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Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukrainian: Іва́но-Франкі́вськ [iˈwɑno frɐnˈkiu̯sʲk] (About this soundlisten); Russian: Ивано-Франковск, romanizedIvano-Frankovsk; formerly Stanyslaviv,[2] Stanislau, or Stanisławów; see below) is a historic city located in Western Ukraine.[3] It is the administrative centre of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast. Administratively, it is designated as a city of regional significance within the oblast, and together with a number of rural localities, is incorporated as Ivano-Frankivsk Municipality. Population: 237,686 (2020 est.)[4].

Built in the mid-17th century as a fortress of the Polish Potocki family, Stanisławów was annexed to the Habsburg Empire during the First Partition of Poland in 1772, after which it became the property of the State within the Austrian Empire. The fortress was slowly transformed into one of the most prominent cities at the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains. After World War I, for several months, it served as a temporary capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Following Peace of Riga, Stanisławów became part of the Second Polish Republic. After the Soviet invasion of Poland at the onset of World War II, the city was annexed by the Soviet Union, only to be occupied by Nazi Germany two years later. With the liberation of Soviet Ukraine in 1944 and the shifting of borders, the Communist regime ran the city for the next four-and-a-half decades. A few years before the fall of the Soviet Union, the blue-yellow flag was raised in the city as the symbol of an independent Ukraine.

A city visitor may find elements of various cultures intertwined within Ivano-Frankivsk, the Polish city hall, the Austro-Hungarian city's business center, the Soviet prefabricated apartment blocks at the city's rural–urban fringe, and others. Ivano-Frankivsk is also one of the principal cities of the Carpathian Euroregion.

Name

Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki after whom the city was named originally.

Stanisławów was founded as a fortress and was named after the Polish hetman Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki.[5][6] Some sources claim it was named after his grandson Stanisław.[7] Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the name was transliterated as Stanislau in German, as the city became part of the Austrian Empire (future Austria-Hungary); however, after the revolution of 1848, the city carried three different linguistic renderings of its name: German, Polish, and Ruthenian (German: Stanislau, pronounced [ˈʃtaːnɪslaʊ]; Polish: Stanisławów, pronounced [staɲiˈswavuf]; Ukrainian: Станісла́вів Stanislaviv, pronounced [stɐn⁽ʲ⁾iˈslɑwiu̯], or Станиславiв[8] Stanyslaviv, pronounced [stɐnɪˈslɑwiu̯]). Other spellings used in the local press media included Russian: Станиславов and Yiddish: סטאַניסלאוו‎.

After World War II it was changed by the Soviet authorities into a simplified version Stanislav (Ukrainian: Станісла́в, pronounced [stɐn⁽ʲ⁾iˈslɑu̯]; Russian: Станисла́в, pronounced [stənʲɪˈslaf]). In 1962, on the city's 300th anniversary, it was renamed to honor the Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko. Due to the city's wordy name, unofficially it is sometimes called simply Franyk (Франик)[9] by its residents. Even though Ivano-Frankivsk is the officially accepted name, the city's original name has never been fully abandoned and/or forgotten and can be found throughout the city in all kinds of variations.

Ivan Franko

The name of the city was altered several times through the centuries. It was founded as Stanisławów; but in 1772 transliteration changed to Stanislau, in 1919 to Stanislaviv and again to Stanisławów. In 1939 transliteration changed to Stanislav, in 1941 to Stanislau, in 1944 again to Stanislav. And finally, on November 9, 1962, the name was officially changed by the First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, reportedly as an honour to poet Ivan Franko.

History

Ivano-Frankivsk (Stanislau) in 1915
Memorial plaque at the Regional Art Museum about the death of Stanislaw Potocki, son of Andrzej.

The town of Stanisławów was founded as a fortress in order to protect the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from Tatar invasions and to defend the multi-ethnic population of the region in case of armed conflicts such as the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648. The fort was originally built next to Zabolotiv village (known since 1435),[10] and Knyahynyn (1449).[7] The village of Zabolotiv and the land around it were purchased by Andrzej Potocki from another Polish nobleman, Rzeczkowski. Stanisławów was issued by Potocki and his declaration establishing the city with Magdeburg rights on May 7, 1662; but the city and its rights, however, were not recognized by the Polish Crown until August 14, 1663, when John Casimir had finally approved it. By 1672, the fortress had been rebuilt from wood to stone, brick, and mortar. Also a new large fortified Potocki palace was erected in the place of an older wood structure. Today this building serves as the military hospital. In the same year Jews were granted the right to become permanent residents, who could work, conduct commerce and travel in and out of the city as they pleased.[11]

