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The Isar
Isar
is a river in Tyrol, Austria
Austria
and Bavaria, Germany. Its source is in the Karwendel
Karwendel
range of the Alps
Alps
in Tyrol; it enters Germany
Germany
near Mittenwald, and flows through Bad Tölz, Munich, and Landshut
Landshut
before reaching the Danube
Danube
near Deggendorf. At 295 km (183 mi) in length, it is the fourth largest river in Bavaria, after the Danube, Inn, and Main. It is Germany's second most important tributary of the Danube
Danube
after the Inn.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Islands

3 History 4 Environmental issues 5 Recreation 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Etymology[edit] One theory is that the name Isar
Isar
comes from the hypothetical Indo-European root *es or *is, which meant "flowing water" and later turned into a word for frozen water (hence English ice, German: Eis) in Proto-Germanic.[citation needed] An older theory is that it comes from Celtic words and the name Isar
Isar
is a construction of the Celtic stems ys "fast, torrential" and ura "water, river".[a][citation needed] According to another interpretation ys may mean "high" as well as "low", referring to the rapidly changing water level in the river Isar. In the ancient settlement area of the Celts
Celts
several related river names can be found:

Jizera (Czech Republic) Isère (France) Isel (Austria) IJssel
IJssel
(Netherlands) IJzer
IJzer
(Belgium) Eisack
Eisack
/ Isarco (Italy) Isar
Isar
(Spanish town, in the province of Burgos)

It may be possible that the ancient name of the lower part of the river Danube, Ister, has the same source. Newer interpretations relate it to the Proto-Basque particle *(w)its-, "water", also seen in similar but otherwise unexplained river names, such as Vézère, Vizela, Weser
Weser
and Vistula. Geography[edit]

Map of the Isar

Isarauen

The river Isar
Isar
north of Mittenwald
Mittenwald
near Garmisch.

The Isar
Isar
drains a substantial part of the Alps
Alps
and parts of the Karwendel
Karwendel
mountains northeast towards the Danube
Danube
river and thus finally towards the Black Sea. The drainage basin contains some 9,000 square kilometers (3,500 square miles). During the winter most of the precipitation in the Alps
Alps
falls as snow. This results in an increased water flow during the spring meltdown. It has an average discharge of 175 cubic meters (6,200 cubic feet) per second. This makes it comparable to other medium-sized rivers in Germany, like the Moselle, Lech or Main. Apart from the larger tributaries Amper
Amper
and Loisach
Loisach
many smaller rivers empty into the Isar, such as the Leutasch, the Jachen, the Dürrach, the Dorfen, the Sempt, the Pfettrach and the Gleirschbach. The official head of the Isar
Isar
is located in the Hinterau valley
Hinterau valley
east of the village Scharnitz
Scharnitz
in the Karwendel
Karwendel
mountains in Tyrol, Austria at a sea level of 1,160 metres (3,810 feet). In 2003 the Isar
Isar
spring was “developed”, however, this move has been discussed due to environmental reasons. The Lavatsch, which is the Isar’s longest headstream, has its source farther to the southeast near a mountain cabin named Hallangerhaus. It is also sometimes called the Isar’s head. Further on the young Isar
Isar
is supplied water by the Birkkarbach, which has its source at the foot of the highest mountain of the Karwendel, the Birkkarspitze
Birkkarspitze
and the Moserkarbach. Between Mittenwald and Krün
Krün
the Isar
Isar
is dammed for the first time. Its waters are led into the lake Walchensee
Walchensee
where electricity is generated. To make more energy generation possible and also to avoid flooding farther down the river a large reservoir called Sylvensteinsee
Sylvensteinsee
was created between 1954 and 1959. It is located some 12 km (7.5 mi) south of Lenggries. It has prevented some bad floods in Munich, for example in 1979, 1999 and most important, in 2005. In that year for the first time ever water had to be released from the lake because its capacity was exhausted. Flooding was barely avoided in Munich. After leaving the Bavarian Alps
Alps
at Bad Tölz, the Isar
Isar
first flows through the glacial morainic landscape and then through the Munich
Munich
plain. It continues from Freising
Freising
on through the Tertiary Hills
Tertiary Hills
all the way into the Danube
Danube
valley. Its mouth at the Danube
Danube
is at 312 metres (1,024 feet) above sea level, thus the Isar
Isar
descends some 848 metres (2,782 feet) from its head to its mouth.[citation needed] Islands[edit] Most of the small islands and gravel banks keep changing shape and size due to the annual floods. Some of the islands within the bigger cities were built up during the 19th century and thus protected against the abrasive powers of the water. Among those are the Museumsinsel (on which the Deutsches Museum
Deutsches Museum
is located); formerly this island was called Kohleninsel (coal island), the Praterinsel (both located in Munich) and the Mühleninsel in Landshut. History[edit]

