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The Islamic Consultative Assembly
Islamic Consultative Assembly
(Persian: مجلس شورای اسلامی‎, translit. Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran. The Parliament currently has 290 representatives, changed from the previous 272 seats since the 18 February 2000 election. The most recent election took place on 26 February 2016 and the new parliament was opened on 28 May 2016.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Imperial State of Iran 1.2 Islamic Republic 1.3 2017 attack

2 Functions 3 Membership 4 Constituencies 5 Leadership 6 Committees 7 Current composition 8 Building 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Imperial State of Iran[edit]

First Members of Parliament, 1906–1908

See also: Iranian Constitutional Revolution Before the Islamic Revolution, Majlis was also the name of the lower house of the Iranian Legislature
Legislature
from 1906 to 1979, the upper house being the Senate. It was created by the Iran
Iran
Constitution of 1906 and first convened on 7 October 1906 (Iranian Calendar: 1285-Mehr-13),[3] soon gaining power under the rule of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Noteworthy bills passed by the Parliament under the Pahlavi Dynasty include the Oil Nationalization Bill (15 March 1951) and the Family Protection Law (1967), which gave women many basic rights such as custody of children in the case of divorce. Women were not allowed to vote or be elected to the Parliament until 1963, as part of reforms under the Shah's "White Revolution". The twenty-first National Consultative Assembly, which included female representatives, opened on 6 October 1963. The last session of the Pre-Revolution Parliament was held on 7 February 1979 (18 Bahman 1357 AP[3]). Islamic Republic[edit] After the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
of 1979, the Senate of Iran
Iran
was abolished and was effectively replaced by the Guardian Council
Guardian Council
thus the Iranian legislature remained bicameral. In the 1989 revision of the constitution, the National Consultative Assembly
National Consultative Assembly
became the Islamic Consultative Assembly. The Parliament of Iran
Iran
has had six chairmen since the Iranian Revolution. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
was the first chairman, from 1980 to 1989. Then came Mehdi Karroubi
Mehdi Karroubi
(1989–1992), Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri (1992–2000), Mehdi Karroubi
Mehdi Karroubi
(2000–2004), Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel (2004–2008) and Ali Larijani
Ali Larijani
since 2008. Over its history the Parliament is said to have evolved from being "a debating chamber for notables," to "a club for the shah's placemen" during the Pahlavi era, to a body dominated by members of "the propertied middle class" under the Islamic Republic.[4][5] 2017 attack[edit] Main article: 2017 Tehran
Tehran
attacks On 7 June 2017, there was shooting at the Iranian parliament and at the shrine of Ayatollah Khomeini.[6] Gunmen opened fire at the Iranian Parliament and the mausoleum of religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini in Tehran. The attack on the mausoleum has reportedly left 17 persons dead and more than 30 people injured. The parliament was attacked by four gunmen which left seven to eight people injured. Both attacks took place around the same time and appear to have been coordinated. Functions[edit] The Islamic Consultative Assembly
Islamic Consultative Assembly
can legislate laws on all issues within the limits of the Constitution.[7] The Assembly cannot, for instance, enact laws contrary to the canons and principles of the official religion of the country (Islam) or to the Constitution.[8] Government bills are presented to the Islamic Consultative Assembly after receiving the approval of the Council of Ministers.[9] The Islamic Consultative Assembly
Islamic Consultative Assembly
has the right to investigate and examine all the affairs of the country.[10] International treaties, protocols, contracts, and agreements must be approved by the Islamic Consultative Assembly.[11] Receiving and issuing national or international loans or grants by the government must be ratified by the Islamic Consultative Assembly.[12] The President must obtain, for the Council of Ministers, after being formed and before all other business, a vote of confidence from the Assembly.[13] Whenever at least one-fourth of the total members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly pose a question to the President, or any one member of the Assembly poses a question to a minister on a subject relating to their duties, the President or the minister is obliged to attend the Assembly and answer the question.[14] All legislation passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly
Islamic Consultative Assembly
must be sent to the Guardian Council. The Guardian Council
Guardian Council
must review it within a maximum of ten days from its receipt with a view to ensuring its compatibility with the criteria of Islam and the Constitution. If it finds the legislation incompatible, it will return it to the Assembly for review. Otherwise the legislation will be deemed enforceable.[15] Membership[edit] Currently, there are 290 members of Parliament, fourteen of whom represent non-Muslim religious minorities (4.8%), and are popularly elected for four-year terms. About 8% of the Parliament are women, while the global average is 13%.[16] The Parliament can force the dismissal of cabinet ministers through no-confidence votes and can impeach the president for misconduct in office. Although the executive proposes most new laws, individual deputies of the Parliament also may introduce legislation. Deputies also may propose amendments to bills being debated. The Parliament also drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget. All People's House of Iran
Iran
candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council. Candidates must pledge in writing that they are committed, in theory and in practice, to the Iranian constitution. Constituencies[edit] The Parliament currently has 207 constituencies, including a total of 5 reserved seats for the religious minorities recognized by the constitution. The rest of 202 constituencies are territorial and coincide with 1 or more of Iran's 368 Shahrestans. The largest electoral districts are:

Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat, Eslamshahr and Pardis (30 seats) Tabriz, Osku and Azarshahr (6 seats) Mashhad and Kalat (5 seats) Isfahan (5 seats) Shiraz (4 seats) Ahvaz, Bavi, Hamidieh and Karoun (3 seats) Ardabil, Nir, Namin and Sareyn (3 seats) Kermanshah (3 seats) Qom (3 seats) Urmia (3 seats)

Leadership[edit]

Ali Larijani
Ali Larijani
in his office of parliament chairman

Main article: List of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran Members of Parliament elect their speaker and deputy speakers during the first session of Parliament for a one-year term. Every year, almost always in May, elections for new speakers are held in which incumbents may be re-elected. The current Speaker of Parliament is Ali Larijani, with First Deputy Speaker Masoud Pezeshkian
Masoud Pezeshkian
and Second Deputy Speaker Ali Motahari. Committees[edit]

Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Energy Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Economic Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on National Security and Foreign Policy Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Health Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Civil Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Culture Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Judicial and Legal Committee Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Article Ninety of the Constitution Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Education and Research Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on planning, budget and calculations Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Social Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Industries and Mines Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Agriculture, water and natural resources Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Council and Internal affairs Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
Committee on Codification internal regulations Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
commission for examining the JCPOA

Current composition[edit] See also: Iranian legislative election, 2016 The last elections of Parliament of Iran
Iran
were held on 26 March 2016 with a second round will be held in April in those 71 districts where no candidate received 25% or more of the votes cast. More than 12,000 candidates registered but leaving about 6,200 candidates to run for the 290 seats representing the 31 provinces. The results indicate that the results would make a hung parliament with reformists having a plurality. Building[edit] After 1979, the Parliament convened at the building that used to house the Senate of Iran. A new building for the Assembly was constructed at Baharestan Square
Baharestan Square
in central Tehran, near the old Iranian Parliament building that had been used from 1906 to 1979. After several debates, the move was finally approved in 2004. The first session of the Parliament in the new building was held on 16 November 2004. The old building is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 100 rial banknote.[17]

The first building (1906–1979)

The second building (1980–2004)

The third building (2004–present)

See also[edit]

Iran
Iran
portal Politics portal

Elections in Iran Politics of Iran List of legislatures by country

Subordinate organizations

Majlis Research Center Supreme Audit Court of Iran

References[edit]

^ a b c d Nohlen, Dieter; Grotz, Florian; Hartmann, Christof (2001). "Iran". Elections in Asia: A Data Handbook. I. Oxford University Press. p. 64. ISBN 0-19-924958-X.  ^ Large scale turn out at polls in IRI March Majlis Elections Archived 2 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. IRNA ^ a b Mohammad Modarresi (2005). "An Introduction to the history of the Legislative Assembly In Iran: The First Parliament of the National Consultative Assembly (آشنایی با تاریخ مجالس قانونگذاری در ایران: دوره اول مجلس شورای ملی)" (PDF) (in Persian). The Research Center of Islamic Consultative Assembly (مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس شورای اسلامی). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2007.  ^ Abrahamian, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p. 179 ^ Islamic Majles, Ashnai-ye Ba Majles-e Showra-ye Islami, Vol.ii (Guide to the Islamic Majles, Tehran, 1992, p. 205 ^ " Iran
Iran
shootings: Parliament and Khomeini shrine attacked". BBC News. 2017-06-07. Retrieved 2017-06-07.  ^ Article 71 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28) ^ Article 72 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28) ^ Article 74 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28) ^ Article 76 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28) ^ Article 77 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28) ^ Article 80 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28) ^ Article 87 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28) ^ Article 88 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28) ^ Article 94 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28) ^ "On Women's Day, struggle for equality remains". Kyiv Post. 8 March 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012.  ^ Central Bank of Iran. Banknotes & Coins: 100 Rials. – Retrieved on 24 March 2009.

