List of Islamic political parties
Islamism based in
Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
Principles of State and Government
Ma'alim fi al-Tariq ("Milestones")
Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih")
Heads of state
House of Saud
House of Thani
Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī
Qazi Hussain Ahmad
Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
Abul A'la Maududi
Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani
Ata Abu Rashta
Criticism of Islamism
Islam and other religions
Part of the Politics series
Basic forms of government
power of many
power of few
power of one
Monarchy vs. republic
Authoritarian vs. libertarian
Global vs. local
Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are
officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of
Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
Pakistan first adopted
the title under the constitution of 1956.
Mauritania adopted it on 28
Iran adopted it after the 1979
Iranian Revolution that
overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty.
Afghanistan adopted it in 2004 after
the fall of the Taliban. Despite the similar name the countries differ
greatly in their governments and laws.
The term "Islamic republic" has come to mean several different things,
some contradictory to others. To some Muslim religious leaders in the
Middle East and Africa who advocate it, an
Islamic republic is a state
under a particular Islamic form of government. They see it as a
compromise between a purely Islamic caliphate and secular nationalism
and republicanism. In their conception of the Islamic republic, the
penal code of the state is required to be compatible with some or all
laws of Sharia, and the state may not be a monarchy, as many Middle
Eastern states are presently.
Iran officially uses the name "Islamic Republic" in all governance
names referring to the country, e.g.
Islamic Republic of
Islamic Republic of
Iran Broadcasting etc., as opposed to for example
its equivalents in Afghanistan, which are called Afghan National Army
and Radio Television Afghanistan. Also, Iran, unlike the others, uses
it as part of official acronyms, i.e. 'IRI' for "
Islamic Republic of
1 List of Islamic republics
1.2.2 East Turkestan
1.2.3 The Gambia
1.2.4 Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
2 See also
4 External links
List of Islamic republics
Date of name adoption
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
7 December 2004
Islamic Republic of Iran
1 April 1979
Islamic Republic of Mauritania
28 November 1960
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
23 March 1956
See also: Politics of Iran
Two months after the victory of the
Islamic Revolution in 1979, the
new government held the Iranian
Islamic Republic referendum on 10 and
11 Farvadin (30 and 31 March) to change the
Pahlavi dynasty into an
Islamic Republic. On 12 Farvadin, it was announced that 98.2 percent
of the Iranian voters wanted to establish the "Islamic
Islamic Republic referendum, some political groups
suggested various names for the ideology of the Iranian revolution,
such as the Republic (without Islam) or the democratic republic. But
Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder of the
Islamic Republic of Iran, asked
people to vote for the name "Islamic Republic", not a word more and
not a word less.
According to the Constitution of the
Islamic Republic of Iran, the
Islamic Republic is a system based on beliefs in:
God (as stated in the phrase "There is no other god except God
"), His exclusive sovereignty and right to legislate, and the
necessity of submission to His commands;
divine revelation and its fundamental role in setting forth the laws;
the return to
God in the Hereafter, and the constructive role of this
belief in the course of man's ascent towards God;
the justice of
God in creation and legislation;
continuous leadership and perpetual guidance, and its fundamental role
in ensuring the uninterrupted process of the revolution of Islam;
the exalted dignity and value of man, and his freedom coupled with
responsibility before God; in which equity, justice, political,
economic, social and cultural independence, and national solidarity
are secured by recourse to:
continuous leadership of the holy persons, possessing necessary
qualifications, exercised on the basis of the
Quran and the Sunnah,
upon all of whom be peace;
sciences and arts and the most advanced results of human experience,
together with the effort to advance them further;
negation of all forms of oppression, both the infliction of and the
submission to it, and of dominance, both its imposition and its
According to a commentary on Constitution, just as the establishment
Islamic Republic system is based on the beliefs of people namely
governing of right, justice and Quran. However, its continuation
lasted with the same principles and there is an important role for the
beliefs of Iranian people. Also, those beliefs are of complete and
determinate roles in all affairs. Those beliefs considered as
guidelines for governors and statesmen. There is an important role for
beliefs such as the principle of unity of
God and believing in it.