Originally the city was divided into two districts: Tysmenytsia and Halych. Sometime in 1817–1819 the neighbouring village of Zabolottya, that had a special status, was incorporated into the city as a new district, while Tysmenytsia district was divided into Tysmenytsia and Lysets districts. Each district had its main street corresponded with its name: Halych Street (Halych district), Tysmenytsia Street which today is Independence Street (Tysmenytsia district), Zabolotiv Street – Mykhailo Hrushevsky Street and Street of Vasylyanok (Zabolottya district), and Lysets Street – Hetman Mazepa Street (Lysets district). Later the city was split into six small districts: midtown where the rich Catholic population and patricians lived, pidzamche (subcastle), and four suburbs – Zabolotiv, Tysmenytsia, Halych and Lysets where the plebeians lived.[12]

Austrian K.K. stamp bilingual cancelled in 1891 with German and Polish names

In October 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed and the Western Ukrainian People's Republic (ZUNR) was proclaimed.[13] In the early months of 1919 (from January to May) the city became a temporary capital of the West Ukrainian National Republic, while still recovering from World War I. All state affairs took place in the building of Dnister Hotel where the Act Zluky (Unification Act) was composed and signed on January 22, 1919 by the Ukrainian People's Republic.[14][15] The same year it was subjected to the Polish–Ukrainian and the Romanian-Ukrainian skirmishes eventually being annexed by Poland as part of the Second Polish Republic as the centre of the Stanisławów Voivodeship. It was occupied by the Romanian army for the summer months from May 25 through August 21, 1919. During the Polish–Soviet War in 1920, the Red Army took over the city for a brief period. After the Soviet retreat, Ukrainian troops loyal to Symon Petlura occupied the city for a few days. At this period of history the city was in complete disorder.[16]

In the 1939 invasion of Poland by German and Soviet forces, the territory was captured by the Soviets in September 1939 and included into the Ukrainian SSR. Between September 1939 and June 1941, the Soviet regime ordered thousands of inhabitants of the city to leave their houses and move to Siberia, where most of them perished. Numerous people were taken out of the city prison and simply shot outside of the city when Soviet forces were leaving it in 1941. Ivano-Frankivsk was occupied by German forces from July 2, 1941 to July 27, 1944. There were more than 40,000 Jews in Stanisławów when it was occupied by the Nazi Germany on July 26, 1941. During the occupation (1941–44), more than 600 educated Poles and most of the city's Jewish population were murdered.[17][18]

In early 1944, the city became part of the Soviet Union and was renamed 'Stanislav'. The Soviets forced most of the Polish population to leave the city, most of them settled in the Recovered Territories. During the post-war period the city was part of the Carpathian Military District housing the 38th Army (70th Motor Rifle Division) that participated in the Operation Dunai.

Timeline

Potocki family, Stanisławów was annexed to the Habsburg Empire during the First Partition of Poland in 1772, after which it became the property of the State within the Austrian Empire. The fortress was slowly transformed into one of the most prominent cities at the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains. After World War I, for several months, it served as a temporary capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Following Peace of Riga, Stanisławów became part of the Second Polish Republic. After the Soviet invasion of Poland at the onset of World War II, the city was annexed by the Soviet Union, only to be occupied by Nazi Germany two years later. With the liberation of Soviet Ukraine in 1944 and the shifting of borders, the Communist regime ran the city for the next four-and-a-half decades. A few years before the fall of the Soviet Union, the blue-yellow flag was raised in the city as the symbol of an independent Ukraine.

A city visitor may find elements of various cultures intertwined within Ivano-Frankivsk, the Polish city hall, the Austro-Hungarian city's business center, the Soviet prefabricated apartment blocks at the city's rural–urban fringe, and others. Ivano-Frankivsk is also one of the principal cities of the Carpathian Euroregion.

