JAVA (Indonesian : _JAWA_; Javanese : _ꦗꦮ_; Sundanese : _ᮏᮝ_)
is an island of
Indonesia . With a population of over 141 million (the
island itself) or 145 million (the administrative region),
home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the most
populous island on
Earth . The Indonesian capital city,
Jakarta , is
located on western
Java . Much of Indonesian history took place on
Java. It was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the
Islamic sultanates, and the core of the colonial
Dutch East Indies .
Java was also the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence
during the 1930s and 1940s.
economically and culturally.
Formed mostly as the result of volcanic eruptions,
Java is the 13th
largest island in the world and the fifth largest in
landmass. A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east–west spine
along the island. Three main languages are spoken on the island:
Javanese , Sundanese , and Madurese . Of these, Javanese is the
dominant; it is the native language of about 60 million people in
Indonesia, most of whom live on Java. Furthermore, most residents are
bilingual , speaking Indonesian (the official language of Indonesia)
as their first or second language. While the majority of the people of
Java has a diverse mixture of religious beliefs,
ethnicities, and cultures.
Java is divided into four provinces,
West Java ,
Central Java , East
Java , and
Banten , and two special regions,
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Geography
* 4 Administration
* 5 History
* 5.1 Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms era
* 5.2 Spread of
Islam and rise of Islamic sultanates
* 5.3 Colonial periods
* 5.4 Independence
* 6 Demography
* 6.1 Demographic profile
* 6.2 Population development
* 6.3 Ethnicity and culture
* 6.4 Languages
* 6.5 Religion
* 7 Economy
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 10 Sources
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
The origins of the name "Java" are not clear. One possibility is that
the island was named after the _jáwa-wut_ plant, which was said to be
common in the island during the time, and that prior to Indianization
the island had different names. There are other possible sources: the
word _jaú_ and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant". And, in
Sanskrit _yava_ means barley, a plant for which the island was famous.
"Yawadvipa" is mentioned in
India 's earliest epic, the
Sugriva , the chief of
Rama 's army dispatched his men to Yawadvipa,
the island of Java, in search of
Sita . It was hence referred to in
India by the
Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa" (dvīpa = island).
mentioned in the ancient Tamil text _
Manimekalai _ by Chithalai
Chathanar that states that
Java had a kingdom with a capital called
Nagapuram. Another source states that the "Java" word is derived
from a Proto-Austronesian root word, _Iawa_ that meaning "home". The
great island of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was mentioned in Ptolemy\'s
_Geographia _ composed around 150 CE in the
Roman Empire . _Iabadiu_
is said to mean "barley island", to be rich in gold, and have a silver
town called Argyra at the west end. The name indicate Java, and seems
to be derived from
Hindu name Java-dvipa (Yawadvipa).
Volcanoes of Java
Mount Bromo in
Java lies between
Sumatra to the west and
Bali to the east. Borneo
lies to the north and Christmas
Island is to the south. It is the
world\'s 13th largest island .
Java is surrounded by the
Java Sea to
Sunda Strait to the west, the
Indian Ocean to the south and
Bali Strait and
Madura Strait in the east.
Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin; it contains thirty-eight
mountains forming an east–west spine that have at one time or
another been active volcanoes . The highest volcano in
Java is Mount
Semeru (3,676 metres (12,060 ft)). The most active volcano in
Mount Merapi (2,930 metres (9,610 ft)).
More mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series
of relatively isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation; the
rice lands of
Java are among the richest in the world.
Java was the
first place where
Indonesian coffee was grown, starting in 1699.
Coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by small-holders
and larger plantations.
Parahyangan highland near
Buitenzorg , c.
The area of
Java is approximately 150,000 square kilometres (58,000
sq mi). It is about 1,000 km (620 mi) long and up to 210 km (130 mi)
wide. The island's longest river is the 600 km long Solo
River . The
river rises from its source in central
Java at the Lawu volcano, then
flows north and eastward to its mouth in the
Java Sea near the city of
Surabaya . Other major rivers are
Citarum , Cimanuk and
The average temperature ranges from 22 °C (72 °F) to 29 °C (84
°F); average humidity is 75%. The northern coastal plains are
normally hotter, averaging 34 °C (93 °F) during the day in the dry
season . The south coast is generally cooler than the north, and
highland areas inland are even cooler. The wet season begins in
November and ends in April. During that rain falls mostly in the
afternoons and intermittently during other parts of the year. The
wettest months are January and February.
