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Internet
Internet
Explorer[a] (formerly Microsoft
Microsoft
Internet
Internet
Explorer[b] and Windows
Windows
Internet
Internet
Explorer,[c] commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
and included in the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
line of operating systems, starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year. Later versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, and included in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) service releases of Windows
Windows
95 and later versions of Windows. The browser is discontinued, but still maintained.[2] Internet
Internet
Explorer was one of the most widely used web browsers, attaining a peak of about 95% usage share during 2002 and 2003.[5] This came after Microsoft
Microsoft
used bundling to win the first browser war against Netscape, which was the dominant browser in the 1990s. Its usage share has since declined with the launch of Firefox
Firefox
(2004) and Google Chrome
Google Chrome
(2008), and with the growing popularity of operating systems such as Android and iOS that do not run Internet
Internet
Explorer. Estimates for Internet
Internet
Explorer's market share are about 3.2% across all platforms or by StatCounter's numbers ranked 6th, while on the only platform it's ever had significant share (i.e. excluding mobile, and not counting Xbox) it's ranked 3rd at 7.28%,[6] just after Firefox (others place IE 2nd with 11.84% just ahead of), as of January 2018[update] (browser market share is notoriously difficult to calculate). Microsoft
Microsoft
spent over US$100 million per year on Internet
Internet
Explorer in the late 1990s,[7] with over 1,000 people working on it by 1999.[8][9] Versions of Internet
Internet
Explorer for other operating systems have also been produced, including an Xbox 360
Xbox 360
version called Internet
Internet
Explorer for Xbox
Xbox
and for platforms Microsoft
Microsoft
no longer supports: Internet Explorer for Mac and Internet Explorer for UNIX
Internet Explorer for UNIX
(Solaris and HP-UX), and an embedded OEM version called Pocket Internet
Internet
Explorer, later rebranded Internet Explorer Mobile
Internet Explorer Mobile
made for Windows
Windows
Phone, Windows
Windows
CE, and previously, based on Internet Explorer 7
Internet Explorer 7
for Windows
Windows
Mobile. On March 17, 2015, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced that Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge would replace Internet
Internet
Explorer as the default browser on its Windows
Windows
10 devices. This effectively makes Internet Explorer 11
Internet Explorer 11
the last release. Internet
Internet
Explorer, however, remains on Windows 10
Windows 10
primarily for enterprise purposes.[10] Starting January 12, 2016, only Internet Explorer 11 is supported.[11][12] Support varies based on the operating system's technical capabilities and its support lifecycle.[13] The browser has been scrutinized throughout its development for use of third-party technology (such as the source code of Spyglass Mosaic, used without royalty in early versions) and security and privacy vulnerabilities, and the United States and the European Union have alleged that integration of Internet
Internet
Explorer with Windows
Windows
has been to the detriment of fair browser competition.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Internet
Internet
Explorer 1 1.2 Internet
Internet
Explorer 2–10 1.3 Internet
Internet
Explorer 11 1.4 End of life

2 Features

2.1 Standards support 2.2 Non-standard extensions 2.3 Favicon 2.4 Usability and accessibility 2.5 Cache 2.6 Group Policy

3 Architecture 4 Extensibility 5 Security

5.1 Security vulnerabilities 5.2 Vulnerability exploited in attacks on U.S. firms 5.3 Major vulnerability across versions

6 Market adoption and usage share

6.1 Industry adoption

7 Removal 8 Impersonation by malware 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Internet Explorer
History of Internet Explorer
and Internet
Internet
Explorer version history Internet
Internet
Explorer 1[edit]

Internet
Internet
Explorer 1

The Internet
Internet
Explorer project was started in the summer of 1994 by Thomas Reardon, who, according to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Review of 2003,[14] used source code from Spyglass, Inc. Mosaic, which was an early commercial web browser with formal ties to the pioneering National Center for Supercomputing Applications
National Center for Supercomputing Applications
(NCSA) Mosaic browser.[15][16] In late 1994, Microsoft
Microsoft
licensed Spyglass Mosaic for a quarterly fee plus a percentage of Microsoft's non- Windows
Windows
revenues for the software.[16] Although bearing a name similar to NCSA Mosaic, Spyglass Mosaic
Spyglass Mosaic
had used the NCSA Mosaic source code sparingly.[17] The first version, dubbed Microsoft
Microsoft
Internet
Internet
Explorer, made its debut on August 16, 1995.[15][16] It was installed as part of the Internet Jumpstart Kit in Microsoft
Microsoft
Plus! for Windows
Windows
95 and Plus!.[18] The Internet
Internet
Explorer team began with about six people in early development.[17][19] Internet
Internet
Explorer 1.5 was released several months later for Windows
Windows
NT and added support for basic table rendering. By including it free of charge on their operating system, they did not have to pay royalties to Spyglass Inc, resulting in a lawsuit and a US$8 million settlement on January 22, 1997.[15][20] Microsoft
Microsoft
was sued by Synet Inc. in 1996, over the trademark infringement.[21] Internet
Internet
Explorer 2–10[edit] Main articles: Internet
Internet
Explorer 2, Internet
Internet
Explorer 3, Internet Explorer 4, Internet
Internet
Explorer 5, Internet
Internet
Explorer 6, Internet Explorer 7, Internet
Internet
Explorer 8, Internet
Internet
Explorer 9, and Internet Explorer 10

