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The ISRAEL DEFENSE FORCES (IDF; Hebrew
Hebrew
: צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל‎ Tsva ha-Hagana le-Yisra\'el , lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; Arabic : جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي‎‎), commonly known in Israel
Israel
by the Hebrew
Hebrew
acronym Tzahal (צה״ל‎), are the military forces of the State of Israel
Israel
. They consist of the ground forces , air force , and navy . It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces , and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel. The IDF is headed by its Chief of General Staff , the Ramatkal, subordinate to the Defense Minister of Israel
Israel
; Lieutenant general ( Rav Aluf ) Gadi Eizenkot
Gadi Eizenkot
has served as Chief of Staff since 2015.

An order from Defense Minister David Ben-Gurion on 26 May 1948 officially set up the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces as a conscript army formed out of the paramilitary group Haganah , incorporating the militant groups Irgun and Lehi . The IDF served as Israel's armed forces in all the country's major military operations—including the 1948 War of Independence , 1951–1956 Retribution operations , 1956 Sinai War , 1964–1967 War over Water , 1967 Six-Day War , 1967–1970 War of Attrition , 1968 Battle of Karameh , 1973 Operation Spring of Youth , 1973 Yom Kippur War , 1976 Operation Entebbe , 1978 Operation Litani
Operation Litani
, 1982 Lebanon War , 1982–2000 South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict , 1987–1993 First Intifada , 2000–2005 Second Intifada , 2002 Operation Defensive Shield , 2006 Lebanon War , 2008–2009 Operation Cast Lead , 2012 Operation Pillar of Defense
Operation Pillar of Defense
, and 2014 Operation Protective Edge . The number of wars and border conflicts in which the IDF has been involved in its short history makes it one of the most battle-trained armed forces in the world. While originally the IDF operated on three fronts—against Lebanon
Lebanon
and Syria
Syria
in the north, Jordan
Jordan
and Iraq
Iraq
in the east, and Egypt
Egypt
in the south—after the 1979 Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty
Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty
, it has concentrated its activities in southern Lebanon
Lebanon
and the Palestinian Territories , including the First and the Second Intifada .

The Israel
Israel
Defense Forces differs from most armed forces in the world in many ways. Differences include the mandatory conscription of women and its structure, which emphasizes close relations between the army, navy, and air force. Since its founding, the IDF has been specifically designed to match Israel's unique security situation. The IDF is one of Israeli society's most prominent institutions, influencing the country's economy, culture and political scene. In 1965, the Israel Defense Forces was awarded the Israel
Israel
Prize for its contribution to education. The IDF uses several technologies developed in Israel, many of them made specifically to match the IDF's needs, such as the Merkava
Merkava
main battle tank , Achzarit
Achzarit
armoured personnel carrier , high tech weapons systems, the Iron Dome missile defense system, Trophy active protection system for vehicles, and the Galil and Tavor assault rifles. The Uzi
Uzi
submachine gun was invented in Israel
Israel
and used by the IDF until December 2003, ending a service that began in 1954. Since 1967, the IDF has had close military relations with the United States , including development cooperation, such as on the F-15I jet, THEL laser defense system, and the Arrow missile defense system.

The Israel
Israel
Defense Forces are believed to have had an operational nuclear weapons capability since 1967 , possessing between 80-400 nuclear weapons, with delivery systems forming a nuclear triad , of plane launched-missiles, Jericho III intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine launched cruise missiles .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History

* 3 Organization

* 3.1 Structure

* 3.1.1 Regional commands * 3.1.2 Arms * 3.1.3 Administrative branches * 3.1.4 Other bodies

* 3.2 Units

* 3.3 Ranks, uniforms and insignia

* 3.3.1 Ranks * 3.3.2 Uniforms * 3.3.3 Insignia

* 4 Service

* 4.1 Military service routes

* 4.2 Special
Special
service routes

* 4.2.1 Regular service * 4.2.2 Permanent service * 4.2.3 Reserve service

* 4.3 Non-IDF service * 4.4 Women

* 5 Minorities in the IDF

* 5.1 Druze and Circassians * 5.2 Bedouins and Israeli Arabs * 5.3 Ethiopian Jews
Ethiopian Jews
* 5.4 Haredim * 5.5 LGBT people * 5.6 Deaf and hard-of-hearing people * 5.7 Vegans * 5.8 Volunteers

* 6 Overseas volunteers

* 7 Doctrine

* 7.1 Mission

* 7.2 Main doctrine

* 7.2.1 Basic points * 7.2.2 Prepare for defense * 7.2.3 Move to counterattack

* 7.3 Code of conduct

* 7.3.1 Stated values of the IDF * 7.3.2 Military ethics of fighting terror

* 8 Command and control * 9 Budget

* 10 Weapons and equipment

* 10.1 Military equipment * 10.2 Main developments

* 11 Commemoration

* 11.1 Commemoration * 11.2 Parades

* 12 Foreign military relations

* 12.1 France
France
* 12.2 United States
United States
* 12.3 India * 12.4 Germany
Germany
* 12.5 United Kingdom * 12.6 Russia * 12.7 China * 12.8 Cyprus * 12.9 Greece * 12.10 Turkey * 12.11 Azerbaijan * 12.12 Other countries

* 13 Future

* 14 See also

* 14.1 Related bodies

* 14.1.1 Security forces * 14.1.2 Defense industry of Israel
Israel

* 15 References and footnotes * 16 Further reading * 17 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The Israeli cabinet ratified the name " Israel
Israel
Defense Forces" (Hebrew : צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל‎), Tzva HaHagana LeYisra'el, literally "army for the defense of Israel," on 26 May 1948. The other main contender was Tzva Yisra'el ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: צְבָא יִשְׂרָאֵל‎). The name was chosen because it conveyed the idea that the army's role was defense, and because it incorporated the name Haganah , the pre-state defensive organization upon which the new army was based. Among the primary opponents of the name were Minister Haim-Moshe Shapira
Haim-Moshe Shapira
and the Hatzohar party, both in favor of Tzva Yisra'el.

HISTORY

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Major-Gen. Ariel Sharon (left), during the Battle of Abu-Ageila , June 1967 Main articles: History of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces and List of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces operations

The IDF traces its roots to Jewish paramilitary organizations in the New Yishuv , starting with the Second Aliyah (1904 to 1914). The first such organization was Bar-Giora , founded in September 1907. Bar-Giora was transformed into Hashomer in April 1909, which operated until the British Mandate of Palestine came into being in 1920. Hashomer was an elitist organization with narrow scope, and was mainly created to protect against criminal gangs seeking to steal property. The Zion Mule Corps
Zion Mule Corps
and the Jewish Legion , both part of the British Army of World War I
World War I
, would further bolster the Yishuv with military experience and manpower, forming the basis for later paramilitary forces. After the 1920 Palestine riots
1920 Palestine riots
against Jews in April 1920, the Yishuv leadership realised the need for a nationwide underground defense organization, and the Haganah was founded in June of the same year. The Haganah became a full-scale defense force after the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine with an organized structure, consisting of three main units—the Field Corps , Guard Corps , and the Palmach
Palmach
. During World War II, the Yishuv participated in the British war effort, culminating in the formation of the Jewish Brigade . These would eventually form the backbone of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces, and provide it with it initial manpower and doctrine.

Following Israel's Declaration of Independence , Prime Minister and Defense Minister David Ben-Gurion issued an order for the formation of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces on 26 May 1948. Although Ben-Gurion had no legal authority to issue such an order, the order was made legal by the cabinet on 31 May. The same order called for the disbandment of all other Jewish armed forces. The two other Jewish underground organizations, Irgun and Lehi , agreed to join the IDF if they would be able to form independent units and agreed not to make independent arms purchases. This was the background for the Altalena Affair
Altalena Affair
, a confrontation surrounding weapons purchased by the Irgun resulting in a standoff between Irgun members and the newly created IDF. The affair came to an end when Altalena, the ship carrying the arms, was shelled by the IDF. Following the affair, all independent Irgun and Lehi units were either disbanded or merged into the IDF. The Palmach, a leading component of the Haganah, also joined the IDF with provisions , and Ben Gurion responded by disbanding its staff in 1949, after which many senior Palmach
Palmach
officers retired, notably its first commander, Yitzhak Sadeh .

The new army organized itself when the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine escalated into the 1948 Arab–Israeli War , which saw neighbouring Arab states attack. Twelve infantry and armored brigades formed: Golani , Carmeli , Alexandroni , Kiryati , Givati , Etzioni , the 7th , and 8th armored brigades, Oded , Harel , Yiftach , and Negev
Negev
. After the war, some of the brigades were converted to reserve units, and others were disbanded. Directorates and corps were created from corps and services in the Haganah, and this basic structure in the IDF still exists today . Operation Gazelle, Israel's ground maneuver, encircles the Egyptian Third Army, October 1973

Immediately after the 1948 war, the Israel-Palestinian conflict shifted to a low intensity conflict between the IDF and Palestinian fedayeen . In the 1956 Suez Crisis , the IDF's first serious test of strength after 1949, the new army captured the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
from Egypt, which was later returned. In the 1967 Six-Day War , Israel conquered the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip , West Bank
West Bank
(including East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
) and Golan Heights
Golan Heights
from the surrounding Arab states, changing the balance of power in the region as well as the role of the IDF. In the following years leading up to the Yom Kippur War , the IDF fought a war of attrition against Egypt
Egypt
in the Sinai and a border war against the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in Jordan
Jordan
, culminating in the Battle of Karameh .

