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Jena
Jena
(German pronunciation: [ˈjeːna] ( listen)) is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia. Together with the nearby cities of Erfurt
Erfurt
and Weimar, it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia
Thuringia
with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of about 110,000. Jena
Jena
is a centre of education and research; the Friedrich Schiller University was founded in 1558 and has 21,000 students today and the Ernst-Abbe- Fachhochschule Jena
Jena
counts another 5,000 students. Furthermore, there are many institutes of the leading German research societies. Jena
Jena
was first mentioned in 1182 and stayed a small town until the 19th century, when industry developed. For most of the 20th century, Jena
Jena
was a world centre of the optical industry around companies like Carl Zeiss, Schott and Jenoptik
Jenoptik
(since 1990). As one of only a few medium-sized cities in Germany, it has some high-rise buildings in the city centre, like the Jen Tower. These also have their origin in the former Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
factory. Between 1790 and 1850, Jena
Jena
was a focal point of the German Vormärz
Vormärz
as well as of the student liberal and unification movement and German Romanticism. Notable persons of this period in Jena
Jena
were Friedrich Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Novalis
Novalis
and August Wilhelm Schlegel. The city's economy is based on the high-technology industry and research. The optical and precision industry is the leading branch to date, while software engineering, other digital businesses and biotechnology are of growing importance. Furthermore, Jena
Jena
is also a service hub for the surrounding regions. Jena
Jena
lies in a hilly landscape in the east of Thuringia, within the wide valley of the Saale
Saale
river.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Middle Ages 1.2 Early modern period 1.3 19th century 1.4 20th century

2 Geography and demographics

2.1 Topography 2.2 Climate 2.3 Administrative division 2.4 Demographics

3 Culture, sights and cityscape

3.1 Museums 3.2 Cityscape 3.3 Sights and architectural heritage

3.3.1 Churches 3.3.2 Other sights

3.4 Theatre and music 3.5 Sports

4 Economy and infrastructure

4.1 Agriculture, industry and services 4.2 Transport

4.2.1 By rail 4.2.2 By road 4.2.3 By aviation 4.2.4 By bike 4.2.5 Trams and buses

4.3 Education and research

5 Politics

5.1 Mayor and city council 5.2 Twin towns

6 Famous citizens and alumni of the university 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] Middle Ages[edit]

Lobdeburg Castle above Lobeda district

Until the High Middle Ages, the Saale
Saale
was the border between Germanic regions in the west and Slavic regions in the east. Owing to its function as a river crossing, Jena
Jena
was conveniently located. Nevertheless, there were also some more important Saale
Saale
crossings like the nearby cities of Naumburg to the north and Saalfeld
Saalfeld
to the south, so that the relevance of Jena
Jena
was more local during the Middle Ages. The first unequivocal mention of Jena
Jena
was in an 1182 document. The first local rulers of the region were the Lords of Lobdeburg with their eponymous castle near Lobeda, roughly 6 km (4 mi) south of the city centre on the eastern hillside of the Saale
Saale
valley. In the 13th century, the Lords of Lobdeburg founded two towns in the valley: Jena
Jena
on the west bank and Lobeda – which is one of Jena's constituent communities today – 4 km (2 mi) to the south on the east bank. Around 1230, Jena
Jena
received town rights and a regular city grid was established between today's Fürstengraben, Löbdergraben, Teichgraben and Leutragraben. The city got a marketplace, main church, town hall, council and city walls during the late 13th and early 14th centuries making it into a fully fledged town. In this time, the city's economy was based mainly on wine production on the warm and sunny hillsides of the Saale
Saale
valley. The two monasteries of the Dominicans (1286) and the Cistercians (1301) rounded out Jena's medieval appearance. As the political circumstances in Thuringia
Thuringia
changed in the middle of the 14th century, the weakened Lords of Lobdeburg sold Jena
Jena
to the aspiring Wettins in 1331. Jena
Jena
obtained the Gotha
Gotha
municipal law and the citizens strengthened their rights and wealth during the 14th and 15th centuries. Moreover, the Wettins were more interested in their residence in the nearby city of Weimar, and so Jena
Jena
could develop itself relatively autonomously. Early modern period[edit]