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)

Internet
Internet
Explorer 11[edit] Main article: Internet
Internet
Explorer 11 Internet Explorer 11
Internet Explorer 11
is featured in a Windows
Windows
8.1 update which was released on October 17, 2013. It includes an incomplete mechanism for syncing tabs. It is a major update to its developer tools,[22][23] enhanced scaling for high DPI screens,[24] HTML5
HTML5
prerender and prefetch,[25] hardware-accelerated JPEG
JPEG
decoding,[26] closed captioning, HTML5
HTML5
full screen,[27] and is the first Internet
Internet
Explorer to support WebGL[28][29][30] and Google's protocol SPDY (starting at v3).[31] This version of IE has features dedicated to Windows
Windows
8.1, including cryptography (WebCrypto),[22] adaptive bitrate streaming (Media Source Extensions)[32] and Encrypted Media Extensions.[27] Internet Explorer 11
Internet Explorer 11
was made available for Windows
Windows
7 users to download on November 7, 2013, with Automatic Updates in the following weeks.[33] Internet
Internet
Explorer 11's user agent string now identifies the agent as "Trident" (the underlying layout engine) instead of "MSIE". It also announces compatibility with Gecko (the layout engine of Firefox). Microsoft
Microsoft
claimed that Internet
Internet
Explorer 11, running the WebKit SunSpider JavaScript
JavaScript
Benchmark, was the fastest browser as of October 15, 2013.[34] End of life[edit] Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge, officially unveiled on January 21, 2015, has replaced Internet
Internet
Explorer as the default browser on Windows
Windows
10. Internet Explorer is still installed in Windows 10
Windows 10
in order to maintain compatibility with older websites and intranet sites that require ActiveX
ActiveX
and other Microsoft
Microsoft
legacy web technologies.[35][36][37] According to Microsoft, development of new features for Internet Explorer has ceased. However, it will continue to be maintained as part of the support policy for the versions of Windows
Windows
with which it is included.[2] Features[edit]

Page zoom
Page zoom
as seen in IE9

Internet
Internet
Explorer has been designed to view a broad range of web pages and provide certain features within the operating system, including Microsoft
Microsoft
Update. During the heyday of the browser wars, Internet Explorer superseded Netscape
Netscape
only when it caught up technologically to support the progressive features of the time.[38][better source needed] Standards support[edit] Internet
Internet
Explorer, using the Trident layout engine:

Supports HTML
HTML
4.01, HTML
HTML
5, CSS Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3, XML
XML
1.0, and DOM Level 1, with minor implementation gaps. Fully supports XSLT
XSLT
1.0 as well as an obsolete Microsoft
Microsoft
dialect of XSLT
XSLT
often referred to as WD-xsl, which was loosely based on the December 1998 W3C
W3C
Working Draft of XSL. Support for XSLT
XSLT
2.0 lies in the future: semi-official Microsoft
Microsoft
bloggers have indicated that development is underway, but no dates have been announced. Almost full conformance to CSS 2.1 has been added in the Internet Explorer 8 release.[39][40] The trident rendering engine in Internet Explorer 9 in 2011, scored highest in the official W3C
W3C
conformance test suite for CSS 2.1 of all major browsers. Supports X HTML
HTML
in Internet Explorer 9
Internet Explorer 9
(Trident version 5.0). Prior versions can render X HTML
HTML
documents authored with HTML
HTML
compatibility principles and served with a text/html MIME-type. Supports a subset[41] of SVG in Internet Explorer 9
Internet Explorer 9
(Trident version 5.0), excluding SMIL, SVG fonts and filters.