The surprise of the Yom Kippur War and its aftermath completely changed the IDF's procedures and approach to warfare. Organizational changes were made and more time was dedicated to training for conventional warfare . However, in the following years the army's role slowly shifted again to low-intensity conflict, urban warfare and counter-terrorism . An example of the latter was the successful 1976 Operation Entebbe commando raid to free hijacked airline passengers being held captive in Uganda
Uganda
. During this era, the IDF also mounted a successful bombing mission in Iraq
Iraq
to destroy its nuclear reactor. It was involved in the Lebanese Civil War , initiating Operation Litani and later the 1982 Lebanon War , where the IDF ousted Palestinian guerilla organizations from Lebanon
Lebanon
. Palestinian militancy has been the main focus of the IDF ever since, especially during the First and Second Intifadas , Operation Defensive Shield
Operation Defensive Shield
, the Gaza War , Operation Pillar of Defense
Operation Pillar of Defense
, and Operation Protective Edge
Operation Protective Edge
, causing the IDF to change many of its values and publish the IDF Spirit . The Lebanese Shia organization Hezbollah has also been a growing threat, against which the IDF fought an asymmetric conflict between 1982 and 2000, as well as a full-scale war in 2006.

ORGANIZATION

IDF Kirya Compound , Tel Aviv

All branches of the IDF answer to a single General Staff . The Chief of the General Staff is the only serving officer having the rank of Lieutenant General (Rav Aluf). He reports directly to the Defense Minister and indirectly to the Prime Minister of Israel and the cabinet. Chiefs of Staff are formally appointed by the cabinet, based on the Defense Minister's recommendation, for three years, but the government can vote to extend their service to four (and on rare occasions even five) years. The current chief of staff is Gadi Eizenkot . He replaced Benny Gantz in 2015.

STRUCTURE

The IDF includes the following bodies (those whose respective heads are members of the General Staff are in bold): Structure of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces (click to enlarge)

Regional Commands

* NORTHERN COMMAND * CENTRAL COMMAND * SOUTHERN COMMAND * HOME FRONT COMMAND

Arms

GROUND ARM

* Infantry Corps

* Oz Brigade * Paratroopers Brigade * Golani Brigade
Golani Brigade
* Nahal Brigade * Givati Brigade
Givati Brigade
* Kfir Brigade
Kfir Brigade
* Bislamach Brigade

* Armor Corps

* 7th Sa\'ar Armored Brigade * 188th Barak Armored Brigade
Barak Armored Brigade
* 401st Ikvot HaBarzel Armored Brigade * 460th Sons of Light Armored Brigade

* Artillery Corps * Combat Engineering Corps
Combat Engineering Corps
* Combat Intelligence Collection Corps
Combat Intelligence Collection Corps

AIR AND SPACE ARM

* Air Force

* Air Defense Network

SEA ARM

* Israeli Navy

Administrative Branches

GENERAL STAFF

* PLANNING DIRECTORATE

* OPERATIONS DIRECTORATE

* IDF Spokesperson * The Dado Center for Interdisciplinary Military Studies
The Dado Center for Interdisciplinary Military Studies

* INTELLIGENCE DIRECTORATE

* Intelligence Corps * Military Censor

* DEPTH HEADQUARTERS

* MANPOWER DIRECTORATE

* Military Police Corps * Education and Youth Corps * Adjutant Corps * General Corps * Military Rabbinate
Military Rabbinate
* Women\'s Affairs advisor * Manpower Planning and Administration brigade * Individuals\' Department * Staff Department * Chief Reserve Officer

* MILITARY COURTS / TRIBUNALS UNIT

* Military Court / Tribunal * Military Advocate General * Military Court of Appeals

* COMPUTER SERVICE DIRECTORATE

* Teleprocessing and Signal Corps (C4I Corps)

* TECHNOLOGICAL AND LOGISTICS DIRECTORATE

* Ordnance Corps * Maintenance, Supply and Logistics Corps * Medical Corps

Other Bodies

MILITARY:

* MILITARY ACADEMIES

* Tactical Command College * Command and Staff College * National Security College

* Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories * Financial Advisor to the Chief of Staff * Military Secretary to the Prime Minister

CIVILIAN:

* Director-general
Director-general
of the Ministry of Defense * Defense Establishment Comptroller Unit * Administration for the Development of Weapons and the Technological Industry * Engineering and Construction Department of the Ministry of Defense

UNITS

LAND FORCES AIR FORCES

HEBREW ENGLISH COMMANDER HEBREW ENGLISH COMMANDER

Chulia Fire Team Mashak Chulia ("Fire Team Leader") Corporal or Sergeant Tayeset Air Force Squadron Captain or Major

Kita Squad / Section Mashak Kita ("Squad / Section Leader") Staff Sergeant Kanaf Air Forces Wing Lieutenant-Colonel

Machlekah Platoon Mifaked Machlekah ("Platoon Commander") Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Lahak Air Force Command Colonel

Plugah Company Mifaked Plugah ("Company Commander") Captain

Solil-l’ah Artillery Battery Captain or Major

Sayeret Commando ( Special
Special
Operations) Captain or Major

Gdud Battalion Lieutenant-Colonel

Chativa Brigade Colonel

Ugda Division (1948-1967) Major-General (1968–Present) Brigadier-General

Gayis Corps Major-General

RANKS, UNIFORMS AND INSIGNIA

Ranks

Main article: Israel Defense Forces ranks Israeli officers of the Paratrooper Battalion 890 in 1955 with Moshe Dayan
Moshe Dayan
(standing, third from the left). Ariel Sharon is standing, second from the left and commando Meir Har Zion
Meir Har Zion
is standing furthest left. Soldiers of the Golani Brigade
Golani Brigade
on the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
Soldiers of the "Yanshuf" (Owl) Battalion, which specializes in CBRN warfare

Unlike most militaries, the IDF uses the same rank names in all corps, including the air force and navy. For ground forces' officers, rank insignia are brass on a red background; for the air force, silver on a blue background; and for the navy, the standard gold worn on the sleeve. Officer insignia are worn on epaulets on top of both shoulders. Insignia distinctive to each service are worn on the cap (see fig. 15). IDF Alpinist Unit
Alpinist Unit
dispatched to Mount Hermon Israeli soldiers coming back from the Second Lebanon
Lebanon
war, armed with the M4 Carbine and the IMI Negev light machinegun Israeli soldiers during Operation Brothers\' Keeper (2014) armed with IWI X95s .

Enlisted grades wear rank insignia on the sleeve, halfway between the shoulder and the elbow. For the army and air force, the insignia are white with blue interwoven threads backed with the appropriate corps color. Navy personnel wear gold-colored rank insignia sewn on navy blue material.

From the formation of the IDF until the late 1980s, sergeant major was a particularly important warrant officer rank, in line with usage in other armies. However, in the 1980s and 1990s the proliferating ranks of sergeant major became devalued, and now all professional non-commissioned officer ranks are a variation on sergeant major (rav samal) with the exception of rav nagad.

All translations here are the official translations of the IDF's website.

CONSCRIPTS (Hogrim) ( Conscript
Conscript
ranks may be gained purely on time served)

* Private (Turai) * Corporal (Rav Turai) * Sergeant (Samal) * First Sergeant (Samal Rishon)

WARRANT OFFICERS (Nagadim)

* Sergeant First Class (Rav Samal) * Master Sergeant (Rav Samal Rishon) * Sergeant Major
Major
(Rav Samal Mitkadem) * Warrant Officer (Rav Samal Bakhir) * Master Warrant Officer (Rav Nagad Mishneh) * Chief Warrant Officer (Rav Nagad)

ACADEMIC OFFICERS (Ktzinim Akadema'im)

* Professional Academic Officer (Katzin Miktzo'i Akadema'i) * Senior Academic Officer (Katzin Akadema'i Bakhir)

OFFICERS (Ktzinim)

* Second Lieutenant (Segen Mishneh) * Lieutenant
Lieutenant
(Segen) * Captain (Seren) * Major
Major
(Rav Seren) * Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel
Colonel
(Sgan Aluf) * Colonel
Colonel
( Aluf Mishneh) * Brigadier General (Tat Aluf) * Major
Major
General ( Aluf ) * Lieutenant General (Rav Aluf)

Uniforms

IDF uniform colours Female IDF corporal with the Spike missile launcher, wearing the golden-olive Madei Alef uniform

The Israel
Israel
Defense Forces has several types of uniforms:

* Service dress (מדי אלף Madei Alef – Uniform "A") – the everyday uniform, worn by enlisted soldiers. * Field dress ( מדי ב Madei Bet – Uniform "B") – worn into combat, training, work on base.

The first two resemble each other but the Madei Alef is made of higher quality materials in a golden-olive while the madei bet is in olive drab . The dress uniforms may also exhibit a surface shine

* Officers / Ceremonial dress (מדי שרד madei srad) – worn by officers, or during special events/ceremonies. * Dress uniform and mess dress – worn only abroad. There are several dress uniforms depending on the season and the branch.

The service uniform for all ground forces personnel is olive green ; navy and air force uniforms are beige (tan ). The uniforms consist of a two-pocket shirt, combat trousers , sweater , jacket or blouse, and shoes or boots. The navy also has an all white dress uniform. The green fatigues are the same for winter and summer and heavy winter gear is issued as needed. Women's dress parallels the men's but may substitute a skirt for the trousers. IDF female infantry soldiers

Headgear included a service cap for dress and semi-dress and a field cap or bush hat worn with fatigues. IDF personnel generally wear berets in lieu of the service cap and there are many beret colors issued to IDF personnel. Paratroopers are issued a maroon beret, Golani brown, Givati purple, Nahal lime green, Kfir camouflage, Combat Engineers gray, navy blue for IDF Naval and dark grey for IDF Air Force personnel. Other beret colors are: black for armored corps, turquoise for artillery personnel; olive drab for infantry; grey for combat engineers. For all other army personnel, except combat units, the beret for men was green and for women, black. Women in the navy wore a black beret with gold insignia. Males in the navy once wore a blue/black beret but replaced it with the US Navy 's sailor cap .