Jena
Jena
in 1650

The Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
was brought to the city in 1523. Martin Luther visited the town to reorganize the clerical relations and Jena became an early centre of his doctrine. In the following years, the Dominican and the Carmelite convents were attacked by the townsmen and abolished in 1525 (Carmelite) and 1548 (Dominican). An important step in Jena's history was the foundation of the university in 1558. Ernestine Elector John Frederick the Magnanimous founded it, because he had lost his old university in Wittenberg
Wittenberg
to the Albertines after the Schmalkaldic War. During the Little Ice Age, wine-growing declined in the 17th century, so that the new university became one of the most important sources of income for the city. The same century brought a boom in printing business caused by the rising importance of books (and the population's ability to read) in the Lutheran doctrine, and Jena
Jena
was the second-largest printing location in Germany
Germany
after Leipzig. Beginning in the 16th century, the Ernestine dynasty saw many territorial partitions. Initially, Jena
Jena
remained a part of Saxe-Weimar, but in 1672 it became the capital of its own small duchy (Saxe-Jena). In 1692, after two dukes (Bernhard II and Johann Wilhelm), the dukes of Saxe-Jena
Saxe-Jena
died out and the duchy became part of Saxe-Eisenach
Saxe-Eisenach
and, in 1741, of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, to which it belonged until 1809. From 1809 to 1918, Jena
Jena
was part of the Duchy (from 1815 Grand Duchy) of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. 19th century[edit]

The battle of Jena
Jena
in 1806

The city centre before its destruction during World War II

Around 1790, the university became the largest and most famous one among the German states and made Jena
Jena
the centre of idealist philosophy (with professors like Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schiller
and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling) and of the early Romanticism (with poets like Novalis, the brothers August and Friedrich Schlegel, and Ludwig Tieck). In 1794, the poets Goethe
Goethe
and Schiller
Schiller
met at the university and established a long lasting friendship. Consequently, the reputation of the University and the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
as particularly liberal and open-minded was enhanced. On 14 October 1806, Napoleon fought and defeated the Prussian army here in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, near the district of Vierzehnheiligen. Resistance against the French occupation was strong, especially among the students. Many of the students fought in the Lützow Free Corps
Lützow Free Corps
in 1813. Two years later, the Urburschenschaft fraternity was founded in the city. During the later 19th century, the famous biologist Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
was professor at the university. The expansion of science and medicine faculties was closely linked to the industrial boom that Jena
Jena
saw after 1871. The initial spark of industrialization in Jena
Jena
was the (relatively late) connection to the railway. The Saal Railway (Saalbahn, opened in 1874) was the connection from Halle and Leipzig along the Saale
Saale
valley to Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and the Weimar– Gera
Gera
railway (opened 1876) connected Jena
Jena
with Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Erfurt
Erfurt
in the west as well as Dresden
Dresden
and Gera
Gera
in the east. Famous pioneers of industry were Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
and Ernst Abbe
Ernst Abbe
(with their Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG) as well as Otto Schott (Schott AG). Since that time, production of optical items, precision machinery and laboratory glassware have been the main branches of Jena's economy. Zeiss, Abbe and Schott worked also as social reformers who wanted to improve the living conditions of their workers and the local wealth in general. When Zeiss died in 1889, his company passed to the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung, which uses great amounts of the company's profits for social benefits like research projects at universities etc. This model became an example for other German companies (e.g. the Robert Bosch Stiftung). 20th century[edit]

Bau 15 of the Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
factory, Germany's first high-rise building, established in 1915

