'' has lost its leaves, but is producing adventitious roots
from the nodes.]]
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant
, the other being the root
. It supports leaves, flowers and fruits, transports water and dissolved substances between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and phloem, stores nutrients, and produces new living tissue.
The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes:
* The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as bud
s which can grow into branches (with leaves
, conifer cone
s, or inflorescence
s (flowers)). Adventitious roots
may also be produced from the nodes.
* The internodes distance one node from another.
The term "shoot
s" is often confused with "stems"; "shoots" generally refers to new fresh plant growth including both stems and other structures like leaves or flowers. In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems
Stems have four main functions which are:
* Support for and the elevation of leaves, flower
s and fruit
s. The stems keep the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to keep its flowers and fruits.
* Transport of fluids between the roots and the shoots in the xylem
* Storage of nutrients
* Production of new living tissue. The normal lifespan of plant cells is one to three years. Stems have cells called meristem
s that annually generate new living tissue.
Stems have two pipe-like tissues called xylem
. The xylem tissue transports water by the action of transpiration pull
, capillary action
and root pressure
. The phloem tissue consists of sieve tubes and their companion cells. The two tissues are separated by cambium
which is a tissue that divides to form xylem or phloem cells.
Stems are often specialized for storage, asexual reproduction, protection or photosynthesis, including the following:
: used to describe stems in plants that appear to be stemless. Actually these stems are just extremely short, the leaves appearing to rise directly out of the ground, e.g. some ''Viola''
* Arborescent: tree with woody stems normally with a single trunk.
* Axillary bud
: a bud which grows at the point of attachment of an older leaf with the stem. It potentially gives rise to a shoot.
ed: aerial stems are described as being branched or unbranched.
: an embryonic shoot with immature stem tip.
: a short vertical underground stem with fleshy storage leaves attached, e.g. onion
. Bulbs often function in reproduction by splitting to form new bulbs or producing small new bulbs termed bulblets. Bulbs are a combination of stem and leaves so may better be considered as leaves because the leaves make up the greater part.
* Caespitose: when stems grow in a tangled mass or clump or in low growing mats.
* Cladode (including phylloclade
): a flattened stem that appears more-or-less leaf like and is specialized for photosynthesis, e.g. cactus
: stems that cling or wrap around other plants or structures.
: a short enlarged underground, storage stem, e.g. taro
* Decumbent: stems that lie flat on the ground and turn upwards at the ends.
* Fruticose: stems that grow shrublike with woody like habit.
: non woody, they die at the end of the growing season.
* Internode: an interval between two successive nodes. It possesses the ability to elongate, either from its base or from its extremity depending on the species.
* Node: a point of attachment of a leaf or a twig
on the stem in seed plants. A node is a very small growth zone.
: stems that serve as the stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence
: a stem that supports an inflorescence
: a sharpened extension of the stem's outer layers, e.g. rose
* Pseudostem: a false stem made of the rolled bases of leaves, which may be tall, as in banana
: a horizontal underground stem that functions mainly in reproduction but also in storage, e.g. most fern
* Runner (plant part)
: a type of stolon, horizontally growing on top of the ground and rooting at the nodes, aids in reproduction. e.g. garden strawberry
, ''Chlorophytum comosum
: a stem that holds flowers that comes out of the ground and has no normal leaves. Hosta
: a horizontal stem that produces rooted plantlets at its nodes and ends, forming near the surface of the ground.
: a modified stem
with a sharpened point.
: a swollen, underground storage stem adapted for storage and reproduction, e.g. potato
: hard textured stems with secondary xylem.
stem cross-section, showing locations of underlying tissues. Ep = epidermis
; C = cortex
; BF = bast fibre
s; P = phloem
; X = xylem
; Pi = pith
Stem usually consist of three tissues, Epidermis (botany)|dermal tissue
, ground tissue
and vascular tissue
. The dermal tissue covers the outer surface of the stem and usually functions to waterproof, protect and control gas exchange. The ground tissue usually consists mainly of parenchyma cells and fills in around the vascular tissue. It sometimes functions in photosynthesis. Vascular tissue provides long distance transport and structural support. Most or all ground tissue may be lost in woody stems. The dermal tissue of aquatic plants stems may lack the waterproofing found in aerial stems. The arrangement of the vascular tissues varies widely among plant species.
stems with primary growth have pith
in the center, with vascular bundles forming a distinct ring visible when the stem is viewed in cross section. The outside of the stem is covered with an epidermis, which is covered by a waterproof cuticle. The epidermis also may contain stomata
for gas exchange and multicellular stem hairs called trichomes
. A cortex consisting of hypodermis
(collenchyma cells) and endodermis
(starch containing cells) is present above the pericycle
and vascular bundles.