West Java is wetter than
East Java and mountainous regions receive
much higher rainfall. The
Parahyangan highlands of
West Java receive
over 4,000 millimetres (160 in) annually, while the north coast of
East Java receives 900 millimetres (35 in) annually.
Banteng at Alas Purwo , eastern edge of
The natural environment of
Java is tropical rainforest , with
ecosystems ranging from coastal mangrove forests on the north coast,
rocky coastal cliffs on the southern coast, and low-lying tropical
forests to high altitude rainforests on the slopes of mountainous
volcanic regions in the interior. The Javan environment and climate
gradually alters from west to east; from wet and humid dense
rainforest in western parts, to a dry savanna environment in the east,
corresponding to the climate and rainfall in these regions. Male
Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of
Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon ; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Originally Javan wildlife supported a rich biodiversity, where
numbers of endemic species of flora and fauna flourished; such as the
Javan rhinoceros , Javan banteng ,
Javan warty pig , Javan hawk-eagle
, Javan peafowl , Javan silvery gibbon ,
Javan lutung , Java
Javan rusa , and
Javan leopard . With over 450 species of
birds and 37 endemic species,
Java is a birdwatcher's paradise. There
are about 130 freshwater fish species in Java.
Since ancient times, people have opened the rainforest, altered the
ecosystem, shaped the landscapes and created rice paddy and terraces
to support the growing population. Javan rice terraces have existed
for more than a millennium, and had supported ancient agricultural
kingdoms. The growing human population has put severe pressure on
Java's wildlife, as rainforests were diminished and confined to
highland slopes or isolated peninsulas. Some of Java's endemic species
are now critically endangered, with some already extinct;
Java used to
have Javan tigers and Javan elephants , but both have been rendered
extinct. Today, several national parks exist in
Java that protect the
remnants of its fragile wildlife, such as Ujung Kulon , Mount
Halimun-Salak , Gede Pangrango , Baluran , Meru Betiri and Alas Purwo
Javanese Public Administration
Java transport network
Java is divided into four provinces and two special regions:
Banten , capital:
West Java , capital:
Central Java , capital:
East Java , capital:
Special Capital Region of
Special Region of
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic
topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in
Fossilised remains of _
Homo erectus _, popularly known as the "Java
Man ", dating back 1.7 million years were found along the banks of the
The island's exceptional fertility and rainfall allowed the
development of wet-field rice cultivation, which required
sophisticated levels of cooperation between villages. Out of these
village alliances, small kingdoms developed. The chain of volcanic
mountains and associated highlands running the length of
Java kept its
interior regions and peoples separate and relatively isolated. Before
the advent of Islamic states and European colonialism, the rivers
provided the main means of communication, although Java's many rivers
are mostly short. Only the
Brantas and Sala rivers could provide
long-distance communication, and this way their valleys supported the
centres of major kingdoms. A system of roads, permanent bridges and
toll gates is thought to have been established in
Java by at least the
mid-17th century. Local powers could disrupt the routes as could the
wet season and road use was highly dependent on constant maintenance.
Subsequently, communication between Java's population was difficult.
HINDU-BUDDHIST KINGDOMS ERA
Hindu temple The 9th century
The Taruma and Sunda kingdoms of western
Java appeared in the 4th and
7th centuries respectively, while the
Kalingga Kingdom sent embassies
to China starting in 640. :53,79 However, the first major principality
Medang Kingdom that was founded in central
Java at the
beginning of the 8th century. Medang's religion centred on the Hindu
Shiva , and the kingdom produced some of Java's earliest Hindu
temples on the
Dieng Plateau . Around the 8th century the Sailendra
dynasty rose in
Kedu Plain and become the patron of
. This ancient kingdom built monuments such as the 9th century
Prambanan in central Java.
Around the 10th century the centre of power shifted from central to
eastern Java. The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri ,
Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued
trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.