The Eichplatz in the city centre

Industrialization fundamentally changed the social structure of Jena. The former academic town became a working-class city; the population rose from 8,000 around 1870 up to 71,000 at the beginning of World War II. The city expanded along the Saale
Saale
valley to the north and the south and its side valleys to the east and the west. In 1901, the tram system started its operation and the university got a new main building (established between 1906 and 1908 on the former castle's site). After the foundation of Thuringia
Thuringia
in 1920, Jena
Jena
was one of the three biggest cities (together with Weimar
Weimar
and Gera, while Erfurt remained part of Prussia) and became an independent city in 1922. The modern optical and glass industry kept booming and the city grew further during Weimar
Weimar
times. During the Nazi period, conflicts deepened in Jena
Jena
between the influential left-wing milieus (communists and social democrats) and the right-wing Nazi milieus. On the one hand, the university suffered from new restrictions against its independence, but on the other hand, it consolidated the Nazi ideology, for example with a professorship of social anthropology (which sought to scientifically legitimize the Racial policy of Nazi Germany). Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
in 1938 led to more discrimination against Jews in Jena, many of whom either emigrated or were arrested and murdered by the German government. This weakened the academic milieu, because many academics were Jews (especially in medicine). In 1945, towards the end of World War II, Jena
Jena
was heavily bombed by the American and British Allies. 709 people were killed, 2,000 injured and most of the medieval town centre was destroyed, but in parts restored after the end of the war. Nevertheless, Jena
Jena
was the Thuringian city whose level of destruction was exceeded only by Nordhausen, whose destruction was utter. It was occupied by American troops on 13 April 1945 and was left to Red Army on 1 July 1945. In 1945, Jena
Jena
fell within the Soviet zone of occupation in post-World War II Germany. In 1949, it became part of the new German Democratic Republic (GDR). The Soviets dismantled great parts of the Zeiss and Schott factories and took them to the Soviet Union. On the other hand, the GDR government founded a new pharmaceutical factory in 1950, Jenapharm, which is part of Bayer
Bayer
today. In 1953, Jena
Jena
was a centre of the East German Uprising against GDR policy. The protests with 30,000 participants drew fire from Soviet tanks. The following decades brought some radical shifts in city planning. During the 1960s, another part of the historic city centre was demolished to build the Jen Tower. The Eichplatz in front of the tower is still unbuilt and its future is still the subject of ongoing heated discussion. Big Plattenbau
Plattenbau
settlements were developed in the 1970s and 1980s, because the population was still rising and the housing shortage remained a perpetual problem. New districts established in the north (near Rautal) and in the south (around Winzerla and Lobeda). The opposition against the GDR government was reinforced during the late 1980s in Jena, fed by academic and clerical circles. In autumn 1989, the city saw the largest protests in its history before the GDR government was dissolved. After 1990, Jena
Jena
became part of the refounded state of Thuringia. Industry came into a heavy crisis during the 1990s, but finally it managed the transition to the market economy and today, it is one of the leading economic centres of eastern Germany. Furthermore, the university was enlarged and many new research institutes were founded. Geography and demographics[edit] Topography[edit]

The medieval bridge across the Saale
Saale
in Burgau district

Jena
Jena
is situated in a hilly landscape in eastern Thuringia
Thuringia
at the Saale
Saale
river, between the Harz
Harz
mountains 85 km (53 mi) in the north, the Thuringian Forest/ Thuringian Highland
Thuringian Highland
50 km (31 mi) in the southwest and the Ore Mountains, 75 km (47 mi) in the southeast. The municipal terrain is hilly with rugged slopes at the valley's edges. The city centre is situated at 160 m of elevation, whereas the mountains on both sides of Saale valley rise up to 400 m. On the eastern side those are (from north to south): the Gleisberg near Kunitz, the Jenzig near Wogau, the Hausberg near Wenigenjena, the Kernberge near Wöllnitz, the Johannisberg near Lobeda and the Einsiedlerberg near Drackendorf. On the western side, there are the Jägersberg near Zwätzen, the Windknollen north of the city centre, the Tatzend west of the city centre, the Lichtenhainer Höhe near Lichtenhain, the Holzberg near Winzerla, the Jagdberg near Göschwitz and the Spitzenberg near Maua. The mountains belong to the geological formation of Ilm Saale
Saale
Plate (Muschelkalk) and are relatively flat on their peaks but steep to the valleys in between. Due to its jagged surface, the municipal territory isn't very suitable for agriculture all the more since the most flat areas along the valley were built on during the 20th century. At the mountains is some forest of different leaf trees and pines. Climate[edit] Jena
Jena
has a humid continental climate (Dfb) or an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system.[2][3] Summers are warm and sometimes humid; winters are relatively cold. The city's topography creates a microclimate caused through the basin position with sometimes inversion in winter (quite cold nights under −20 °C (−4 °F)) and heat and inadequate air circulation in summer. Annual precipitation is 585 millimeters (23.0 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Light snowfall mainly occurs from December through February, but snow cover does not usually remain for long. During the Middle Ages, Jena
Jena
was famous for growing wine on its slopes. Nowadays, the next commercial wine-growing areas are situated 20 km (12 mi) down Saale river. Due to its distance to coastal areas and position in the Saale valley, wind speeds tend to be very low; predominant direction is SW. Administrative division[edit] Jena
Jena
abuts the district of Saale-Holzland with the municipalities of Lehesten, Neuengönna
Neuengönna
and Golmsdorf
Golmsdorf
in the north, Jenalöbnitz, Großlöbichau
Großlöbichau
and Schlöben
Schlöben
in the east and Laasdorf, Zöllnitz, Sulza, Rothenstein, Milda and Bucha in the south and the district of Weimarer Land
Weimarer Land
with the municipalities of Döbritschen, Großschwabhausen
Großschwabhausen
and Saaleplatte
Saaleplatte
in the west. The city itself is divided in 30 districts. The inner-city districts are Zentrum, Nord, West, Süd, Wenigenjena (east of Saale, incorporated in 1909) and Kernberge, other big districts are Lobeda (incorporated in 1946) and Winzerla (incorporated in 1922) in the south with large housing complexes. The residual districts are from a more rural constitution:

