Jena (German pronunciation: [ˈjeːna] ( listen)) is a
German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.
Together with the nearby cities of
Erfurt and Weimar, it forms the
central metropolitan area of
Thuringia with approximately 500,000
inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of about 110,000.
Jena is a centre of education and research; the Friedrich Schiller
University was founded in 1558 and has 21,000 students today and the
Jena counts another 5,000 students.
Furthermore, there are many institutes of the leading German research
Jena was first mentioned in 1182 and stayed a small town until the
19th century, when industry developed. For most of the 20th century,
Jena was a world centre of the optical industry around companies like
Carl Zeiss, Schott and
Jenoptik (since 1990). As one of only a few
medium-sized cities in Germany, it has some high-rise buildings in the
city centre, like the Jen Tower. These also have their origin in the
Carl Zeiss factory. Between 1790 and 1850,
Jena was a focal
point of the German
Vormärz as well as of the student liberal and
unification movement and German Romanticism. Notable persons of this
Jena were Friedrich Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg
Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel,
Novalis and August Wilhelm Schlegel.
The city's economy is based on the high-technology industry and
research. The optical and precision industry is the leading branch to
date, while software engineering, other digital businesses and
biotechnology are of growing importance. Furthermore,
Jena is also a
service hub for the surrounding regions.
Jena lies in a hilly landscape in the east of Thuringia, within the
wide valley of the
1.1 Middle Ages
1.2 Early modern period
1.3 19th century
1.4 20th century
2 Geography and demographics
2.3 Administrative division
3 Culture, sights and cityscape
3.3 Sights and architectural heritage
3.3.2 Other sights
3.4 Theatre and music
4 Economy and infrastructure
4.1 Agriculture, industry and services
4.2.1 By rail
4.2.2 By road
4.2.3 By aviation
4.2.4 By bike
4.2.5 Trams and buses
4.3 Education and research
5.1 Mayor and city council
5.2 Twin towns
6 Famous citizens and alumni of the university
8 External links
Lobdeburg Castle above Lobeda district
Until the High Middle Ages, the
Saale was the border between Germanic
regions in the west and Slavic regions in the east. Owing to its
function as a river crossing,
Jena was conveniently located.
Nevertheless, there were also some more important
Saale crossings like
the nearby cities of Naumburg to the north and
Saalfeld to the south,
so that the relevance of
Jena was more local during the Middle Ages.
The first unequivocal mention of
Jena was in an 1182 document. The
first local rulers of the region were the Lords of Lobdeburg with
their eponymous castle near Lobeda, roughly 6 km (4 mi)
south of the city centre on the eastern hillside of the
In the 13th century, the Lords of Lobdeburg founded two towns in the
Jena on the west bank and Lobeda – which is one of
Jena's constituent communities today – 4 km (2 mi) to
the south on the east bank. Around 1230,
Jena received town rights and
a regular city grid was established between today's Fürstengraben,
Löbdergraben, Teichgraben and Leutragraben. The city got a
marketplace, main church, town hall, council and city walls during the
late 13th and early 14th centuries making it into a fully fledged
town. In this time, the city's economy was based mainly on wine
production on the warm and sunny hillsides of the
Saale valley. The
two monasteries of the Dominicans (1286) and the Cistercians (1301)
rounded out Jena's medieval appearance.
As the political circumstances in
Thuringia changed in the middle of
the 14th century, the weakened Lords of Lobdeburg sold
Jena to the
aspiring Wettins in 1331.
Jena obtained the
Gotha municipal law and
the citizens strengthened their rights and wealth during the 14th and
15th centuries. Moreover, the Wettins were more interested in their
residence in the nearby city of Weimar, and so
Jena could develop
itself relatively autonomously.
Early modern period
Jena in 1650
Protestant Reformation was brought to the city in 1523. Martin
Luther visited the town to reorganize the clerical relations and Jena
became an early centre of his doctrine. In the following years, the
Dominican and the Carmelite convents were attacked by the townsmen and
abolished in 1525 (Carmelite) and 1548 (Dominican).