Majapahit was established by Wijaya :201 and by the end of the reign
Hayam Wuruk (r. 1350–89) it claimed sovereignty over the entire
Indonesian archipelago, although control was likely limited to Java,
Bali and Madura. Hayam Wuruk's prime minister,
Gajah Mada , led many
of the kingdom's territorial conquests. :234 Previous Javanese
kingdoms had their power based in agriculture, however,
control of ports and shipping lanes and became Java's first commercial
empire. With the death of
Hayam Wuruk and the coming of
Majapahit went into decline. :241
SPREAD OF ISLAM AND RISE OF ISLAMIC SULTANATES
Islam became the dominant religion in
Java at the end of the 16th
century. During this era, the Islamic kingdoms of Demak ,
Banten were ascendant. The
Mataram Sultanate became the dominant
power of central and eastern
Java at the end of the 16th century. The
Cirebon were eventually subjugated such
that only Mataram and
Banten were left to face the Dutch in the 17th
Tea plantation in
Java during Dutch colonial period , in or
Java's contact with the European colonial powers began in 1522 with a
treaty between the
Sunda kingdom and the Portuguese in Malacca . After
its failure the Portuguese presence was confined to Malacca, and to
the eastern islands. In 1596, a four-ship expedition led by Cornelis
de Houtman was the first Dutch contact with Indonesia. By the end of
the 18th century the Dutch had extended their influence over the
sultanates of the interior through the Dutch East
India Company in
Indonesia . Internal conflict prevented the Javanese from forming
effective alliances against the Dutch. Remnants of the Mataram
survived as the
Surakarta (Solo) and
Javanese kings claimed to rule with divine authority and the Dutch
helped them to preserve remnants of a Javanese aristocracy by
confirming them as regents or district officials within the colonial
Java's major role during the early part of the colonial period was as
a producer of rice . In spice producing islands like Banda , rice was
regularly imported from Java, to supply the deficiency in means of
Napoleonic wars in Europe, the
Netherlands fell to France
, as did its colony in the
East Indies . During the short-lived
Daendels administration, as French proxy rule on Java, the
construction of the
Great Post Road was commenced in 1808. The
road, spanning from
Anyer in Western
Java to Panarukan in East Java,
served as a military supply route and was used in defending
Java was captured by the British , becoming a possession of
British Empire , and Sir
Stamford Raffles was appointed as the
island's Governor. In 1814,
Java was returned to the Dutch under the
terms of the Treaty of Paris . Japanese prepare to discuss
surrender terms with British-allied forces in
In 1815, there may have been five million people in Java. In the
second half of the 18th century, population spurts began in districts
along the north-central coast of Java, and in the 19th century
population grew rapidly across the island. Factors for the great
population growth include the impact of Dutch colonial rule including
the imposed end to civil war in Java, the increase in the area under
rice cultivation, and the introduction of food plants such as casava
and maize that could sustain populations that could not afford rice.
Others attribute the growth to the taxation burdens and increased
expansion of employment under the
Cultivation System to which couples
responded by having more children in the hope of increasing their
families' ability to pay tax and buy goods.
Cholera claimed 100,000
Java in 1820.
The advent of trucks and railways where there had previously only
been buffalo and carts, telegraph systems, and more coordinated
distribution systems under the colonial government all contributed to
famine elimination in Java, and in turn, population growth. There were
no significant famines in
Java from the 1840s through to the Japanese
occupation in the 1940s. However, other sources claimed the Dutch\'s
Cultivation system is linked to famines and epidemics in the 1840s,
Cirebon and then
Central Java , as cash crops such as
indigo and sugar had to be grown instead of rice. Furthermore, the age
of first marriage dropped during the 19th century thus increasing a
woman's child bearing years.
Indonesian National Awakening
Indonesian nationalism first took hold in
Java in the early 20th
century, and the struggle to secure the country\'s independence
World War II
World War II was centered in Java. In 1949,
independent and the island has dominated Indonesian social, political
and economic life, which has been the source of resentment of those
residents in other islands.
Jakarta , the capital of
sources: refers to the administrative region
Java has been traditionally dominated by an elite class, while the
people in the lower classes were often involved in agriculture and
fishing. The elite class in
Java has evolved over the course of
history, as cultural wave after cultural wave immigrated to the
island. There is evidence that South Asian emigres were among this
elite, as well as Arabian and Persian immigrants during the Islamic
eras. More recently, Chinese immigrants have also become part of the
economic elite of Java. Although politically the Chinese generally
remain sidelined, there are notable exceptions, such as the governor
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama . Though
Java is increasingly
becoming more modern and urban, only 75% of the island has
electricity. Villages and their rice paddies are still a common sight.
