1 Origins 2 Characteristics 3 Recruitment, training and status
4 Organization 5 Corps strength 6 Equipment 7 Battles 8 Revolts and disbandment 9 Janissary music 10 Popular culture 11 See also 12 References
12.1 Notes 12.2 Bibliography
13 External links
The formation of the
Janissaries has been dated to the reign of Murad I (r. 1362-1389), the third ruler of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans instituted a tax of one-fifth on all slaves taken in war, and it was from this pool of manpower that the sultans first constructed the Janissary corps as a personal army loyal only to the sultan. From the 1380s to 1648, the Janissaries
Janissaries were gathered through the devşirme system, which was abolished in 1638. This was the taking (enslaving) of non-Muslim boys, notably Anatolian and Balkan Christians; Jews were never subject to devşirme, nor were children from Turkic families. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "in early days, all Christians were enrolled indiscriminately. Later, those from Albania, Bosnia, and Bulgaria
Bulgaria were preferred." The Janissaries
Janissaries were kapıkulları (sing. kapıkulu), "door servants" or "slaves of the Porte", neither freemen nor ordinary slaves (köle). They were subjected to strict discipline, but were paid salaries and pensions upon retirement and formed their own distinctive social class. As such, they became one of the ruling classes of the Ottoman Empire, rivalling the Turkish aristocracy. The brightest of the Janissaries
Janissaries were sent to the palace institution, Enderun. Through a system of meritocracy, the Janissaries
Janissaries held enormous power, stopping all efforts at reform of the military.[unreliable source?]
Janissary, before 1657
According to military historian Michael Antonucci and economic
historians Glenn Hubbard and Tim Kane, the Turkish administrators
would scour their regions (but especially the Balkans) every five
years for the strongest sons of the sultan's Christian subjects. These
boys (usually between the ages of 6 and 14) were then taken from their
parents and given to Turkish families in the provinces to learn
Turkish language and customs, and the rules of Islam. The recruits were indoctrinated into Islam, forced into circumcision and supervised 24 hours a day by eunuchs. They were subjected to severe discipline, being prohibited from growing a beard, taking up a skill other than soldiering, and marrying. As a result, the Janissaries
Janissaries were extremely well-disciplined troops, and became members of the askeri class, the first-class citizens or military class. Most were non-Muslims, because it was not permissible to enslave a Muslim. It was a similar system to the Iranian Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar era ghulams, who were drawn from converted Circassians, Georgians, and Armenians, and in the same way as with the Ottoman's Janissaries
Janissaries who had to replace the unreliable ghazis. They were initially created as a counterbalance to the tribal, ethnic and favoured interests the Qizilbash
Qizilbash gave, which make a system imbalanced. In the late 16th century, a sultan gave in to the pressures of the Corps and permitted Janissary children to become members of the Corps, a practice strictly forbidden for the previous 300 years. They also became rent-seeking and sought protection of their special rights and advantages. According to paintings of the era, they were also permitted to grow beards. Consequently, the formerly strict rules of succession became open to interpretation. While they advanced their own power, the Janissaries
Janissaries also helped to keep the system from changing in other progressive ways, and according to some scholars the corps was most responsible for the political stagnation of Istanbul.[unreliable source?] Greek Historian Dimitri Kitsikis
Dimitri Kitsikis in his book Türk Yunan İmparatorluğu ("Turco-Greek Empire")[page needed] states that many Christian families were willing to comply with the devşirme because it offered a possibility of social advancement. Conscripts could one day become Janissary colonels, statesmen who might one day return to their home region as governors, or even Grand Viziers or Beylerbeys (governor generals). Some of the most famous Janissaries