Some corps or units have small variations in their uniforms – for instance, military policemen wear a white belt and police hat, Naval personnel have dress whites for parades, paratroopers are issued a four pocket tunic (shirt) meant to be worn untucked with a pistol belt cinched tight around the waist over the shirt. The IDF Air Corps has a dress uniform consisting of a pale blue shirt with dark blue trousers. Similarly, while most IDF soldiers are issued black leather boots, certain units issue reddish-brown leather boots for historical reasons — the paratroopers, combat medics, Nahal and Kfir Brigades, as well as some SF units ( Sayeret Matkal
Sayeret Matkal
, Oketz , Duvdevan , Maglan
Maglan
, and the Counter-Terror School ). Women were also formerly issued sandals , but this practice has ceased.

Insignia

Main article: Israel
Israel
Defense Forces insignia

IDF soldiers have three types of insignia (other than rank insignia) which identify their corps, specific unit, and position.

A pin attached to the beret identifies a soldier's corps. Soldiers serving in staffs above corps level are often identified by the General Corps pin, despite not officially belonging to it, or the pin of a related corps. New recruits undergoing basic training (tironut ) do not have a pin. Beret colors are also often indicative of the soldier's corps, although most non-combat corps do not have their own beret, and sometimes wear the color of the corps to which the post they're stationed in belongs. Individual units are identified by a shoulder tag attached to the left shoulder strap . Most units in the IDF have their own tags, although those that do not, generally use tags identical to their command's tag (corps, directorate, or regional command).

While one cannot always identify the position/job of a soldier, two optional factors help make this identification: an aiguillette attached to the left shoulder strap and shirt pocket, and a pin indicating the soldier's work type (usually given by a professional course). Other pins may indicate the corps or additional courses taken. Finally, an optional battle pin indicates a war that a soldier has fought in.

SERVICE

163rd IAF Flight Course Graduates IAF Flight academy graduates receive their ranks as air force officers

MILITARY SERVICE ROUTES

The military service is held in three different tracks:

* REGULAR SERVICE (שירות חובה): mandatory military service which is held according to the Israeli security service law . * PERMANENT SERVICE (שירות קבע): military service which is held as part of a contractual agreement between the IDF and the permanent position-holder. * RESERVE SERVICE (שירות מילואים): a military service in which citizens are called for active duty of at most a month every year (in accordance with the Reserve Service Law), for training and ongoing military activities and especially for the purpose of increasing the military forces in case of a war.

Sometimes the IDF would also hold pre-military courses (קורס קדם צבאי or קד"צ) for soon-to-be regular service soldiers.

SPECIAL SERVICE ROUTES

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* SHOHER (שוחר), a person enrolled in pre-military studies (high school, technical college up to engineering degree, some of the קד"ץ courses) – after completing the twelfth study year will do a two-month boot-camp and, if allowed, enter a program of education to qualify as a practical engineer , with at least two weeks of training following each study year. Successful candidates will continue for an engineering bachelor degree . The Shoher will be enrolled into regular service if he dropped out before finished their P.A. education or in any finishing education stage (after high school, after P.A. or after receiving the bachelor's degree). Another example of a Shoher is a programmer that is under the programming course of SCHOOL FOR COMPUTER PROFESSIONS ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: בית הספר למקצועות המחשב‎‎, abbr. Basmach Hebrew
Hebrew
: בסמ"ח‎‎). The course usually lasts about six months, and at its peak, the Shoher receives a programmer badge. The Shoher will have the ability to serve in R&D units without having the engineering credentials if an officer finds him as worthy, and could recommend him for the R&D units. R&D units have the option to provide Hebrew
Hebrew
: על תקן מהנדס‎‎ certificate for few selected personal to allow the person to work on life-saving or flight equipment without having an Eng. license (the certificate is not valid for medical R"> IDF Nahal Brigade soldiers on their regular service

National military service is mandatory for all Israeli citizens over the age of 18, although Arab (but not Druze ) citizens are exempted if they so please, and other exceptions may be made on religious, physical or psychological grounds (see Profile 21
Profile 21
). The Tal law , which exempts ultra-Orthodox Jews from service, has been the subject of several court cases as well as considerable legislative controversy.

Until the draft of July 2015, men served three years in the IDF. Men drafted as of July 2015 and later will serve two years and eight months (32 months), with some roles requiring an additional four months of Permanent service. Women serve two years. The IDF women who volunteer for several combat positions often serve for three years, due to the longer period of training. Women in other positions, such as programmers, who also require lengthy training time, may also serve three years.

Some distinguished recruits are selected to be trained in order to eventually become members of special forces units . Every brigade in the IDF has its own special force branch.

Career soldiers are paid on average NIS 23,000 a month, fifty times the NIS 460 paid to conscripts.

In 1998–2000, only about 9% of those who refused to serve in the Israeli military were granted exemption.

Permanent Service

IDF soldier, Asael lubotzky prays with tefillin. IDF Reservists train in the Golan Heights
Golan Heights

Permanent service is designed for soldiers who choose to continue serving in the army after their regular service, for a short or long period, and in many cases making the military their career. Permanent service usually begins immediately after the mandatory Regular service period, but there are also soldiers who get released from military at the end of the mandatory Regular service period and who get recruited back to the military as Permanent service soldiers in a later period.

Permanent service is based on a contractual agreement between the IDF and the permanent position holder. The service contract defines how long the soldier's service would be, and towards the end of the contract period a discussion may rise on the extension of the soldier's service duration. Many times, regular service soldiers are required to commit to a permanent service after the mandatory Regular service period, in exchange for assigning them in military positions which require a long training period.

In exchange for the Permanent service, the Permanent service soldiers receive full wages, and when serving for a long period as a permanent service soldier, they are also entitled for a pension from the army. This right is given to the Permanent service soldiers in a relatively early stage of their life in comparison to the rest of the Israeli retirees.

Reserve Service

Main article: Reserve duty (Israel)

After personnel complete their regular service, they are either granted permanent exemption from military service, or assigned a position in the reserve forces. There is no distinction between assignment of men or women to reserve service.

The IDF may call up reservists for:

* reserve service of up to one month every three years, until the age of 40 (enlisted) or 45 (officers). Reservists may volunteer after this age, with approval of the Manpower Directorate. * immediate active duty in wartime.

In most cases, the reserve duty is carried out in the same unit for years, in many cases the same unit as the active service and by the same people. Many soldiers who have served together in active service continue to meet in reserve duty for years after their discharge, causing reserve duty to become a strong male bonding experience in Israeli society.

Although still available for call-up in times of crisis, most Israeli men, and virtually all women, do not actually perform reserve service in any given year. Units do not always call up all of their reservists every year, and a variety of exemptions are available if called for regular reserve service. Virtually no exemptions exist for reservists called up in a time of crisis, but experience has shown that in such cases (most recently, the 2014 Operation Protective Edge) exemptions are rarely requested or exercised; units generally achieve recruitment rates above those considered fully manned. The Israel
Israel
Border Police (Magav) is responsible for security in urban or rural areas

Legislation (approved in April 2008) has reformed the reserve service, lowering the maximum service age to 40 for enlisted, and 45 for officers, designating it as an emergency and security force (disallowing routine duties that may be carried out by the active forces), as well as many other changes to the structure (although the Defense Minister can suspend any portion of it at any time for security reasons). The age threshold for many reservists whose positions are listed and updated yearly by the Knesset through the Occupations executive order is fixed at 45 or 49, depending on their military occupation and position.

NON-IDF SERVICE

Other than the National Service ( Sherut Leumi
Sherut Leumi
), IDF conscripts may serve in bodies other than the IDF in a number of ways.

The combat option is Israel
Israel
Border Police (Magav – the exact translation from Hebrew
Hebrew
means "border guard") service, part of the Israel
Israel
Police . Some soldiers complete their IDF combat training and later undergo additional counter terror and Border Police training. These are assigned to Border Police units. The Border Police units fight side by side with the regular IDF combat units though to a lower capacity. They are also responsible for security in heavy urban areas such as Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and security and crime fighting in rural areas.

Non-combat services include the Mandatory Police Service (Shaham) program, where youth serve in the Israeli Police
Israeli Police
, Israel
Israel
Prison Service , or other wings of the Israeli Security Forces
Israeli Security Forces
instead of the regular army service.

WOMEN

Main article: Women in the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces The unisex Caracal Battalion
Caracal Battalion
, which serves in routine security missions IDF shooting instructors, a common role for women in the IDF IDF Warrant Officers with the M16 and IWI X95
IWI X95
; two common assault rifles of the IDF.

Israel
Israel
is one of only a few nations that conscript women or deploy them in combat roles, although in practice, women can avoid conscription through a religious exemption and over a third of Israeli women do so. As of 2010, 88% of all roles in the IDF are open to female candidates. and women could be found in 69% of all IDF positions.

According to the IDF, 535 female Israeli soldiers were killed in combat operations in the period 1962–2016, and dozens before then. The IDF says that fewer than 4 percent of women are in combat positions. Rather, they are concentrated in "combat-support" positions which command a lower compensation and status than combat positions.

Civilian pilot and aeronautical engineer Alice Miller successfully petitioned the High Court of Justice to take the Israeli Air Force pilot training exams, after being rejected on grounds of gender. Though president Ezer Weizman , a former IAF commander, told Miller that she would be better off staying home and darning socks, the court eventually ruled in 1996 that the IAF could not exclude qualified women from pilot training. Even though Miller would not pass the exams, the ruling was a watershed, opening doors for women in new IDF roles. Female legislators took advantage of the momentum to draft a bill allowing women to volunteer for any position, if they could qualify.

In 2000 the Equality amendment to the Military Service law stated that the right of women to serve in any role in the IDF is equal to the right of men. A study of women in the IDF from 2002 to 2005 found that women often exhibit "superior skills" in discipline, motivation and marksmanship. However, the study noted that women still face gender discrimination in the IDF. Women have served in the military since before the founding of the state of Israel
Israel
in 1948. Women started to enter combat support and light combat roles in a few areas, including the Artillery Corps, infantry units and armored divisions. A few platoons named Karakal were formed for men and women to serve together in light infantry. By 2000 Karakal became a full-fledged battalion , with a second mixed-gender battalion, Lions of the Jordan (אריות הירדן, Arayot Ha-Yarden) formed in 2015. Many women also joined the Border Police .