Internet
Internet
Explorer uses DOCTYPE sniffing to choose between standards mode and a "quirks mode" in which it deliberately mimicks nonstandard behaviours of old versions of MSIE for HTML
HTML
and CSS rendering on screen ( Internet
Internet
Explorer always uses standards mode for printing). It also provides its own dialect of ECMAScript called JScript. Internet
Internet
Explorer was criticised by Tim Berners-Lee
Tim Berners-Lee
for its limited support for SVG which is promoted by W3C.[42] Non-standard extensions[edit] Internet
Internet
Explorer has introduced an array of proprietary extensions to many of the standards, including HTML, CSS, and the DOM. This has resulted in a number of web pages that appear broken in standards-compliant web browsers and has introduced the need for a "quirks mode" to allow for rendering improper elements meant for Internet
Internet
Explorer in these other browsers. Internet
Internet
Explorer has introduced a number of extensions to the DOM that have been adopted by other browsers. These include the innerHTML property, which provides access to the HTML
HTML
string within an element[citation needed] ; the XMLHttpRequest object, which allows the sending of HTTP
HTTP
request and receiving of HTTP
HTTP
response, and may be used to perform AJAX; and the designMode attribute of the contentDocument object, which enables rich text editing of HTML documents[citation needed] . Some of these functionalities were not possible until the introduction of the W3C
W3C
DOM methods. Its Ruby character extension to HTML
HTML
is also accepted as a module in W3C
W3C
XHTML 1.1, though it is not found in all versions of W3C
W3C
HTML. Microsoft
Microsoft
submitted several other features of IE for consideration by the W3C
W3C
for standardization. These include the 'behaviour' CSS property, which connects the HTML
HTML
elements with JScript behaviours (known as HTML
HTML
Components, HTC); HTML+TIME profile, which adds timing and media synchronization support to HTML
HTML
documents (similar to the W3C
W3C
XHTML+SMIL), and the VML
VML
vector graphics file format. However, all were rejected, at least in their original forms; VML
VML
was subsequently combined with PGML (proposed by Adobe and Sun), resulting in the W3C-approved SVG format, one of the few vector image formats being used on the web, which IE did not support until version 9.[43] Other non-standard behaviours include: support for vertical text, but in a syntax different from W3C
W3C
CSS3
CSS3
candidate recommendation, support for a variety of image effects[44] and page transitions, which are not found in W3C
W3C
CSS, support for obfuscated script code, in particular JScript.Encode.[45] Support for embedding EOT fonts in web pages.[46] Favicon[edit] Support for favicons was first added in Internet
Internet
Explorer 5.[47] Internet
Internet
Explorer supports favicons in PNG, static GIF
GIF
and native Windows
Windows
icon formats. In Windows
Windows
Vista and later, Internet
Internet
Explorer can display native Windows
Windows
icons that have embedded PNG files.[48][49] Usability and accessibility[edit] Internet
Internet
Explorer makes use of the accessibility framework provided in Windows. Internet
Internet
Explorer is also a user interface for FTP, with operations similar to that of Windows
Windows
Explorer. Pop-up blocking
Pop-up blocking
and tabbed browsing were added respectively in Internet Explorer 6
Internet Explorer 6
and Internet
Internet
Explorer 7. Tabbed browsing
Tabbed browsing
can also be added to older versions by installing MSN Search Toolbar
MSN Search Toolbar
or Yahoo Toolbar. Cache[edit] Main articles: Temporary Internet Files and Index.dat Internet
Internet
Explorer caches visited content in the Temporary Internet Files folder to allow quicker access (or offline access) to previously visited pages. The content is indexed in a database file, known as Index.dat. Multiple Index.dat files exist which index different content—visited content, web feeds, visited URLs, cookies, etc.[50] Prior to IE7, clearing the cache used to clear the index but the files themselves were not reliably removed, posing a potential security and privacy risk. In IE7 and later, when the cache is cleared, the cache files are more reliably removed, and the index.dat file is overwritten with null bytes. Caching has been improved in IE9.[51] Group Policy[edit] Main article: Group Policy Internet
Internet
Explorer is fully configurable using Group Policy. Administrators of Windows
Windows
Server domains (for domain-joined computers) or the local computer can apply and enforce a variety of settings on computers that affect the user interface (such as disabling menu items and individual configuration options), as well as underlying security features such as downloading of files, zone configuration, per-site settings, ActiveX
ActiveX
control behaviour and others. Policy settings can be configured for each user and for each machine. Internet
Internet
Explorer also supports Integrated Windows
Windows
Authentication. Architecture[edit]

The architecture of IE8. Previous versions had a similar architecture, except that both tabs and the UI were within the same process. Consequently, each browser window could have only one "tab process".