The Isar
Isar
in Munich
Munich
near to the Deutsches Museum

It is quite likely that the Isar
Isar
was used as a trade route, even in prehistoric times, to transport wares from the Alps
Alps
and even Italy towards the Danube
Danube
with rafts. An existing trade road from the Inn valley across Seefelder Pass into the northern foothills of the alps was built up and called Via Raetia by the Romans. The town of Mittenwald
Mittenwald
thus became an important trade post in the Werdenfelser Land. At a few places the Romans built wooden bridges across the Isara so they could cross the river with its strong currents more easily. One of these could have been along the Roman road from Salzburg
Salzburg
to Augsburg
Augsburg
south of contemporary Munich. Thus trade traffic could easily be controlled and income from tolls was frequent and regular. The medieval foundation of the cities of Munich
Munich
and Landshut
Landshut
are directly connected with the building of bridges and the resulting conflicts concerning power and influence on the economy. Due to the continuing growth of the cities there was a constant demand for timber and lime, which resulted in an increase of commercial rafting. Beginning in the 17th century wares like Mediterranean fruit, spices, cotton and silk from the Venetian Market in Mittenwald
Mittenwald
were transported down the Isar and Danube
Danube
all the way to Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest. During the 19th century when commercial rafting was at its peak, some 8,000 rafts arrived in Munich
Munich
each year. Since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
water mills were working at the banks of the Isar
Isar
by hydro mechanical power. To ensure a more constant flow for the mills the water in Munich
Munich
was led into small canals. The canals were also used to provide freshwater to the population of the city and also the numerous tanneries of the city and to fill the protecting ditches located outside the medieval town wall. During the annual floodings cities along the Isar
Isar
were flooded again and again, causing severe damage and even killing people. In 1813 a bridge in Munich
Munich
collapsed during a flood, killing more than 100 people who were watching the flooding from the bridge. From 1806 on, the banks of the river were fixed and the river was canalized. This led to its deeper digging into the river bed due to its flowing faster. Further extensive measures have been taken since the 1920s to install hydroelectric power plants. From 1954 to 1959 the then much-disputed Sylvensteinspeicher
Sylvensteinspeicher
was built for the generation of electricity and for protection against floodings. The village of Fall was drowned in the reservoir. When the water level in the reservoir is very low the church tower can still be seen sticking out of the water. Only over the last few years the Isar
Isar
was partly turned back from a canal into a more natural river. At the lower Isar
Isar
between Moosburg
Moosburg
and Plattling
Plattling
gold was washed from the river’s sediments during the 16th and 17th century. However, there was no big economic revenue in this due to the minor amounts of the metal found in the river. Following their executions on October 16, 1946, the ashes of the convicted Nazi war criminals Joachim von Ribbentrop, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Jodl, Alfred Rosenberg, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Frick, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Fritz Sauckel
Fritz Sauckel
and Julius Streicher were scattered in the Isar, as were those of Hermann Göring who had committed suicide the previous night. Environmental issues[edit]

Feed of river power plant Muehltal south of Munich. Hydroelectricity supplied yearly: 70 million kilowatt hours.

Wolf spider (Arctosa cinerea) in the valley of the river Isar

Since the 1920s the water of the Isar
Isar
has been used for the generation of electricity. This has had far-reaching consequences not only for the local fauna and flora but also for people. To provide the 28 hydroelectric power plants with enough water power the river’s water is diverted several times and almost the whole river was canalized. For example, just north of Mittenwald
Mittenwald
all the river’s water was diverted to the lake Walchensee
Walchensee
in 1923 for the Walchensee hydroelectric plant. Since 1990 a small portion of the water, 4 cubic meters per second (1100 U.S. gallons per second) is allowed to remain in the river to keep the area from being dry. The construction of the Sylvenstein Dam and numerous regulations relating to the river (pushed through in the early 19th century) have strongly enhanced its character. The construction of the Sylvenstein dam has prevented the river from overflowing its banks. Lately, there have been attempts to bring the Isar
Isar
closer back to a natural character. For example, since May, 2000, the river is being re-naturalized in the southern part of the river’s passage through the city of Munich, between Großhesseloher Brücke and Reichenbachbrücke. To achieve this the riverbed is being widened, the banks are flattened and small gravel islands are built along with near-natural ramps to slow the waterflow. Also, the dams are enlarged in width and height. Besides an improved protection against flooding the river was, thus, brought into an almost natural state and this resulted in an improved quality of the recreational area within the city of Munich. The quality of the water has also improved due to the upgrading of the sewage plants along the river. The number of germs, however, is still relatively high. Together with other cities and communities along the Isar, Munich
Munich
has set a goal to reduce the number of germs until the water quality is good enough to allow bathing in the river. If this is achieved, Munich
Munich
would be one of the few big cities in Europe with a river with water of good enough quality to allow swimming in it. The sewer plants on the upper river are now treating the sewage with ultraviolet light, which greatly reduces the number of germs, but still the Isar
Isar
cannot be guaranteed safe to bathe in because of the entrance of polluted rainwater into the river, especially during strong precipitation. There are a number of natural reservations along the Isar, including special protection areas for birds, for example the natural reserve Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isarstauseen northeast of Moosburg. This area is an important resting place for migrating water birds. There has been evidence for more than 260 different species of birds, among them rare species like the common tern and the bluethroat. To preserve the beauty of the Isar
Isar
valley Gabriel von Seidl
Gabriel von Seidl
founded the Isartalverein in 1902. This first civil initiative from Munich purchased 90 hectares (220 acres) of land, and today maintains more than 330 km (210 mi) of hiking trails. Recreation[edit] There are several areas along the river Isar
Isar
that have been designated since the 1960s as nudist resorts. However, along much of its banks, even within the city of Munich, people can be seen skinny-dipping wherever they please. Notes[edit]

^ However, there is also speculative evidence that the ultimate root of the river's name may not be Indo-European at all, but from an even more ancient source (see Old European hydronymy).

References[edit]

^ a b Complete table of the Bavarian Waterbody Register by the Bavarian State Office for the Environment (xls, 10.3 MB)

External links[edit]

Tourist Information: Sights of Munich
Munich
(Isar)

v t e

The Danube

Countries

Germany Austria Slovakia Hungary Croatia Serbia Bulgaria Romania Moldova Ukraine

Cities

Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea

Tributaries

Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Isar.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 56144648311888687

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