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(i)

Politics
Politics
portal Islam
Islam
portal

* v * t * e

Part of the Politics
Politics
series

BASIC FORMS OF GOVERNMENT

POWER STRUCTURE

SEPARATION

* Associated state * Dominion
Dominion
* Chiefdom

FEDERALISM

* Federation
Federation
* Federacy * Confederation
Confederation
* Devolution
Devolution

INTEGRATION

* Empire
Empire
* Hegemony
Hegemony
* Unitary state
Unitary state
* Protectorate * Vassal state * Puppet state

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION

POWER SOURCE

Democracy
Democracy
power of many

* Representative * Liberal * Delegative democracy * Direct * Sortition
Sortition
* Social democracy * Athenian democracy * Cellular democracy * Military * Illiberal democracy * Totalitarian democracy * Semi * Multi-party system
Multi-party system
* Separation of powers
Separation of powers
* Fusion of powers * Westminster system * others

Oligarchy power of few

* Aristocracy * Military junta
Military junta
* Kleptocracy * Stratocracy * Plutocracy * Corporatocracy * Timocracy * Theocracy
Theocracy
* Kritarchy * Particracy * Meritocracy * Technocracy * Two-party system
Two-party system

Autocracy power of one

* Despotism
Despotism
* Dictatorship
Dictatorship
* Civilian dictatorship * Military Dictatorship
Dictatorship
* Semi-authoritarian * One-party state
One-party state
* Dominant-party system

HYBRIDS

* Anocracy * Electoralism * Semi-democracy

POWER IDEOLOGY

Monarchy vs. Republic socio-political ideologies

* Absolute

* Constitutional * Federal * Elective monarchy * Diarchy * Crowned republic * Federal republic * Constitutional Republic * Democratic republic * Socialist republic
Socialist republic
* Directorial

* Legalist (Chinese) * Parliamentary * Semi-presidential * Presidential

Authoritarian vs. Libertarian socio-economic ideologies

* Colonialism
Colonialism
* Capitalism
Capitalism
* Corporatism * State capitalism
State capitalism
* Business nationalism * Communism
Communism
* National Communism
Communism
* World Communism
Communism
* Anarcho- Communism
Communism
* Anarcho- Capitalism
Capitalism
* Marxism-Leninism
Marxism-Leninism
* Marxism
Marxism
* Maoism
Maoism
* Stalinism * Leninism
Leninism
* Trotskyism
Trotskyism
* Fascism
Fascism
* Nazism
Nazism
* Neo- Nazism
Nazism
* Islamism * Socialism
Socialism
* Centrism
Centrism
* Liberalism * Classical liberalism * Neoliberalism * Conservatism
Conservatism
* Traditional conservatism * Paleoconservatism * Neoconservatism
Neoconservatism
* Populism * Nationalism
Nationalism
* Chauvinism * Cosmopolitanism * Monarchism
Monarchism
* Militarism
Militarism
* Imperialism
Imperialism
* Distributism
Distributism
* Feudalism
Feudalism
* Tribalism

Anarchism vs. Statism civil-liberties ideologies

* Anarchy
Anarchy
* Anarcho- Communism
Communism
* Anarcho- Capitalism
Capitalism
* Minarchy * Police state * Authoritarianism * Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism

Global vs. Local geo-cultural ideologies

* Globalism
Globalism
* Central * City-state
City-state
* National unity * World

Politics
Politics
portal

* v * t * e

An ISLAMIC REPUBLIC is the name given to several states in countries ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Pakistan
Pakistan
, Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and Mauritania
Mauritania
. Pakistan
Pakistan
first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania
Mauritania
adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran
Iran
adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty . Afghanistan
Afghanistan
adopted it in 1992 (in 1996–2001 where the Taliban
Taliban
was ruling as an Islamic emirate) upon Jamiat-e Islami seizing capital Kabul
Kabul
from the Communists. Despite the similar name the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws.

The term "Islamic republic" has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. To some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East and Africa who advocate it, an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
is a state under a particular Islamic form of government . They see it as a compromise between a purely Islamic caliphate , and secular nationalism and republicanism . In their conception of the Islamic republic, the penal code of the state is required to be compatible with some or all laws of Sharia
Sharia
, and the state may not be a monarchy as many Middle Eastern states are presently.