Ammerbach (incorporated 1922) Burgau (1922) Closewitz (1994) Cospeda (1994) Drackendorf (1994) Göschwitz (1969) Ilmnitz (1994)

Isserstedt (1994) Jenaprießnitz/Wogau (1994) Krippendorf (1994) Kunitz/Laasan (1994) Leutra (1994) Lichtenhain (1913) Löbstedt (1922)

Lützeroda (1994) Maua (1994) Münchenroda/Remderoda (1994) Vierzehnheiligen (1994) Wöllnitz (1946) Ziegenhain (1913) Zwätzen (1922)

Demographics[edit]

Evolution of population until 2003

Ten largest groups of foreign residents[4]

Nationality Population (2014)

 China 573

 Russia 564

 Ukraine 454

 India 302

 Syria 256

 Italy 242

 Vietnam 228

 Poland 178

 Bulgaria 161

 Turkey 141

During the centuries, Jena
Jena
had been a town of 4,000 to 5,000 inhabitants. The population growth began in the 19th century with an amount of 6,000 in 1840 and of 8,000 in 1870. Then, a demographic boom occurred with a population of 20,000 in 1900, 50,000 in 1920, 73,000 in 1940, 81,000 in 1960 and 104,000 in 1980. The peak was reached in 1988 with a population of 108,000. The bad economic situation in eastern Germany
Germany
after the reunification resulted in a decline in population, which fell to 99,000 in 1998 before rising again to 107,000 in 2012. The average growth of population between 2009 and 2012 was approximately 0.47% p. a, whereas the population in bordering rural regions is shrinking with accelerating tendency. Suburbanization played only a small role in Jena. It occurred after the reunification for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas were situated within the administrative city borders. The birth surplus was 62 in 2012, this is +0.6 per 1,000 inhabitants (Thuringian average: -4.5; national average: -2.4). The net migration rate was +4.0 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8; national average: +4.6).[5] The most important regions of origin of Jena
Jena
migrants are rural areas of Thuringia, Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
and Saxony as well as foreign countries like Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, Romania
Romania
and Bulgaria. Like other eastern German cities, Jena
Jena
has only a small amount of foreign population: circa 4.0% are non-Germans by citizenship and overall 6.2% are migrants (according to 2011 EU census). Differing from the national average, the biggest groups of migrants in Jena
Jena
are Russians, Chinese and Ukrainians. During recent years, the economic situation of the city improved: the unemployment rate declined from 14% in 2005 to 7% in 2013. Due to the official atheism in former GDR, most of the population is non-religious. 15.9% are members of the Evangelical Church in Central Germany
Germany
and 6.6% are Catholics (according to 2011 EU census). Culture, sights and cityscape[edit] Museums[edit] Jena
Jena
has a great variety of museums:

The Optical Museum Jena
Optical Museum Jena
at Carl-Zeiß-Platz shows the history of optical instruments like glasses, microscopes, cameras and telescopes. The Phyletisches Museum at Neutor hosts a natural history exhibition with focus on evolution and fossils. The Stadtmuseum & Kunstsammlung at Markt square shows the city history of Jena
Jena
and hosts furthermore an exhibition of modern and contemporary art. The Botanischer Garten (botanic garden) at Fürstengraben is one of the oldest botanic gardens in Germany
Germany
(established in 1794) and hosts 12,000 plants from all over the world. The Romantikerhaus at Unterm Markt street hosts an exhibition about the epoque of Jena romantics in German literature. Schillers Gartenhaus at Schillergässchen is the former summer house of Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schiller
and shows an exhibition of his life and his connection to Jena. The Goethe-Gedenkstätte at Fürstengraben shows an exhibition about the links between Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Goethe
and Jena
Jena
(only in summer). The Ernst-Haeckel-Haus at Berggasse is the former house of biologist Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
and hosts an exhibition about his life. The Schott Glasmuseum at Otto-Schott-Straße shows the life of Otto Schott and the history of his glass factory, the Schott AG. The Museum 1806 at Cospeda district hosts an exhibition about the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt
Battle of Jena–Auerstedt
during the Napoleonic wars. The University of Jena
University of Jena
hosts some important scientific collections. While the collections of antiques and minerals are public, the oriental coins are only accessed for research.

