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JAVA (Indonesian : _JAWA_; Javanese : _ꦗꦮ_; Sundanese : _ᮏᮝ_) is an island of Indonesia
Indonesia
. With a population of over 141 million (the island itself) or 145 million (the administrative region), Java
Java
is home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the most populous island on Earth
Earth
. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta
Jakarta
, is located on western Java
Java
. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java. It was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies . Java
Java
was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java
Java
dominates Indonesia
Indonesia
politically, economically and culturally.

Formed mostly as the result of volcanic eruptions, Java
Java
is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest in Indonesia
Indonesia
by landmass. A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east–west spine along the island. Three main languages are spoken on the island: Javanese , Sundanese , and Madurese . Of these, Javanese is the dominant; it is the native language of about 60 million people in Indonesia, most of whom live on Java. Furthermore, most residents are bilingual , speaking Indonesian (the official language of Indonesia) as their first or second language. While the majority of the people of Java
Java
are Muslim
Muslim
, Java
Java
has a diverse mixture of religious beliefs, ethnicities, and cultures.

Java
Java
is divided into four provinces, West Java , Central Java , East Java
Java
, and Banten
Banten
, and two special regions, Jakarta
Jakarta
and Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Geography * 3 Natural environment * 4 Administration

* 5 History

* 5.1 Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms era * 5.2 Spread of Islam
Islam
and rise of Islamic sultanates * 5.3 Colonial periods * 5.4 Independence

* 6 Demography

* 6.1 Demographic profile * 6.2 Population development * 6.3 Ethnicity and culture * 6.4 Languages * 6.5 Religion

* 7 Economy * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Sources * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The origins of the name "Java" are not clear. One possibility is that the island was named after the _jáwa-wut_ plant, which was said to be common in the island during the time, and that prior to Indianization the island had different names. There are other possible sources: the word _jaú_ and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant". And, in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_yava_ means barley, a plant for which the island was famous. "Yawadvipa" is mentioned in India
India
's earliest epic, the Ramayana
Ramayana
. Sugriva , the chief of Rama
Rama
's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita
Sita
. It was hence referred to in India
India
by the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name "yāvaka dvīpa" (dvīpa = island). Java
Java
is mentioned in the ancient Tamil text _ Manimekalai _ by Chithalai Chathanar that states that Java
Java
had a kingdom with a capital called Nagapuram. Another source states that the "Java" word is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word, _Iawa_ that meaning "home". The great island of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was mentioned in Ptolemy\'s _Geographia _ composed around 150 CE in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. _Iabadiu_ is said to mean "barley island", to be rich in gold, and have a silver town called Argyra at the west end. The name indicate Java, and seems to be derived from Hindu
Hindu
name Java-dvipa (Yawadvipa).

GEOGRAPHY

See also: Volcanoes of Java Mount Bromo in East Java

Java
Java
lies between Sumatra
Sumatra
to the west and Bali
Bali
to the east. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island
Island
is to the south. It is the world\'s 13th largest island . Java
Java
is surrounded by the Java Sea to the north, Sunda Strait to the west, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the south and Bali
Bali
Strait and Madura Strait in the east.

Java
Java
is almost entirely of volcanic origin; it contains thirty-eight mountains forming an east–west spine that have at one time or another been active volcanoes . The highest volcano in Java
Java
is Mount Semeru (3,676 metres (12,060 ft)). The most active volcano in Java
Java
and also in Indonesia
Indonesia
is Mount Merapi (2,930 metres (9,610 ft)).

More mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series of relatively isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation; the rice lands of Java
Java
are among the richest in the world. Java
Java
was the first place where Indonesian coffee was grown, starting in 1699. Today, Coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by small-holders and larger plantations. Parahyangan
Parahyangan
highland near Buitenzorg
Buitenzorg
, c. 1865–1872

The area of Java
Java
is approximately 150,000 square kilometres (58,000 sq mi). It is about 1,000 km (620 mi) long and up to 210 km (130 mi) wide. The island's longest river is the 600 km long Solo River
River
. The river rises from its source in central Java
Java
at the Lawu volcano, then flows north and eastward to its mouth in the Java Sea near the city of Surabaya
Surabaya
. Other major rivers are Brantas , Citarum , Cimanuk and Serayu .