CONTENTS

* 1 List of Islamic republics

* 1.1 Current

* 1.1.1 Iran
Iran

* 1.1.1.1 Commentary * 1.1.1.2 Opinions

* 1.1.2 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* 1.1.3 Pakistan
Pakistan
* 1.1.4 Mauritania
Mauritania

* 1.2 Former

* 1.2.1 East Turkestan * 1.2.2 The Gambia * 1.2.3 Chechen Republic of Ichkeria

* 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links

LIST OF ISLAMIC REPUBLICS

STATE DATE OF NAME ADOPTION

Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
December 7, 2004

Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran
Iran
April 1, 1979

Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Mauritania
Mauritania
November 28, 1960

Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan
Pakistan
March 23, 1956

CURRENT

Iran

See also: Politics
Politics
of Iran
Iran

Two months after the victory of the Islamic Revolution
Islamic Revolution
in 1979, the new government held the Iranian Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
referendum on the 10th and 11th of Farvadin (30th and 31 March) to change the Pahlavi dynasty into an Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
. On 12 Farvadin, it was announced that 98.2 percent of the Iranian voters wanted to establish the "Islamic Republic".

Before the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
referendum, some political groups suggested various names for the ideology of the Iranian revolution, such as the Republic (without Islam) or the democratic republic. But Ruhollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
, the founder of the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran, asked people to vote for the name "Islamic Republic", not a word more and not a word less.

According to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran
Iran
, the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
is a system based on beliefs in:

* the One God
God
(as stated in the phrase "There is no other god except God
God
"), His exclusive sovereignty and right to legislate, and the necessity of submission to His commands; * divine revelation and its fundamental role in setting forth the laws; * the return to God
God
in the Hereafter , and the constructive role of this belief in the course of man's ascent towards God; * the justice of God
God
in creation and legislation; * continuous leadership and perpetual guidance , and its fundamental role in ensuring the uninterrupted process of the revolution of Islam; * the exalted dignity and value of man, and his freedom coupled with responsibility before God; in which equity, justice, political, economic, social, and cultural independence, and national solidarity are secured by recourse to:

* continuous leadership of the holy persons , possessing necessary qualifications, exercised on the basis of the Quran
Quran
and the Sunnah , upon all of whom be peace; * sciences and arts and the most advanced results of human experience, together with the effort to advance them further; * negation of all forms of oppression, both the infliction of and the submission to it, and of dominance, both its imposition and its acceptance.

Commentary

According to a commentary on Constitution, just as the establishment of Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
system is based on the beliefs of people namely governing of right, justice and Quran
Quran
. However, its continuation lasted with the same principles and there is an important role for the beliefs of Iranian people. Also those beliefs are of complete and determinate roles in all affairs. Those beliefs considered as guidelines for governors and statesmen. There is an important role for beliefs such as the principle of unity of God
God
and believing in it. There are, in spite of that, other principles are to the submission in front of Allah
Allah
and his order. Therefore legislation is limited to god and laws so far as correspond to divine legislation are valid. Belief in divine revelation and prophecy also are essential to Islamic viewworld. We have two kinds of justice . First kind is legislative(Tashri’i) and the other kind is creative or Takivini. Creative justice is based on the Justice
Justice
and equality . Legislative justice is respected to Making divine law in Islamic society. Besides, the basis of Shia school is in terms of Imamate
Imamate
or leadership.

According to the principle of Imamate
Imamate
in Shia, it is indispensable to obey of the prophet of God
God
and of those possessed of authority. Shia Ulama believe that the conception of term" those possessed of authority" denoted on Innocent Shia Imams. Certainly when Imam is absent, Valy faghih is in charge of leadership of society. In other word; religious leaders undertake the responsibility of Imamate. There is more emphasizing on the dignity (Karamat) and the high value of humans which is along with freedom and responsibility.The principle of Dignity is a necessary condition of the Islamic republic
Islamic republic
in terms of existence.There is many meaning for dignity. Sometimes it refers to generosity, nobleness and honor. However Islam
Islam
considers with two sorts of dignity for human beings: essential or innate dignity and acquired dignity. According to innate dignity, Human being possessed of the right of living among other creatures. The principle also mentioned by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in 1948. On the basis of Acquired dignity, human is able to pass the degrees of perfection with the aid of actuality of his potentialities and talents.

Opinions

For the First time, Rouhollah Khomeini referred to the terms of Islamic republic
Islamic republic
for Iranian people. He believes that Iranian people want an Islamic state which is a republic. Responding to Journalist's question on the ambiguity of the term Islamic republic, Khomeini believes that republic has the same sense like other uses. Islamic republic has considered both with Islamic ideology and choice of people.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
is an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
consisting of three branches, the executive, legislative, and judicial. The nation is led by President Ashraf Ghani with Abdul Rashid Dostum and Sarwar Danish as vice presidents. Abdullah Abdullah
Abdullah Abdullah
serves as the chief executive officer (CEO). The National Assembly is the legislature, a bicameral body having two chambers, the House of the People and the House of Elders . The Supreme Court is led by Chief Justice
Justice
Said Yusuf Halem, the former Deputy Minister of Justice
Justice
for Legal Affairs.

