Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese: ᮏᮝ) is an
island of Indonesia. At about 139,000 square kilometres
(54,000 sq mi), the island is comparable in size to England,
U.S. State of North Carolina, or Omsk Oblast. With a population of
over 141 million (the island itself) or 145 million (the
Java is home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian
population and is the world's most populous island. The Indonesian
capital city, Jakarta, is located on western Java. Much of Indonesian
history took place on Java. It was the center of powerful
Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, and the core of the
colonial Dutch East Indies.
Java was also the center of the Indonesian
struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s.
Indonesia politically, economically and culturally. Four of
Indonesia's eight UNESCO world heritage sites are located in Java: 1)
Ujung Kulon National Park, 2)
Borobudur Temple, 3)
and 4) Sangiran Early Man Site.
Formed mostly as the result of volcanic eruptions,
Java is the 13th
largest island in the world and the fifth largest in
landmass. A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east–west spine
along the island. Three main languages are spoken on the island:
Javanese, Sundanese, and Madurese. Of these, Javanese is the dominant;
it is the native language of about 60 million people in Indonesia,
most of whom live on Java. Furthermore, most residents are bilingual,
speaking Indonesian (the official language of Indonesia) as their
first or second language. While the majority of the people of
Muslim, Java's population is a diverse mixture of religious beliefs,
ethnicities, and cultures.
Java is divided into four administrative provinces, West Java, Central
Java, East Java, and Banten, and two special regions,
3 Natural environment
5.1 Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms era
5.2 Spread of
Islam and rise of Islamic sultanates
5.3 Colonial periods
6.1 Demographic profile
6.2 Population development
6.3 Ethnicity and culture
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
The origins of the name "Java" are not clear. One possibility is that
the island was named after the jáwa-wut plant, which was said to be
common in the island during the time, and that prior to Indianization
the island had different names. There are other possible sources:
the word jaú and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant". And,
Sanskrit yava means barley, a plant for which the island was
famous. "Yawadvipa" is mentioned in India's earliest epic, the
Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to
Yawadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita. It was hence
referred to in
India by the
Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa" (dvīpa =
Java is mentioned in the ancient Tamil text
Chithalai Chathanar that states that
Java had a kingdom with a capital
called Nagapuram. Another source states that the "Java" word
is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word, Iawa that meaning
"home". The great island of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was mentioned in
Ptolemy's Geographia composed around 150 CE in the Roman Empire.
Iabadiu is said to mean "barley island", to be rich in gold, and have
a silver town called Argyra at the west end. The name indicate
Java, and seems to be derived from
Hindu name Java-dvipa
See also: Volcanoes of Java
Mount Bromo in East Java
Java lies between
Sumatra to the west and
Bali to the east. Borneo
lies to the north and Christmas
Island is to the south. It is the
world's 13th largest island.
Java is surrounded by the
Java Sea to the
Sunda Strait to the west, the
Indian Ocean to the south and
Bali Strait and
Madura Strait in the east.
Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin; it contains thirty-eight
mountains forming an east–west spine that have at one time or
another been active volcanoes. The highest volcano in
Java is Mount
Semeru (3,676 metres (12,060 ft)). The most active volcano in
Java and also in
Mount Merapi (2,930 metres
More mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series
of relatively isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation; the
rice lands of
Java are among the richest in the world.
the first place where
Indonesian coffee was grown, starting in 1699.
Coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by small-holders
and larger plantations.
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
The area of
Java is approximately 150,000 square kilometres
(58,000 sq mi). It is about 1,000 km (620 mi)
long and up to 210 km (130 mi) wide. The island's longest
river is the 600 km long Solo River. The river rises from its
source in central
Java at the Lawu volcano, then flows north and
eastward to its mouth in the
Java Sea near the city of Surabaya. Other
major rivers are Brantas, Citarum, Cimanuk and Serayu.