There are, in spite of that, other principles are to the submission in
Allah and his order. Therefore, legislation is limited to god
and laws so far as correspond to divine legislation are valid. Belief
in divine revelation and prophecy also are essential to Islamic
worldview. We have two kinds of justice. The first kind is legislative
(Tashri’i) and the other kind is creative or Takivini. Creative
justice is based on the
Justice and equality. Legislative justice is
respected to Making divine law in Islamic society. Besides, the basis
Shia school is in terms of
Imamate or leadership.
According to the principle of
Imamate in Shia, it is indispensable to
obey of the prophet of
God and of those possessed of authority. Shia
Ulama believes that the conception of the term "those possessed of
authority" denoted on Innocent
Shia Imams. Certainly, when Imam is
absent, Valy faghih is in charge of leadership of society. In other
words, religious leaders undertake the responsibility of Imamate.
There is more emphasizing on the dignity (Karamat) and the high value
of humans which is along with freedom and responsibility.The principle
of Dignity is a necessary condition of the
Islamic republic in terms
of existence.There is many meaning for dignity. Sometimes it refers to
generosity, nobleness and honor. However
Islam considers with two
sorts of dignity for human beings: essential or innate dignity and
acquired dignity. According to innate dignity, Human being possessed
of the right of living among other creatures. The principle also
mentioned by the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. On the
basis of Acquired dignity, human is able to pass the degrees of
perfection with the aid of actuality of his potentialities and
For the First time, Rouhollah Khomeini referred to the terms of
Islamic republic for Iranian people. He believes that Iranian people
Islamic state which is a republic. Responding to Journalist's
question on the ambiguity of the term Islamic republic, Khomeini
believes that republic has the same sense as other uses. Islamic
republic has considered both with Islamic ideology and choice of
Afghanistan is an
Islamic republic consisting of three branches, the
executive, legislative and judicial. The nation is led by President
Ashraf Ghani with
Abdul Rashid Dostum
Abdul Rashid Dostum and
Sarwar Danish as vice
Abdullah Abdullah serves as the chief executive officer
(CEO). The National Assembly is the legislature, a bicameral body
having two chambers, the House of the People and the House of Elders.
The Supreme Court is led by Chief
Justice Said Yusuf Halem, the former
Deputy Minister of
Justice for Legal Affairs.
Pakistan was the first country to adopt the adjective "Islamic" to
modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution
in 1956. Despite this definition, the country did not have a state
religion until 1973, when a new constitution, more democratic and less
secular, was adopted.
Pakistan only uses the "Islamic" name on its
passports, visas, and coins. Although "Islamic Republic" is
specifically mentioned in the Constitution of 1973, all government
documents are prepared under the name of the Government of Pakistan.
The Constitution of Pakistan, part IX, article 227 says "All existing
laws shall be brought in conformity with the Injunctions of
laid down in the
Quran and Sunnah, in this Part referred to as the
Injunctions of Islam, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant
to such Injunctions". In 1974,
Pakistan declared Ahmadis as being
outside the pale of
Islam through the 2nd Amendment.
Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the
of western North Africa.
1978–2000 Federal and
Islamic Republic of the Comoros.
The Turkic Uyghur- and Kirghiz-controlled Turkish
Islamic Republic of
East Turkestan was declared in 1933 as an independent Islamic
Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki
Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki and Muhammad Amin Bughra.
However, the Chinese Muslim 36th Division of the National
Revolutionary Army defeated their armies and destroyed the republic
during the Battles of Kashgar, Yangi Hissar and Yarkand. The
Chinese Muslim Generals
Ma Fuyuan and
Ma Zhancang declared the
destruction of the rebel forces and the return of the area to the
control of the Republic of China in 1934, followed by the executions
of the Turkic Muslim Emirs
Abdullah Bughra and Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra.