Janissaries include George Kastrioti Skanderbeg, an Albanian who defected and led a 25‑year Albanian revolt against the Ottomans. Another was Sokollu Mehmed Paşa, a Serbian who became a grand vizier, served three sultans, and was the de facto ruler of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire for more than 14 years.[page needed] Characteristics
A Janissary Ağa in the year 1768
The Janissary corps were distinctive in a number of ways. They wore
unique uniforms, were paid regular salaries (including bonuses) for
their service, marched to music (the mehter), lived in barracks
and were the first corps to make extensive use of firearms.[citation
needed] A Janissary battalion was a close-knit community, effectively
the soldier's family. By tradition, the
Sultan himself, after authorizing the payments to the Janissaries, visited the barracks dressed as a janissary trooper, and received his pay alongside the other men of the First Division. They also served as policemen, palace guards, and fire fighters during peacetime. The Janissaries also enjoyed far better support on campaign than other armies of the time. They were part of a well-organized military machine, in which one support corps prepared the roads while others pitched tents and baked the bread. Their weapons and ammunition were transported and re-supplied by the cebeci corps. They campaigned with their own medical teams of Muslim and Jewish surgeons and their sick and wounded were evacuated to dedicated mobile hospitals set up behind the lines. These differences, along with an impressive war-record, made the janissaries a subject of interest and study by foreigners during their own time. Although eventually the concept of a modern army incorporated and surpassed most of the distinctions of the janissaries and the corps was eventually dissolved, the image of the janissary has remained as one of the symbols of the Ottomans in the western psyche. By the mid-18th century they had taken up many trades and gained the right to marry and enroll their children in the corps and very few continued to live in the barracks. Many of them became administrators and scholars. Retired or discharged janissaries received pensions, and their children were also looked after. Recruitment, training and status
Registration of boys for the devşirme. Ottoman miniature painting from the Süleymanname, 1558.
The first Janissary units were formed from prisoners of war and
slaves, probably as a result of the sultan taking his traditional
one-fifth share of his army's plunder in kind rather than cash;
however the continuing enslaving of dhimmi constituted a continuing
abuse of a subject population. Initially the recruiters favoured
Greeks and Albanians. As borders of the Ottoman
Empire expanded, the devşirme was extended to include Bosniaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Serbs, Armenians, Hungarians
Hungarians and later, in rare instances, Romanians, Georgians, Ukrainians
Ukrainians and southern Russians. In response to foreign threats the Ottoman government chose to rapidly expand the size of the corps after the 1570s. Janissaries
Janissaries spent shorter periods of time in training as acemi oğlans, as the average age of recruitment increased from 13.5 in the 1490s to 16.6 in 1603. This reflected not only the Ottomans' greater need for manpower, but also the shorter training time necessary to produce skilled musketeers in comparison with archers. However, this change alone was not enough to produce the necessary manpower, and consequently the traditional limitation of recruitment to boys conscripted in the devşirme was lifted. Membership was opened up to free-born Muslims, both recruits hand-picked by the commander of the Janissaries, as well as the sons of current members of the Ottoman standing army. By the middle of the seventeenth century, the devşirme had largely been abandoned as a method of recruitment. The prescribed daily rate of pay for entry-level Janissaries
Janissaries in the time of Ahmet I
Ahmet I was three Akçes. Promotion to a cavalry regiment implied a minimum salary of 10 Akçes. Janissaries
Janissaries received a sum of 12 Akçes every three months for clothing incidentals and 30 Akçes for weaponry, with an additional allowance for ammunition as well. Training
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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk wearing the traditional Janissary uniform at a masquerade ball during his early years in the Ottoman Army.