The average temperature ranges from 22 °C (72 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F); average humidity is 75%. The northern coastal plains are normally hotter, averaging 34 °C (93 °F) during the day in the dry season . The south coast is generally cooler than the north, and highland areas inland are even cooler. The wet season begins in November and ends in April. During that rain falls mostly in the afternoons and intermittently during other parts of the year. The wettest months are January and February.

West Java is wetter than East Java and mountainous regions receive much higher rainfall. The Parahyangan
Parahyangan
highlands of West Java receive over 4,000 millimetres (160 in) annually, while the north coast of East Java receives 900 millimetres (35 in) annually.

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

Banteng at Alas Purwo , eastern edge of Java
Java

The natural environment of Java
Java
is tropical rainforest , with ecosystems ranging from coastal mangrove forests on the north coast, rocky coastal cliffs on the southern coast, and low-lying tropical forests to high altitude rainforests on the slopes of mountainous volcanic regions in the interior. The Javan environment and climate gradually alters from west to east; from wet and humid dense rainforest in western parts, to a dry savanna environment in the east, corresponding to the climate and rainfall in these regions. Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon ; it is the world's rarest rhino.

Originally Javan wildlife supported a rich biodiversity, where numbers of endemic species of flora and fauna flourished; such as the Javan rhinoceros , Javan banteng , Javan warty pig , Javan hawk-eagle , Javan peafowl , Javan silvery gibbon , Javan lutung , Java mouse-deer , Javan rusa , and Javan leopard . With over 450 species of birds and 37 endemic species, Java
Java
is a birdwatcher's paradise. There are about 130 freshwater fish species in Java.

Since ancient times, people have opened the rainforest, altered the ecosystem, shaped the landscapes and created rice paddy and terraces to support the growing population. Javan rice terraces have existed for more than a millennium, and had supported ancient agricultural kingdoms. The growing human population has put severe pressure on Java's wildlife, as rainforests were diminished and confined to highland slopes or isolated peninsulas. Some of Java's endemic species are now critically endangered, with some already extinct; Java
Java
used to have Javan tigers and Javan elephants , but both have been rendered extinct. Today, several national parks exist in Java
Java
that protect the remnants of its fragile wildlife, such as Ujung Kulon , Mount Halimun-Salak , Gede Pangrango , Baluran , Meru Betiri and Alas Purwo .

ADMINISTRATION

See also: Javanese Public Administration Java
Java
transport network

Java
Java
is divided into four provinces and two special regions:

* Banten
Banten
, capital: Serang * West Java , capital: Bandung
Bandung
* Central Java , capital: Semarang
Semarang
* East Java , capital: Surabaya
Surabaya
* Special
Special
Capital Region of Jakarta
Jakarta
* Special
Special
Region of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta

HISTORY

Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.

Fossilised remains of _ Homo erectus _, popularly known as the "Java Man ", dating back 1.7 million years were found along the banks of the Bengawan Solo River
River
.

The island's exceptional fertility and rainfall allowed the development of wet-field rice cultivation, which required sophisticated levels of cooperation between villages. Out of these village alliances, small kingdoms developed. The chain of volcanic mountains and associated highlands running the length of Java
Java
kept its interior regions and peoples separate and relatively isolated. Before the advent of Islamic states and European colonialism, the rivers provided the main means of communication, although Java's many rivers are mostly short. Only the Brantas and Sala rivers could provide long-distance communication, and this way their valleys supported the centres of major kingdoms. A system of roads, permanent bridges and toll gates is thought to have been established in Java
Java
by at least the mid-17th century. Local powers could disrupt the routes as could the wet season and road use was highly dependent on constant maintenance. Subsequently, communication between Java's population was difficult.

HINDU-BUDDHIST KINGDOMS ERA

Prambanan
Prambanan
Hindu
Hindu
temple The 9th century Borobudur
Borobudur
Buddhist stupa in Central Java

The Taruma and Sunda kingdoms of western Java
Java
appeared in the 4th and 7th centuries respectively, while the Kalingga Kingdom sent embassies to China starting in 640. :53,79 However, the first major principality was the Medang Kingdom
Medang Kingdom
that was founded in central Java
Java
at the beginning of the 8th century. Medang's religion centred on the Hindu god Shiva
Shiva
, and the kingdom produced some of Java's earliest Hindu temples on the Dieng Plateau . Around the 8th century the Sailendra dynasty rose in Kedu Plain and become the patron of Mahayana Buddhism . This ancient kingdom built monuments such as the 9th century Borobudur
Borobudur
and Prambanan
Prambanan
in central Java.