Internet
Internet
Explorer uses a componentized architecture built on the Component Object Model (COM) technology. It consists of several major components, each of which is contained in a separate Dynamic-link library (DLL) and exposes a set of COM programming interfaces hosted by the Internet
Internet
Explorer main executable, iexplore.exe:[52]

WinInet.dll is the protocol handler for HTTP, HTTPS
HTTPS
and FTP. It handles all network communication over these protocols. URLMon.dll is responsible for MIME-type handling and download of web content, and provides a thread-safe wrapper around WinInet.dll and other protocol implementations. MSHTML.dll houses the Trident rendering engine introduced in Internet Explorer 4, which is responsible for displaying the pages on-screen and handling the Document Object Model
Document Object Model
of the web pages. MSHTML.dll parses the HTML/CSS file and creates the internal DOM tree representation of it. It also exposes a set of APIs for runtime inspection and modification of the DOM tree. The DOM tree is further processed by a layout engine which then renders the internal representation on screen. IEFrame.dll contains the user interface and window of IE in Internet Explorer 7 and above. ShDocVw.dll provides the navigation, local caching and history functionalities for the browser. BrowseUI.dll is responsible for rendering the browser user interface such as menus and toolbars.[53]

Internet
Internet
Explorer does not include any native scripting functionality. Rather, MSHTML.dll exposes an API that permits a programmer to develop a scripting environment to be plugged-in and to access the DOM tree. Internet Explorer 8
Internet Explorer 8
includes the bindings for the Active Scripting engine, which is a part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
and allows any language implemented as an Active Scripting module to be used for client-side scripting. By default, only the JScript and VBScript modules are provided; third party implementations like ScreamingMonkey (for ECMAScript 4 support) can also be used. Microsoft
Microsoft
also makes available the Microsoft
Microsoft
Silverlight runtime (not supported in Windows
Windows
RT) that allows CLI languages, including DLR-based dynamic languages like IronPython
IronPython
and IronRuby, to be used for client-side scripting. Internet Explorer 8
Internet Explorer 8
introduces some major architectural changes, called Loosely Coupled IE (LCIE). LCIE separates the main window process (frame process) from the processes hosting the different web applications in different tabs (tab processes). A frame process can create multiple tab processes, each of which can be of a different integrity level; each tab process can host multiple web sites. The processes use asynchronous Inter-Process Communication
Inter-Process Communication
to synchronize themselves. Generally, there will be a single frame process for all web sites. In Windows
Windows
Vista with Protected Mode turned on, however, opening privileged content (such as local HTML
HTML
pages) will create a new tab process as it will not be constrained by Protected Mode.[54] Extensibility[edit] See also: Component Object Model and Browser Helper Object Internet
Internet
Explorer exposes a set of Component Object Model (COM) interfaces that allows add-ons to extend the functionality of the browser.[52] Extensibility is divided into two types: Browser extensibility and content extensibility. Browser extensibility involves adding context menu entries, toolbars, menu items or Browser Helper Objects (BHO). BHOs are used to extend the feature set of the browser, whereas the other extensibility options are used to expose that feature in the user interface. Content extensibility adds support for non-native content formats.[52] It allows Internet
Internet
Explorer to handle new file formats and new protocols, e.g. WebM
WebM
or SPDY.[52] In addition, web pages can integrate widgets known as ActiveX
ActiveX
controls which run on Windows
Windows
only but have vast potentials to extend the content capabilities; Adobe Flash Player
Adobe Flash Player
and Microsoft
Microsoft
Silverlight are examples.[52] Add-ons can be installed either locally, or directly by a web site. Since malicious add-ons can compromise the security of a system, Internet
Internet
Explorer implements several safeguards. Internet
Internet
Explorer 6 with Service Pack 2 and later feature an Add-on Manager for enabling or disabling individual add-ons, complemented by a "No Add-Ons" mode. Starting with Windows
Windows
Vista, Internet
Internet
Explorer and its BHOs run with restricted privileges and are isolated from the rest of the system. Internet Explorer 9
Internet Explorer 9
introduced a new component – Add-on Performance Advisor. Add-on Performance Advisor shows a notification when one or more of installed add-ons exceed a pre-set performance threshold. The notification appears in the Notification Bar when the user launches the browser. Windows
Windows
8 and Windows
Windows
RT introduce a Metro-style version of Internet
Internet
Explorer that is entirely sandboxed and does not run add-ons at all.[55] In addition, Windows
Windows
RT cannot download or install ActiveX
ActiveX
controls at all; although existing ones bundled with Windows
Windows
RT still run in the traditional version of Internet
Internet
Explorer.[55] Internet
Internet
Explorer itself can be hosted by other applications via a set of COM interfaces. This can be used to embed the browser functionality inside a computer program or create Internet
Internet