An important step in Jena's history was the foundation of the
university in 1558. Ernestine Elector John Frederick the Magnanimous
founded it, because he had lost his old university in
the Albertines after the Schmalkaldic War. During the Little Ice Age,
wine-growing declined in the 17th century, so that the new university
became one of the most important sources of income for the city. The
same century brought a boom in printing business caused by the rising
importance of books (and the population's ability to read) in the
Lutheran doctrine, and
Jena was the second-largest printing location
Germany after Leipzig.
Beginning in the 16th century, the Ernestine dynasty saw many
territorial partitions. Initially,
Jena remained a part of
Saxe-Weimar, but in 1672 it became the capital of its own small duchy
(Saxe-Jena). In 1692, after two dukes (Bernhard II and Johann
Wilhelm), the dukes of
Saxe-Jena died out and the duchy became part of
Saxe-Eisenach and, in 1741, of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar, to which it
belonged until 1809. From 1809 to 1918,
Jena was part of the Duchy
(from 1815 Grand Duchy) of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
The battle of
Jena in 1806
The city centre before its destruction during World War II
Around 1790, the university became the largest and most famous one
among the German states and made
Jena the centre of idealist
philosophy (with professors like Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm
Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph
Schelling) and of the early Romanticism (with poets like Novalis, the
brothers August and Friedrich Schlegel, and Ludwig Tieck). In 1794,
Schiller met at the university and established a
long lasting friendship. Consequently, the reputation of the
University and the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-
Eisenach as particularly
liberal and open-minded was enhanced.
On 14 October 1806, Napoleon fought and defeated the Prussian
army here in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, near the district of
Vierzehnheiligen. Resistance against the French occupation was strong,
especially among the students. Many of the students fought in the
Lützow Free Corps
Lützow Free Corps in 1813. Two years later, the Urburschenschaft
fraternity was founded in the city.
During the later 19th century, the famous biologist
Ernst Haeckel was
professor at the university. The expansion of science and medicine
faculties was closely linked to the industrial boom that
after 1871. The initial spark of industrialization in
Jena was the
(relatively late) connection to the railway. The Saal Railway
(Saalbahn, opened in 1874) was the connection from Halle and Leipzig
Saale valley to
Nuremberg and the Weimar–
(opened 1876) connected
Erfurt in the west as
Gera in the east. Famous pioneers of industry were
Carl Zeiss and
Ernst Abbe (with their
Carl Zeiss AG) as well as Otto
Schott (Schott AG). Since that time, production of optical items,
precision machinery and laboratory glassware have been the main
branches of Jena's economy. Zeiss, Abbe and Schott worked also as
social reformers who wanted to improve the living conditions of their
workers and the local wealth in general. When Zeiss died in 1889, his
company passed to the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung, which uses great amounts of
the company's profits for social benefits like research projects at
universities etc. This model became an example for other German
companies (e.g. the Robert Bosch Stiftung).
Bau 15 of the
Carl Zeiss factory, Germany's first high-rise building,
established in 1915
The Eichplatz in the city centre
Industrialization fundamentally changed the social structure of Jena.
The former academic town became a working-class city; the population
rose from 8,000 around 1870 up to 71,000 at the beginning of World War
II. The city expanded along the
Saale valley to the north and the
south and its side valleys to the east and the west. In 1901, the tram
system started its operation and the university got a new main
building (established between 1906 and 1908 on the former castle's
site). After the foundation of
Thuringia in 1920,
Jena was one of the
three biggest cities (together with
Weimar and Gera, while Erfurt
remained part of Prussia) and became an independent city in 1922. The
modern optical and glass industry kept booming and the city grew
During the Nazi period, conflicts deepened in
Jena between the
influential left-wing milieus (communists and social democrats) and
the right-wing Nazi milieus. On the one hand, the university suffered
from new restrictions against its independence, but on the other hand,
it consolidated the Nazi ideology, for example with a professorship of
social anthropology (which sought to scientifically legitimize the
Racial policy of Nazi Germany).