The average temperature ranges from 22 °C (72 °F) to
29 °C (84 °F); average humidity is 75%. The northern
coastal plains are normally hotter, averaging 34 °C
(93 °F) during the day in the dry season. The south coast is
generally cooler than the north, and highland areas inland are even
cooler. The wet season begins in November and ends in April.
During that rain falls mostly in the afternoons and intermittently
during other parts of the year. The wettest months are January and
West Java is wetter than
East Java and mountainous regions receive
much higher rainfall. The
Parahyangan highlands of
West Java receive
over 4,000 millimetres (160 in) annually, while the north coast
East Java receives 900 millimetres (35 in) annually.
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
The natural environment of
Java is tropical rainforest, with
ecosystems ranging from coastal mangrove forests on the north coast,
rocky coastal cliffs on the southern coast, and low-lying tropical
forests to high altitude rainforests on the slopes of mountainous
volcanic regions in the interior. The Javan environment and climate
gradually alters from west to east; from wet and humid dense
rainforest in western parts, to a dry savanna environment in the east,
corresponding to the climate and rainfall in these regions.
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers
of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Originally Javan wildlife supported a rich biodiversity, where numbers
of endemic species of flora and fauna flourished; such as the Javan
rhinoceros, Javan banteng, Javan warty pig, Javan hawk-eagle,
Javan peafowl, Javan silvery gibbon, Javan lutung,
Javan rusa, and Javan leopard. With over 450 species of birds and 37
Java is a birdwatcher's paradise. There are about
130 freshwater fish species in Java. There are also several
endemic amphibian species in Java, including 5 species of tree frogs.
Since ancient times, people have opened the rainforest, altered the
ecosystem, shaped the landscapes and created rice paddy and terraces
to support the growing population. Javan rice terraces have existed
for more than a millennium, and had supported ancient agricultural
kingdoms. The growing human population has put severe pressure on
Java's wildlife, as rainforests were diminished and confined to
highland slopes or isolated peninsulas. Some of Java's endemic species
are now critically endangered, with some already extinct;
Java used to
have Javan tigers and Javan elephants, but both have been rendered
extinct. Today, several national parks exist in
Java that protect the
remnants of its fragile wildlife, such as Ujung Kulon, Mount
Halimun-Salak, Gede Pangrango, Baluran, Meru Betiri and Alas Purwo.
See also: Javanese Public Administration
Java transport network
Java is divided into four provinces and two special regions:
Banten, capital: Serang
West Java, capital: Bandung
Central Java, capital: Semarang
East Java, capital: Surabaya
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
Special Region of Yogyakarta
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography
and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its
Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "
dating back 1.7 million years were found along the banks of the
Bengawan Solo River.
The island's exceptional fertility and rainfall allowed the
development of wet-field rice cultivation, which required
sophisticated levels of cooperation between villages. Out of these
village alliances, small kingdoms developed. The chain of volcanic
mountains and associated highlands running the length of
Java kept its
interior regions and peoples separate and relatively isolated.
Before the advent of Islamic states and European colonialism, the
rivers provided the main means of communication, although Java's many
rivers are mostly short. Only the
Brantas and Sala rivers could
provide long-distance communication, and this way their valleys
supported the centres of major kingdoms. A system of roads, permanent
bridges and toll gates is thought to have been established in
at least the mid-17th century. Local powers could disrupt the routes
as could the wet season and road use was highly dependent on constant
maintenance. Subsequently, communication between Java's population was
Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms era
See also: History of
Southeast Asia § Early historical era
The 9th century
Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
The Taruma and Sunda kingdoms of western
Java appeared in the 4th and
7th centuries respectively, while the
Kalingga Kingdom sent embassies
to China starting in 640.:53,79 However, the first major
principality was the
Medang Kingdom that was founded in central Java
at the beginning of the 8th century. Medang's religion centred on the
Hindu god Shiva, and the kingdom produced some of Java's earliest
Hindu temples on the Dieng Plateau. Around the 8th century the
Sailendra dynasty rose in
Kedu Plain and become the patron of Mahayana
Buddhism. This ancient kingdom built monuments such as the 9th century
Prambanan in central Java.