When a non-Muslim boy was recruited under the devşirme system, he
would first be sent to selected Turkish families in the provinces to
learn Turkish, the rules of Islam (i.e. to be converted to Islam) and
the customs and cultures of Ottoman society. After completing this
period, acemi (new recruit) boys were gathered for training at the
Enderun "acemi oğlan" school in the capital city. There, young cadets
would be selected for their talents in different areas to train as
engineers, artisans, riflemen, clerics, archers, artillery, and so
Janissaries trained under strict discipline with hard labour and in practically monastic conditions in acemi oğlan ("rookie" or "cadet") schools, where they were expected to remain celibate. Unlike other Muslims, they were expressly forbidden to wear beards, only a moustache. These rules were obeyed by Janissaries, at least until the 18th century when they also began to engage in other crafts and trades, breaking another of the original rules. In the late 16th century a sultan gave in to the pressures of the Janissary Corps and permitted Janissary children to become members of the Corps, a practice strictly forbidden for 200 years. They also became rent-seeking and set goals to protect their special rights and advantages. Consequently, succession rules, formerly strict, became open to interpretation. They gained their own power but kept the system from changing in other progressive ways. For all practical purposes Janissaries
Janissaries belonged to the Sultan
Sultan and they were regarded as the protectors of the throne and the Sultan. Janissaries
Janissaries were taught to consider the corps their home and family, and the Sultan
Sultan as their father. Only those who proved strong enough earned the rank of true Janissary at the age of 24 or 25. The Ocak inherited the property of dead Janissaries, thus acquiring wealth. Janissaries
Janissaries also learned to follow the dictates of the dervish saint Haji Bektash Veli, disciples of whom had blessed the first troops. Bektashi
Bektashi served as a kind of chaplain for Janissaries. In this and in their secluded life, Janissaries
Janissaries resembled Christian military orders like the Knights Hospitaller. As a symbol of their devotion to the order, Janissaries
Janissaries wore special hats called "börk". These hats also had a holding place in front, called the "kaşıklık", for a spoon. This symbolized the "kaşık kardeşliği", or the "brotherhood of the spoon", which reflected a sense of comradeship among the Janissaries who ate, slept, fought and died together. Even after the rapid expansion of the size of the corps at the end of the sixteenth century, the Janissaries
Janissaries continued to undergo strict training and discipline. The Janissaries
Janissaries experimented with new forms of battlefield tactics, and in 1605 became one of the first armies in Europe to implement rotating lines of volley fire in battle. Organization
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A pair of Solaks, the Janissary archer bodyguard of the Sultan
See also: List of Ottoman titles and appellations
The corps was organized in ortas. An orta (equivalent to a battalion)
was headed by a çorbaci. All ortas together comprised the Janissary
corps proper and its organization, named ocak (literally "hearth").
Suleiman I had 165 ortas and the number increased over time to 196.
Sultan was the supreme commander of the Ottoman Army and of the Janissaries
Janissaries in particular, the corps was organized and led by a commander, the ağa. The corps was divided into three sub-corps:
the cemaat (frontier troops; also spelled jemaat in old sources), with 101 ortas the bölük or beylik, (the Sultan's own bodyguard), with 61 ortas the sekban or seymen, with 34 ortas
In addition there were also 34 ortas of the ajemi (cadets). A
semi-autonomous Janissary corps was permanently based in Algiers.
Janissaries could be promoted only through seniority and within their own orta. They could leave the unit only to assume command of another. Only Janissaries' own commanding officers could punish them. The rank names were based on positions in the kitchen staff or Sultan's royal hunters; 64th and 65th Orta 'Greyhound Keepers' comprised as the only Janissary cavalry, perhaps to emphasise that Janissaries
Janissaries were servants of the Sultan. Local Janissaries, stationed in a town or city for a long time, were known as yerliyyas. Corps strength Even though the Janissaries
Janissaries were part of the royal army and personal guards of the sultan, the corps was not the main force of the Ottoman military. In the classical period, Janissaries
Janissaries were only one tenth of the overall Ottoman army, while the traditional Turkish cavalry made up the rest of the main battle force. According to David Nicolle, the number of Janissaries
Janissaries in the 14th century was 1,000 and about 6,000 in 1475. The same source estimates the number of Timarli Sipahi, the provincial cavalry which constituted the main force of the army at 40,000. Beginning in the 1530s, the size of the Janissary corps began to dramatically expand, a result of the rapid conquests the Ottomans were carrying out during those years. Janissaries
Janissaries were used extensively to garrison fortresses and for siege warfare, which was becoming increasingly important for the Ottoman military. The pace of expansion increased after the 1570s, due to the initiation of a series of wars with the Safavid Empire
Safavid Empire and, after 1593, with Habsburg Austria. By 1609, the size of the corps had stabilized at approximately 40,000 men, but increased again later in the century, during the period of the Cretan War (1645–69)
Cretan War (1645–69) and particularly the War of the Holy League (1683–99).