Kristallnacht in 1938 led to more
discrimination against Jews in Jena, many of whom either emigrated or
were arrested and murdered by the German government. This weakened the
academic milieu, because many academics were Jews (especially in
medicine). In 1945, towards the end of World War II,
Jena was heavily
bombed by the American and British Allies. 709 people were killed,
2,000 injured and most of the medieval town centre was destroyed, but
in parts restored after the end of the war. Nevertheless,
Jena was the
Thuringian city whose level of destruction was exceeded only by
Nordhausen, whose destruction was utter. It was occupied by American
troops on 13 April 1945 and was left to Red Army on 1 July 1945.
Jena fell within the Soviet zone of occupation in post-World
War II Germany. In 1949, it became part of the new German Democratic
Republic (GDR). The Soviets dismantled great parts of the Zeiss and
Schott factories and took them to the Soviet Union. On the other hand,
the GDR government founded a new pharmaceutical factory in 1950,
Jenapharm, which is part of
Bayer today. In 1953,
Jena was a centre of
the East German Uprising against GDR policy. The protests with 30,000
participants drew fire from Soviet tanks.
The following decades brought some radical shifts in city planning.
During the 1960s, another part of the historic city centre was
demolished to build the Jen Tower. The Eichplatz in front of the tower
is still unbuilt and its future is still the subject of ongoing heated
Plattenbau settlements were developed in the 1970s and
1980s, because the population was still rising and the housing
shortage remained a perpetual problem. New districts established in
the north (near Rautal) and in the south (around Winzerla and Lobeda).
The opposition against the GDR government was reinforced during the
late 1980s in Jena, fed by academic and clerical circles. In autumn
1989, the city saw the largest protests in its history before the GDR
government was dissolved.
Jena became part of the refounded state of Thuringia.
Industry came into a heavy crisis during the 1990s, but finally it
managed the transition to the market economy and today, it is one of
the leading economic centres of eastern Germany. Furthermore, the
university was enlarged and many new research institutes were founded.
Geography and demographics
The medieval bridge across the
Saale in Burgau district
Jena is situated in a hilly landscape in eastern
Thuringia at the
Saale river, between the
Harz mountains 85 km (53 mi) in the
north, the Thuringian Forest/
Thuringian Highland 50 km
(31 mi) in the southwest and the Ore Mountains, 75 km
(47 mi) in the southeast. The municipal terrain is hilly with
rugged slopes at the valley's edges. The city centre is situated at
160 m of elevation, whereas the mountains on both sides of Saale
valley rise up to 400 m. On the eastern side those are (from north to
south): the Gleisberg near Kunitz, the Jenzig near Wogau, the Hausberg
near Wenigenjena, the Kernberge near Wöllnitz, the Johannisberg near
Lobeda and the Einsiedlerberg near Drackendorf. On the western side,
there are the Jägersberg near Zwätzen, the Windknollen north of the
city centre, the Tatzend west of the city centre, the Lichtenhainer
Höhe near Lichtenhain, the Holzberg near Winzerla, the Jagdberg near
Göschwitz and the Spitzenberg near Maua. The mountains belong to the
geological formation of Ilm
Saale Plate (Muschelkalk) and are
relatively flat on their peaks but steep to the valleys in between.
Due to its jagged surface, the municipal territory isn't very suitable
for agriculture all the more since the most flat areas along the
valley were built on during the 20th century. At the mountains is some
forest of different leaf trees and pines.
Jena has a humid continental climate (Dfb) or an oceanic climate (Cfb)
according to the
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification system. Summers
are warm and sometimes humid; winters are relatively cold. The city's
topography creates a microclimate caused through the basin position
with sometimes inversion in winter (quite cold nights under
−20 °C (−4 °F)) and heat and inadequate air
circulation in summer. Annual precipitation is 585 millimeters
(23.0 in) with moderate rainfall throughout the year. Light
snowfall mainly occurs from December through February, but snow cover
does not usually remain for long. During the Middle Ages,
famous for growing wine on its slopes. Nowadays, the next commercial
wine-growing areas are situated 20 km (12 mi) down Saale
river. Due to its distance to coastal areas and position in the Saale
valley, wind speeds tend to be very low; predominant direction is SW.