Explorer shells.[52] Security[edit] See also: Browser security Internet
Internet
Explorer uses a zone-based security framework that groups sites based on certain conditions, including whether it is an Internet- or intranet-based site as well as a user-editable whitelist. Security restrictions are applied per zone; all the sites in a zone are subject to the restrictions. Internet Explorer 6
Internet Explorer 6
SP2 onwards uses the Attachment Execution Service of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
to mark executable files downloaded from the Internet
Internet
as being potentially unsafe. Accessing files marked as such will prompt the user to make an explicit trust decision to execute the file, as executables originating from the Internet
Internet
can be potentially unsafe. This helps in preventing accidental installation of malware. Internet Explorer 7
Internet Explorer 7
introduced the phishing filter, that restricts access to phishing sites unless the user overrides the decision. With version 8, it also blocks access to sites known to host malware. Downloads are also checked to see if they are known to be malware-infected. In Windows
Windows
Vista, Internet
Internet
Explorer by default runs in what is called Protected Mode, where the privileges of the browser itself are severely restricted—it cannot make any system-wide changes. One can optionally turn this mode off but this is not recommended. This also effectively restricts the privileges of any add-ons. As a result, even if the browser or any add-on is compromised, the damage the security breach can cause is limited. Patches and updates to the browser are released periodically and made available through the Windows
Windows
Update service, as well as through Automatic Updates. Although security patches continue to be released for a range of platforms, most feature additions and security infrastructure improvements are only made available on operating systems which are in Microsoft's mainstream support phase. On December 16, 2008, Trend Micro
Trend Micro
recommended users switch to rival browsers until an emergency patch was released to fix a potential security risk which "could allow outside users to take control of a person's computer and steal their passwords". Microsoft representatives countered this recommendation, claiming that "0.02% of internet sites" were affected by the flaw. A fix for the issue was released the following day with the Security Update for Internet Explorer KB960714, on Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
Update. [56][57] In 2011, a report by Accuvant, funded by Google, rated the security (based on sandboxing) of Internet
Internet
Explorer worse than Google
Google
Chrome but better than Mozilla
Mozilla
Firefox.[58][59] A more recent browser security white paper comparing Google
Google
Chrome, Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge, and Internet Explorer 11
Internet Explorer 11
by X41 D-Sec in 2017 came to similar conclusions, also based on sandboxing and support of legacy web technologies.[60] Security vulnerabilities[edit] See also: Comparison of web browsers
Comparison of web browsers
§ Security and vulnerabilities Internet
Internet
Explorer has been subjected to many security vulnerabilities and concerns: much of the spyware, adware, and computer viruses across the Internet
Internet
are made possible by exploitable bugs and flaws in the security architecture of Internet
Internet
Explorer, sometimes requiring nothing more than viewing of a malicious web page in order to install themselves. This is known as a "drive-by install". There are also attempts to trick the user into installing malicious software by misrepresenting the software's true purpose in the description section of an ActiveX
ActiveX
security alert. A number of security flaws affecting IE originated not in the browser itself, but ActiveX-based add-ons used by it. Because the add-ons have the same privilege as IE, the flaws can be as critical as browser flaws. This has led to the ActiveX-based architecture being criticized for being fault-prone. By 2005, some experts maintained that the dangers of ActiveX
ActiveX
have been overstated and there were safeguards in place.[61] In 2006, new techniques using automated testing found more than a hundred vulnerabilities in standard Microsoft
Microsoft
ActiveX components.[62] Security features introduced in Internet
Internet
Explorer 7 mitigated some of these vulnerabilities. Internet
Internet
Explorer in 2008, had a number of published security vulnerabilities. According to research done by security research firm Secunia, Microsoft
Microsoft
did not respond as quickly as its competitors in fixing security holes and making patches available.[63] The firm also reported 366 vulnerabilities in ActiveX
ActiveX
controls, an increase from the prior year. According to an October 2010 report in The Register, researcher Chris Evans had detected a known security vulnerability which, then dating back to 2008, had not been fixed for at least 600 days.[64] Microsoft says that it had known about this vulnerability but it was of very low severity as the victim web site must be configured in a special way for this attack to be feasible at all.[65] In December 2010, researchers were able to bypass the "Protected Mode" feature in Internet
Internet
Explorer.[66] Vulnerability exploited in attacks on U.S. firms[edit] Main article: Operation Aurora

Browser Market Share Worldwide July 2017[67]    Google
Google
Chrome   Firefox   Safari   UC Browser    Internet
Internet
Explorer   Opera   No info