Optisches Museum

Phyletisches Museum

Stadtmuseum

Romantikerhaus

Schillers Gartenhaus

Botanischer Garten

Museum 1806 in Cospeda

Cityscape[edit] The historic city centre is located inside the former wall (which is the area between Fürstengraben in the north, Löbdergraben in the east, Teichgraben in the south and Leutragraben in the west). There are only few historic building structures in this area (e. g. at Oberlauengasse), caused by large losses during World War II
World War II
and the projects of the following decades. The Eichplatz, a big sub-used square covering a large amount of the centre, is not built on since the 1960s and the discussion about its future is still in process. The wall's defortification took place relatively early – in 18th century – and the first suburbs developed in front of the former city gates. In this areas, some historic building structures from 18th and early 19th century remained like in westward Bachstraße and Wagnergasse, in northward Zwätzengasse and in southward Neugasse. The later 19th and early 20th century brought a construction boom to Jena
Jena
and the city enlarged to the north and south along Saale
Saale
valley, to the west along Mühltal and on the Saale's east side in former Wenigenjena. Compared with the city centre, later substantial losses were much slighter in this areas. During the interwar period, the construction of flats stayed on a high level but suitable ground got less, so that new housing complexes were set up relatively far away from the centre – a problem, that remained until today with long journeys and high rents as consequences. Today's Jena
Jena
is not that compact as other cities in the region and urban planning is still a challenge. A peculiarity of Jena
Jena
is the presence of a second old town centre with market square, town hall, castle etc. in the former town of Lobeda, which is a district since 1946, located approximately 4 km (2 mi) to the south of Jena's centre. Sights and architectural heritage[edit] Churches[edit]

The main church St. Michael is one of the biggest Gothic monuments in Thuringia
Thuringia
and was built between 1422 and 1557. It has a bronze slab of Martin Luther's tomb. The St. John's Church was the church of the extinct village Leutra west of Jena
Jena
and later used as the city's cemetery chapel. Since 1811, the Gothic building is the catholic church of Jena. The Peace Church was built between 1686 and 1693 as new cemetery chapel and is a Baroque
Baroque
evangelical church today. The Schiller
Schiller
Church east of Saale
Saale
river is the evangelical parish church of the former village and today's quarter Wenigenjena. Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schiller
married here in 1790. The St. Peter's Church is the former city church of Jena's southern district Lobeda. The Gothic church was built around 1480. The parish church of Vierzehnheiligen (dedicated to the Fourteen Holy Helpers) is a Gothic-style former pilgrimage church established during the 1460s. The St. Mary's Church in Ziegenhain is a former pilgrimage church in Gothic style, built in the 15th century.

Main church St. Michael

St. John's Church

Peace Church

Schiller
Schiller
Church

Church of Lobeda

Church of Vierzehnheiligen

Church of Ziegenhain

Other sights[edit]

The medieval city wall is preserved in parts (Anatomieturm and Roter Turm), the largest one is the complex around Johannistor and Pulverturm near Johannisplatz. The town hall at Markt square was built around 1412 and is one of only few Gothic town halls in Germany. It has an astronomical clock featuring the "Snatching Hans" ("Schnapphans"). The planetarium opened in 1926 and was the first large planetarium in the world, with technology developed by Carl Zeiss. The University Main Building stands at the former castle's place and was established in 1908 in early-modern style (Theodor Fischer/Bruno Taut). The Abbeanum is a university building by Ernst Neufert
Ernst Neufert
in Bauhaus style, built in 1930. The Jen Tower
Jen Tower
is the city's highest skyscraper, built between 1969 and 1972, with a viewing platform and a sky restaurant. The Haus Auerbach is the former house of physicist Felix Auerbach, built by Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
and Adolf Meyer in Bauhaus
Bauhaus
style in 1924. Near is the Haus Zuckerkandl, another mansion built by Gropius in 1929. The former Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Factory in the city centre hosts interesting technical architecture from the period between 1880 and 1965, including Germany's first high-rise building, the Bau 15 from 1915. The monument to John Frederick the Magnanimous (built in 1858) at the Markt square is a landmark of Jena
Jena
called "Hanfried". The monument to Ernst Abbe
Ernst Abbe
is a building of early-modern architecture by Henry van de Velde
Henry van de Velde
(1910). The Lobdeburg is a castle ruin above Lobeda district and the former seat of the lords of Lobdeburg, founders of Jena.