Jena abuts the district of Saale-Holzland with the municipalities of
Golmsdorf in the north, Jenalöbnitz,
Schlöben in the east and Laasdorf, Zöllnitz,
Sulza, Rothenstein, Milda and Bucha in the south and the district of
Weimarer Land with the municipalities of Döbritschen,
Saaleplatte in the west.
The city itself is divided in 30 districts. The inner-city districts
are Zentrum, Nord, West, Süd, Wenigenjena (east of Saale,
incorporated in 1909) and Kernberge, other big districts are Lobeda
(incorporated in 1946) and Winzerla (incorporated in 1922) in the
south with large housing complexes.
The residual districts are from a more rural constitution:
Ammerbach (incorporated 1922)
Evolution of population until 2003
Ten largest groups of foreign residents
During the centuries,
Jena had been a town of 4,000 to 5,000
inhabitants. The population growth began in the 19th century with an
amount of 6,000 in 1840 and of 8,000 in 1870. Then, a demographic boom
occurred with a population of 20,000 in 1900, 50,000 in 1920, 73,000
in 1940, 81,000 in 1960 and 104,000 in 1980. The peak was reached in
1988 with a population of 108,000. The bad economic situation in
Germany after the reunification resulted in a decline in
population, which fell to 99,000 in 1998 before rising again to
107,000 in 2012.
The average growth of population between 2009 and 2012 was
approximately 0.47% p. a, whereas the population in bordering rural
regions is shrinking with accelerating tendency. Suburbanization
played only a small role in Jena. It occurred after the reunification
for a short time in the 1990s, but most of the suburban areas were
situated within the administrative city borders.
The birth surplus was 62 in 2012, this is +0.6 per 1,000 inhabitants
(Thuringian average: -4.5; national average: -2.4). The net migration
rate was +4.0 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2012 (Thuringian average: -0.8;
national average: +4.6). The most important regions of origin of
Jena migrants are rural areas of Thuringia,
Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony
as well as foreign countries like Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary,
Romania and Bulgaria.
Like other eastern German cities,
Jena has only a small amount of
foreign population: circa 4.0% are non-Germans by citizenship and
overall 6.2% are migrants (according to 2011 EU census). Differing
from the national average, the biggest groups of migrants in
Russians, Chinese and Ukrainians. During recent years, the economic
situation of the city improved: the unemployment rate declined from
14% in 2005 to 7% in 2013. Due to the official atheism in former GDR,
most of the population is non-religious. 15.9% are members of the
Evangelical Church in Central
Germany and 6.6% are Catholics
(according to 2011 EU census).
Culture, sights and cityscape
Jena has a great variety of museums:
Optical Museum Jena
Optical Museum Jena at Carl-Zeiß-Platz shows the history of
optical instruments like glasses, microscopes, cameras and telescopes.
The Phyletisches Museum at Neutor hosts a natural history exhibition
with focus on evolution and fossils.
The Stadtmuseum & Kunstsammlung at Markt square shows the city
Jena and hosts furthermore an exhibition of modern and
The Botanischer Garten (botanic garden) at Fürstengraben is one of
the oldest botanic gardens in
Germany (established in 1794) and hosts
12,000 plants from all over the world.
The Romantikerhaus at Unterm Markt street hosts an exhibition about
the epoque of
Jena romantics in German literature.
Schillers Gartenhaus at Schillergässchen is the former summer house
Friedrich Schiller and shows an exhibition of his life and his
connection to Jena.
The Goethe-Gedenkstätte at Fürstengraben shows an exhibition about
the links between Johann Wolfgang von
Jena (only in
The Ernst-Haeckel-Haus at Berggasse is the former house of biologist
Ernst Haeckel and hosts an exhibition about his life.