Pakistan

Pakistan
Pakistan
was the first country to adopt the adjective "Islamic" to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in 1956. Despite this definition the country did not have a state religion until 1973, when a new constitution, more democratic and less secular, was adopted. Pakistan
Pakistan
only uses the "Islamic" name on its passports, visas and coins. Although "Islamic Republic" is specifically mentioned in the Constitution of 1973, all government documents are prepared under the name of the Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
. The Constitution of Pakistan
Pakistan
, part IX, article 227 says "All existing laws shall be brought in conformity with the Injunctions of Islam
Islam
as laid down in the Quran
Quran
and Sunnah, in this Part referred to as the Injunctions of Islam, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such Injunctions". In 1974, Pakistan
Pakistan
declared Ahmadis as being outside the pale of Islam
Islam
through the 2nd Amendment. Since the 1980s under General Zia's dictatorship however Pakistan
Pakistan
is said to have taken a definite theocratic colour.

Mauritania

The Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Mauritania
Mauritania
, is a country in the Maghreb region of western North Africa
North Africa
.

FORMER

East Turkestan

The Turkic Uyghur - and Kirghiz -controlled Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan was declared in 1933 as an independent Islamic republic, by Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki and Muhammad Amin Bughra . However, the Chinese Muslim 36th Division of the National Revolutionary Army defeated their armies and destroyed the republic during the Battles of Kashgar
Kashgar
, Yangi Hissar and Yarkand . The Chinese Muslim Generals Ma Fuyuan and Ma Zhancang declared the destruction of the rebel forces and the return of the area to the control of the Republic of China in 1934, followed by the executions of the Turkic Muslim Emirs Abdullah Bughra and Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra . The Chinese Muslim General Ma Zhongying then entered the Id Kah Mosque in Kashgar
Kashgar
, and lectured the Turkic Muslims on being loyal to the Central Government .

The Gambia

In December 2015, President Yahya Jammeh
Yahya Jammeh
declared The Gambia to be an Islamic republic. Jammeh said that the move was designed to distance the West African state from its colonial past, and that no dress code would be imposed and citizens of other faiths would be allowed to practice freely. However, he later ordered all female government employees to wear headscarves before rescinding the decision shortly after. The announcement of an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
has been criticized as unconstitutional by at least one opposition group. After the removal of President Jammeh in 2017 the incoming President Adama Barrow has said the Gambia will be a republic once again eliminating the Islamic republic.

Chechen Republic Of Ichkeria

The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria used an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
government system from 1996 to 2000.

SEE ALSO

* Sharia
Sharia
by country * Islamic state * Islamism * Religious police * Political aspects of Islam
Islam
* Christian republic * Jewish state
Jewish state

REFERENCES

* ^ Iran
Iran
Islamic Republic, Encyclopædia Britannica. * ^ " Iran
Iran
Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
Day". The free dictionary by Farlex. Retrieved 17 June 2016. * ^ A B "The first election held after the revolution / day when the government took the poor". Fars News Agency. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2016. * ^ " Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
Day". Islamic Revolution
Islamic Revolution
Document Center. Retrieved 1 March 2016. * ^ Constitution of Iran
Iran
Unofficial English translation hosted at University of Bern, Switzerland (with good summaries) * ^ Amir Saeed Vakil, Pouryya Askary (2004). constitution in now law like order. p. 44. * ^ Sayyed Muhammad Hashemi (2013). Constitution of islamic republic of Iran. Mizan. * ^ Arshin Adib-Moghaddam (2014). A Critical Introduction to Khomeini. Cambridge University Press. p. 231. * ^ "The Supreme Court Chief Justice
Justice
Biography". supremecourt.gov.af. * ^ "Database". afghan-bios.info. * ^ "Part IX: "Islamic Provisions"". Retrieved 20 April 2016. * ^ "The Damnation of Pakistan\'s Second Amendment". The Huffington Post UK. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2016. * ^ Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Facts On File, Inc. 2009. p. 448. ISBN 143812676X . The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa
North Africa
* ^ Seddon, David (2004). A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East. We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa
North Africa
(the Maghreb), including Mauritania
Mauritania
(which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union)... * ^ Branine, Mohamed (2011). Managing Across Cultures: Concepts, Policies and Practices. p. 437. The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa
North Africa
(Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia)... * ^ Chahryar Adle; Madhavan K. Palat; Anara Tabyshalieva (2005). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Towards the contemporary period: from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century. UNESCO. p. 395. ISBN 92-3-103985-7 . Retrieved 28 October 2010. * ^ "Gambia declared Islamic republic
Islamic republic
by President Yahya Jammeh". BBC
BBC
. 12 December 2015. * ^ "Female government workers in the Gambia told to wear headscarves". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2016. * ^ Rifai, Ryan (12 December 2015) "Gambia\'s president declares Islamic statehood". Al-Jazeera
Al-Jazeera
. Retrieved 13 December 2015. * ^ "The Gambia: President Adama Barrow pledges reforms". Al Jazeera. 2017-01-27. Retrieved 2017-02-14.

* Ankerl, Guy (2000). Global communication without universal civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5 .