In June 2011 Maj. General Orna Barbivai
Orna Barbivai
became the first female major general in the IDF, replacing head of the directorate Maj. General Avi Zamir. Barbivai stated, "I am proud to be the first woman to become a major general and to be part of an organization in which equality is a central principle. Ninety percent of jobs in the IDF are open to women and I am sure that there are other women who will continue to break down barriers."

In 2013 the IDF announced they would, for the first time, allow a (MTF) transgender woman to serve in the army as a female soldier.

Elana Sztokman notes it would be "difficult to claim that women are equals in the IDF". "And tellingly, there is only one female general in the entire IDF," she adds. In 2012 religious soldiers claimed they were promised they would not have to listen to women sing or lecture, but IAF Chief Rabbi Moshe Raved resigned because male religious soldiers were being required to do so. In January 2015 three women IDF singers performed in one of the IDF's units. The performance was first disrupted by fifteen religious soldiers, who left in protest and then the Master Sergeant forced the women to end the performance because it was disturbing the religious soldiers. An IDF spokesperson announced an investigation of the incident: "We are aware of the incident and already began examining it. The exclusion of woman is not consistent with the values of the IDF." Defense Minister Moshe Ya\'alon has also arranged for women to be excluded from recruitment centers catering to religious males. As the IDF recruits more religious soldiers, the rights of male religious soldiers and of women in the IDF come into conflict. Brig. Gen. Zeev Lehrer, who served on the chief of staff's panel of the integration of women, noted "There is a clear process of 'religionization' in the army, and the story of the women is a central piece of it. There are very strong pressures at work to halt the process of integrating women into the army, and they are coming from the direction of religion." Sex segregation
Sex segregation
is allowed in the IDF, which reached what it considers a "new milestone" in 2006, creating the first company of soldiers segregated in an all female unit, the Nachshol ( Hebrew
Hebrew
for "giant wave") Reconnaissance Company. "We are the only unit in the world made up entirely of female combat soldiers," said Nachshol Company Commander Cpt. Dana Ben-Ezra. "Our effectiveness and the dividends we earn are the factors by which we are measured, not our gender."

MINORITIES IN THE IDF

Non-Jewish minorities tended to serve in one of several special units: the Minorities Unit , also known as Unit 300; the Druze Reconnaissance Unit; and the Trackers Unit, composed mostly of Negev Bedouins . In 1982 the IDF general staff decided to integrate the armed forces by opening up other units to minorities, while placing some Jewish conscripts in the Minorities Unit. Until 1988 the intelligence corps and the air force remained closed to minorities.

DRUZE AND CIRCASSIANS

Druze commander of the IDF Herev battalion

Although Israel
Israel
has a majority of Jewish soldiers, all citizens including large numbers of Druze and Circassian men are subject to mandatory conscription. Originally, they served in the framework of a special unit called "The Minorities' Unit", which operated until 2015 in the form of the independent Herev ("Sword") battalion . However, since the 1980s Druze soldiers have increasingly protested this practice, which they considered a means of segregating them and denying them access to elite units (like sayeret units). The army has increasingly admitted Druze soldiers to regular combat units and promoted them to higher ranks from which they had been previously excluded. In 2015 Rav Aluf Gadi Eizenkot
Gadi Eizenkot
ordered the unit's closure in order to assimilate the Druze soldiers no differently than Jewish soldiers, as part of an ongoing reorganization of the army. Several Druze officers reached ranks as high as Major
Major
General, and many received commendations for distinguished service. In proportion to their numbers, the Druze people achieve much higher—documented—levels in the Israeli army than other soldiers. Nevertheless, some Druze still charge that discrimination continues, such as exclusion from the Air Force , although the official low security classification for Druze has been abolished for some time. The first Druze aircraft navigator completed his training course in 2005; like all air force pilots, his identity is not disclosed. During the Israeli War of Independence
Israeli War of Independence
, many Druze who had initially sided with the Arabs deserted their ranks to either return to their villages or side with Israel
Israel
in various capacities.

Since the late 1970s the Druze Initiative Committee , centered at the village of Beit Jan
Beit Jan
and linked to the Israeli Communist Party
Israeli Communist Party
, has campaigned to abolish Druze conscription.

Military service is a tradition among some of the Druze population, with most opposition in Druze communities of the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
; 83 percent of Druze boys serve in the army, according to the IDF's statistics. According to the Israeli army in 2010, 369 Druze soldiers had been killed in combat operations since 1948.

BEDOUINS AND ISRAELI ARABS

Bedouin
Bedouin
soldiers in 1949 Israeli Arab
Israeli Arab
soldiers, serving in the Galilee
Galilee
in 1978 Bedouin
Bedouin
Desert Reconnaissance Battalion, visiting an Arab school

By law, all Israeli citizens are subject to conscription. The Defense Minister has complete discretion to grant exemption to individual citizens or classes of citizens. A long-standing policy dating to Israel's early years extends an exemption to all other Israeli minorities (most notably Israeli Arabs ). However, there is a long-standing government policy of encouraging Bedouins to volunteer and of offering them various inducements, and in some impoverished Bedouin
Bedouin
communities a military career seems one of the few means of (relative) social mobility available. Also, Muslims and Christians are accepted as volunteers, even if older than 18.

From among non- Bedouin
Bedouin
Arab citizens, the number of volunteers for military service—some Christian Arabs and even a few Muslim Arabs—is minute, and the government makes no special effort to increase it. Six Israeli Arabs have received orders of distinction as a result of their military service; of them the most famous is a Bedouin
Bedouin
officer, Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel
Colonel
Abd el-Majid Hidr (also known as Amos Yarkoni
Amos Yarkoni
), who received the Order of Distinction. Vahid el Huzil was the first Bedouin
Bedouin
to be a battalion commander.

Until the second term of Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
as Prime Minister (1992–1995), social benefits given to families in which at least one member (including a grandfather, uncle or cousin) had served at some time in the armed forces were significantly higher than to "non-military" families, which was considered a means of blatant discrimination between Jews and Arabs. Rabin led the abolition of the measure, in the teeth of strong opposition from the Right. At present, the only official advantage from military service is the attaining of security clearance and serving in some types of government positions (in most cases, security-related), as well as some indirect benefits.

Rather than perform army service, Israeli Arab
Israeli Arab
youths have the option to volunteer to national service and receive benefits similar to those received by discharged soldiers. The volunteers are generally allocated to Arab populations, where they assist with social and community matters. As of 2010 1,473 Arabs were volunteering for national service. According to sources in the national service administration, Arab leaders are counseling youths to refrain from performing services to the state. According to a National Service official, "For years the Arab leadership has demanded, justifiably, benefits for Arab youths similar to those received by discharged soldiers. Now, when this opportunity is available, it is precisely these leaders who reject the state's call to come and do the service, and receive these benefits".

Although Arabs are not obliged to serve in IDF, any Arab can volunteer. In 2008 a Muslim Arab woman was serving as a medic with unit 669.

Cpl. Elinor Joseph from Haifa
Haifa
became the first female Arab combat soldier for IDF. Joseph said "there was a Katyusha that fell near my house and also hurt Arabs. If someone would tell me that serving in the IDF means killing Arabs, I remind them that Arabs also kill Arabs."

Other Arab-Muslim officers who have served in the IDF are Second Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Hisham Abu Varia and Major
Major
Ala Wahib, the highest ranking Muslim officer in the IDF in 2013. An Ethiopian-Jewish soldier

In October 2012 the IDF promoted Mona Abdo to become the first female Christian Arab to the rank of combat commander. Abdo had voluntarily enlisted in the IDF, which her family had encouraged, and transferred from the Ordnance Corps to the Caracal Battalion
Caracal Battalion
, a mixed-gender unit with both Jewish and Arab soldiers.

In 2014 an increase of Israeli Christian Arabs joining the army was reported.

ETHIOPIAN JEWS

The IDF carried out extended missions in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and neighboring states, whose purpose was to protect Ethiopian Jews
Ethiopian Jews
(Beta Israel) and to help their immigration to Israel. The IDF adopted policies and special activities for absorption and integration of Ethiopian immigrant soldiers, reported to have much improved the achievements and integration of those soldiers in the army, and Israeli society in general. Statistical research showed that the Ethiopian soldiers are esteemed as excellent soldiers and many aspire to be recruited to combat units.

HAREDIM

IDF soldiers of the religious 97th "Netzah Yehuda" Infantry Battalion

Men in the Haredi community may choose to defer service while enrolled in yeshivot (see Tal committee ); many avoid conscription altogether. This special arrangement is called Torato Omanuto
Torato Omanuto
, and has given rise to tensions between the Israeli religious and secular communities. While options exist for Haredim to serve in the IDF in an atmosphere accommodating to their religious convictions , most Haredim do not choose to serve in the IDF.

Haredi males have the option of serving in the 97th "Netzah Yehuda" Infantry Battalion . This unit is a standard IDF infantry battalion focused on the Jenin
Jenin
region. To facilitate Haredi soldiers to serve, the Netzah Yehuda military bases follow the standards of Jewish dietary laws ; the only women permitted on these bases are wives of soldiers and officers. Additionally, some Haredim serve in the IDF via the Hesder system, principally designed for the Religious Zionist sector; it is a 5-year program which includes 2 years of religious studies, 1½ years of military service and 1½ years of religious studies during which the soldiers can be recalled to active duty at any moment. Haredi soldiers may join other units of the IDF, but rarely do.

The IDF has identified a gap of hundreds of soldiers in their technical units that might be filled by the Haredi. The IAF is currently using defense contractors to fill in the gaps and continue operations.

Although the IDF claims it will not discriminate against women, it is offering Haredim "women free and secular free" recruitment centers. Defense Minister Moshe Ya'alon expressed his willingness to relax regulations to meet the demands of ultra-Orthodox rabbis. Regulations regarding gender equality had already been relaxed so that Haredim could be assured that men would not receive physical exams from female medical staff.