The Schott Glasmuseum at Otto-Schott-Straße shows the life of Otto
Schott and the history of his glass factory, the Schott AG.
The Museum 1806 at Cospeda district hosts an exhibition about the
Battle of Jena–Auerstedt
Battle of Jena–Auerstedt during the Napoleonic wars.
University of Jena
University of Jena hosts some important scientific collections.
While the collections of antiques and minerals are public, the
oriental coins are only accessed for research.
Museum 1806 in Cospeda
The historic city centre is located inside the former wall (which is
the area between Fürstengraben in the north, Löbdergraben in the
east, Teichgraben in the south and Leutragraben in the west). There
are only few historic building structures in this area (e. g. at
Oberlauengasse), caused by large losses during
World War II
World War II and the
projects of the following decades. The Eichplatz, a big sub-used
square covering a large amount of the centre, is not built on since
the 1960s and the discussion about its future is still in process. The
wall's defortification took place relatively early – in 18th century
– and the first suburbs developed in front of the former city gates.
In this areas, some historic building structures from 18th and early
19th century remained like in westward Bachstraße and Wagnergasse, in
northward Zwätzengasse and in southward Neugasse.
The later 19th and early 20th century brought a construction boom to
Jena and the city enlarged to the north and south along
to the west along Mühltal and on the Saale's east side in former
Wenigenjena. Compared with the city centre, later substantial losses
were much slighter in this areas. During the interwar period, the
construction of flats stayed on a high level but suitable ground got
less, so that new housing complexes were set up relatively far away
from the centre – a problem, that remained until today with long
journeys and high rents as consequences. Today's
Jena is not that
compact as other cities in the region and urban planning is still a
A peculiarity of
Jena is the presence of a second old town centre with
market square, town hall, castle etc. in the former town of Lobeda,
which is a district since 1946, located approximately 4 km
(2 mi) to the south of Jena's centre.
Sights and architectural heritage
The main church St. Michael is one of the biggest Gothic monuments in
Thuringia and was built between 1422 and 1557. It has a bronze slab of
Martin Luther's tomb.
The St. John's Church was the church of the extinct village Leutra
Jena and later used as the city's cemetery chapel. Since 1811,
the Gothic building is the catholic church of Jena.
The Peace Church was built between 1686 and 1693 as new cemetery
chapel and is a
Baroque evangelical church today.
Schiller Church east of
Saale river is the evangelical parish
church of the former village and today's quarter Wenigenjena.
Friedrich Schiller married here in 1790.
The St. Peter's Church is the former city church of Jena's southern
district Lobeda. The Gothic church was built around 1480.
The parish church of Vierzehnheiligen (dedicated to the Fourteen Holy
Helpers) is a Gothic-style former pilgrimage church established during
The St. Mary's Church in Ziegenhain is a former pilgrimage church in
Gothic style, built in the 15th century.
Main church St. Michael
St. John's Church
Church of Lobeda
Church of Vierzehnheiligen
Church of Ziegenhain
The medieval city wall is preserved in parts (Anatomieturm and Roter
Turm), the largest one is the complex around Johannistor and
Pulverturm near Johannisplatz.
The town hall at Markt square was built around 1412 and is one of only
few Gothic town halls in Germany. It has an astronomical clock
featuring the "Snatching Hans" ("Schnapphans").
The planetarium opened in 1926 and was the first large planetarium in
the world, with technology developed by Carl Zeiss.
The University Main Building stands at the former castle's place and
was established in 1908 in early-modern style (Theodor Fischer/Bruno
The Abbeanum is a university building by
Ernst Neufert in Bauhaus
style, built in 1930.
Jen Tower is the city's highest skyscraper, built between 1969 and
1972, with a viewing platform and a sky restaurant.
The Haus Auerbach is the former house of physicist Felix Auerbach,
Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer in
Bauhaus style in 1924. Near
is the Haus Zuckerkandl, another mansion built by Gropius in 1929.