Stanisławów was founded as a fortress and was named after the Polish hetman Stanisław "Rewera" Potocki.[5][6] Some sources claim it was named after his grandson Stanisław.[7] Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the name was transliterated as Stanislau in German, as the city became part of the Austrian Empire (future Austria-Hungary); however, after the revolution of 1848, the city carried three different linguistic renderings of its name: German, Polish, and Ruthenian (German: Stanislau, pronounced [ˈʃtaːnɪslaʊ]; Polish: Stanisławów, pronounced [staɲiˈswavuf]; Ukrainian: Станісла́вів Stanislaviv, pronounced [stɐn⁽ʲ⁾iˈslɑwiu̯], or Станиславiв[8] Stanyslaviv, pronounced [stɐnɪˈslɑwiu̯]). Other spellings used in the local press media included Russian: Станиславов and Yiddish: סטאַניסלאוו‎.

After World War II it was changed by the Soviet authorities into a simplified version Stanislav (Ukrainian: Станісла́в, pronounced [stɐn⁽ʲ⁾iˈslɑu̯]; Russian: Станисла́в, pronounced [stənʲɪˈslaf]). In 1962, on the city's 300th anniversary, it was renamed to honor the Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko. Due to the city's wordy name, unofficially it is sometimes called simply Franyk (Франик)[9] by its residents. Even though Ivano-Frankivsk is the officially accepted name, the city's original name has never been fully abandoned and/or forgotten and can be found throughout the city in all kinds of variations.

Ivan Franko

The name of the city was altered several times through the centuries. It was founded as Stanisławów; but in 1772 transliteration changed to Stanislau, in 1919 to Stanislaviv and again to Stanisławów. In 1939 transliteration changed to Stanislav, in 1941 to Stanislau, in 1944 again to Stanislav. And finally, on November 9, 1962, the name was officially changed by the First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, reportedly as an honour to poet Ivan Franko.

History

Ivano-Frankivsk (Stanislau) in 1915
Memorial plaque at the Regional Art Museum about the death of Stanislaw Potocki, son of Andrzej.

The town of Stanisławów was founded as a fortress in order to protect the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from Tatar invasions and to defend the multi-ethnic population of the region in case of armed conflicts such as the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648. The fort was originally built next to Zabolotiv village (known since 1435),[10] and Knyahynyn (1449).[7] The village of Zabolotiv and the land around it were purchased by Andrzej Potocki from another Polish nobleman, Rzeczkowski. Stanisławów was issued by Potocki and his declaration establishing the city with Magdeburg rights on May 7, 1662; but the city and its rights, however, were not recognized by the Polish Crown until August 14, 1663, when John Casimir had finally approved it. By 1672, the fortress had been rebuilt from wood to stone, brick, and mortar. Also a new large fortified Potocki palace was erected in the place of an older wood structure. Today this building serves as the military hospital. In the same year Jews were granted the right to become p

After World War II it was changed by the Soviet authorities into a simplified version Stanislav (Ukrainian: Станісла́в, pronounced [stɐn⁽ʲ⁾iˈslɑu̯]; Russian: Станисла́в, pronounced [stənʲɪˈslaf]). In 1962, on the city's 300th anniversary, it was renamed to honor the Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko. Due to the city's wordy name, unofficially it is sometimes called simply Franyk (Франик)[9] by its residents. Even though Ivano-Frankivsk is the officially accepted name, the city's original name has never been fully abandoned and/or forgotten and can be found throughout the city in all kinds of variations.

The name of the city was altered several times through the centuries. It was founded as Stanisławów; but in 1772 transliteration changed to Stanislau, in 1919 to Stanislaviv and again to Stanisławów. In 1939 transliteration changed to Stanislav, in 1941 to Stanislau, in 1944 again to Stanislav. And finally, on November 9, 1962, the name was officially changed by the First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, reportedly as an honour to poet Ivan Franko.

History

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from Tatar invasions and to defend the multi-ethnic population of the region in case of armed conflicts such as the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648. The fort was originally built next to Zabolotiv village (known since 1435),[10] and Knyahynyn (1449).[7] The village of Zabolotiv and the land around it were purchased by Andrzej Potocki from another Polish nobleman, Rzeczkowski. Stanisławów was issued by Potocki and his declaration establishing the city with Magdeburg rights on May 7, 1662; but the city and its rights, however, were not recognized by the Polish Crown until August 14, 1663, when John Casimir had finally approved it. By 1672, the fortress had been rebuilt from wood to stone, brick, and mortar. Also a new large fortified Potocki palace was erected in the place of an older wood structure. Today this building serves as the military hospital. In the same year Jews were granted the right to become permanent residents, who could work, conduct commerce and travel in and out of the city as they pleased.[11]