LGBT PEOPLE

Further information: Sexual orientation and military service § Israel
Israel

Israel
Israel
is one of 24 nations that allow openly gay individuals to serve in the military. Since the early 1990s, sexual identity presents no formal barrier in terms of soldiers' military specialization or eligibility for promotion.

Until the 1980s the IDF tended to discharge soldiers who were openly gay. In 1983 the IDF permitted homosexuals to serve, but banned them from intelligence and top-secret positions. A decade later, Professor Uzi
Uzi
Even, an IDF reserves officer and chairman of Tel Aviv University 's Chemistry Department, revealed that his rank had been revoked and that he had been barred from researching sensitive topics in military intelligence, solely because of his sexual orientation. His testimony to the Knesset in 1993 raised a political storm, forcing the IDF to remove such restrictions against gays.

The chief of staff's policy states that it is strictly forbidden to harm or hurt anyone's dignity or feeling based on their gender or sexual orientation in any way, including signs, slogans, pictures, poems, lectures, any means of guidance, propaganda, publishing, voicing, and utterance. Moreover, gays in the IDF have additional rights, such as the right to take a shower alone if they want to. According to a University of California, Santa Barbara study, a brigadier general stated that Israelis show a "great tolerance" for gay soldiers. Consul David Saranga at the Israeli Consulate in New York, who was interviewed by the St. Petersburg Times, said, "It's a non-issue. You can be a very good officer, a creative one, a brave one, and be gay at the same time."

A study published by the Israel
Israel
Gay Youth (IGY) Movement in January 2012 found that half of the homosexual soldiers who serve in the IDF suffer from violence and homophobia, although the head of the group said that "I am happy to say that the intention among the top brass is to change that."

DEAF AND HARD-OF-HEARING PEOPLE

Israel
Israel
is the only country in the world that requires deaf and hard-of-hearing people to serve in the military. Sign language interpreters are provided during training, and many of them serve in non-combat capacities such as mapping and office work.

VEGANS

According to a Care2 report, vegans in the IDF may refuse vaccination if they oppose animal testing. They are provided with special allowances to buy their own food. They are also given artificial leather boots and a black fleece beret.

VOLUNTEERS

In cases when a citizen cannot be normally drafted by the law (old age, served as a soldier in a different country, severe health problems, handicaps, autism, etc.), the person could enroll as a volunteer in places where his knowledge can be used or in cases where there is a base that accepts volunteer service from one day per week up to full-time service based upon a volunteer's abilities and wishes.

OVERSEAS VOLUNTEERS

Non-immigrating foreign volunteers typically serve with the IDF in one of five ways:

* The Mahal program targets young non-Israeli Jews or Israeli citizens who grew up abroad (men younger than 24 and women younger than 21). The program consists typically of 18 months of IDF service, including a lengthy training for those in combat units or (for 18 months) one month of non-combat training and additional two months of learning Hebrew
Hebrew
after enlisting, if necessary. There are two additional subcategories of Mahal, both geared solely for religious men: Mahal Nahal Haredi (18 months), and Mahal Hesder , which combines yeshiva study of 5 months with IDF service of 16 months, for a total of 21 months. Similar IDF programs exist for Israeli overseas residents. To be accepted as a Mahal Volunteer, one must be of Jewish descent (at least one Jewish grandparent). * Sar-El
Sar-El
, an organization subordinate to the Israeli Logistics Corps , provides a volunteer program for non-Israeli citizens who are 17 years or older (or 15 if accompanied by a parent). The program is also aimed at Israeli citizens, aged 30 years or older, living abroad who did not serve in the Israeli Army and who now wish to finalize their status with the military. The program usually consists of three weeks of volunteer service on different rear army bases, doing non-combative work. * Garin Tzabar
Garin Tzabar
offers a program mainly for Israelis who emigrated with their parents to the United States
United States
at a young age. Although a basic knowledge of the Hebrew language is not mandatory, it is helpful. Of all the programs listed, only Garin Tzabar
Garin Tzabar
requires full-length service in the IDF. The program is set up in stages: first the participants go through five seminars in their country of origin, then have an absorption period in Israel
Israel
at a kibbutz . Each delegation is adopted by a kibbutz in Israel
Israel
and has living quarters designated for it. The delegation shares responsibilities in the kibbutz when on military leave. Participants start the program three months before being enlisted in the army at the beginning of August. * Marva is short-term basic training for two months. * Lev LaChayal is a program based at Yeshivat Lev Hatorah which takes a holistic approach to preparation for service. Being as ready as possible for integrating into Israeli culture, handling the physical challenges of the military, and maintaining religious values require a multi-pronged approach. The beit midrash learning, classes, physical training, and even the recreational activities are designed to allow for maximum readiness.

DOCTRINE

A live combined arms exercise simulates an enemy village takeover in southern Israel. IDF infantry, artillery, tank and air forces simulated taking control of an enemy village.

MISSION

Israeli "Netzah Yehuda" recon company in full combat gear prepare for a night raid in the West Bank
West Bank

The IDF mission is to "defend the existence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of the state of Israel. To protect the inhabitants of Israel
Israel
and to combat all forms of terrorism which threaten the daily life."

MAIN DOCTRINE

The main doctrine consists of the following principles:

Basic Points

* Israel
Israel
cannot afford to lose a single war * Defensive on the strategic level, no territorial ambitions * Desire to avoid war by political means and a credible deterrent posture * Preventing escalation * Determine the outcome of war quickly and decisively * Combating terrorism * Very low casualty ratio

Prepare For Defense

* A small standing army with an early warning capability, regular air force and navy * An efficient reserve mobilization and transportation system

Move To Counterattack

* Multi-arm coordination * Transferring the battle to enemy territory quickly * Quick attainment of war objectives

CODE OF CONDUCT

In 1992, the IDF drafted a Code of Conduct that combines international law, Israeli law, Jewish heritage and the IDF's own traditional ethical code—the IDF Spirit ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: רוח צה"ל‎‎, Ru'ah Tzahal).

Stated Values Of The IDF

A female soldier of the IDF Search and Rescue Unit.

The document defines three core values for all IDF soldiers to follow, as well as ten secondary values (the first being most important, and the others appearing sorted in Hebrew
Hebrew
alphabetical order): Core values

* DEFENSE OF THE STATE, ITS CITIZENS AND ITS RESIDENTS – "The IDF's goal is to defend the existence of the State of Israel, its independence and the security of the citizens and residents of the state." * LOVE OF THE HOMELAND AND LOYALTY TO THE COUNTRY – "At the core of service in the IDF stand the love of the homeland and the commitment and devotion to the State of Israel-a democratic state that serves as a national home for the Jewish People-its citizens and residents." * HUMAN DIGNITY – "The IDF and its soldiers are obligated to protect human dignity. Every human being is of value regardless of his or her origin, religion, nationality, gender, status or position."

Other values Israeli soldiers during the Battle of Nablus
Battle of Nablus
The Engineering Corps's Atomic-Biological-Chemical Unit Nahal Brigade soldiers pay respect to fallen comrades at Mt. Herzl
Mt. Herzl
's Military Cemetery

* TENACITY OF PURPOSE IN PERFORMING MISSIONS AND DRIVE TO VICTORY – "The IDF servicemen and women will fight and conduct themselves with courage in the face of all dangers and obstacles; They will persevere in their missions resolutely and thoughtfully even to the point of endangering their lives." * RESPONSIBILITY – "The IDF servicemen or women will see themselves as active participants in the defense of the state, its citizens and residents. They will carry out their duties at all times with initiative, involvement and diligence with common sense and within the framework of their authority, while prepared to bear responsibility for their conduct." * CREDIBILITY – "The IDF servicemen and women shall present things objectively, completely and precisely, in planning, performing and reporting. They will act in such a manner that their peers and commanders can rely upon them in performing their tasks." * PERSONAL EXAMPLE – "The IDF servicemen and women will comport themselves as required of them, and will demand of themselves as they demand of others, out of recognition of their ability and responsibility within the military and without to serve as a deserving role model." * HUMAN LIFE – "The IDF servicemen and women will act in a judicious and safe manner in all they do, out of recognition of the supreme value of human life. During combat they will endanger themselves and their comrades only to the extent required to carry out their mission." * PURITY OF ARMS – "The soldier shall make use of his weaponry and power only for the fulfillment of the mission and solely to the extent required; he will maintain his humanity even in combat. The soldier shall not employ his weaponry and power in order to harm non-combatants or prisoners of war, and shall do all he can to avoid harming their lives, body, honor and property." * PROFESSIONALISM – "The IDF servicemen and women will acquire the professional knowledge and skills required to perform their tasks, and will implement them while striving continuously to perfect their personal and collective achievements." * DISCIPLINE – "The IDF servicemen and women will strive to the best of their ability to fully and successfully complete all that is required of them according to orders and their spirit. IDF soldiers will be meticulous in giving only lawful orders, and shall refrain from obeying blatantly illegal orders." * COMRADESHIP – "The IDF servicemen and women will act out of fraternity and devotion to their comrades, and will always go to their assistance when they need their help or depend on them, despite any danger or difficulty, even to the point of risking their lives." * SENSE OF MISSION – "The IDF soldiers view their service in the IDF as a mission; they will be ready to give their all in order to defend the state, its citizens and residents. This is due to the fact that they are representatives of the IDF who act on the basis and in the framework of the authority given to them in accordance with IDF orders."

Military Ethics Of Fighting Terror

Two IDF Medical Doctors in a training exercise IDF soldiers treat an injured Palestinian man IDF soldiers rescued an eighty-year-old Lebanese woman, after she got tangled in the security fence on the northern border, on the Lebanese side

In 2005, Asa Kasher
Asa Kasher
and Amos Yadlin
Amos Yadlin
co-authored a noticed article published in the Journal of Military Ethics under the title: "Military Ethics of Fighting Terror: An Israeli Perspective". The article was meant as an "extension of the classical Just War Theory", and as a " third model" or missing paradigm besides which of "classical war (army) and law enforcement (police).", resulting in a "doctrine (...) on the background of the IDF fight against acts and activities of terror performed by Palestinian individuals and organizations."