Paper strength of the Janissary corps
Year 1400 1484 1523 1530 1547 1574 1582 1592 1609 1654 1666-7 1687-8 1699 1710-1
Strength <1,000 7,841 7,164 8,407 12,131 13,599 16,905 23,232 37,627 51,047 47,233 62,826 67,729 43,562
Janissary rifles from 1826.
During the initial period of formation,
Janissaries were expert archers, but they began adopting firearms as soon as such became available during the 1440s. The siege of Vienna in 1529 confirmed the reputation of their engineers, e.g. sappers and miners. In melee combat they used axes and kilijs. Originally in peacetime they could carry only clubs or daggers, unless they served as border troops. Turkish yatagan swords were the signature weapon of the Janissaries, almost a symbol of the corps. Janissaries
Janissaries who guarded the palace (Zülüflü Baltacılar) carried long-shafted axes and halberds. By the early 16th century, the Janissaries
Janissaries were equipped with and were skilled with muskets. In particular, they used a massive "trench gun", firing an 80-millimetre (3.1 in) ball, which was "feared by their enemies". Janissaries
Janissaries also made extensive use of early grenades and hand cannons, such as the abus gun. Pistols were not initially popular but they became so after the Cretan War (1645–1669). Battles The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire used Janissaries
Janissaries in all its major campaigns, including the 1453 capture of Constantinople, the defeat of the Egyptian Mamluks
Mamluks and wars against Hungary
Hungary and Austria. Janissary troops were always led to the battle by the Sultan
Sultan himself, and always had a share of the loot. The Janissary corps was the only infantry division of the Ottoman army. In battle the Janissaries' main mission was to protect the Sultan, using cannon and smaller firearms, and holding the centre of the army against enemy attack during the strategic fake forfeit of Turkish cavalry. The Janissary corps also included smaller expert teams: explosive experts, engineers and technicians, sharpshooters (with arrow and rifle) and sappers who dug tunnels under fortresses, etc.
Janissaries battling the Knights Hospitaller, who are depicted wearing Eastern Armour. during the Siege of Rhodes in 1522.
Battle of Mohács, 1526.
A Janissary, a pasha and cannon batteries at the Siege of Esztergom in 1543.
Sultan Murad III's expedition to Revan.
Revolts and disbandment
Banquet (Safranpilav) for the Janissaries, given by the Sultan. If
they refused the meal, they signaled their disapproval of the Sultan.
In this case they accept the meal. Ottoman miniature painting, from
the Surname-i Vehbi (1720) at the
Topkapı Palace Museum in Istanbul.
Janissaries became aware of their own importance they began to desire a better life. By the early 17th century Janissaries
Janissaries had such prestige and influence that they dominated the government. They could mutiny and dictate policy and hinder efforts to modernize the army structure. They could change Sultans as they wished through palace coups. They made themselves landholders and tradesmen. They would also limit the enlistment to the sons of former Janissaries
Janissaries who did not have to go through the original training period in the acemi oğlan, as well as avoiding the physical selection, thereby reducing their military value. When Janissaries
Janissaries could practically extort money from the Sultan
Sultan and business and family life replaced martial fervour, their effectiveness as combat troops decreased. The northern borders of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire slowly began to shrink southwards after the second Battle of Vienna
Battle of Vienna in 1683. In 1449 they revolted for the first time, demanding higher wages, which they obtained. The stage was set for a decadent evolution, like that of the Streltsy
Streltsy of Tsar Peter's Russia or that of the Praetorian Guard which proved the greatest threat to Roman emperors, rather than an effective protection. After 1451, every new Sultan
Sultan felt obligated to pay each Janissary a reward and raise his pay rank (although since early Ottoman times, every other member of the Topkapi court received a pay raise as well). Sultan
Sultan Selim II
Selim II gave Janissaries
Janissaries permission to marry in 1566, undermining the exclusivity of loyalty to the dynasty. By 1622, the Janissaries
Janissaries were a "serious threat" to the stability of the Empire.[unreliable source] Through their "greed and indiscipline", they were now a law unto themselves and, against modern European armies, ineffective on the battlefield as a fighting force.[unreliable source] In 1622, the teenage Sultan
Sultan Osman II, after a defeat during war against Poland, determined to curb Janissary excesses. Outraged at becoming "subject to his own slaves", he tried to disband the Janissary corps, blaming it for the disaster during the Polish war.[unreliable source] In the spring, hearing rumours that the Sultan