Carl Zeiss Factory in the city centre hosts interesting
technical architecture from the period between 1880 and 1965,
including Germany's first high-rise building, the Bau 15 from 1915.
The monument to John Frederick the Magnanimous (built in 1858) at the
Markt square is a landmark of
Jena called "Hanfried".
The monument to
Ernst Abbe is a building of early-modern architecture
Henry van de Velde
Henry van de Velde (1910).
The Lobdeburg is a castle ruin above Lobeda district and the former
seat of the lords of Lobdeburg, founders of Jena.
Johannistor, medieval city gate
University Main Building
Ernst Abbe Monument
Pulverturm at night
Theatre and music
Jena has its own theatre and orchestra, the Jenaer Philharmonie.
Jena hosts a traditional football club, the FC
Carl Zeiss Jena. At its
best during the 1970s and 1980s, the club won the national GDR
championship and played in
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup final of 1981, but
lost against FC Dinamo Tbilisi. Compared to then, the results of FC
Carl Zeiss are poor today, playing only in 4th league (Regionalliga
Nordost). In women's football, the
FF USV Jena
FF USV Jena is member of the German
first division. Both clubs' stadium is the Ernst-Abbe-Sportfeld. Also,
the city's basketball team,
Science City Jena
Science City Jena played in Basketball
Bundesliga in 2007-2008 season and returned to top level in 2015-16
season. In addition, since 2000, the university of
Jena has a rugby
team. Since 2012, the USV Rugby Jena team has been playing in the
Current men's javelin throw world record (98.48) by
Jan Železný was
achieved in Jena.
Economy and infrastructure
Agriculture, industry and services
Jen Tower is a symbol of East Germany's economy
Agriculture plays a small role in Jena, only 40% of the municipal
territory are in use for farming (compared to over 60% in
nearly 50% in Weimar). Furthermore, the
Muschelkalk soil is not very
fertile and is often used as pasture for cattle. The only large
agricultural area is situated around Isserstedt, Cospeda and
Vierzehnheiligen district in the northwest. Wine-growing was
discontinued during the
Little Ice Age
Little Ice Age around 1800, but is now
possible again due to global warming. Nevertheless, the commercial
production of wine hasn't yet resumed.
Industry is a great tradition in Jena, reaching back to the mid-19th
century. In 2012, there were 80 companies in industrial production
with more than 20 workers employing 8,300 persons and generating a
turnover of more than 1,5 billion Euro. The most important branches
are precision machinery, pharmaceuticals, optics, biotechnology and
software engineering. Notable companies in
Jena are the traditional
Carl Zeiss AG, Schott AG,
Jenapharm as well as new
companies like Intershop Communications,
Analytik Jena and Carl Zeiss
Jena has the most market-listed companies and is one of the
most important economic centres of east Germany. The city is among
Germany's 50 fastest growing regions, with many internationally
renowned research institutes and companies, a comparatively low
unemployment and a young population structure.
Jena was awarded the
title "Stadt der Wissenschaft" (city of science) by the Stifterverband
für die Deutsche Wissenschaft, a German science association, in 2008.
Jena is also a hub of public and private services, specially in
education, research and business services. Other important
institutions are the High Court of
Thuringia and Thuringia's solely
university hospital. Furthermore,
Jena is a regional centre in
infrastructure and retail with many shopping centres.
Together with the photonics lab Lichtwerkstatt and the Krautspace
there are makerspaces and hackerspaces enabling start-ups to create
their product ideas and realizing their first prototype and business
models as well as networking.
Jena has no central railway station with connection to all the lines
at one point. What is relatively common in many countries is quite
unusual for a German city and caused on the one hand by the city's
difficult topography and on the other hand by the history, because the
two main lines were built by two different private companies. The
connection in north-south direction is the
Saal Railway with ICE
trains running from
Berlin in the north to
Munich in the south once an
hour stopping at Paradies station and local trains to Naumburg and
Saalfeld stopping at Zwätzen, Saalbahnhof, Paradies and Göschwitz.