Around the 10th century the centre of power shifted from central to eastern Java. The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri , Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

Majapahit was established by Wijaya :201 and by the end of the reign of Hayam Wuruk (r. 1350–89) it claimed sovereignty over the entire Indonesian archipelago, although control was likely limited to Java, Bali
Bali
and Madura. Hayam Wuruk's prime minister, Gajah Mada , led many of the kingdom's territorial conquests. :234 Previous Javanese kingdoms had their power based in agriculture, however, Majapahit took control of ports and shipping lanes and became Java's first commercial empire. With the death of Hayam Wuruk and the coming of Islam
Islam
to Indonesia
Indonesia
, Majapahit went into decline. :241

SPREAD OF ISLAM AND RISE OF ISLAMIC SULTANATES

Islam
Islam
became the dominant religion in Java
Java
at the end of the 16th century. During this era, the Islamic kingdoms of Demak , Cirebon , and Banten
Banten
were ascendant. The Mataram Sultanate became the dominant power of central and eastern Java
Java
at the end of the 16th century. The principalities of Surabaya
Surabaya
and Cirebon were eventually subjugated such that only Mataram and Banten
Banten
were left to face the Dutch in the 17th century.

COLONIAL PERIODS

Tea
Tea
plantation in Java
Java
during Dutch colonial period , in or before 1926

Java's contact with the European colonial powers began in 1522 with a treaty between the Sunda kingdom and the Portuguese in Malacca . After its failure the Portuguese presence was confined to Malacca, and to the eastern islands. In 1596, a four-ship expedition led by Cornelis de Houtman was the first Dutch contact with Indonesia. By the end of the 18th century the Dutch had extended their influence over the sultanates of the interior through the Dutch East India
India
Company in Indonesia
Indonesia
. Internal conflict prevented the Javanese from forming effective alliances against the Dutch. Remnants of the Mataram survived as the Surakarta
Surakarta
(Solo) and Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
principalities. Javanese kings claimed to rule with divine authority and the Dutch helped them to preserve remnants of a Javanese aristocracy by confirming them as regents or district officials within the colonial administration.

Java's major role during the early part of the colonial period was as a producer of rice . In spice producing islands like Banda , rice was regularly imported from Java, to supply the deficiency in means of subsistence.

During the Napoleonic wars in Europe, the Netherlands
Netherlands
fell to France , as did its colony in the East Indies
East Indies
. During the short-lived Daendels
Daendels
administration, as French proxy rule on Java, the construction of the Java
Java
Great Post Road was commenced in 1808. The road, spanning from Anyer in Western Java
Java
to Panarukan in East Java, served as a military supply route and was used in defending Java
Java
from British invasion.

In 1811, Java
Java
was captured by the British , becoming a possession of the British Empire
British Empire
, and Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the island's Governor. In 1814, Java
Java
was returned to the Dutch under the terms of the Treaty of Paris . Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java
Java
1945

In 1815, there may have been five million people in Java. In the second half of the 18th century, population spurts began in districts along the north-central coast of Java, and in the 19th century population grew rapidly across the island. Factors for the great population growth include the impact of Dutch colonial rule including the imposed end to civil war in Java, the increase in the area under rice cultivation, and the introduction of food plants such as casava and maize that could sustain populations that could not afford rice. Others attribute the growth to the taxation burdens and increased expansion of employment under the Cultivation System to which couples responded by having more children in the hope of increasing their families' ability to pay tax and buy goods. Cholera
Cholera
claimed 100,000 lives in Java
Java
in 1820.

The advent of trucks and railways where there had previously only been buffalo and carts, telegraph systems, and more coordinated distribution systems under the colonial government all contributed to famine elimination in Java, and in turn, population growth. There were no significant famines in Java
Java
from the 1840s through to the Japanese occupation in the 1940s. However, other sources claimed the Dutch\'s Cultivation system is linked to famines and epidemics in the 1840s, firstly in Cirebon and then Central Java , as cash crops such as indigo and sugar had to be grown instead of rice. Furthermore, the age of first marriage dropped during the 19th century thus increasing a woman's child bearing years.