Sultan was preparing to move against them, the Janissaries revolted and took the Sultan
Sultan captive, imprisoning him in the notorious Seven Towers: he was murdered shortly afterwards.[unreliable source]
A 15th-century Janissary, drawing by Gentile Bellini, who also painted
the renowned portrait of
Sultan Mehmed II
In 1804, the Dahias, the Jannisary junta that ruled
Serbia at the time, had taken power in the Sanjak of Smederevo
Sanjak of Smederevo in defiance of the Sultan
Sultan and they feared that the Sultan
Sultan would make use of the Serbs
Serbs to oust them. To forestall this they decided to execute all prominent nobles throughout Central Serbia, a move known as Slaughter of the Knezes. According to historical sources of the city of Valjevo, heads of the murdered men were put on public display in the central square to serve as an example to those who might plot against the rule of the Janissaries. The event triggered the start of the Serbian Revolution with the First Serbian Uprising
First Serbian Uprising aimed at putting an end to the 300 years of Ottoman occupation of modern Serbia. In 1807 a Janissary revolt deposed Sultan
Sultan Selim III, who had tried to modernize the army along Western European lines. This modern army Selim III
Selim III created was called Nizam-ı Cedid. His supporters failed to recapture power before Mustafa IV
Mustafa IV had him killed, but elevated Mahmud II to the throne in 1808. When the Janissaries
Janissaries threatened to oust Mahmud II, he had the captured Mustafa executed and eventually came to a compromise with the Janissaries. Ever mindful of the Janissary threat, the sultan spent the next years discreetly securing his position. The Janissaries' abuse of power, military ineffectiveness, resistance to reform and the cost of salaries to 135,000 men, many of whom were not actually serving soldiers, had all become intolerable. By 1826, the sultan was ready to move against the Janissary in favour of a more modern military. The sultan informed them, through a fatwa, that he was forming a new army, organised and trained along modern European lines. As predicted, they mutinied, advancing on the sultan's palace. In the ensuing fight, the Janissary barracks were set in flames by artillery fire resulting in 4,000 Janissary fatalities. The survivors were either exiled or executed, and their possessions were confiscated by the Sultan. This event is now called the Auspicious Incident. The last of the Janissaries
Janissaries were then put to death by decapitation in what was later called the Tower of Blood, in Thessaloniki. After the Janissaries
Janissaries were disbanded by Mahmud II, he then created a new army soon after recruiting 12,000 troops. This new army was formally named the Trained Victorious Soldiers of Muhammad, the Mansure Army for short. By 1830, the army expanded to 27,000 troops and included the Sipahi
Sipahi cavalry. By 1838, all Ottoman fighting corps were included and the army changed its name to the Ordered troops. This military corps lasted until the end of the empire's history. Janissary music Further information: Ottoman military band
Janissaries marching to Mehter
Mehter martial tunes played by the Mehterân military band. Ottoman miniature painting, from the Surname-i Vehbi (1720) at the Topkapı Palace
Topkapı Palace Museum in Istanbul.
The military music of the
Janissaries was noted for its powerful percussion and shrill winds combining kös (giant timpani), davul (bass drum), zurna (a loud shawm), naffir, or boru (natural trumpet), çevgan bells, triangle (a borrowing from Europe), and cymbals (zil), among others. Janissary music influenced European classical musicians such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven, both of whom composed music in the "Alla turca" style (Mozart's Piano Sonata in A major, K. 331 (c. 1783), Beethoven's incidental music for The Ruins of Athens, Op. 113 (1811), and the final movement of Symphony no. 9), although the Beethoven example is now considered a march rather than Alla turca. Sultan
Sultan Mahmud II
Mahmud II abolished the mehter band in 1826 along with the Janissary corps. Mahmud replaced the mehter band in 1828 with a European style military band trained by Giuseppe Donizetti. In modern times, although the Janissary corps no longer exists as a professional fighting force, the tradition of Mehter
Mehter music is carried on as a cultural and tourist attraction. In 1952, the Janissary military band, Mehterân, was organized again under the auspices of the Istanbul
Istanbul Military Museum. They hold performances during some national holidays as well as in some parades during days of historical importance. For more details, see Turkish music (style) and Mehter. Popular culture
Nowadays in Bulgaria, and for centuries in Ukraine, the word Janissar
(яничар) is used as a synonym of the word traitor.