The connection in west-east direction is the Weimar–
with regional express trains to
Erfurt and Weimar) and
Greiz (via Gera) and local trains
Jena and Gera. The express trains stop at West station
near the city centre and Göschwitz, the local trains furthermore at
Neue Schenke. The junction between both lines is the Göschwitz
station, approx. 5 km (3 mi) south of the city centre.
In 2017–when the new Nuremberg–
Erfurt high-speed railway
opens–the city will lose its connection to the long-distance train
network. For compensation, there will be new regional express train
services to Halle and
Leipzig in the north and, already started, to
Nuremberg in the south.
The two Autobahnen crossing each other nearby at Hermsdorf junction
Bundesautobahn 4 (Frankfurt–Dresden) and the Bundesautobahn
9 (Berlin–Munich), which were both built during the 1930s. The A 4
runs quite next to the Lobeda housing complexes and the Leutra
district. Therefore, it was rebuilt in the 2000s and got two tunnels
to protect the residents and the environment against noise and air
pollution. Furthermore, there are two Bundesstraßen crossing in Jena:
Bundesstraße 7 is a connection to
Weimar in the west and
the east and the
Bundesstraße 88 is a connection along
to Naumburg in the north and
Rudolstadt in the south. Furthermore,
there are some roads to
Apolda via Isserstedt,
Stadtroda via Lobeda. Most parts of city centre inside
the former walls are pedestrian areas.
The next local airports to
Jena are the Erfurt–
approx. 50 km (31 mi) to the west and the Leipzig/Halle
Airport, approx. 80 km (50 mi) to the northeast, which both
serve mostly for holiday flights to the Mediterranean and other
touristic regions. The next major airports are
Frankfurt Airport, the
Berlin Brandenburg Airport and
Despite the hilly terrain in some parts,
Jena is a cycling city, due
to the many students. Cycling has become more popular in
the 1990s when good quality bike paths began to be built. There are
bike lanes along some main streets, though, in comparison to other
cities in Germany, there are deficits.
For bicycle touring there is the "
Saale track" (German: Saale-Radweg)
and the "Thuringian city string track" (German: Radweg Thüringer
Städtekette). Both of these connect points of tourist interest: the
former along the
Saale valley from
Fichtel Mountains in Bavaria to the
Elbe river near Magdeburg, while the latter follows the medieval Via
Regia closely and runs from
Eisenach via Erfurt,
Altenburg via Gera.
Trams and buses
A tram in the city centre
Jena tramway network was established in 1901 and enlarged after
the German reunification. It connects the major districts with the
city centre; there are 5 ordinary lines served in different intervals
between 7,5 and 20 minutes. Nevertheless, there are some old
single-track segments interfering the services. Furthermore, there is
an extensive network of buses, run (like the trams) by the "Jenah"
organization (a pun on
Jena and Nahverkehr, German for public
transport). Buses of the JES Verkehrsgesellschaft connect
cities and villages in the region.
Education and research
After reunification, the educational system was realigned. The
University of Jena, established in 1558, was largely extended. Today
there are approximately 21,000 students at this university. Another
college is the Ernst-Abbe-Hochschule Jena, a University of Applied
Sciences founded in 1991 which offers a combination of scientific
training and its practical applications. There are also nearly 5,000
Further there are six Gymnasiums, five state-owned and one Christian
(ecumenical). One of the state-owned is a Sportgymnasium, an elite
boarding school for young talents in athletics or football. Another
state-owned Gymnasium (the Carl-Zeiss-Gymnasium Jena) offers a focus
in sciences also as an elite boarding school additionally to the
The various research institutes based in
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology is an important research
center and offers a Ph.D. program.
The Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
The Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
The Institute of Photonic Technology
The Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering
The Leibniz Institute for Age Research, a research center with a Ph.D
INNOVENT - a private research center
The Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection
Friedrich-Löffler-Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses
Friedrich-Löffler-Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis
Jena Center for Bioinformatics
Mayor and city council
The current mayor Albrecht Schröter, SPD has been in office since
2006. The first free elected mayor after reunification was Peter
Röhlinger, FDP (in office between 1990 and 2006).