Around the 10th century the centre of power shifted from central to
eastern Java. The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri,
Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued
trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.
Majapahit was established by Wijaya:201 and by the end of the
Hayam Wuruk (r. 1350–89) it claimed sovereignty over the
entire Indonesian archipelago, although control was likely limited to
Bali and Madura. Hayam Wuruk's prime minister, Gajah Mada, led
many of the kingdom's territorial conquests.:234 Previous Javanese
kingdoms had their power based in agriculture, however,
control of ports and shipping lanes and became Java's first commercial
empire. With the death of
Hayam Wuruk and the coming of
Majapahit went into decline.:241
Islam and rise of Islamic sultanates
Islam became the dominant religion in
Java at the end of the 16th
century. During this era, the Islamic kingdoms of Demak, Cirebon, and
Banten were ascendant. The
Mataram Sultanate became the dominant power
of central and eastern
Java at the end of the 16th century. The
Cirebon were eventually subjugated such
that only Mataram and
Banten were left to face the Dutch in the 17th
Tea plantation in
Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Java's contact with the European colonial powers began in 1522 with a
treaty between the
Sunda kingdom and the Portuguese in Malacca. After
its failure the Portuguese presence was confined to Malacca, and to
the eastern islands. In 1596, a four-ship expedition led by Cornelis
de Houtman was the first Dutch contact with Indonesia. By the end
of the 18th century the Dutch had extended their influence over the
sultanates of the interior through the Dutch East
India Company in
Indonesia. Internal conflict prevented the Javanese from forming
effective alliances against the Dutch. Remnants of the Mataram
survived as the
Surakarta (Solo) and
Javanese kings claimed to rule with divine authority and the Dutch
helped them to preserve remnants of a Javanese aristocracy by
confirming them as regents or district officials within the colonial
Java's major role during the early part of the colonial period was as
a producer of rice. In spice producing islands like Banda, rice was
regularly imported from Java, to supply the deficiency in means of
Napoleonic wars in Europe, the
Netherlands fell to France,
as did its colony in the East Indies. During the short-lived Daendels
administration, as French proxy rule on Java, the construction of the
Great Post Road
Great Post Road was commenced in 1808. The road, spanning from
Anyer in Western
Java to Panarukan in East Java, served as a military
supply route and was used in defending
Java from British invasion.
Java was captured by the British, becoming a possession of
the British Empire, and Sir
Stamford Raffles was appointed as the
island's Governor. In 1814,
Java was returned to the Dutch under the
terms of the Treaty of Paris.
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces
In 1815, there may have been five million people in Java. In the
second half of the 18th century, population spurts began in districts
along the north-central coast of Java, and in the 19th century
population grew rapidly across the island. Factors for the great
population growth include the impact of Dutch colonial rule including
the imposed end to civil war in Java, the increase in the area under
rice cultivation, and the introduction of food plants such as casava
and maize that could sustain populations that could not afford
rice. Others attribute the growth to the taxation burdens and
increased expansion of employment under the
Cultivation System to
which couples responded by having more children in the hope of
increasing their families' ability to pay tax and buy goods.
Cholera claimed 100,000 lives in
Java in 1820.
The advent of trucks and railways where there had previously only been
buffalo and carts, telegraph systems, and more coordinated
distribution systems under the colonial government all contributed to
famine elimination in Java, and in turn, population growth. There were
no significant famines in
Java from the 1840s through to the Japanese
occupation in the 1940s. However, other sources claimed the
Dutch's Cultivation system is linked to famines and epidemics in the
1840s, firstly in
Cirebon and then Central Java, as cash crops such as
indigo and sugar had to be grown instead of rice. Furthermore, the age
of first marriage dropped during the 19th century thus increasing a
woman's child bearing years.
Main article: Indonesian National Awakening
Indonesian nationalism first took hold in
Java in the early 20th
century, and the struggle to secure the country's independence
World War II
World War II was centered in Java. In 1949,
independent and the island has dominated Indonesian social, political
and economic life, which has been the source of resentment of those
residents in other islands.