In an advisory on January 14, 2010, Microsoft
Microsoft
said that attackers targeting Google
Google
and other U.S. companies used software that exploits a security hole, which had already been patched, in Internet
Internet
Explorer. The vulnerability affected Internet Explorer 6
Internet Explorer 6
on Windows
Windows
XP and Server 2003, IE6 SP1 on Windows
Windows
2000 SP4, IE7 on Windows
Windows
Vista, XP, Server 2008 and Server 2003, and IE8 on Windows
Windows
7, Vista, XP, Server 2003, and Server 2008 (R2).[68] The German government warned users against using Internet
Internet
Explorer and recommended switching to an alternative web browser, due to the major security hole described above that was exploited in Internet Explorer.[69] The Australian and French Government issued a similar warning a few days later.[70][71][72][73] Major vulnerability across versions[edit] On April 26, 2014, Microsoft
Microsoft
issued a security advisory relating to CVE-2014-1776 (use-after-free vulnerability in Microsoft
Microsoft
Internet Explorer 6 through 11[74]), a vulnerability that could allow "remote code execution" in Internet Explorer versions
Internet Explorer versions
6 to 11.[75] On April 28, 2014, the United States Department of Homeland Security's United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) released an advisory stating that the vulnerability could result in "the complete compromise" of an affected system.[76] US-CERT recommended reviewing Microsoft's suggestions to mitigate an attack or using an alternate browser until the bug is fixed.[77][78] The UK National Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-UK) published an advisory announcing similar concerns and for users to take the additional step of ensuring their antivirus software is up-to-date.[79] Symantec, a cyber security firm, confirmed that "the vulnerability crashes Internet
Internet
Explorer on Windows
Windows
XP".[80] The vulnerability was resolved on May 1, 2014, with a security update.[81] Market adoption and usage share[edit] See also: History of Internet Explorer
History of Internet Explorer
§ Market adoption and usage share, and Usage share of web browsers

Usage share of web browsers
Usage share of web browsers
according to StatCounter

Historical market share of Internet
Internet
Explorer

The adoption rate of Internet
Internet
Explorer seems to be closely related to that of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows, as it is the default web browser that comes with Windows. Since the integration of Internet
Internet
Explorer 2.0 with Windows
Windows
95 OSR 1 in 1996, and especially after version 4.0's release in 1997, the adoption was greatly accelerated: from below 20% in 1996, to about 40% in 1998, and over 80% in 2000. This made Microsoft
Microsoft
the winner in the infamous 'first browser war' against Netscape. Netscape Navigator was the dominant browser during 1995 and until 1997, but rapidly lost share to IE starting in 1998, and eventually slipped behind in 1999. The integration of IE with Windows
Windows
led to a lawsuit by AOL, Netscape's owner, accusing Microsoft
Microsoft
of unfair competition. The infamous case was eventually won by AOL
AOL
but by then it was too late, as Internet
Internet
Explorer had already become the dominant browser. Internet
Internet
Explorer peaked during 2002 and 2003, with about 95% share. Its first notable competitor after beating Netscape
Netscape
was Firefox
Firefox
from Mozilla, which itself was an offshoot from Netscape. Firefox
Firefox
1.0 had surpassed Internet Explorer 5
Internet Explorer 5
in early 2005, with Firefox
Firefox
1.0 at roughly 8 percent market share.[82] Approximate usage over time based on various usage share counters averaged for the year overall, or for the fourth quarter, or for the last month in the year depending on availability of reference.[83][84][85][86][87][88] According to StatCounter
StatCounter
Internet
Internet
Explorer's marketshare fell below 50% in September 2010.[89] In May 2012, it was announced that Google Chrome overtook Internet
Internet
Explorer as the most used browser worldwide.

Industry adoption[edit] Browser Helper Objects
Browser Helper Objects
are also used by many search engine companies and third parties for creating add-ons that access their services, such as search engine toolbars. Because of the use of COM, it is possible to embed web-browsing functionality in third-party applications. Hence, there are a number of Internet
Internet
Explorer shells, and a number of content-centric applications like RealPlayer
RealPlayer
also use Internet
Internet
Explorer's web browsing module for viewing web pages within the applications. Removal[edit] Main article: Removal of Internet
Internet
Explorer While a major upgrade of Internet
Internet
Explorer can be uninstalled in a traditional way if the user has saved the original application files for installation, the matter of uninstalling the version of the browser that has shipped with an operating system remains a controversial one. The idea of removing a stock install of Internet
Internet
Explorer from a Windows
Windows
system was proposed during the United States v. Microsoft Corp. case. One of Microsoft's arguments during the trial was that removing Internet
Internet
Explorer from Windows
Windows
may result in system instability. Indeed, programs that depend on libraries installed by IE, including Windows
Windows
help and support system, fail to function without IE. Before Windows
Windows
Vista, it was not possible to run Windows Update without IE because the service used ActiveX
ActiveX
technology, which no other web browser supports. Impersonation by malware[edit] The popularity of Internet
Internet
Explorer has led to the appearance of malware abusing its name. On January 28, 2011, a fake Internet Explorer browser calling itself " Internet
Internet
Explorer – Emergency Mode" appeared. It closely resembles the real Internet
Internet
Explorer, but has fewer buttons and no search bar. If a user launches any other browser such as Google
Google
Chrome, Mozilla
Mozilla
Firefox, Opera, Safari or the real Internet
Internet
Explorer, this browser will pop-up instead. It also displays a fake error message, claiming that the computer is infected with malware and Internet
Internet
Explorer has entered Emergency Mode. It blocks access to legitimate sites such as Google
Google
if infected users try to access them.[90][91] See also[edit]