In this article, Kasher and Yadlin came to the conclusion that targeted killings of terrorists were justifiable, even at the cost of hitting nearby civilians. In a 2009 interview to Haaretz , Asa Kasher later confirmed, pointing to the fact that in an area in which the IDF does not have effective security control (e.g., Gaza, vs. Est-Jerusalem), soldiers' lives protection takes priority over avoiding injury to enemy civilians. Some, along with Avishai Margalit and Michael Walzer , have recused this argument, advancing that such position was "contrary to centuries of theorizing about the morality of war as well as international humanitarian law", since drawing "a sharp line between combatants and noncombatants" would be "the only morally relevant distinction that all those involved in a war can agree on."

The article was intended to (then Chief of Staff) Moshe Ya\'alon , to serve as a basis for a new "code of conduct". Although Moshe Ya'alon did endorse the article's views, and is reported to have presented it numerous times before military forums, it was never actually turned into a binding IDF document or an actual "code", neither by Ya'alon nor its successors. However, the document have since reportedly been adapted to serve as educational material, designed to emphasizes the right behavior in low intensity warfare against terrorists, where soldiers must operate within a civilian population.

As of today "The Spirit of the IDF" (cf. supra) is still considered the only biding moral code that formally applies to the IDF troops. In 2009, Amos Yadlin
Amos Yadlin
(then head of Military Intelligence ) suggested that the article he co-authored with Asa Kasher
Asa Kasher
be ratified as a formal binding code, arguing that "the current code does not sufficiently address one of the army's most pressing challenges: asymmetric warfare against terrorist organizations that operate amid a civilian population".

The 11 key points highlighted in the article and educational material mentioned above:

* Military action can be taken only against military targets. * The use of force must be proportional. * Soldiers may only use weaponry they were issued by the IDF. * Anyone who surrenders cannot be attacked. * Only those who are properly trained can interrogate prisoners. * Soldiers must accord dignity and respect to the Palestinian population and those arrested. * Soldiers must give appropriate medical care, when conditions allow, to themselves and to enemies. * Pillaging is absolutely and totally illegal. * Soldiers must show proper respect for religious and cultural sites and artifacts. * Soldiers must protect international aid workers, including their property and vehicles. * Soldiers must report all violations of this code.

COMMAND AND CONTROL

According to the Israeli Basic Law: The IDF adopted in 1976, the IDF is subject to the authority of the Government. The Minister in charge of the IDF on behalf of the Government is the Minister of Defense. The supreme command level in the military, the Chief of the General Staff, the military's Commander in Chief, is appointed by and subject to the authority of the civilian Government and is subordinate to the Minister of Defense (not the Ministry of Defense itself).

However, in the years after the establishment of Israel, the Military establishment enjoyed a degree of independence given to it by Ben-Gurion. This was evident in the attendance of the Chief of General Staff in Cabinet and security Cabinet meetings as an equal and not as a subordinate. Even after the Agranat Commission inquiry following the 1973 Yom Kippur War , when the roles, the powers, and the duties of the Prime Minister, Defense Minister and Chief of General Staff were clarified and the rules and standards of monitoring where established between the military and the political spheres, the military still continued to enjoy disproportionate status at the expense of the civilian authorities.

BUDGET

During 1950–66, Israel
Israel
spent an average of 9% of its GDP on defense. Defense expenditures increased dramatically after both the 1967 and 1973 wars. They reached a high of about 24% of GDP in the 1980s, but have since come down significantly, following the signing of peace agreements with Jordan
Jordan
and Egypt.

On 30 September 2009 Defense Minister Ehud Barak, Finance Minister Yuval Steinitz and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu endorsed an additional NIS 1.5 billion for the defense budget to help Israel address problems regarding Iran. The budget changes came two months after Israel
Israel
had approved its current two-year budget. The defense budget in 2009 stood at NIS 48.6 billion and NIS 53.2 billion for 2010 – the highest amount in Israel's history. The figure constituted 6.3% of expected gross domestic product and 15.1% of the overall budget, even before the planned NIS 1.5 billion addition.

However, in 2011, the prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu reversed course and moved to make significant cuts in the defense budget in order to pay for social programs. The General Staff concluded that the proposed cuts endangered the battle readiness of the armed forces. In 2012, Israel
Israel
spent $15.2 billion on its armed forces, one of the highest ratios of defense spending to GDP among developed countries ($1,900 per person). However, Israel's spending per capita is below that of the USA.

WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT

Main articles: Military equipment of Israel
Israel
and Defense industry of Israel
Israel
Namer
Namer
Armored Personnel Carriers Israeli Air Force F-15I Ra\'am Israeli Navy Sa\'ar 5-class corvette INS Lahav

MILITARY EQUIPMENT

The IDF possesses top-of-the-line weapons and computer systems. Some gear comes from the US (with some equipment modified for IDF use) such as the M4A1
M4A1
and M16 assault rifles , the M24 SWS
M24 SWS
7.62 mm bolt action sniper rifle , the SR-25
SR-25
7.62 mm semi-automatic sniper rifle, the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon fighter jets , and the AH-1 Cobra and AH-64D Apache
AH-64D Apache
attack helicopters . Israel
Israel
has also developed its own independent weapons industry, which has developed weapons and vehicles such as the Merkava
Merkava
battle tank series, Nesher and Kfir fighter aircraft , and various small arms such as the Galil and Tavor assault rifles , and the Uzi
Uzi
submachine gun . Israel
Israel
has also installed a variant of the Samson RCWS , a remote controlled weapons platform, which can include machine guns, grenade launchers, and anti-tank missiles on a remotely operated turret, in pillboxes along the Israeli Gaza Strip barrier intended to prevent Palestinian militants from entering its territory. Israel
Israel
has developed observation balloons equipped with sophisticated cameras and surveillance systems used to thwart terror attacks from Gaza. The IDF also possesses advanced combat engineering equipment which include the IDF Caterpillar D9 armored bulldozer , IDF Puma CEV , Tzefa Shiryon and CARPET minefield breaching rockets, and a variety of robots and explosive devices.

The IDF also has several large internal research and development departments, and it purchases many technologies produced by the Israeli security industries including IAI , IMI , Elbit Systems , Rafael , and dozens of smaller firms. Many of these developments have been battle-tested in Israel's numerous military engagements, making the relationship mutually beneficial, the IDF getting tailor-made solutions and the industries a good reputation.

In response to the price overruns on the US Littoral Combat Ship program, Israel
Israel
is considering producing their own warships , which would take a decade and depend on diverting US financing to the project.

MAIN DEVELOPMENTS

Israel's military technology is most famous for its firearms, armored fighting vehicles (tanks , tank-converted armored personnel carriers (APCs), armoured bulldozers , etc.), unmanned aerial vehicles , and rocketry (missiles and rockets). Israel
Israel
also has manufactured aircraft including the Kfir (reserve), IAI Lavi
IAI Lavi
(canceled), and the IAI Phalcon Airborne early warning System
System
, and naval systems (patrol and missile ships). Much of the IDF's electronic systems (intelligence, communication, command and control, navigation etc.) are Israeli-developed, including many systems installed on foreign platforms (esp. aircraft, tanks and submarines), as are many of its precision-guided munitions . Israel
Israel
is the world's largest exporter of drones .

Israel Military Industries
Israel Military Industries
(IMI) is known for its firearms. The IMI Galil , the Uzi
Uzi
, the IMI Negev light machine gun and the new Tavor TAR-21 Bullpup assault rifle are used by the IDF. The Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Spike missile is one of the most widely exported ATGMs in the world.

Israel
Israel
is the only country in the world with an operational anti-ballistic missile defense system on the national level – the Arrow system, jointly funded and produced by Israel
Israel
and the United States. The Iron Dome system against short-range rockets is operational and proved to be successful, intercepting hundreds of Qassam , 122 mm Grad and Fajr-5 artillery rockets fire by Palestinian militants from the Gaza Strip. David\'s Sling , an anti-missile system designed to counter medium range rockets is under development. Israel
Israel
has also worked with the US on development of a tactical high energy laser system against medium range rockets (called Nautilus or THEL
THEL
).

Israel
Israel
has the independent capability of launching reconnaissance satellites into orbit, a capability shared with Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, South Korea, Italy, Germany, the People's Republic of China, India, Japan, Brazil and Ukraine. Israeli security industries developed both the satellites ( Ofeq ) and the launchers ( Shavit ).

Israel
Israel
is known to have developed nuclear weapons . Israel
Israel
does not officially acknowledge its nuclear weapons program. It is thought Israel
Israel
possesses between one hundred and four hundred nuclear warheads. It is believed that Jericho intercontinental ballistic missiles are capable of delivering nuclear warheads with a superior degree of accuracy and a range of 11,500 km. Israeli F-15I and F-16 fighter-bomber aircraft also have been cited as possible nuclear delivery systems (these aircraft types are nuclear capable in the US Air Force ). The U.S. Air Force F-15E
F-15E
has tactical nuclear weapon (B61 and B83 bombs) capability. It has been asserted that Dolphin-class submarines have been adapted to carry Popeye Turbo Submarine-launched cruise missiles with nuclear warheads, so as to give Israel
Israel
a second strike capacity.

From 2006 Israel
Israel
deployed the Wolf Armoured Vehicle APC for use in urban warfare and to protect VIPs .