INDEPENDENCE

Main article: Indonesian National Awakening

Indonesian nationalism first took hold in Java
Java
in the early 20th century, and the struggle to secure the country\'s independence following World War II
World War II
was centered in Java. In 1949, Indonesia
Indonesia
became independent and the island has dominated Indonesian social, political and economic life, which has been the source of resentment of those residents in other islands.

DEMOGRAPHY

DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE

Jakarta
Jakarta
, the capital of Indonesia
Indonesia

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1971 76,086,320 —

1980 91,269,528 +20.0%

1990 107,581,306 +17.9%

2000 121,352,608 +12.8%

2010 136,610,590 +12.6%

2015 145,013,583 +6.2%

sources: refers to the administrative region

Java
Java
has been traditionally dominated by an elite class, while the people in the lower classes were often involved in agriculture and fishing. The elite class in Java
Java
has evolved over the course of history, as cultural wave after cultural wave immigrated to the island. There is evidence that South Asian emigres were among this elite, as well as Arabian and Persian immigrants during the Islamic eras. More recently, Chinese immigrants have also become part of the economic elite of Java. Although politically the Chinese generally remain sidelined, there are notable exceptions, such as the governor of Jakarta, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama . Though Java
Java
is increasingly becoming more modern and urban, only 75% of the island has electricity. Villages and their rice paddies are still a common sight. Unlike the rest of Java, the population growth in Central Java remains low. Central Java however has a younger population than the national average. The slow population growth can in part be attributed to the choice by many people to leave the more rural Central Java for better opportunities and higher incomes in the bigger cities. Java's population continues to rapidly increase despite many Javanese leaving the island. This is somewhat due to the fact that Java
Java
is the Business, Academic, and Cultural hub of Indonesia, which attracts millions of non- Javanese people to its cities. The population growth is most intense in the regions surrounding Jakarta
Jakarta
and Bandung
Bandung
, which is reflected through the demographic diversity in those areas.

POPULATION DEVELOPMENT

With a combined population of 145 million in the 2015 census (including Madura's 3.7 million), which is estimated for 2014 at 143.1 million (including 3.7 million for Madura), Java
Java
is the most populous island in the world and is home to 57% of Indonesia's population. At over 1,100 people per km² in 2014, it is also one of the most densely populated parts of the world, on par with Bangladesh. Every region of the island has numerous volcanoes, with the people left to share the remaining flatter land. Because of this, many coasts are heavily populated and cities ring around the valleys surrounding volcanic peaks. Thus the physiological density of Java
Java
is exceptionally high, even by Asian standards.

Notably, population growth rate more than doubled in economically depressed Central Java in the latest 2010–2015 period vs 2000–2010, indicative of migration or other issues, there were significant volcanic eruptions during the earlier period. Approximately 45% of the population of Indonesia
Indonesia
is ethnically Javanese, while Sundanese make a large portion of Java's population as well.

The western third of the island (West Java, Banten, and DKI Jakarta) has an even higher population density, of nearly 1,500 per square kilometer and accounts for the lion's share of the population growth of Java. It is home to three metropolitan areas, Greater Jakarta (with outlying areas of Greater Serang and Greater Sukabumi ), Greater Bandung
Bandung
, and Greater Cirebon .

PROVINCE OR SPECIAL REGION CAPITAL Area km² Area % Population census of 2000 Population census of 2010 Population 2015 census (prelim.) Population density in 2015

Banten
Banten
Serang 9,662.92 7.1 8,098,277 10,632,166 11,934,373 1,235

DKI Jakarta
Jakarta
– 664.01 0.5 8,361,079 9,607,787 10,154,134 15,292

West Java Bandung
Bandung
35,377.76 27.1 35,724,093 43,053,732 46,668,224 1,319

Western Java (3 areas above) _45,704.69_ _34.7_ _52,183,449_ _63,293,685_ _68,756,731_ _1,504_