Microsoft
Microsoft
portal Internet
Internet
portal Software portal

Bing Bar History of the web browser List of web browsers Month of bugs Web 2.0 Windows
Windows
Filtering Platform Winsock

Notes[edit]

^ Since version 10 ^ In version 6 and earlier ^ In versions 7, 8, and 9

References[edit]

^ "Cumulative security update for Internet
Internet
Explorer: March 13, 2018". Support (18 ed.). Microsoft. 13 March 2018.  ^ a b c "Frequently Asked Questions". Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge Development. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2016-07-16. The latest features and platform updates will only be available in Microsoft Edge. We will continue to deliver security updates to Internet Explorer 11 through its supported lifespan. To ensure consistent behavior across Windows
Windows
versions, we will evaluate Internet
Internet
Explorer 11 bugs for servicing on a case by case basis.  ^ " Internet Explorer 10
Internet Explorer 10
for Windows
Windows
7 released in 95 languages".  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Pre-Release Software License Terms: Internet
Internet
Explorer 11 Developer Preview". microsoft.com. Microsoft. Retrieved July 27, 2013.  ^ "Microsoft's Internet
Internet
Explorer losing browser share". BBC.  ^ "Desktop Browser Market Share Worldwide StatCounter
StatCounter
Global Stats". StatCounter
StatCounter
Global Stats. Retrieved 2018-02-08.  ^ "Victor: Software empire pays high price". CNET
CNET
News. CBS Interactive. Retrieved October 17, 2008.  ^ "The rise, fall, and rehabilitation of Internet
Internet
Explorer". citeworld.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.  ^ Paul Maritz. "U.S. Antitrust Case 98-1232". justice.gov. Retrieved February 6, 2015. There is talk about how we get more $'s from the 1000+ people we have working on browser related stuff...  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
is killing off the Internet
Internet
Explorer brand". The Verge. Vox Media. March 17, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2015.  ^ "What is the Microsoft
Microsoft
Lifecycle Support policy for Internet Explorer?". March 31, 2016. Compared with older versions of Internet Explorer, Internet Explorer 11
Internet Explorer 11
offers improved security  ^ "Stay up-to-date with Internet
Internet
Explorer". Microsofts's MSDN blog. August 7, 2014. Retrieved August 29, 2014.  ^ " Internet
Internet
Explorer Support Lifecycle Policy FAQ". Retrieved 2015-03-18.  ^ "Thomas Reardon, 34". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 18 January 2015.  ^ a b c Elstrom, Peter (January 22, 1997). "Microsoft's $8 Million Goodbye to Spyglass". Businessweek. Bloomberg L.P.
Bloomberg L.P.
Archived from the original on June 29, 1997. Retrieved February 9, 2011.  ^ a b c Thurrott, Paul (January 22, 1997). " Microsoft
Microsoft
and Spyglass kiss and make up". Windows
Windows
IT Pro. Penton. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2011.  ^ a b "Memoirs From the Browser Wars". Ericsink.com. Retrieved October 17, 2008.  ^ Hardmeier, Sandi (August 25, 2005). "The History of Internet Explorer". Microsoft. Retrieved February 9, 2011.  ^ Borland, John (April 15, 2003). "Software empire pays high price". CNET
CNET
News. CBS Interactive. Retrieved February 9, 2011.  ^ Thurrott, Paul (January 22, 1997). " Microsoft
Microsoft
and Spyglass kiss and make up". WindowsITPro. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2011.  ^ Goodwins, Rupert (August 15, 1996). " Microsoft
Microsoft
sued by minnow over Internet
Internet
Explorer name". ZDNet. Retrieved August 15, 2011.  ^ a b Thurrott, Paul (July 25, 2013). " Internet Explorer 11
Internet Explorer 11
Developer Preview for Windows
Windows