*

Sa\'ar 4.5-class missile boat *

Hermes 900 UAV
UAV
*

A female soldier of the unisex Caracal Battalion
Caracal Battalion
armed with the Israel
Israel
Weapons Industries Tavor assault rifle with Meprolight
Meprolight
21 reflex sight . *

Spike ATGM *

Arrow anti-ballistic missile *

Wolf Armoured Vehicle *

Guardium
Guardium
UGV
UGV
*

Israel Aerospace Industries EL/W-2085 , a development of the EL/M-2075 . *

Iron Dome anti-rocket system launcher *

Typhoon Weapon Station
Typhoon Weapon Station
armed with 25 mm gun *

The Python missile series. *

IAI Harop
IAI Harop
. *

The LITENING
LITENING
targeting pod, which is today used by more than 20 international air-forces. *

David\'s Sling Weapons System
System
Stunner Missile *

Merkava
Merkava
Mk 4m with Trophy active protection system
Trophy active protection system
, the first operationally tested Active Protection System
System
for tanks. *

M2 Browning on Catlanit RCWS

COMMEMORATION

COMMEMORATION

See also: Yom Hazikaron
Yom Hazikaron
An IDF ceremony for Yom Hazikaron
Yom Hazikaron
Israeli female soldiers on parade, Jerusalem, 1968

Yom Hazikaron
Yom Hazikaron
, Israel's day of remembrance for fallen soldiers, is observed on the 4th day of the month of Iyar of the Hebrew
Hebrew
calendar , the day before the celebration of Independence Day . Memorial services are held in the presence of Israel's top military personnel. A two-minute siren is heard at 11:00, which marks the opening of the official military memorial ceremonies and private remembrance gatherings at each cemetery where soldiers are buried. Many Israelis visit the graves of family members and friends who were killed in action. On the evening before the remembrance day all shops, restaurants and entertainment places must close gates to the public no later than 7 P.M. (the same routine and law applies to the day of remembrance of the Holocaust which takes place a week earlier).

The main museum for Israel's armored corps is the Yad La-Shiryon
Yad La-Shiryon
in Latrun
Latrun
, which houses one of the largest tank museums in the world. Other significant military museums are the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces History Museum (Batei Ha-Osef) in Tel Aviv , the Palmach
Palmach
Museum , and the Beit HaTotchan of artillery in Zikhron Ya\'akov . The Israeli Air Force Museum is located at Hatzerim Airbase
Hatzerim Airbase
in the Negev Desert , and the Israeli Clandestine Immigration and Naval Museum, is in Haifa
Haifa
.

Israel's National Military Cemetery is at Mount Herzl . Other Israeli military cemeteries include Kiryat Shaul Military Cemetery
Kiryat Shaul Military Cemetery
in Tel Aviv, and Sgula military cemetery at Petah Tikva .

PARADES

See also: Yom Ha\'atzmaut and Israel
Israel
Defense Forces parade

Israel
Israel
Defense Forces parades took place on Independence Day, during the first 25 years of the State of Israel's existence. They were cancelled after 1973 due to financial and security concerns. The Israel
Israel
Defense Forces still has weapon exhibitions country-wide on Independence Day, but they are stationary.

FOREIGN MILITARY RELATIONS

FRANCE

Starting on the Independence day on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708), a strong military, commercial and political relationship were established between France
France
and Israel
Israel
until 1969. The highest level of the military collaboration was reached between 1956 and 1966. At this time France
France
provided almost all the aircraft, tanks and military ships. In 1969 the French president Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
limited the export of weapons to Israel. This was the end of the "golden age" 20 years of relations between Israel
Israel
and France.

UNITED STATES

Main article: Israel
Israel
United States
United States
military relations Former IDF Chief of Staff Benny Gantz (right) meets with Martin Dempsey (left), Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Israeli soldiers training alongside the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit on the USS Kearsarge

In 1983, the United States
United States
and Israel
Israel
established a Joint Political Military Group , which convenes twice a year. Both the U.S. and Israel participate in joint military planning and combined exercises, and have collaborated on military research and weapons development. Additionally the U.S. military maintains two classified, pre-positioned War Reserve Stocks in Israel
Israel
valued at $493 million. Israel
Israel
has the official distinction of being an American Major non-NATO ally . As a result of this, the US and Israel
Israel
share the vast majority of their security and military technology.

Since 1976, Israel
Israel
had been the largest annual recipient of U.S. foreign assistance. In 2009, Israel
Israel
received $2.55 billion in Foreign Military Financing (FMF) grants from the Department of Defense. All but 26% of this military aid is for the purchase of military hardware from American companies only.

The United States
United States
has an anti-missile system base in the Negev
Negev
region of Southern Israel, which is manned by 120 US Army personnel.

In October 2012, United States
United States
and Israel
Israel
began their biggest joint air and missile defense exercise, known as Austere Challenge 12 , involving around 3,500 U.S. troops in the region along with 1,000 IDF personnel. Germany
Germany
and Britain also participated.

INDIA

Further information: India– Israel
Israel
relations

India and Israel
Israel
enjoy strong military and strategic ties. Israeli authorities consider Indian citizens to be the most pro- Israel
Israel
people in the world. Apart from being Israel's second-largest economic partner in Asia, India is also the largest customer of Israeli arms in the world. In 2006, annual military sales between India and Israel stood at US$900 million. Israeli defense firms had the largest exhibition at the 2009 Aero India
Aero India
show, during which Israel
Israel
offered several state-of-the art weapons to India. The first major military deal between the two countries was the sale of Israeli EL/W-2090 AEW radars to the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
in 2004. In March 2009, India and Israel
Israel
signed a US$1.4 billion deal under which Israel
Israel
would sell India an advanced air-defense system. India and Israel
Israel
have also embarked on extensive space cooperation. In 2008, India's ISRO launched Israel's most technologically advanced spy satellite TecSAR . In 2009, India reportedly developed a high-tech spy satellite RISAT-2 with significant assistance from Israel. The satellite was successfully launched by India in April 2009.

According to a Los Angeles Times news story the 2008 Mumbai attacks were an attack on the growing India- Israel
Israel
partnership. It quotes retired Indian Vice Admiral Premvir S. Das thus "Their aim was to... tell the Indians clearly that your growing linkage with Israel
Israel
is not what you should be doing..." In the past, India and Israel
Israel
have held numerous joint anti-terror training exercises

GERMANY

A German-made Dolphin class submarine
Dolphin class submarine
Further information: Germany– Israel
Israel
relations

Germany
Germany
developed the Dolphin submarine and supplied it to Israel. Two submarines were donated by Germany. The military co-operation has been discreet but mutually profitable: Israeli intelligence
Israeli intelligence
, for example, sent captured Warsaw Pact armour to West Germany
Germany
to be analysed. The results aided the German development of an anti-tank system . Israel
Israel
also trained members of GSG 9 , a German counter-terrorism and special operations unit. The Israeli Merkava
Merkava
MK IV tank uses a German V12 engine produced under license.

In 2008, the website DefenseNews revealed that Germany
Germany
and Israel
Israel
had been jointly developing a nuclear warning system, dubbed Operation Bluebird. Sailors of the Israeli Navy

UNITED KINGDOM

Further information: Israel
Israel
– United Kingdom relations

During a secret operation in 1966, two British made "Chieftain" MBTs were brought to Israel
Israel
for a 4 years long evaluation for service with the IDF. The plan was for the IDF not only to purchase the British MBTs, but for IMI (Israeli Military Industries) to buy production rights. As part of the deal during the early 60's Israel
Israel
purchased second hand "Centurion" MBTs from the British, that used that money in the "Chieftain" development. After the trials were done Israeli improvement and ideas were implemented by the British manufacturer, but British politicians cancelled the agreement with Israel
Israel
and the program was shut down. The knowledge earned during the improvements on the "Chieftain", together with earlier experiments in tank improvements, gave the last push for the development and production of the "Merkava" tank.

United Kingdom has supplied equipment and spare parts for Sa\'ar 4.5-class missile boats and F-4 Phantom
F-4 Phantom
fighter-bombers, components for small-caliber artillery ammunition and air-to-surface missiles, and engines for Elbit Hermes 450 Unmanned aerial vehicles
Unmanned aerial vehicles
. British arms sales to Israel
Israel
mainly consist of light weaponry, and ammunition and components for helicopters, tanks, armored personnel carriers, and combat aircraft.

RUSSIA

Further information: Israel–Russia_relations § Military_collaboration

On 19 October 1999, Defense Minister of China, General Chi Haotian
Chi Haotian
, after meeting with Syrian Defense Minister Mustafa Tlass
Mustafa Tlass
in Damascus
Damascus
, Syria
Syria
, to discuss expanding military ties between Syria
Syria
and China, then flew directly to Israel
Israel
and met with Ehud Barak , the then Prime Minister and Defense Minister of Israel
Defense Minister of Israel
where they discussed military relations. Among the military arrangements was a $1 billion Israeli Russian sale of military aircraft to China, which were to be jointly produced by Russia and Israel.

Russia bought drones from Israel.

CHINA

Further information: People\'s Republic of China – Israel
Israel
relations

Israel
Israel
is the second-largest foreign supplier of arms to the People's Republic of China, only after the Russian Federation . China has purchased a wide array of military hardware from Israel, including Unmanned aerial vehicles
Unmanned aerial vehicles
and communications satellites . China has become an extensive market for Israel's military industries and arms manufacturers, and trade with Israel
Israel
has allowed it to obtain "dual-use" technology which the United States
United States
and European Union were reluctant to provide. In 2010 Yair Golan
Yair Golan
, head of IDF Home Front Command visited China to strengthen military ties. In 2012, IDF Chief of Staff Benny Gantz visited China for high-level talks with the Chinese defense establishment.

CYPRUS

Further information: Cyprus– Israel
Israel
relations

As closely neighboring countries, Israel
Israel
and Cyprus have enjoyed greatly improving diplomatic relations since 2010. During the Mount Carmel Forest Fire , Cyprus dispatched two aviation assets to assist fire-fighting operations in Israel
Israel
– the first time Cypriot Government aircraft were permitted to operate from Israeli airfields in a non-civil capacity. In addition, Israel
Israel
and Cyprus have closely cooperated in maritime activities relating to Gaza, since 2010, and have reportedly begun an extensive sharing program of regional intelligence to support mutual security concerns. On 17 May 2012, it was widely reported that the Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
had been granted unrestricted access to the Nicosia Flight Information Region of Cyprus, and that Israeli aviation assets may have operated over the island itself. Cyprus, as a former S-300 air-defense system operator, was speculated by Greek media to have assisted Israel
Israel
in strategic planning to challenge such air-defense systems, alongside shorter-range SAM systems, although this remains unconfirmed.