Central Java Semarang
Semarang
32,800.69 25.3 31,223,258 32,382,657 33,753,023 1,029

Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
3,133.15 2.4 3,121,045 3,457,491 3,675,768 1,173

Central Java Region (2 areas above) _35,933.84_ _27.7_ _34,344,303_ _35,840,148_ _37,428,791_ _1,041_

East Java Surabaya
Surabaya
47,799.75 37.3 34,765,993 37,476,757 38,828,061 812

Region Administered as _Java_ Jakarta
Jakarta
129,438.28 100% 121,293,745 136,610,590 145,013,583 1,120

Madura Island
Island
of East Java – 5,025.30 3.3 3,230,300 3,622,763 3,724,545** 741**

Java
Java
Island1) – 124,412.98 96.7 118,063,445 132,987,827 141,300,000** 1,136**

1) Other islands are included in this figure, but are very small in population and area, Nusa Barung 100 km², Bawean 196 km², Karimunjawa 78 km², Kambangan 121 km², Panaitan 170 km², Thousand Islands 8.7 km² – with a combined population of roughly 90,000.

2) Land area of provinces updated in 2010 Census
Census
figures, areas may be different than past results.

3) 2015 Census
Census
prelim data released only first level administrations only, where not available 2014 Min. Health estimates are used in their place.

From the 1970s to the fall of the Suharto regime in 1998, the Indonesian government ran transmigration programs aimed at resettling the population of Java
Java
on other less-populated islands of Indonesia. This program has met with mixed results, sometimes causing conflicts between the locals and the recently arrived settlers . Nevertheless, it has caused Java's share of the nation's population to progressively decline.

Jakarta
Jakarta
and its outskirts, being the dominant metropolis, is also home to people from all over the nation. East Java is also home to ethnic Balinese, as well as large numbers of Madurans due to their historic poverty.

ETHNICITY AND CULTURE

See also: Culture of Indonesia
Indonesia
and Music of Java A teenager in Java
Java
wearing traditional Javanese attire: blangkon headgear, batik sarong and kris as accessory. 1913

Despite its large population and in contrast to the other larger islands of Indonesia, Java
Java
is comparatively homogeneous in ethnic composition. Only two ethnic groups are native to the island—the Javanese and Sundanese . A third group is the Madurese , who inhabit the island of Madura off the north east coast of Java, and have immigrated to East Java in large numbers since the 18th century. The Javanese comprise about two-thirds of the island's population, while the Sundanese and Madurese account for 20% and 10% respectively. The fourth group is the Betawi people that speak a dialect of Malay , they are the descendants of the people living around Batavia from around the 17th century. Betawis are creole people , mostly descended from various Indonesian archipelago ethnic groups such as Malay , Sundanese , Javanese , Balinese , Minang , Bugis , Makassar , Ambonese
Ambonese
, mixed with foreign ethnic groups such as Portuguese , Dutch , Arab
Arab
, Chinese and Indian brought to or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs. They have a culture and language distinct from the surrounding Sundanese and Javanese . Sundanese Gamelan
Gamelan
players

The Javanese kakawin Tantu Pagelaran explained the mythical origin of the island and its volcanic nature. Four major cultural areas exist on the island: the _kejawen _ or Javanese heartland, the north coast of the _pasisir_ region, the Sunda lands of West Java, and the eastern salient , also known as Blambangan . Madura makes up a fifth area having close cultural ties with coastal Java. The _kejawen_ Javanese culture is the island's most dominant. Java's remaining aristocracy are based here, and it is the region from where the majority of Indonesia's army, business, and political elite originate. Its language, arts, and etiquette are regarded as the island's most refined and exemplary. The territory from Banyumas in the west through to Blitar in the east and encompasses Indonesia's most fertile and densely populated agricultural land. Lakshmana
Lakshmana
, Rama
Rama
and Shinta in Ramayana
Ramayana
ballet at Prambanan
Prambanan
, Java.

In the southwestern part of Central Java, which is usually named the Banyumasan region, a cultural mingling occurred; bringing together Javanese culture and Sundanese culture to create the Banyumasan culture. In the central Javanese court cities of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
and Surakarta
Surakarta
, contemporary kings trace their lineages back to the pre-colonial Islamic kingdoms that ruled the region, making those places especially strong repositories of classical Javanese culture. Classic arts of Java
Java
include gamelan music and wayang puppet shows.