Originally the city was divided into two districts: Tysmenytsia and Halych. Sometime in 1817–1819 the neighbouring village of Zabolottya, that had a special status, was incorporated into the city as a new district, while Tysmenytsia district was divided into Tysmenytsia and Lysets districts. Each district had its main street corresponded with its name: Halych Street (Halych district), Tysmenytsia Street which today is Independence Street (Tysmenytsia district), Zabolotiv Street – Mykhailo Hrushevsky Street and Street of Vasylyanok (Zabolottya district), and Lysets Street – Hetman Mazepa Street (Lysets district). Later the city was split into six small districts: midtown where the rich Catholic population and patricians lived, pidzamche (subcastle), and four suburbs – Zabolotiv, Tysmenytsia, Halych and Lysets where the plebeians lived.[12]

Austrian Tysmenytsia and Halych. Sometime in 1817–1819 the neighbouring village of Zabolottya, that had a special status, was incorporated into the city as a new district, while Tysmenytsia district was divided into Tysmenytsia and Lysets districts. Each district had its main street corresponded with its name: Halych Street (Halych district), Tysmenytsia Street which today is Independence Street (Tysmenytsia district), Zabolotiv Street – Mykhailo Hrushevsky Street and Street of Vasylyanok (Zabolottya district), and Lysets Street – Hetman Mazepa Street (Lysets district). Later the city was split into six small districts: midtown where the rich Catholic population and patricians lived, pidzamche (subcastle), and four suburbs – Zabolotiv, Tysmenytsia, Halych and Lysets where the plebeians lived.[12]

In October 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed and the Western Ukrainian People's Republic (ZUNR) was proclaimed.[13] In the early months of 1919 (from January to May) the city became a temporary capital of the West Ukrainian National Republic, while still recovering from World War I. All state affairs took place in the building of Dnister Hotel where the Act Zluky (Unification Act) was composed and signed on January 22, 1919 by the Ukrainian People's Republic.[14][15] The same year it was subjected to the Polish–Ukrainian and the Romanian-Ukrainian skirmishes eventually being annexed by Poland as part of the Second Polish Republic as the centre of the Stanisławów Voivodeship. It was occupied by the Romanian army for the summer months from May 25 through August 21, 1919. During the Polish–Soviet War in 1920, the Red Army took over the city for a brief period. After the Soviet retreat, Ukrainian troops loyal to Symon Petlura occupied the city for a few days. At this period of history the city was in complete disorder.[16]

In the 1939 invasion of Poland by German and Soviet forces, the territory was captured by the Soviets in September 1939 and included into the Ukrainian SSR. Between September 1939 and June 1941, the Soviet regime ordered thousands of inhabitants of the city to leave their houses and move to Siberia, where most of them perished. Numerous people were taken out of the city prison and simply shot outside of the city when Soviet forces were leaving it in 1941. Ivano-Frankivsk was occupied by German forces from July 2, 1941 to July 27, 1944. There were more than 40,000 Jews in Stanisławów when it was occupied by the Nazi Ge

In the 1939 invasion of Poland by German and Soviet forces, the territory was captured by the Soviets in September 1939 and included into the Ukrainian SSR. Between September 1939 and June 1941, the Soviet regime ordered thousands of inhabitants of the city to leave their houses and move to Siberia, where most of them perished. Numerous people were taken out of the city prison and simply shot outside of the city when Soviet forces were leaving it in 1941. Ivano-Frankivsk was occupied by German forces from July 2, 1941 to July 27, 1944. There were more than 40,000 Jews in Stanisławów when it was occupied by the Nazi Germany on July 26, 1941. During the occupation (1941–44), more than 600 educated Poles and most of the city's Jewish population were murdered.[17][18]

In early 1944, the city became part of the Soviet Union and was renamed 'Stanislav'. The Soviets forced most of the Polish population to leave the city, most of them settled in the Recovered Territories. During the post-war period the city was part of the Carpathian Military District housing the 38th Army (70th Motor Rifle Division) that participated in the Operation Dunai.

As is the case with most of Ukraine, the climate is moderate continental with warm summers, and fairly cold winters. The following climate data provided is for the past 62 years. The average number of days with precipitation is 170 spread almost equally throughout a year. Most precipitation takes place during the winter months and least – early fall. Thunderstorms occur mostly in summer months averaging around 25 annually.[19] Ivano-Frankivsk averages about 296 days of fog or misty days with about 24 per month.[19]

See also

References

Bibliography