GREECE

Further information: Greece– Israel
Israel
relations Two IAF Apache AH-64D Longbows and one Greek AH-64A fly above the Greek countryside during a joint exercise, June 2011

Israel
Israel
and Greece have enjoyed a very cordial military relationship since 2008, including military drills ranging from Israel
Israel
to the island of Crete. Drills include air-to-air long-distance refueling, long-range flights, and most importantly aiding Israel
Israel
in outmaneuvering the S-300 which Greece has. Recent purchases include 100 million euro deal between Greece and Israel
Israel
for the purchase of SPICE 1000 and SPICE 2000 pound bomb kits. They have also signed many defense agreements, including Cyprus, in order to establish stability for transporting gas from Israel-Cyprus to Greece and on to the European Union-a paramount objective to the future stability and prosperity of all three countries, threatened by Turkey.

TURKEY

Further information: Israel–Turkey relations

Israel
Israel
has provided extensive military assistance to Turkey. Israel sold Turkey IAI Heron Unmanned aerial vehicles
Unmanned aerial vehicles
, and modernized Turkey's F-4 Phantom
F-4 Phantom
and Northrop F-5
Northrop F-5
aircraft at the cost of $900 million. Turkey's main battle tank is the Israeli-made Sabra tank, of which Turkey has 170. Israel
Israel
later upgraded them for $500 million. Israel
Israel
has also supplied Turkey with Israeli-made missiles, and the two nations have engaged in naval cooperation. Turkey allowed Israeli pilots to practice long-range flying over mountainous terrain in Turkey's Konya firing range, while Israel
Israel
trains Turkish pilots at Israel's computerized firing range at Nevatim Airbase . Until 2009, the Turkish military was one of Israel's largest defense customers. Israel
Israel
defense companies have sold unmanned aerial vehicles and long-range targeting pods.

However, relations have been strained in recent times. In the last two years, the Turkish military has declined to participate in the annual joint naval exercise with Israel
Israel
and the United States. The exercise, known as "Reliant Mermaid" was started in 1998 and included the Israeli, Turkish and American navies. The objective of the exercise is to practice search-and-rescue operations and to familiarize each navy with international partners who also operate in the Mediterranean Sea .

AZERBAIJAN

Further information: Azerbaijan– Israel
Israel
relations

Azerbaijan and Israel
Israel
have engaged in intense cooperation since 1992. Israeli military have been a major provider of battlefield aviation, artillery, antitank, and anti-infantry weaponry to Azerbaijan. In 2009, Israeli President Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
made a visit to Azerbaijan where military relations were expanded further, with the Israeli company Aeronautics Defense Systems Ltd announcing it was going to build a factory in Baku
Baku
. In 2012, Israel
Israel
and Azerbaijan signed an agreement according to which state-run Israel Aerospace Industries would sell $1.6 billion in drones and anti-aircraft and missile defense systems to Azerbaijan. In March 2012, the magazine Foreign Policy reported that the Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
may be preparing to use the Sitalchay Military Airbase , located 500 km (310 mi) from the Iranian border, for air strikes against the nuclear program of Iran , later backed up by other media.

OTHER COUNTRIES

Israel
Israel
has also sold to or received supplies of military equipment from the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, Argentina
Argentina
, Spain
Spain
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, Italy
Italy
, South Africa , Canada
Canada
, Australia
Australia
, Poland
Poland
, Slovenia
Slovenia
, Romania
Romania
, Hungary
Hungary
, Belgium
Belgium
, Austria
Austria
, Serbia
Serbia
, Montenegro
Montenegro
, Bosnia and Herzegovina , Georgia , Vietnam
Vietnam
and Colombia
Colombia
, among others.

FUTURE

See also: Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II Israeli procurement

The IDF is planning a number of technological upgrades and structural reforms for the future for its land, air, and sea branches. Training has been increased, including in cooperation between ground, air, and naval units.

The Israeli Army is phasing out the M-16 rifle from all ground units in favor of the IMI Tavor . In addition, the IDF is now replacing its outdated M113 armored personnel carriers in favor of new Namer
Namer
APCs, with 200 ordered in 2014, the Eitan AFV , and is upgrading its IDF Achzarit
Achzarit
APCs. The IDF also announced plans to streamline its military bureaucracy so as to better maintain its reserve force, which a 2014 State Comptroller report noted was under-trained and may not be able to fulfill wartime missions. As part of the plans, 100,000 reservists and will be discharged, and training for the remainder will be improved. The officer corps will be slashed by 5,000. In addition, infantry and light artillery brigades will be reduced to increase training standards among the rest. The backbone of the IDF Artillery Corps, the M109 howitzer
M109 howitzer
, will be phased out in favor of a still-undecided replacement, with the ATMOS 2000
ATMOS 2000
and Artillery Gun Module under primary consideration. The IDF is also planning a future tank to replace the Merkava. The new tank will be able to fire lasers and electromagnetic pulses, run on a hybrid engine, run with a crew as small as two, will be faster, and will be better-protected, with emphasis on protection systems such as the Trophy over armor.

The Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
will purchase as many as 100 F-35 Lightning II fighter jets from the United States. The aircraft will be modified and designated F-35I. They will use Israeli-built electronic warfare systems, outer-wings, guided bombs, and air-to-air missiles. As part of a 2013 arms deal, the IAF will purchase KC-135 Stratotanker aerial refueling aircraft and V-22 Osprey multi-mission aircraft from the United States, as well as advanced radars for warplanes and missiles designed to take out radars. In April 2013, an Israeli official stated that within 40–50 years, piloted aircraft would be phased out of service by unmanned aerial vehicles capable of executing nearly any operation that can be performed by piloted combat aircraft. Israel's military industries are reportedly on the path to developing such technology in a few decades. Israel
Israel
will also manufacture tactical satellites for military use.

The Israeli Navy is currently expanding its submarine fleet, with a planned total of six Dolphin class submarines . Currently, five have been delivered, with the sixth expected in 2017. It is also upgrading and expanding its surface fleet. It is planning to upgrade the electronic warfare systems of its Sa\'ar 5-class corvettes and Sa\'ar 4.5 class missile boats , and has ordered two new classes of warship: the Sa\'ar 6-class corvette (a variant of the Braunschweig-class corvette ) and the Sa\'ar 72-class corvette (an improved and enlarged version of the Sa'ar 4.5-class). It plans to acquire four Saar 6-class corvettes and three Sa'ar 72-class corvettes. Israel
Israel
is also developing marine artillery, including a gun capable of firing satellite-guided 155mm rounds between 75 and 120 kilometers.

SEE ALSO

* Israel
Israel
portal * War portal

RELATED BODIES

Security Forces

* Intelligence Community

* Shabak * Mossad * National Security Council

* Israeli police
Israeli police

* Border Police

* Prison Service * Knesset Guard

Defense Industry Of Israel
Israel

* Israel Military Industries
Israel Military Industries
(IMI) * Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) * Rafael Advanced Defense Systems * Elbit Systems * Elisra Group * Soltam
Soltam
* Plasan
Plasan

* Arab–Israeli conflict * Israel
Israel
and weapons of mass destruction * Israeli casualties of war
Israeli casualties of war
* List of brigades of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces * Krav Maga
Krav Maga
* Military equipment of Israel
Israel
* Military history of Israel
Israel
* Palestinian political violence * Refusal to serve in the Israeli military
Refusal to serve in the Israeli military

REFERENCES AND FOOTNOTES

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* ^ Greenberg, Hanan (26 May 2011). "IDF names 1st female major-general". Yedioth Ahronot. Retrieved 10 July 2012. * ^ "Transgender in the IDF". AWiderBridge. 7 August 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2014. * ^ Haredi soldier warns: We\'ll leave IDF over women\'s singing YNET, 4 January 2012 * ^ Female soldiers were not permitted to sing the national anthem Jerusalem
Jerusalem
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* ^ "History in Tzahal the first Bedouin
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to be Battalion Commander". Nrg.co.il. Retrieved 20 July 2013. * ^ "a Bedouin
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* ^ "Israel: Generals say defense cuts perilous." UPI, 10 October 2011. * ^ Harel, Amos. "IDF battle readiness to suffer if budget cut, senior officers warn." Haaretz, 11 October 2011. * ^ List of countries by military expenditures * ^ "Weaponized Sentry-Tech Towers Protecting Hot Borders". Aviationweek.com. 4 December 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2010. * ^ Palestine Chronicle (13 July 2010). "Israel\'s New \'Video Game\' Executions". Eurasia Review. Retrieved 8 August 2010. * ^ "IDF observation balloon crashes near Gaza", Ynet News 5 May 2012 * ^ Yaakov Katz (1 July 2009). " Israel
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FURTHER READING

* Rosenthal, Donna (2003). The Israelis. Free Press. ISBN 978-0-7432-7035-9 . * Ostfeld, Zehava (1994). Shiftel, Shoshana, ed. An Army is Born (in Hebrew). Israel
Israel
Ministry of Defense. ISBN 978-965-05-0695-7 . * Gelber, Yoav (1986). Nucleus for a Standing Army (in Hebrew). Yad Ben Tzvi. * Yehuda Shif, ed. (1982). IDF in Its Corps: Army and Security Encyclopedia (18 volumes) (in Hebrew). Revivim Publishing. * Ron Tira, ed. (2009). The Nature of War: Conflicting Paradigms and Israeli Military Effectiveness. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-378-2 . * Roislien, Hanne Eggen (2013). "Religion and Military Conscription: The Case of the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF)," Armed Forces padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutISRAEL DEFENSE FORCESat's sister projects

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