Java
Java
was the site of many influential kingdoms in the Southeast Asian region, and as a result, many literary works have been written by Javanese authors. These include _ Ken Arok and Ken Dedes _, the story of the orphan who usurped his king, and married the queen of the ancient Javanese kingdom; and translations of _ Ramayana
Ramayana
_ and _ Mahabharata _. Pramoedya Ananta Toer is a famous contemporary Indonesian author, who has written many stories based on his own experiences of having grown up in Java, and takes many elements from Javanese folklore and historical legends.

LANGUAGES

Languages spoken in Java
Java
(Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi , the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.

The three major languages spoken on Java
Java
are Javanese , Sundanese and Madurese . Other languages spoken include Betawi (a Malay dialect local to the Jakarta
Jakarta
region), Osing , Banyumasan , and Tenggerese (closely related to Javanese), Baduy (closely related to Sundanese), Kangeanese (closely related to Madurese), and Balinese . The vast majority of the population also speaks Indonesian , often as a second language.

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in Indonesia
Indonesia

Java
Java
has been a melting pot of religions and cultures, which has created a broad range of religious belief.

Indian influences came first with Shaivism
Shaivism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
penetrating deeply into society, blending with indigenous tradition and culture. One conduit for this were the ascetics , called _resi_, who taught mystical practices. A _resi_ lived surrounded by students, who took care of their master's daily needs. Resi's authorities were merely ceremonial. At the courts, Brahmin clerics and _pudjangga_ (sacred literati) legitimised rulers and linked Hindu
Hindu
cosmology to their political needs. Small Hindu
Hindu
enclaves are scattered throughout Java, but there is a large Hindu
Hindu
population along the eastern coast nearest Bali
Bali
, especially around the town of Banyuwangi .

Islam
Islam
, which came after Hinduism, strengthened the status structure of this traditional religious pattern. More than 90 percent of the people of Java
Java
are Muslims, on a broad continuum between _abangan _ (more traditional) and _santri _ (more modernist). The Muslim
Muslim
scholar of the writ (_ Kyai _) became the new religious elite as Hindu influences receded. Islam
Islam
recognises no hierarchy of religious leaders nor a formal priesthood , but the Dutch colonial government established an elaborate rank order for mosque and other Islamic preaching schools. In Javanese _pesantren _ (Islamic schools), The _Kyai_ perpetuated the tradition of the _resi_. Students around him provided his needs, even peasants around the school.

*

A Hindu
Hindu
shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan
Parahyangan
Agung Jagatkartta, Bogor . *

Mendut
Mendut
Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut
Mendut
temple, Magelang. *

Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof. *

Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Pre-Islamic Javan traditions have encouraged Islam
Islam
in a mystical direction. There emerged in Java
Java
a loosely structured society of religious leadership, revolving around _kyais_, possessing various degrees of proficiency in pre-Islamic and Islamic lore , belief and practice. The kyais are the principal intermediaries between the villages masses and the realm of the supernatural . However, this very looseneess of kyai leadership structure has promoted schism . There were often sharp divisions between orthodox kyais, who merely instructed in Islamic law, with those who taught mysticism and those who sought reformed Islam
Islam
with modern scientific concepts. As a result, there is a division between _santri_, who believe that they are more orthodox in their Islamic belief and practice, with _abangan _, who have mixed pre-Islamic animistic and Hindu-Indian concepts with a superficial acceptance of Islamic belief.

There are also Christian
Christian
communities, mostly in the larger cities, though some rural areas of south-central Java
Java
are strongly Roman Catholic . Buddhist communities also exist in the major cities, primarily among the Chinese Indonesian . The Indonesian constitution recognises six official religions.

A wider effect of this division is the number of sects. In the middle of 1956, the Department of Religious Affairs in Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
reported 63 religious sects in Java
Java
other than the official Indonesian religions. Of these, 35 were in Central Java , 22 in West Java and six in East Java
Java
. These include Kejawen , Sumarah , Subud , etc. Their total membership is difficult to estimate as many of their adherents identify themselves with one of the official religions.