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
sources: refers to the administrative region
Java has been traditionally dominated by an elite class, while the
people in the lower classes were often involved in agriculture and
fishing. The elite class in
Java has evolved over the course of
history, as cultural wave after cultural wave immigrated to the
island. There is evidence that South Asian emigres were among this
elite, as well as Arabian and Persian immigrants during the Islamic
eras. More recently, Chinese immigrants have also become part of the
economic elite of Java. Although politically the Chinese generally
remain sidelined, there are notable exceptions, such as the former
governor of Jakarta, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama. Though
increasingly becoming more modern and urban, only 75% of the island
has electricity. Villages and their rice paddies are still a common
sight. Unlike the rest of Java, the population growth in Central Java
Central Java however has a younger population than the
national average. The slow population growth can in part be
attributed to the choice by many people to leave the more rural
Central Java for better opportunities and higher incomes in the bigger
cities. Java's population continues to rapidly increase despite
many Javanese leaving the island. This is somewhat due to the fact
Java is the business, academic, and cultural hub of Indonesia,
which attracts millions of non-
Javanese people to its cities. The
population growth is most intense in the regions surrounding Jakarta
and Bandung, which is reflected through the demographic diversity in
With a combined population of 145 million in the 2015 census
(including Madura's 3.7 million), which is estimated for 2014 at
143.1 million (including 3.7 million for Madura),
Java is the most
populous island in the world and is home to 57% of Indonesia's
population. At over 1,100 people per km² in 2014, it is also one
of the most densely populated parts of the world, on par with
Bangladesh. Every region of the island has numerous volcanoes, with
the people left to share the remaining flatter land. Because of this,
many coasts are heavily populated and cities ring around the valleys
surrounding volcanic peaks.
The population growth rate more than doubled in economically depressed
Central Java in the latest 2010–2015 period vs 2000–2010,
indicative of migration or other issues; there were significant
volcanic eruptions during the earlier period. Approximately 45% of the
Indonesia is ethnically Javanese, while Sundanese
make a large portion of Java's population as well.
The western third of the island (West Java, Banten, and DKI Jakarta)
has an even higher population density, of nearly 1,500 per square
kilometer and accounts for the lion's share of the population growth
of Java. It is home to three metropolitan areas, Greater Jakarta
(with outlying areas of Greater
Serang and Greater Sukabumi), Greater
Bandung, and Greater Cirebon.
census of 2000
census of 2010
2015 census (prelim.)
density in 2015
(3 areas above)
Central Java Region
(2 areas above)
Region Administered as Java
Island of East Java
1) Other islands are included in this figure, but are very small in
population and area, Nusa Barung 100 km², Bawean 196 km²,
Karimunjawa 78 km², Kambangan 121 km², Panaitan
170 km², Thousand Islands 8.7 km² – with a combined
population of roughly 90,000.
2) Land area of provinces updated in 2010
Census figures, areas may be
different than past results.
Census prelim data released only first level administrations
only, where not available 2014 Min. Health estimates are used in
From the 1970s to the fall of the
Suharto regime in 1998, the
Indonesian government ran transmigration programs aimed at resettling
the population of
Java on other less-populated islands of Indonesia.
This program has met with mixed results, sometimes causing conflicts
between the locals and the recently arrived settlers. Nevertheless, it
has caused Java's share of the nation's population to progressively
Jakarta and its outskirts, being the dominant metropolis, is also home
to people from all over the nation.