Johannistor, medieval city gate

Town hall

Planetarium

University Main Building

Ernst Abbe
Ernst Abbe
Monument

Pulverturm at night

Jen Tower

Theatre and music[edit] Jena
Jena
has its own theatre and orchestra, the Jenaer Philharmonie. Sports[edit] Jena
Jena
hosts a traditional football club, the FC Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
Jena. At its best during the 1970s and 1980s, the club won the national GDR championship and played in UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
final of 1981, but lost against FC Dinamo Tbilisi. Compared to then, the results of FC Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
are poor today, playing only in 4th league (Regionalliga Nordost). In women's football, the FF USV Jena
FF USV Jena
is member of the German first division. Both clubs' stadium is the Ernst-Abbe-Sportfeld. Also, the city's basketball team, Science City Jena
Science City Jena
played in Basketball Bundesliga in 2007-2008 season and returned to top level in 2015-16 season. In addition, since 2000, the university of Jena
Jena
has a rugby team. Since 2012, the USV Rugby Jena[6] team has been playing in the 2. Rugby-Bundesliga. Current men's javelin throw world record (98.48) by Jan Železný
Jan Železný
was achieved in Jena. Economy and infrastructure[edit] Agriculture, industry and services[edit]

The Jen Tower
Jen Tower
is a symbol of East Germany's economy

Agriculture plays a small role in Jena, only 40% of the municipal territory are in use for farming (compared to over 60% in Erfurt
Erfurt
and nearly 50% in Weimar). Furthermore, the Muschelkalk
Muschelkalk
soil is not very fertile and is often used as pasture for cattle. The only large agricultural area is situated around Isserstedt, Cospeda and Vierzehnheiligen district in the northwest. Wine-growing was discontinued during the Little Ice Age
Little Ice Age
around 1800, but is now possible again due to global warming. Nevertheless, the commercial production of wine hasn't yet resumed. Industry is a great tradition in Jena, reaching back to the mid-19th century. In 2012, there were 80 companies in industrial production with more than 20 workers employing 8,300 persons and generating a turnover of more than 1,5 billion Euro.[7] The most important branches are precision machinery, pharmaceuticals, optics, biotechnology and software engineering. Notable companies in Jena
Jena
are the traditional Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG, Schott AG, Jenoptik
Jenoptik
and Jenapharm
Jenapharm
as well as new companies like Intershop Communications, Analytik Jena
Analytik Jena
and Carl Zeiss Meditec. Jena
Jena
has the most market-listed companies and is one of the most important economic centres of east Germany. The city is among Germany's 50 fastest growing regions, with many internationally renowned research institutes and companies, a comparatively low unemployment and a young population structure. Jena
Jena
was awarded the title "Stadt der Wissenschaft" (city of science) by the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft, a German science association, in 2008. Jena
Jena
is also a hub of public and private services, specially in education, research and business services. Other important institutions are the High Court of Thuringia
Thuringia
and Thuringia's solely university hospital. Furthermore, Jena
Jena
is a regional centre in infrastructure and retail with many shopping centres. Together with the photonics lab Lichtwerkstatt and the Krautspace there are makerspaces and hackerspaces enabling start-ups to create their product ideas and realizing their first prototype and business models as well as networking. Transport[edit] By rail[edit]