The last municipal election was held in 2009 with the result:
Seats in council
SPD (social democratic)
The Left (left social democratic)
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Jena is twinned with:
Aubervilliers, France, since 1999
Beit Jala, State of Palestine, since 2011
Berkeley, California, United States, since 1989
Erlangen, Germany, since 1987
Lugoj, Romania, since 1983
Porto, Portugal, since 1984
San Marcos, Nicaragua, since 1996
Famous citizens and alumni of the university
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld in 1942.
Ernst Abbe (1840–1905), physicist, social reformer, partner of Carl
Zeiss and Otto Schott
Anton Wilhelm Amo, African philosopher
Johannes R. Becher, poet and politician
Hans Berger, discoverer of human EEG
Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, naturalist, doctor, comparative anatomist
Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, orientalist and Protestant theologian of
Robert Enke (1977–2009), German footballer (goalkeeper)
Walter Eucken, founder of neoliberal economic theory
Rudolf Eucken, philosopher and the winner of the 1908 Nobel Prize for
Johann Gottlieb Fichte, philosopher and early German nationalist
Gottlob Frege, mathematician, logician, and philosopher
Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel, inventor of the kindergarten
Johann Wolfgang Goethe, (1749-1832), poet/writer
Ernst Haeckel, German evolutionary biologist/zoologist
G. W. F. Hegel (1770–1831), philosopher
Friedrich Hölderlin, poet
Otto Günsche (1917–2003), a mid-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS
Germany during World War II.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, polymath and philosopher
Martin Luther, reformer
August Eduard Martin (1847-1933), was a German obstetrician and
Karl Marx (1818-1883), philosopher/economist
Tilo Medek (1940–2006), composer
Philipp Melanchthon, theologian
Johann Karl August Musäus, author
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, (1844-1900), philosopher
Max Reger, composer, pianist, professor and conductor
Friedrich Schelling, philosopher
Friedrich Schiller, poet/writer
Caroline Böhmer Schlegel Schelling
Wilhelm Schlegel, philosopher
Bernd Schneider, footballer
Otto Schott, inventor of fireproof glass, founder of the Schott glass
Reinhard Johannes Sorge, poet, dramatist, and
Roman Catholic convert
Johann Gustav Stickel, orientalist
Kurt Tucholsky, writer
Carl Zeiss (1816-1888), founder of the Zeiss company
^ "Bevölkerung der Gemeinden, Gemeinschaftsfreie Gemeinde,
Verwaltungsgemeinschaft/Mitgliedsgemeinden in Thüringen". Thüringer
Landesamt für Statistik (in German). January 2018.
^ Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World
Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF).
Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
Retrieved 22 January 2013.
^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated
world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol.
Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.
ISSN 1027-5606. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
(link) (direct: Final Revised Paper)
^ Quartalsbericht IV/2014 Archived 2013-04-27 at the Wayback Machine.
^ According to Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik
^ According to the Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik
^ a b c d e f g h "Partnerstädte & partnerschaftliche
Beziehungen" (official website) (in German). Stadt Jena. Retrieved
^ "International Relations of the City of Porto" (PDF). © 2006-2009
Municipal Directorateofthe PresidencyServices
InternationalRelationsOffice. Archived from the original (PDF) on
2012-01-13. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
^ Martin, August Eduard In: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 16,
Duncker & Humblot,
Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-428-00197-4, S. 284 f.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jena.
Jena travel guide from Wikivoyage
Official Homepage of
Jena (in German) (in English)
"Jena". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
Places adjacent to Jena
Halle — Leipzig
Erfurt — Weimar
Chemnitz — Dresden
Germany by population
Freiburg im Breisgau
Mülheim an der Ruhr
Offenbach am Main
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants
Thuringia by population
Urban and rural districts in the Free State of