Unlike the rest of Java, the population growth in
Central Java remains
Central Java however has a younger population than the national
average. The slow population growth can in part be attributed to the
choice by many people to leave the more rural
Central Java for better
opportunities and higher incomes in the bigger cities. Java's
population continues to rapidly increase despite many Javanese leaving
the island. This is somewhat due to the fact that
Java is the
Business, Academic, and Cultural hub of Indonesia, which attracts
millions of non-
Javanese people to its cities. The population growth
is most intense in the regions surrounding
Bandung , which
is reflected through the demographic diversity in those areas.
With a combined population of 145 million in the 2015 census
(including Madura's 3.7 million), which is estimated for 2014 at
143.1 million (including 3.7 million for Madura),
Java is the most
populous island in the world and is home to 57% of Indonesia's
population. At over 1,100 people per km² in 2014, it is also one of
the most densely populated parts of the world, on par with Bangladesh.
Every region of the island has numerous volcanoes, with the people
left to share the remaining flatter land. Because of this, many coasts
are heavily populated and cities ring around the valleys surrounding
volcanic peaks. Thus the physiological density of
exceptionally high, even by Asian standards.
Notably, population growth rate more than doubled in economically
Central Java in the latest 2010–2015 period vs
2000–2010, indicative of migration or other issues, there were
significant volcanic eruptions during the earlier period.
Approximately 45% of the population of
Indonesia is ethnically
Javanese, while Sundanese make a large portion of Java's population
The western third of the island (West Java, Banten, and DKI Jakarta)
has an even higher population density, of nearly 1,500 per square
kilometer and accounts for the lion's share of the population growth
of Java. It is home to three metropolitan areas, Greater Jakarta
(with outlying areas of Greater
Serang and Greater
Sukabumi ), Greater
Bandung , and Greater
PROVINCE OR SPECIAL REGION
census of 2000 Population
census of 2010 Population
2015 census (prelim.) Population
density in 2015
(3 areas above)
Central Java Region
(2 areas above)
Region Administered as _Java_
1) Other islands are included in this figure, but are very small in
population and area, Nusa Barung 100 km², Bawean 196 km²,
Karimunjawa 78 km², Kambangan 121 km², Panaitan 170 km², Thousand
Islands 8.7 km² – with a combined population of roughly 90,000.
2) Land area of provinces updated in 2010
Census figures, areas may
be different than past results.
Census prelim data released only first level administrations
only, where not available 2014 Min. Health estimates are used in
From the 1970s to the fall of the
Suharto regime in 1998, the
Indonesian government ran transmigration programs aimed at resettling
the population of
Java on other less-populated islands of Indonesia.
This program has met with mixed results, sometimes causing conflicts
between the locals and the recently arrived settlers . Nevertheless,
it has caused Java's share of the nation's population to progressively
Jakarta and its outskirts, being the dominant metropolis, is also
home to people from all over the nation.
East Java is also home to
ethnic Balinese, as well as large numbers of Madurans due to their
ETHNICITY AND CULTURE
See also: Culture of
Music of Java A teenager in
Java wearing traditional Javanese attire: blangkon headgear, batik
sarong and kris as accessory. 1913
Despite its large population and in contrast to the other larger
islands of Indonesia,
Java is comparatively homogeneous in ethnic
composition. Only two ethnic groups are native to the island—the
Javanese and Sundanese . A third group is the Madurese , who inhabit
the island of
Madura off the north east coast of Java, and have
East Java in large numbers since the 18th century. The
Javanese comprise about two-thirds of the island's population, while
the Sundanese and Madurese account for 20% and 10% respectively. The
fourth group is the
Betawi people that speak a dialect of Malay , they
are the descendants of the people living around Batavia from around
the 17th century. Betawis are creole people , mostly descended from
various Indonesian archipelago ethnic groups such as Malay , Sundanese
, Javanese , Balinese , Minang , Bugis , Makassar ,
Ambonese , mixed
with foreign ethnic groups such as Portuguese , Dutch ,
Arab , Chinese
and Indian brought to or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs.
They have a culture and language distinct from the surrounding
Sundanese and Javanese . Sundanese
The Javanese kakawin
Tantu Pagelaran explained the mythical origin of
the island and its volcanic nature. Four major cultural areas exist on
the island: the _kejawen _ or Javanese heartland, the north coast of
the _pasisir_ region, the Sunda lands of West Java, and the eastern
salient , also known as Blambangan .