ECONOMY

Water Buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga , Central Java

Initially the economy of Java
Java
relied heavily on rice agriculture. Ancient kingdoms such as the Tarumanagara , Mataram , and Majapahit were dependent on rice yields and tax. Java
Java
was famous for rice surpluses and rice export since ancient times, and rice agriculture contributed to the population growth of the island. Trade with other parts of Asia such as India
India
and China flourished as early as the 4th century, as evidenced by Chinese ceramics found on the island dated to that period. Java
Java
also took part in the global trade of Maluku spice from ancient times in the Majapahit era, until well into the VOC era.

Dutch East India
India
Company set their foothold on Batavia in the 17th century and was succeeded by Netherlands
Netherlands
East Indies
East Indies
in the 19th century. During these colonial times, the Dutch introduced the cultivation of commercial plants in Java, such as sugarcane , rubber , coffee , tea , and quinine . In the 19th and early 20th century, Javanese coffee gained global popularity. Thus, the name "Java" today has become a synonym for coffee. Central Jakarta
Jakarta

Java
Java
is the most developed island in Indonesia
Indonesia
since the era of Netherlands
Netherlands
East Indies
East Indies
to modern Republic of Indonesia. The road transportation networks that have existed since ancient times were connected and perfected with the construction of Java
Java
Great Post Road by Daendels
Daendels
in the early 19th century. The Java
Java
Great Post Road become the backbone of Java's road infrastructure and laid the base of Java North Coast Road (Indonesian : _Jalan Pantura, abbreviation from "Pantai Utara"_). The need to transport commercial produces such as coffee from plantations in the interior of the island to the harbour on the coast spurred the construction of railway networks in Java. Today the industry , business and trade, also services flourished in major cities of Java, such as Jakarta
Jakarta
, Surabaya
Surabaya
, Semarang
Semarang
, and Bandung
Bandung
; while some traditional Sultanate cities such as Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
, Surakarta
Surakarta
, and Cirebon preserved its royal legacy and become the centre of art, culture and tourism in Java. Industrial estates also growing in towns on northern coast of Java, especially around Cilegon , Tangerang , Bekasi
Bekasi
, Karawang , Gresik and Sidoarjo . The toll road highway networks was built and expanded since Suharto era until now, connecting major urban centres and surrounding areas, such as in and around Jakarta
Jakarta
and Bandung
Bandung
; also the ones in Cirebon , Semarang
Semarang
and Surabaya
Surabaya
. In addition to these motorways, Java
Java
has 16 national highways.

Based on the statistical data by the year of 2012 which's released by Badan Pusat Statistik, Java
Java
Island
Island
itself contributes at least 57.51% of Indonesia's Gross Domestic Product or equivalent to 504 billion US Dollars.