Paradies station

Jena
Jena
has no central railway station with connection to all the lines at one point. What is relatively common in many countries is quite unusual for a German city and caused on the one hand by the city's difficult topography and on the other hand by the history, because the two main lines were built by two different private companies. The connection in north-south direction is the Saal Railway
Saal Railway
with ICE trains running from Berlin
Berlin
in the north to Munich
Munich
in the south once an hour stopping at Paradies station and local trains to Naumburg and Saalfeld
Saalfeld
stopping at Zwätzen, Saalbahnhof, Paradies and Göschwitz. The connection in west-east direction is the Weimar– Gera
Gera
railway with regional express trains to Göttingen
Göttingen
(via Erfurt
Erfurt
and Weimar) and Zwickau, Glauchau, Altenburg
Altenburg
or Greiz
Greiz
(via Gera) and local trains between Weimar, Jena
Jena
and Gera. The express trains stop at West station near the city centre and Göschwitz, the local trains furthermore at Neue Schenke. The junction between both lines is the Göschwitz station, approx. 5 km (3 mi) south of the city centre. In 2017–when the new Nuremberg– Erfurt
Erfurt
high-speed railway opens–the city will lose its connection to the long-distance train network. For compensation, there will be new regional express train services to Halle and Leipzig
Leipzig
in the north and, already started, to Nuremberg
Nuremberg
in the south. By road[edit] The two Autobahnen crossing each other nearby at Hermsdorf junction are the Bundesautobahn 4
Bundesautobahn 4
(Frankfurt–Dresden) and the Bundesautobahn 9 (Berlin–Munich), which were both built during the 1930s. The A 4 runs quite next to the Lobeda housing complexes and the Leutra district. Therefore, it was rebuilt in the 2000s and got two tunnels to protect the residents and the environment against noise and air pollution. Furthermore, there are two Bundesstraßen crossing in Jena: the Bundesstraße
Bundesstraße
7 is a connection to Weimar
Weimar
in the west and Gera
Gera
in the east and the Bundesstraße
Bundesstraße
88 is a connection along Saale
Saale
valley to Naumburg in the north and Rudolstadt
Rudolstadt
in the south. Furthermore, there are some roads to Apolda
Apolda
via Isserstedt, Blankenhain
Blankenhain
via Ammerbach and Stadtroda
Stadtroda
via Lobeda. Most parts of city centre inside the former walls are pedestrian areas. By aviation[edit] The next local airports to Jena
Jena
are the Erfurt– Weimar
Weimar
Airport, approx. 50 km (31 mi) to the west and the Leipzig/Halle Airport, approx. 80 km (50 mi) to the northeast, which both serve mostly for holiday flights to the Mediterranean and other touristic regions. The next major airports are Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport, the upcoming Berlin
Berlin
Brandenburg Airport and Munich
Munich
Airport. By bike[edit] Despite the hilly terrain in some parts, Jena
Jena
is a cycling city, due to the many students. Cycling has become more popular in Jena
Jena
since the 1990s when good quality bike paths began to be built. There are bike lanes along some main streets, though, in comparison to other cities in Germany, there are deficits. For bicycle touring there is the " Saale
Saale
track" (German: Saale-Radweg) and the "Thuringian city string track" (German: Radweg Thüringer Städtekette). Both of these connect points of tourist interest: the former along the Saale
Saale
valley from Fichtel Mountains
Fichtel Mountains
in Bavaria to the Elbe
Elbe
river near Magdeburg, while the latter follows the medieval Via Regia closely and runs from Eisenach
Eisenach
via Erfurt, Weimar
Weimar
and Jena
Jena
to Altenburg
Altenburg
via Gera. Trams and buses[edit]

A tram in the city centre

The Jena
Jena
tramway network was established in 1901 and enlarged after the German reunification. It connects the major districts with the city centre; there are 5 ordinary lines served in different intervals between 7,5 and 20 minutes. Nevertheless, there are some old single-track segments interfering the services. Furthermore, there is an extensive network of buses, run (like the trams) by the "Jenah" organization (a pun on Jena
Jena
and Nahverkehr, German for public transport). Buses of the JES Verkehrsgesellschaft connect Jena
Jena
with cities and villages in the region. Education and research[edit]

University Library

After reunification, the educational system was realigned. The University of Jena, established in 1558, was largely extended. Today there are approximately 21,000 students at this university. Another college is the Ernst-Abbe-Hochschule Jena, a University of Applied Sciences founded in 1991 which offers a combination of scientific training and its practical applications. There are also nearly 5,000 students. Further there are six Gymnasiums, five state-owned and one Christian (ecumenical). One of the state-owned is a Sportgymnasium, an elite boarding school for young talents in athletics or football. Another state-owned Gymnasium (the Carl-Zeiss-Gymnasium Jena) offers a focus in sciences also as an elite boarding school additionally to the common curriculum. The various research institutes based in Jena
Jena
include:

The Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
is an important research center and offers a Ph.D. program. The Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry The Institute of Photonic Technology The Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF) The Leibniz Institute for Age Research, a research center with a Ph.D program INNOVENT - a private research center The Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology Friedrich-Löffler-Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses Friedrich-Löffler-Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis The Jena
Jena
Center for Bioinformatics

Politics[edit] Mayor and city council[edit] The current mayor Albrecht Schröter, SPD has been in office since 2006. The first free elected mayor after reunification was Peter Röhlinger, FDP (in office between 1990 and 2006). The last municipal election was held in 2009 with the result:

Party Percentage Seats in council

SPD (social democratic) 25.2 11

The Left (left social democratic) 20.2 9

CDU (conservative) 19.0 9

FDP (liberal) 11.0 5

Bürger für Jena
Jena
(citizen-oriented/populist) 10.2 5

Greens (green) 10.1 5

others

3

Twin towns[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Jena
Jena
is twinned with:[8]

Aubervilliers, France, since 1999[8] Beit Jala, State of Palestine, since 2011[8] Berkeley, California, United States, since 1989[8] Erlangen, Germany, since 1987[8] Lugoj, Romania, since 1983[8] Porto, Portugal, since 1984[8][9] San Marcos, Nicaragua, since 1996[8]

Famous citizens and alumni of the university[edit]

Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld
in 1942.