Madura makes up a fifth area
having close cultural ties with coastal Java. The _kejawen_ Javanese
culture is the island's most dominant. Java's remaining aristocracy
are based here, and it is the region from where the majority of
Indonesia's army, business, and political elite originate. Its
language, arts, and etiquette are regarded as the island's most
refined and exemplary. The territory from Banyumas in the west
Blitar in the east and encompasses Indonesia's most fertile
and densely populated agricultural land.
Ramayana ballet at
Prambanan , Java.
In the southwestern part of Central Java, which is usually named the
Banyumasan region, a cultural mingling occurred; bringing together
Javanese culture and Sundanese culture to create the Banyumasan
culture. In the central Javanese court cities of
Surakarta , contemporary kings trace their lineages back to the
pre-colonial Islamic kingdoms that ruled the region, making those
places especially strong repositories of classical Javanese culture.
Classic arts of
Java include gamelan music and wayang puppet shows.
Java was the site of many influential kingdoms in the Southeast Asian
region, and as a result, many literary works have been written by
Javanese authors. These include _
Ken Arok and
Ken Dedes _, the story
of the orphan who usurped his king, and married the queen of the
ancient Javanese kingdom; and translations of _
Ramayana _ and
Pramoedya Ananta Toer is a famous contemporary
Indonesian author, who has written many stories based on his own
experiences of having grown up in Java, and takes many elements from
Javanese folklore and historical legends.
Languages spoken in
Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay"
refers to Betawi , the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
The three major languages spoken on
Java are Javanese , Sundanese and
Madurese . Other languages spoken include Betawi (a Malay dialect
local to the
Jakarta region), Osing , Banyumasan , and Tenggerese
(closely related to Javanese), Baduy (closely related to Sundanese),
Kangeanese (closely related to Madurese), and Balinese . The vast
majority of the population also speaks Indonesian , often as a second
Main article: Religion in
Java has been a melting pot of religions and cultures, which has
created a broad range of religious belief.
Indian influences came first with
deeply into society, blending with indigenous tradition and culture.
One conduit for this were the ascetics , called _resi_, who taught
mystical practices. A _resi_ lived surrounded by students, who took
care of their master's daily needs. Resi's authorities were merely
ceremonial. At the courts,
Brahmin clerics and _pudjangga_ (sacred
literati) legitimised rulers and linked
Hindu cosmology to their
political needs. Small
Hindu enclaves are scattered throughout Java,
but there is a large
Hindu population along the eastern coast nearest
Bali , especially around the town of
Islam , which came after Hinduism, strengthened the status structure
of this traditional religious pattern. More than 90 percent of the
Java are Muslims, on a broad continuum between _abangan _
(more traditional) and _santri _ (more modernist). The
of the writ (_
Kyai _) became the new religious elite as Hindu
Islam recognises no hierarchy of religious leaders
nor a formal priesthood , but the Dutch colonial government
established an elaborate rank order for mosque and other Islamic
preaching schools. In Javanese _pesantren _ (Islamic schools), The
_Kyai_ perpetuated the tradition of the _resi_. Students around him
provided his needs, even peasants around the school.
Hindu shrine dedicated to
King Siliwangi in Pura
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near
Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in
Yogyakarta , build in traditional Javanese
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese
Pre-Islamic Javan traditions have encouraged
Islam in a mystical
direction. There emerged in
Java a loosely structured society of
religious leadership, revolving around _kyais_, possessing various
degrees of proficiency in pre-Islamic and Islamic lore , belief and
practice. The kyais are the principal intermediaries between the
villages masses and the realm of the supernatural . However, this very
looseneess of kyai leadership structure has promoted schism . There
were often sharp divisions between orthodox kyais, who merely
instructed in Islamic law, with those who taught mysticism and those
who sought reformed
Islam with modern scientific concepts. As a
result, there is a division between _santri_, who believe that they
are more orthodox in their Islamic belief and practice, with _abangan
_, who have mixed pre-Islamic animistic and Hindu-Indian concepts with
a superficial acceptance of Islamic belief.
There are also
Christian communities, mostly in the larger cities,
though some rural areas of south-central
Java are strongly Roman
Catholic . Buddhist communities also exist in the major cities,
primarily among the
Chinese Indonesian . The Indonesian constitution
recognises six official religions.