East Java is also home to ethnic
Balinese, as well as large numbers of Madurans due to their historic
Ethnicity and culture
See also: Culture of
Indonesia and Music of Java
A teenager in
Java wearing traditional Javanese attire: blangkon
headgear, batik sarong and kris as accessory. 1913
Despite its large population and in contrast to the other larger
islands of Indonesia,
Java is comparatively homogeneous in ethnic
composition. Only two ethnic groups are native to the island—the
Javanese and Sundanese. A third group is the Madurese, who inhabit the
Madura off the north east coast of Java, and have immigrated
East Java in large numbers since the 18th century. The Javanese
comprise about two-thirds of the island's population, while the
Sundanese and Madurese account for 20% and 10% respectively. The
fourth group is the
Betawi people that speak a dialect of Malay, they
are the descendants of the people living around Batavia from around
the 17th century. Betawis are creole people, mostly descended from
various Indonesian archipelago ethnic groups such as Malay, Sundanese,
Javanese, Balinese, Minang, Bugis, Makassar, Ambonese, mixed with
foreign ethnic groups such as Portuguese, Dutch, Arab, Chinese and
Indian brought to or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs. They
have a culture and language distinct from the surrounding Sundanese
The Javanese kakawin
Tantu Pagelaran explained the mythical origin of
the island and its volcanic nature. Four major cultural areas exist on
the island: the kejawen or Javanese heartland, the north coast of the
pasisir region, the Sunda lands of West Java, and the eastern salient,
also known as Blambangan.
Madura makes up a fifth area having close
cultural ties with coastal Java. The kejawen Javanese culture is
the island's most dominant. Java's remaining aristocracy are based
here, and it is the region from where the majority of Indonesia's
army, business, and political elite originate. Its language, arts, and
etiquette are regarded as the island's most refined and exemplary.
The territory from Banyumas in the west through to
Blitar in the east
and encompasses Indonesia's most fertile and densely populated
Rama and Shinta in
Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
In the southwestern part of Central Java, which is usually named the
Banyumasan region, a cultural mingling occurred; bringing together
Javanese culture and Sundanese culture to create the Banyumasan
culture. In the central Javanese court cities of
Yogyakarta and Surakarta, contemporary kings trace their lineages back
to the pre-colonial Islamic kingdoms that ruled the region, making
those places especially strong repositories of classical Javanese
culture. Classic arts of
Java include gamelan music and wayang puppet
Java was the site of many influential kingdoms in the Southeast Asian
region, and as a result, many literary works have been written by
Javanese authors. These include
Ken Arok and Ken Dedes, the story of
the orphan who usurped his king, and married the queen of the ancient
Javanese kingdom; and translations of
Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Pramoedya Ananta Toer
Pramoedya Ananta Toer is a famous contemporary Indonesian author, who
has written many stories based on his own experiences of having grown
up in Java, and takes many elements from Javanese folklore and
Languages spoken in
Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers
to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
The three major languages spoken on
Java are Javanese, Sundanese and
Madurese. Other languages spoken include Betawi (a Malay dialect local
Jakarta region), Osing, Banyumasan, and Tenggerese (closely
related to Javanese), Baduy (closely related to Sundanese), Kangeanese
(closely related to Madurese), and Balinese. The vast majority of
the population also speaks Indonesian, often as a second language.
Main article: Religion in Indonesia
Java has been a melting pot of religions and cultures, which has
created a broad range of religious belief.
Indian influences came first with
deeply into society, blending with indigenous tradition and
culture. One conduit for this were the ascetics, called resi, who
taught mystical practices. A resi lived surrounded by students, who
took care of their master's daily needs. Resi's authorities were
merely ceremonial. At the courts,
Brahmin clerics and pudjangga
(sacred literati) legitimised rulers and linked
Hindu cosmology to
their political needs. Small
Hindu enclaves are scattered
throughout Java, but there is a large
Hindu population along the
eastern coast nearest Bali, especially around the town of Banyuwangi.
Islam, which came after Hinduism, strengthened the status structure of
this traditional religious pattern. More than 90 percent of the people
Java are Muslims, on a broad continuum between abangan (more
traditional) and santri (more modernist). The
Muslim scholar of the
writ (Kyai) became the new religious elite as
Islam recognises no hierarchy of religious leaders nor a
formal priesthood, but the Dutch colonial government established an
elaborate rank order for mosque and other Islamic preaching schools.
In Javanese pesantren (Islamic schools), The
Kyai perpetuated the
tradition of the resi. Students around him provided his needs, even
peasants around the school.
