumph of Apollo 13
Apollo 13
on the single disc DVD version of the movie. In 1976, Lovell made a cameo appearance in the Nicolas Roeg movie The Man Who Fell to Earth.[64] In 1995, actor Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
portrayed Lovell in the hit movie Apollo 13, based on Lovell's book Lost Moon.[65] Lovell himself makes a cameo in this movie, playing the captain of the USS Iwo Jima at the end of the film. In 1998, actor Tim Daly
Tim Daly
portrayed Lovell in portions of the HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon.[66] The film depicts Lovell during his missions aboard Gemini 12, Apollo 8, and Apollo 13, though he is not seen on screen during the latter mission. Lovell is one of the astronauts featured in the book and documentaries In the Shadow of the Moon
Moon
and When We Left Earth.[67] On November 13, 2008, Lovell and fellow Apollo 8
Apollo 8
crew members Frank Borman and Bill Anders
Bill Anders
appeared on the NASA
NASA
TV channel to discuss the Apollo 8
Apollo 8
mission. The three former astronauts later appeared together for a panel discussion centering on Apollo 8
Apollo 8
at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library on April 23, 2009, a discussion that was videotaped by C-SPAN.[68] On July 20, 2014, the 45th anniversary of Apollo 11's landing on the Moon, CBS Sunday Morning
CBS Sunday Morning
correspondent Lee Cowan and his crew did a piece called " Astronaut
Astronaut
wives: The other space pioneers" featuring James Lovell and his wife Marilyn. They celebrated their 62nd wedding anniversary in June.[69] In 2018, actor Pablo Schreiber
Pablo Schreiber
will portray Lovell in the film First Man.

Spaceflight portal United States Navy
United States Navy
portal

References

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Milwaukee
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Gemini 7
Drew Ex Machina". Retrieved April 2, 2017.  ^ "Gemini 7, NSSDCA/COSPAR ID: 1965-100A". NASA. Retrieved May 28, 2017.  ^ "Selecting and Training Crews". history.nasa.gov. Retrieved March 18, 2018.  ^ Ertel, Ivan D.; Newkirk, Roland W.; et al. (1969–1978). "Part 2 (N): Recovery, Spacecraft Redefinition, and First Manned Apollo Flight: August through September 1968". The Apollo Spacecraft: A Chronology. IV. Washington, D.C.: NASA. LCCN 69060008. OCLC 23818. NASA
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SP-4009. Archived from the original on February 5, 2008. Retrieved January 29, 2008.  ^ "The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Christmas Eve Broadcast". NASA. Retrieved December 29, 2017.  ^ "Apollo 8: Christmas at the Moon". NASA. December 18, 2014. Retrieved December 29, 2017.  ^ Slayton, Donald K. "Deke"; Cassutt, Michael (1994). Deke! U.S. Manned Space: From Mercury to the Shuttle (1st ed.). New York: Forge. p. 236. ISBN 0-312-85503-6.  ^ "Apollo 13". NASA. July 8, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2017.  ^ McKie, Robin (April 16, 2017). "Apollo 13: celebrating the unsung heroes of mission control". The Guardian. Retrieved December 29, 2017.  ^ Cortright, Edgar M. (June 15, 1970), Report of the Apollo 13
Apollo 13
Review Board (PDF), Washington, D.C.: NASA  Text (.TXT) file of report here. Multi-part PDF files of the report are available here Archived June 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. and here Archived May 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. ^ The Skylab 3
Skylab 3
crew spent 1427 hours in space, in addition to commander Alan Bean's over 244 hours on Apollo 12, giving him the second record. ^ Salgado, José Francisco (June 30, 2006). "Captain James A. Lovell Jr. Timeline" (PDF). Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-04.  ^ Glenday, Craig, ed. (2010). Guinness World Records 2010. New York: Bantam Books. p. 13. ISBN 0-553-59337-4.  ^ Wall, Mike (April 5, 2016). "The Most Extreme Human Spaceflight Records". Space.com.  ^ "Distinguished Eagle Scouts" (PDF). Scouting.org. Retrieved November 4, 2010.  ^ " Silver Buffalo
Silver Buffalo
Award". Boy Scouts of America: Buckeye Council. Retrieved December 26, 2017.  ^ Apollo 13: 2-Disc Anniversary Edition (Disc 1), Special Features:Commentary track by Jim and Marilyn Lovell (DVD). Universal Studios. March 19, 2005.  ^ " NASA
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Apollo 13
Full Cast and Crew". IMDb. Retrieved December 29, 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s " Astronaut
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Federal Signal Corporation
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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jim Lovell.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jim Lovell

Lovell's official NASA
NASA
biography Appearances on C-SPAN Jim Lovell
Jim Lovell
on IMDb

v t e

Recipients of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor

Michael P. Anderson Neil Armstrong Frank Borman David M. Brown Roger B. Chaffee Kalpana Chawla Laurel Clark Charles "Pete" Conrad Robert Crippen John Glenn Virgil "Gus" Grissom Rick Husband Gregory Jarvis Jim Lovell Shannon Lucid Christa McAuliffe William C. McCool Ronald McNair Ellison Onizuka Ilan Ramon Judith Resnik Dick Scobee Alan Shepard William Shepherd Michael J. Smith Thomas P. Stafford Ed White John Young

Italics indicate the award was bestowed posthumously

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Group 2, "The New Nine, The Next Nine, The Nifty Nine", 1962

NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Group 1 ← NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Group 2 → NASA
NASA
Astronaut Group 3

Neil Armstrong Frank Borman Charles "Pete" Conrad Jim Lovell James McDivitt Elliot See Thomas P. Stafford Ed White John Young

v t e

NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Groups NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Corps

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 List of astronauts by year of selection

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 114391898 LCCN: n94065237 ISNI: 0000 0001 1699 9267 GND: 1103709429 SUDOC: 034164707 BNF: cb12495028k (data) BIBSYS: 6016299 MusicBrainz: e3aac969-1095-4df4-a76e-876d191f2ecf NLA: 35370316 NDL: 00514685 NKC: jn20010310128 SNAC: w6xd22

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