Woody dicots and many nonwoody dicots have secondary growth
originating from their lateral or secondary meristems: the vascular cambium
and the cork cambium
or phellogen. The vascular cambium forms between the xylem and phloem in the vascular bundles and connects to form a continuous cylinder. The vascular cambium cells divide to produce secondary xylem
to the inside and secondary phloem
to the outside. As the stem increases in diameter due to production of secondary xylem and secondary phloem, the cortex and epidermis are eventually destroyed. Before the cortex is destroyed, a cork cambium develops there. The cork cambium divides to produce waterproof cork cells externally and sometimes phelloderm cells internally. Those three tissues form the periderm
, which replaces the epidermis in function. Areas of loosely packed cells in the periderm that function in gas exchange are called lenticels.
is commercially important as wood
. The seasonal variation in growth from the vascular cambium
is what creates yearly tree rings in temperate climates. Tree rings are the basis of dendrochronology
, which dates wooden objects and associated artifacts. Dendroclimatology
is the use of tree rings as a record of past climates. The aerial stem of an adult tree
is called a trunk
. The dead, usually darker inner wood of a large diameter trunk is termed the heartwood
and is the result of tylosis
. The outer, living wood is termed the sapwood.
Vascular bundles are present throughout the monocot
stem, although concentrated towards the outside. This differs from the dicot stem that has a ring of vascular bundles and often none in the center. The shoot apex in monocot stems is more elongated. Leaf sheathes grow up around it, protecting it. This is true to some extent of almost all monocots. Monocots rarely produce secondary growth
and are therefore seldom woody, with Palms
being notable exceptions. However, many monocot stems increase in diameter via anomalous secondary growth.
are woody plants. Their stems are similar in structure to woody dicots except that most gymnosperms produce only tracheid
s in their xylem, not the vessels found in dicots. Gymnosperm wood also often contains resin
ducts. Woody dicots are called hardwoods, e.g. oak
. In contrast, softwoods are gymnosperms, such as pine
Image:Redwood M D Vaden.jpg|The trunk of this redwood tree is its stem.
Image:Ferns.jpg|Tasmanian tree fern
s have rhizome
s with no vertical stem. The exception is tree ferns
, with vertical stems up to about 20 metres. The stem anatomy of ferns is more complicated than that of dicots because fern stems often have one or more leaf gaps in cross section. A leaf gap is where the vascular tissue branches off to a frond
. In cross section, the vascular tissue does not form a complete cylinder where a leaf gap occurs. Fern stems may have solenosteles
or variations of them. Many fern stems have phloem tissue on both sides of the xylem in cross-section.
Relation to xenobiotics
Foreign chemicals such as air pollutants,
[C. Michael Hogan. 2010]
''Encyclopedia of Earth''. Emily Monosson and C. Cleveland, eds. National Council for Science and the Environment . Washington, D.C.
herbicides and pesticides can damage stem structures.
right|thumb|White and green asparagus
– crispy stems are the edible parts of this vegetable
There are thousands of species whose stems have economic uses. Stems provide a few major staple crops such as potato
stems are a major source of sugar. Maple sugar
is obtained from trunks of maple
s from stems are asparagus
, bamboo shoot
s, cactus pads or nopalito
, and water chestnut
. The spice, cinnamon
is bark from a tree trunk. Gum arabic
is an important food additive obtained from the trunks of ''Acacia senegal
'' trees. Chicle
, the main ingredient in chewing gum
, is obtained from trunks of the chicle tree.
Medicines obtained from stems include quinine
from the bark of cinchona
distilled from wood of a tree in the same genus that provides cinnamon, and the muscle relaxant curare
from the bark of tropical vines.
is used in thousands of ways, e.g. buildings
parts, musical instrument
s, sports equipment
, railroad tie
s, utility pole
s, fence posts, pilings
handles, picture frame
. Wood pulp
is widely used to make paper
and some important plastic
s and textile
s, such as cellulose acetate
stems also have hundreds of uses, including paper, buildings, furniture, boats, musical instruments, fishing pole
s, water pipe
s, plant stakes, and scaffolding
. Trunks of palm trees
and tree fern
s are often used for building. Stems of Reed
are an important building material for use in thatching
in some areas.
s used for tanning leather
are obtained from the wood of certain trees, such as quebracho
is obtained from the bark of the cork oak
is obtained from the trunks of ''Hevea brasiliensis
, used for furniture and baskets, is made from the stems of tropical vining palms. Bast fiber
s for textiles and rope are obtained from stems include flax
. The earliest paper was obtained from the stems of papyrus
by the ancient Egyptians.
is fossilized sap from tree trunks; it is used for jewelry
and may contain ancient animals. Resins from conifer wood are used to produce turpentine
. Tree bark is often used as a mulch
and in growing media for container plants. It also can become the natural habitat
Some ornamental plants are grown mainly for their attractive stems, e.g.:
* White bark of paper birch
* Twisted branches of corkscrew willow
and Harry Lauder's walking stick
(''Corylus avellana'' 'Contorta')
* Red, peeling bark of paperbark maple