A wider effect of this division is the number of sects. In the middle
of 1956, the Department of Religious Affairs in
Yogyakarta reported 63
religious sects in
Java other than the official Indonesian religions.
Of these, 35 were in
Central Java , 22 in
West Java and six in East
Java . These include Kejawen , Sumarah ,
Subud , etc. Their total
membership is difficult to estimate as many of their adherents
identify themselves with one of the official religions.
Water Buffalo ploughing rice fields near
Salatiga , Central Java
Initially the economy of
Java relied heavily on rice agriculture.
Ancient kingdoms such as the
Tarumanagara , Mataram , and Majapahit
were dependent on rice yields and tax.
Java was famous for rice
surpluses and rice export since ancient times, and rice agriculture
contributed to the population growth of the island. Trade with other
parts of Asia such as
India and China flourished as early as the 4th
century, as evidenced by Chinese ceramics found on the island dated to
Java also took part in the global trade of Maluku spice
from ancient times in the
Majapahit era, until well into the VOC era.
India Company set their foothold on Batavia in the 17th
century and was succeeded by
East Indies in the 19th
century. During these colonial times, the Dutch introduced the
cultivation of commercial plants in Java, such as sugarcane , rubber ,
coffee , tea , and quinine . In the 19th and early 20th century,
Javanese coffee gained global popularity. Thus, the name "Java" today
has become a synonym for coffee. Central
Java is the most developed island in
Indonesia since the era of
East Indies to modern Republic of Indonesia. The road
transportation networks that have existed since ancient times were
connected and perfected with the construction of
Java Great Post Road
Daendels in the early 19th century. The
Great Post Road become
the backbone of Java's road infrastructure and laid the base of Java
North Coast Road (Indonesian : _Jalan Pantura, abbreviation from
"Pantai Utara"_). The need to transport commercial produces such as
coffee from plantations in the interior of the island to the harbour
on the coast spurred the construction of railway networks in Java.
Today the industry , business and trade, also services flourished in
major cities of Java, such as
Semarang , and
Bandung ; while some traditional Sultanate cities such as
Surakarta , and
Cirebon preserved its royal legacy and become the
centre of art, culture and tourism in Java. Industrial estates also
growing in towns on northern coast of Java, especially around Cilegon
Sidoarjo . The toll road
highway networks was built and expanded since
Suharto era until now,
connecting major urban centres and surrounding areas, such as in and
Bandung ; also the ones in
Surabaya . In addition to these motorways,
Java has 16 national
Based on the statistical data by the year of 2012 which's released by
Badan Pusat Statistik,
Island itself contributes at least 57.51%
of Indonesia's Gross Domestic Product or equivalent to 504 billion US
* History of
List of monarchs of Java
* ^ _A_ _B_ Indonesia: Urban Population of Cities Retrieved 22
* ^ Raffles, Thomas E.: _History of
Java _. Oxford University
Press, 1965, p. 2.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Raffles, Thomas E.: _History of
Java _. Oxford
University Press, 1965, p. 3.
* ^ History of Ancient
India Kapur, Kamlesh
Hindu culture in ancient
India by Sekharipuram Vaidyanatha
Viswanatha, p. 177.
* ^ Tamil Literature by M. S. Purnalingam Pillai, p. 46.
* ^ The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago by V. Kanakasabhai, p.
* ^ Hatley, R., Schiller, J., Lucas, A., Martin-Schiller, B.,
(1984). "Mapping cultural regions of Java" in: Other Javas away from
the kraton. pp. 1–32.
* ^ J. Oliver Thomson (2013). _History of Ancient Geography_.
Cambridge University Press . pp. 316–317. ISBN 9781107689923 .
* ^ Ricklefs, M. C. (1990). _A History of Modern
c.1300_ (2 ed.). London: MacMillan. p. 15. ISBN 0-333-57690-X .
* ^ Monk,, K. A.; Fretes, Y.; Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). _The
Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku_. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions
Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 962-593-076-0 .
* ^ Management of Bengawan Solo
River Area Jasa Tirta I Corporation
2004. Retrieved 26 July 2006.
* ^ "Climate, Weather, and Temperature of
Retrieved 1 April 2014.