The Chinese Muslim General
Ma Zhongying then entered the Id Kah Mosque
Kashgar and lectured the Turkic Muslims on being loyal to the
In December 2015, then-President
Yahya Jammeh declared
The Gambia to
be an Islamic republic. Jammeh said that the move was designed to
distance the West African state from its colonial past and that no
dress code would be imposed and citizens of other faiths would be
allowed to practice freely. However, he later ordered all female
government employees to wear headscarves before rescinding the
decision shortly after. The announcement of an
Islamic republic has
been criticized as unconstitutional by at least one opposition
group. After the removal of Jammeh in 2017 his successor Adama
Barrow said the Gambia will be a republic once again eliminating the
Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria used an
Islamic republic government
system from 1996 to 2000.
Sharia by country
Political aspects of Islam
Iran Islamic Republic, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Islamic Republic Day". The free dictionary by Farlex.
Retrieved 17 June 2016.
^ a b "The first election held after the revolution / day when the
government took the poor". Fars News Agency. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 1
Islamic Republic Day".
Islamic Revolution Document Center.
Retrieved 1 March 2016.
^ Constitution of
Iran Unofficial English translation hosted at
University of Bern,
Switzerland (with good summaries)
^ Amir Saeed Vakil, Pouryya Askary (2004). constitution in now law
like order. p. 44.
^ Sayyed Muhammad Hashemi (2013). Constitution of islamic republic of
^ Arshin Adib-Moghaddam (2014). A Critical Introduction to Khomeini.
Cambridge University Press. p. 231.
^ "The Supreme Court Chief
Justice Biography". supremecourt.gov.af.
Archived from the original on 3 October 2015.
^ "Database". afghan-bios.info.
^ "Part IX: "Islamic Provisions"". Retrieved 20 April 2016.
^ "The Damnation of Pakistan's Second Amendment". The Huffington Post
UK. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
^ Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Facts On
File, Inc. 2009. p. 448. ISBN 143812676X. The Islamic
Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa
^ Seddon, David (2004). A Political and Economic Dictionary of the
Middle East. We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly
Arabic-speaking countries of western
North Africa (the Maghreb),
Mauritania (which is a member of the Arab Maghreb
^ Branine, Mohamed (2011). Managing Across Cultures: Concepts,
Policies and Practices. p. 437. The Magrebian countries or the
Arab countries of western
North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania,
Morocco and Tunisia)...
^ Chahryar Adle; Madhavan K. Palat; Anara Tabyshalieva (2005). History
of Civilizations of Central Asia: Towards the contemporary period:
from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century. UNESCO.
p. 395. ISBN 92-3-103985-7. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
^ "Gambia declared
Islamic republic by President Yahya Jammeh". BBC.
12 December 2015.
^ "Female government workers in the Gambia told to wear headscarves".
the Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
^ Rifai, Ryan (12 December 2015) "Gambia's president declares Islamic
statehood". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
^ "The Gambia: President
Adama Barrow pledges reforms". Al Jazeera. 27
January 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
Ankerl, Guy (2000). Global communication without universal
civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary
civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western.
Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.
Islam and Politics from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital
Constitution of Iran, as an unofficial English translation hosted at
University of Bern,
Switzerland (with good summaries)
Islamic states by type
Sunni Islamic state
Shia Islamic state
Twelver Imams government
Sevener Imams government
Regency of the Islamic jurist during the Occultation of the Mahdi
Ecumenical or Pan-Islamic
Religion and politics
Anticlericalism and Freemasonry
Religion and peacebuilding
Religious rejection of politics
Religious views on same-sex marriage
Separation of church and state
Christianity and politics
Protestant Reich Church
Relations between the Catholic Church and the state
Islam and politics
Human Rights in Islam
In South Asia
Judaism and politics
Jewish political movements
World Agudath Israel
Hinduism and politics
Uniform civil code
Buddhism and politics
Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism
American civil religion
Religious aspects of Nazism