 This article incorporates text from the Constitution of Iran, which is in the public domain. External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Majlis.

The official website of the Majlis of Iran Laws and minutes of meetings of the Majlis of Iran
Iran
(1906-1979) (persian) History of Iran: Constitutional Revolution, a history of Majlis from 1906 to 1953 Iranian Ministry of Interior on the history of elections in Iran A report on moving the Majles to Baharestan[permanent dead link] The Council of Guardians, Official website. The Majles, Iran's parliament news service. Interparliamentary Union (IPU) summary of Majlis of Iran
Iran
election preparations and/or outcomes (translated into English) Iran
Iran
Electoral Archive - Iranian Parliament

Videos

Iran’s ninth parliament PressTV
PressTV
(2012) Parliamentary election in Iran
Iran
(I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) (VII) Second Round PressTV
PressTV
(2012) Video Archive of Iran's Parliament Kourosh Esmāili, People & Power: The Iranian Campaign, Aljazeera, YouTube, April 2008: Part 1 Part 2

v t e

Iranian Parliament
Iranian Parliament
(and year convened)

Qajar monarchy Pahlavi monarchy Islamic Republic

1 (1906) 2 (1909) 3 (1914) 4 (1921) 5 (1923)

6 (1926) 7 (1928) 8 (1930) 9 (1933) 10 (1935)

11 (1937) 12 (1939) 13 (1941) 14 (1944) 15 (1947)

16 (1950) 17 (1952) 18 (1954) 19 (1956) 20 (1961)

21 (1963) 22 (1967) 23 (1971) 24 (1975)

1 (1980) 2 (1984) 3 (1988) 4 (1992) 5 (1996)

6 (2000) 7 (2004) 8 (2008) 9 (2012) 10 (2016)

Legislative elections

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Elections and referendums in Iran

Presidential

1980 1981 (Jul) 1981 (Oct) 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 2013 2017 2021

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Senate

1949 1954 1960 1963 1967 1971 1975

Assembly of Experts

1982 1990 1998 2006 2016

Municipal

1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1999 2003 2006 2013 2017 2021

Constitutional

1925 1949 1967 1979

Referendums

1953 1963 1979 (Mar) 1979 (Dec) 1989

List of elections and referendums

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Legislature
Legislature
of Iran

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Qajar dynasty
(1789–1925)

Unicameral
Unicameral
(1906–1925)

National Consultative Assembly

Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
(1925–1979)

Unicameral
Unicameral
(1925–1951)

National Consultative Assembly

Bicameral
Bicameral
(1951–1979)

National Consultative Assembly
National Consultative Assembly
(Lower house) Senate (Upper house)

Islamic Republic (1979–present)

Unicameral
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(Since 1980)

Islamic Consultative Assembly Guardian Council
Guardian Council
(Legislative veto authority)

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Parliament of Asia

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Historical

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Related

Bicameralism List of legislatures by country

National bicameral legislatures National lower houses National upper houses

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Electoral districts of Iran

Ardabil

Ardabil, Nir, Namin and Sareyn Germi Khalkhal and Kowsar Meshginshahr Parsabad and Bilesavar

East Azerbaijan

Ahar and Heris Bonab Bostanabad‎ Hashtrud and Charuymaq‎ Kaleybar, Khoda Afarin and Hurand Malekan Maragheh and Ajabshir‎ Marand and Jolfa Mianeh Sarab Shabestar Tabriz, Osku and Azarshahr‎ Varzaqan

Fars

Shiraz

Gilan

Astaneh-ye Ashrafiyeh Astara Bandar-e Anzali Fuman and Shaft Siahkal Langarud Rasht Roudsar and Amlash Rudbar Sowme'eh Sara Talesh, Rezvanshahr and Masal

Isfahan

Golpayegan and Khvansar Isfahan Natanz and Qamsar

Qom

Qom

Razavi Khorasan

Mashhad and Kalat

Tehran

Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat and Eslamshahr

West Azerbaijan

Bukan Khoy and Chaypareh Mahabad Maku, Chaldoran, Poldasht and Showt Miandoab, Shahin Dezh and Takab Naqadeh and Oshnavieh Piranshahr and Sardasht Salmas Urmia

Zanjan

Abhar and Khorramdarreh Khodabandeh Mahneshan and Ijrud Zanjan and Tarom

Minorities

Armenians Assyrian Jewish Zoroastrian

Coordinates: 35°41′30.28″N 51°26′04″E / 35.6917444°N 51.43444°E / 35.69174

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