Hindu shrine dedicated to
King Siliwangi in Pura
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near
Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.
Pre-Islamic Javan traditions have encouraged
Islam in a mystical
direction. There emerged in
Java a loosely structured society of
religious leadership, revolving around kyais, possessing various
degrees of proficiency in pre-Islamic and Islamic lore, belief and
practice. The kyais are the principal intermediaries between the
villages masses and the realm of the supernatural. However, this very
looseneess of kyai leadership structure has promoted schism. There
were often sharp divisions between orthodox kyais, who merely
instructed in Islamic law, with those who taught mysticism and those
who sought reformed
Islam with modern scientific concepts. As a
result, there is a division between santri, who believe that they are
more orthodox in their Islamic belief and practice, with abangan, who
have mixed pre-Islamic animistic and Hindu-Indian concepts with a
superficial acceptance of Islamic belief.
There are also
Christian communities, mostly in the larger cities,
though some rural areas of south-central
Java are strongly Roman
Catholic. Buddhist communities also exist in the major cities,
primarily among the Chinese Indonesian. The Indonesian constitution
recognises six official religions.
A wider effect of this division is the number of sects. In the middle
of 1956, the Department of Religious Affairs in
Yogyakarta reported 63
religious sects in
Java other than the official Indonesian religions.
Of these, 35 were in Central Java, 22 in
West Java and six in East
Java. These include Kejawen, Sumarah, Subud, etc. Their total
membership is difficult to estimate as many of their adherents
identify themselves with one of the official religions.
Water Buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, Central Java
Initially the economy of
Java relied heavily on rice agriculture.
Ancient kingdoms such as the Tarumanagara, Mataram, and
dependent on rice yields and tax.
Java was famous for rice surpluses
and rice export since ancient times, and rice agriculture contributed
to the population growth of the island. Trade with other parts of Asia
India and China flourished as early as the 4th century, as
evidenced by Chinese ceramics found on the island dated to that
Java also took part in the global trade of Maluku spice from
ancient times in the
Majapahit era, until well into the VOC era.
India Company set their foothold on Batavia in the 17th
century and was succeeded by
East Indies in the 19th
century. During these colonial times, the Dutch introduced the
cultivation of commercial plants in Java, such as sugarcane, rubber,
coffee, tea, and quinine. In the 19th and early 20th century, Javanese
coffee gained global popularity. Thus, the name "Java" today has
become a synonym for coffee.
Java is the most developed island in
Indonesia since the era of
East Indies to modern Republic of Indonesia. The road
transportation networks that have existed since ancient times were
connected and perfected with the construction of
Java Great Post Road
Daendels in the early 19th century. The
Great Post Road
Great Post Road become
the backbone of Java's road infrastructure and laid the base of Java
North Coast Road (Indonesian: Jalan Pantura, abbreviation from "Pantai
Utara"). The need to transport commercial produces such as coffee from
plantations in the interior of the island to the harbour on the coast
spurred the construction of railway networks in Java. Today the
industry, business and trade, also services flourished in major cities
of Java, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang, and Bandung; while some
traditional Sultanate cities such as Yogyakarta, Surakarta, and
Cirebon preserved its royal legacy and become the centre of art,
culture and tourism in Java. Industrial estates also growing in towns
on northern coast of Java, especially around Cilegon, Tangerang,
Gresik and Sidoarjo. The toll road highway networks
was built and expanded since
Suharto era until now, connecting major
urban centres and surrounding areas, such as in and around
Bandung; also the ones in Cirebon,
Semarang and Surabaya. In addition
to these motorways,
Java has 16 national highways.
Based on the statistical data by the year of 2012 which's released by
Badan Pusat Statistik,
Island itself contributes at least 57.51%
of Indonesia's Gross Domestic Product or equivalent to 504 billion US
History of Indonesia
List of monarchs of Java
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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Java.
Provinces of Indonesia
East Nusa Tenggara
West Nusa Tenggara
GRP per capita
BNF: cb16141277c (d