Ernst Abbe
Ernst Abbe
(1840–1905), physicist, social reformer, partner of Carl Zeiss and Otto Schott Anton Wilhelm Amo, African philosopher Johannes R. Becher, poet and politician Hans Berger, discoverer of human EEG Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, naturalist, doctor, comparative anatomist and physiologist Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, orientalist and Protestant theologian of the Enlightenment Robert Enke
Robert Enke
(1977–2009), German footballer (goalkeeper) Walter Eucken, founder of neoliberal economic theory Rudolf Eucken, philosopher and the winner of the 1908 Nobel Prize for Literature Johann Gottlieb Fichte, philosopher and early German nationalist Gottlob Frege, mathematician, logician, and philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel, inventor of the kindergarten

Johann Wolfgang Goethe, (1749-1832), poet/writer Ernst Haeckel, German evolutionary biologist/zoologist G. W. F. Hegel (1770–1831), philosopher Friedrich Hölderlin, poet Otto Günsche
Otto Günsche
(1917–2003), a mid-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS Nazi Germany
Germany
during World War II. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, polymath and philosopher Martin Luther, reformer August Eduard Martin (1847-1933), was a German obstetrician and gynecologist[10] Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1818-1883), philosopher/economist Tilo Medek
Tilo Medek
(1940–2006), composer Philipp Melanchthon, theologian Johann Karl August Musäus, author Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, (1844-1900), philosopher Novalis, poet Max Reger, composer, pianist, professor and conductor Friedrich Schelling, philosopher Friedrich Schiller, poet/writer Caroline Böhmer Schlegel Schelling Wilhelm Schlegel, philosopher Bernd Schneider, footballer Otto Schott, inventor of fireproof glass, founder of the Schott glass works Reinhard Johannes Sorge, poet, dramatist, and Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
convert Johann Gustav Stickel, orientalist Kurt Tucholsky, writer Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
(1816-1888), founder of the Zeiss company

References[edit]

^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden, Gemeinschaftsfreie Gemeinde, erfüllende/beauftragende Gemeinden, Verwaltungsgemeinschaft/Mitgliedsgemeinden in Thüringen". Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik (in German). January 2018.  ^ Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF). Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved 22 January 2013.  ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) (direct: Final Revised Paper) ^ Quartalsbericht IV/2014 Archived 2013-04-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ According to Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik ^ http://www.usvjena.de/rugby.html ^ According to the Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik ^ a b c d e f g h "Partnerstädte & partnerschaftliche Beziehungen" (official website) (in German). Stadt Jena. Retrieved 2015-12-22.  ^ "International Relations of the City of Porto" (PDF). © 2006-2009 Municipal Directorateofthe PresidencyServices InternationalRelationsOffice. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2009-07-10.  ^ Martin, August Eduard In: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 16, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin
Berlin
1990, ISBN 3-428-00197-4, S. 284 f.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jena.

Jena
Jena
travel guide from Wikivoyage Official Homepage of Jena
Jena
(in German) (in English)  "Jena". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

Places adjacent to Jena

Nordhausen Sangerhausen Halle — Leipzig Naumburg

Erfurt
Erfurt
— Weimar

Jena

Gera
Gera
Chemnitz
Chemnitz
— Dresden

Rudolstadt Saalfeld Hof Plauen

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Cities in Thuringia
Thuringia
by population

100,000+

Erfurt Jena

50,000+

Gera Weimar

20,000+

Altenburg Apolda Arnstadt Eisenach Gotha Greiz Ilmenau Meiningen Mühlhausen Nordhausen Rudolstadt Saalfeld Sondershausen Sonneberg Suhl

10,000+

Bad Langensalza Bad Salzungen Eisenberg Heiligenstadt Hildburghausen Leinefelde-Worbis Meuselwitz Pößneck Schmalkalden Schmölln Sömmerda Waltershausen Zella-Mehlis Zeulenroda-Triebes

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Thuringia
Thuringia
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Eisenach Erfurt Gera Jena Suhl Weimar

Rural districts

Altenburger Land Eichsfeld Gotha Greiz Hildburghausen Ilm-Kreis Kyffhäuserkreis Nordhausen Saale-Holzland-Kreis Saale-Orla-Kreis Saalfeld-Rudolstadt Schmalkalden-Meiningen Sömmerda Sonneberg Unstrut-Hainich-Kreis Wartburgkreis Weimarer Land

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 313003605 LCCN: n80025810 GND: 4028557

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