Janissaries appear in many video games such as: Europa Universalis IV, Atlantica Online, Assassin's Creed: Revelations, Rise of Nations, Empire
Empire Earth 2, Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword, Civilization V, Age of Empires 2: The Age of Kings, Age of Empires II: The Conquerors, Age of Empires 3, Medieval Total War, Medieval II: Total War, Empire: Total War and Napoleon: Total War. The Janissary Tree, a novel by Jason Goodwin
Jason Goodwin set in 19th-century Istanbul The Sultan's Helmsman, a historical novel of the Ottoman Navy
Ottoman Navy and Renaissance Italy The Historian, a novel by Elizabeth Kostova Janissaries
Janissaries are used to introduce the character of Eliza in The King of the Vagabonds, the second volume of Quicksilver by Neal Stephenson. The Janissary origin as an elite fighting corps trained from boy slaves is a central plot element in the film, Dracula Untold. Salman Rushdie's novel The Enchantress of Florence
The Enchantress of Florence details the life, organization, and origins of the Janissaries. One of the lead characters of the novel, Antonio Argalia, is the head of the Ottoman Janissaries. The Janissaries
Janissaries are referenced in The Reluctant Fundamentalist
The Reluctant Fundamentalist as a point of comparison for the main character Changez, a Lahori working as an analyst for Underwood Samson in New York. The novel Janissaries
Janissaries by David Drake. The Janissaries
Janissaries seriea of novels by Jerry Pournelle. The Bridge on the Drina
The Bridge on the Drina novel by Ivo Andric, describes devşirme slavery tax, and recruitment of boys into Janissaries. Muhteşem Yüzyıl
Muhteşem Yüzyıl ( The Magnificent Century) is a 2011–2012 Turkish historical fiction television series. Written by Meral Okay
Meral Okay and Yılmaz Şahin. The Janissaries
Janissaries are portrayed throughout the series as part of the Sultan's royal bodyguard. The First Oath of their military order is recited in Season 1 at the Ceremony of Payment. Janissaries
Janissaries feature in S. M. Stirling's series The Domination
The Domination as serf soldiers used for frontal attacks with the intent to reduce casualties among its citizen forces.
Devşirme system Ghilman Mamluk Military of the Ottoman Empire Saqaliba Genízaro Ottoman Decline Thesis The Auspicious Incident
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Firearms and Military Adaptation: The Ottomans and the European Military Revolution, 1450–1800". Journal of World History. 25: 85–124. Goodwin, Godfrey (2001). The Janissaries. UK: Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0-86356-055-2; anecdotal and not scholarly says Aksan (1998) Goodwin, Jason (1998). Lords of the Horizons: A History of the Ottoman Empire. New York: H. Holt ISBN 0-8050-4081-1 Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20600-7. Balfour, Patrick and Baron Kinross (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire
Empire London: Perennial. ISBN 978-0-688-08093-8 Kitsikis,Dimitri, (1985, 1991, 1994). L' Empire
Empire ottoman. Paris,: Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 2-13-043459-2 Nicolle, David (1995). The Janissaries. London: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-413-8 Shaw, Stanford J. (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey
Turkey (Vol. I). New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29163-7 Shaw, Stanford J. & Shaw, Ezel Kural (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey
Turkey (Vol. II). New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29166-8 Uzunçarşılı, İsmail (1988). Osmanlı Devleti Teşkilatından Kapıkulu Ocakları: Acemi Ocağı ve Yeniçeri Ocağı. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu. ISBN 975-16-0056-1 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Janissaries". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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History of the Janissary Music Janissary section on German-language website about Ottoman empire (not yet exploited) (in German) "Janissary," Encyclopedia Britannica