* ^ "Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus)". EDGE Evolutionarily
Distinct and Globally Endangered. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
* ^ "
Indonesia bird watching tour". wildlifenews.co.uk. Archived
from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
* ^ Nguyen, T. T. T., and S. S. De Silva (2006). _Freshwater
finfish biodiversity and conservation: an asian perspective._
Biodiversity & Conservation 15(11): 3543–3568.
* ^ Pope, G. G. (1988). "Recent advances in far eastern
paleoanthropology". _Annual Review of Anthropology_. 17: 43–77. doi
:10.1146/annurev.an.17.100188.000355 . cited in Whitten, T.;
Soeriaatmadja, R. E.; Suraya A. A. (1996). _The Ecology of
Bali_. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. pp. 309–312. ; Pope, G. (15
August 1983). "Evidence on the Age of the Asian Hominidae" .
_Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
of America_. 80 (16): 4,988–4992. PMC 384173 _. PMID 6410399 .
doi :10.1073/pnas.80.16.4988 . cited in Whitten, T.; Soeriaatmadja,
R. E.; Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of
Java and Bali_. Hong Kong:
Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 309. ; de Vos, J. P.; P. Y. Sondaar (9
December 1994). "Dating hominid sites in Indonesia" (PDF). _Science
Magazine_. 266 (16): 4,988–4992. doi :10.1126/science.7992059 .
cited in Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E.; Suraya A. A. (1996). _The
Java and Bali_. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. p. 309.
* ^ Ricklefs (1991), pp. 16–17.
* ^ Ricklefs (1991), p. 15.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed.
_The Indianized States of Southeast Asia_. trans.Susan Brown Cowing.
University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1 .
* ^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). _The Globe Encompassed: The Age of
European Discovery, 1500–1700_. p. 99.
* ^ St. John, Horace Stebbing Roscoe (1853). _The Indian
Archipelago: its history and present state, Volume 1_. Longman, Brown,
Green, and Longmans. p. 137.
* ^ _Ekspedisi Anjer-Panaroekan, Laporan Jurnalistik Kompas_.
Pnerbit Buku Kompas, PT Kompas Media Nusantara,
November 2008. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-979-709-391-4 .
* ^ Atkins, James (1889). _The Coins And Tokens Of The Possessions
And Colonies Of The British Empire_. London. p. 213.
Java (island, Indonesia). Encyclopædia Britannica.
* ^ Taylor (2003), p. 253.
* ^ Taylor (2003), pp. 253–254.
* ^ Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). _Encyclopedia of Pestilence,
Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M_. ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 0-313-34102-8 .
* ^ _A_ _B_ Taylor (2003), p. 254.
* ^ "Statistics Indonesia". _Bps.go.id_. Archived from the original
on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis
Kelamin 2014 Kementerian Kesehatan" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
* ^ Usia Kawin Pertama Rata-Rata Wanita Menurut Provinsi: Sensus
Penduduk Tahun 1990, 2000 dan 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
* ^ Agus Maryono (30 March 2009). "
Central Java strives to
alleviate poverty". _The
Jakarta Post_. Archived from the original on
8 September 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Population growth \'good for Papua\'". _The
Jakarta Post _. 23 August 2010. Archived from the original on 24
August 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
* ^ CIA factbook
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Indonesia (Urban City Population): Provinces & Cities
– Statistics & Maps on City Population". Citypopulation.de.
2010-05-01. Retrieved 2013-07-17.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Hefner, Robert (1997). _Java_. Singapore:
Periplus Editions. p. 58. ISBN 962-593-244-5 .
* ^ See Wallace Stevens's poem "
Tea " for an appreciative allusion
to Javanese culture.
* ^ Languages of
Java and Bali. Other sources may list some of
these as dialects rather than languages.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ van der Kroef, Justus M. (1961). "New
Religious Sects in Java". _Far Eastern Survey_. 30 (2): 18–25. JSTOR
3024260 . doi :10.1525/as.1961.30.2.01p1432u .
* ^ Beatty, Andrew, _Varieties of Javanese Religion: An
Cambridge University Press 1999, ISBN
* Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). _Indonesia: Peoples and Histories_.
New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10518-5 .
* Cribb, Robert (2000). _Historical Atlas of Indonesia_. London and
Honolulu: RoutledgeCurzon Press, University of Hawaii Press. ISBN
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for JAVA _.