SEE ALSO

* Indonesia
Indonesia
portal

* History of Indonesia
Indonesia
* List of monarchs of Java

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Indonesia: Urban Population of Cities Retrieved 22 December 2015. * ^ Raffles, Thomas E.: _History of Java
Java
_. Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 2. * ^ _A_ _B_ Raffles, Thomas E.: _History of Java
Java
_. Oxford University Press, 1965, p. 3. * ^ History of Ancient India
India
Kapur, Kamlesh * ^ Hindu
Hindu
culture in ancient India
India
by Sekharipuram Vaidyanatha Viswanatha, p. 177. * ^ Tamil Literature by M. S. Purnalingam Pillai, p. 46. * ^ The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago by V. Kanakasabhai, p. 11. * ^ Hatley, R., Schiller, J., Lucas, A., Martin-Schiller, B., (1984). "Mapping cultural regions of Java" in: Other Javas away from the kraton. pp. 1–32. * ^ J. Oliver Thomson (2013). _History of Ancient Geography_. Cambridge University Press . pp. 316–317. ISBN 9781107689923 . * ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (1990). _A History of Modern Indonesia
Indonesia
since c.1300_ (2 ed.). London: MacMillan. p. 15. ISBN 0-333-57690-X . * ^ Monk,, K. A.; Fretes, Y.; Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). _The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku_. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 962-593-076-0 . * ^ Management of Bengawan Solo River
River
Area Jasa Tirta I Corporation 2004. Retrieved 26 July 2006. * ^ "Climate, Weather, and Temperature of Java
Java
Indonesia". Retrieved 1 April 2014. * ^ "Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)". EDGE Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered. Retrieved 26 June 2012. * ^ " Indonesia
Indonesia
bird watching tour". wildlifenews.co.uk. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012. * ^ Nguyen, T. T. T., and S. S. De Silva (2006). _Freshwater finfish biodiversity and conservation: an asian perspective._ Biodiversity & Conservation 15(11): 3543–3568. * ^ Pope, G. G. (1988). "Recent advances in far eastern paleoanthropology". _Annual Review of Anthropology_. 17: 43–77. doi :10.1146/annurev.an.17.100188.000355 . cited in Whitten, T.; Soeriaatmadja, R. E.; Suraya A. A. (1996). _The Ecology of Java
Java
and Bali_. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. pp. 309–312. ; Pope, G. (15 August 1983). "Evidence on the Age of the Asian Hominidae" . _Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America_. 80 (16): 4,988–4992. PMC 384173  _. PMID 6410399 . doi :10.1073/pnas.80.16.4988 . cited in Whitten, T.; Soeriaatmadja, R. E.; Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java
Java
and Bali_. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 309. ; de Vos, J. P.; P. Y. Sondaar (9 December 1994). "Dating hominid sites in Indonesia" (PDF). _Science Magazine_. 266 (16): 4,988–4992. doi :10.1126/science.7992059 . cited in Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E.; Suraya A. A. (1996). _The Ecology of Java
Java
and Bali_. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 309. * ^ Ricklefs (1991), pp. 16–17. * ^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 15. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. _The Indianized States of Southeast Asia_. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1 . * ^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). _The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European Discovery, 1500–1700_. p. 99. * ^ St. John, Horace Stebbing Roscoe (1853). _The Indian Archipelago: its history and present state, Volume 1_. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. p. 137. * ^ _Ekspedisi Anjer-Panaroekan, Laporan Jurnalistik Kompas_. Pnerbit Buku Kompas, PT Kompas Media Nusantara, Jakarta
Jakarta
Indonesia. November 2008. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-979-709-391-4 . * ^ Atkins, James (1889). _The Coins And Tokens Of The Possessions And Colonies Of The British Empire_. London. p. 213. * ^ Java
Java
(island, Indonesia). Encyclopædia Britannica. * ^ Taylor (2003), p. 253. * ^ Taylor (2003), pp. 253–254. * ^ Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). _Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M_. ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 0-313-34102-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Taylor (2003), p. 254. * ^ "Statistics Indonesia". _Bps.go.id_. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014 Kementerian Kesehatan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014. * ^ Usia Kawin Pertama Rata-Rata Wanita Menurut Provinsi: Sensus Penduduk Tahun 1990, 2000 dan 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2015. * ^ Agus Maryono (30 March 2009). " Central Java strives to alleviate poverty". _The Jakarta
Jakarta
Post_. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Population growth \'good for Papua\'". _The Jakarta
Jakarta
Post _. 23 August 2010. Archived from the original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010. * ^ CIA factbook * ^ _A_ _B_ " Indonesia
Indonesia
(Urban City Population): Provinces & Cities – Statistics & Maps on City Population". Citypopulation.de. 2010-05-01. Retrieved 2013-07-17. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Hefner, Robert (1997). _Java_. Singapore: Periplus Editions. p. 58. ISBN 962-593-244-5 . * ^ See Wallace Stevens's poem " Tea
Tea
" for an appreciative allusion to Javanese culture. * ^ Languages of Java
Java
and Bali. Other sources may list some of these as dialects rather than languages. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ van der Kroef, Justus M. (1961). "New Religious Sects in Java". _Far Eastern Survey_. 30 (2): 18–25. JSTOR 3024260 . doi :10.1525/as.1961.30.2.01p1432u . * ^ Beatty, Andrew, _Varieties of Javanese Religion: An Anthropological Account_, Cambridge University Press 1999, ISBN 0-521-62473-8

SOURCES

* Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). _Indonesia: Peoples and Histories_. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5 .

FURTHER READING

* Cribb, Robert (2000). _Historical Atlas of Indonesia_. London and Honolulu: RoutledgeCurzon Press, University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2111-4 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for JAVA _.

* v * t

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