7". Paul Thurrott's SuperSite for Windows. Penton. Retrieved July 26, 2013.  ^ "What's new in F12 Tools (Preliminary)". MSDN. Microsoft. June 26, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.  ^ "High DPI support (Preliminary)". MSDN. Microsoft. July 25, 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2013.  ^ "Prerender and prefetch support (Preliminary)". MSDN. Microsoft. July 25, 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2013.  ^ Bradley, Tony (July 26, 2013). "Why Internet Explorer 11
Internet Explorer 11
is the right browser for business". PC World. IDG. Retrieved July 27, 2013.  ^ a b Brinkmann, Martin (July 25, 2013). "The Internet
Internet
Explorer 11 Preview for Windows
Windows
7 is now available". Ghacks.net. ghacks Technology News. Retrieved July 27, 2013.  ^ "Latest Windows
Windows
8.1 build beefs up IE developer tools". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved May 29, 2013.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
teases Internet Explorer 11
Internet Explorer 11
WebGL
WebGL
support on Vine". The Verge. Retrieved May 29, 2013.  ^ " WebGL
WebGL
(Preliminary)". MSDN. Microsoft. July 25, 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2013.  ^ Lardinois, Frederic (June 26, 2013). " Microsoft
Microsoft
Confirms IE11 Will Support Google's SPDY Protocol". TechCrunch. Aol. Retrieved September 10, 2013.  ^ Williams, Mike (July 26, 2013). " Internet Explorer 11
Internet Explorer 11
Developer Preview now available for Windows
Windows
7". BetaNews. BetaNews, Inc. Retrieved July 27, 2013.  ^ "IE11 for Windows
Windows
7 Globally Available for Consumers and Businesses". Retrieved November 8, 2013.  ^ " WebKit
WebKit
SunSpider JavaScript
JavaScript
Benchmark Results". ie.microsoft.com. Retrieved October 23, 2013.  ^ Weber, Jason (January 21, 2015). "Spartan and the Windows 10
Windows 10
January Preview Build". IEBlog. Microsoft.  ^ Rossi, Jacob (November 11, 2014). "Living on the Edge – our next step in helping the web just work". IEBlog. Microsoft.  ^ Warren, Tom (January 27, 2015). " Microsoft
Microsoft
reveals its Internet Explorer successor will support extensions". The Verge. Vox Media.  ^ Brian wilson. " Netscape
Netscape
Navigator — Browser History: Netscape explains that by the fourth generations of both browsers, Internet Explorer had caught up technologically with Netscape's browser ... Netscape
Netscape
6.0 was considered slow and buggy, and adoption was slow to occur". blooberry.com. Retrieved September 26, 2010.  ^ " Internet Explorer 8
Internet Explorer 8
Beta 1 Whitepapers". MSDN. Retrieved March 11, 2008.  ^ Hopkins, James. "IE8 Bugs". Archived from the original on August 1, 2009.  ^ "Summary results of W3C
W3C
test suite on multiple browsers, different versions and browser plugins". Retrieved April 15, 2011.  ^ Svensson, Peter (September 10, 2008). "Creator of Web spots a flaw in Internet
Internet
Explorer". msnbc.msn.com. Retrieved November 16, 2008.  ^ "SVG Support Tables". codedread.com.  ^ "Filter Tool (WebFX)". webfx.eae.net. May 12, 2005.  ^ "Using Script Encoder". microsoft.com. May 12, 2005.  ^ "Font Embedding for the Web". microsoft.com.  ^ "How to Add a Shortcut Icon to a Web Page". MSDN. Microsoft. Retrieved March 25, 2014.  ^ Davis, Jeff (December 27, 2007). "why doesn't the favicon for my site appear in IE7?". jeffdav on code. Microsoft. Retrieved March 11, 2013.  ^ "Fun with Favicons". Microsoft. September 7, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013.  ^ Windows
Windows
Core Networking Team. "A bit about WinInet's Index.dat". MSDN blogs. Retrieved March 7, 2008.  ^ " Internet Explorer 9
Internet Explorer 9
Network Performance Improvements". Retrieved January 16, 2017.  ^ a b c d e f " Internet
Internet
Explorer Architecture". MSDN. Retrieved January 10, 2007.  ^ Wilson, Chris. "Inside IE8 Beta 1 for Developers". MSDN Channel9. Retrieved March 7, 2008.  ^ "IE8 and Loosely Coupled IE". Retrieved March 18, 2008.  ^ a b McSherry, Tony (January 20, 2013). "A look at Internet
Internet
Explorer 10 on Windows
Windows
RT". TechRepublic. CBS Interactive.  ^ "Security risk detected in Internet
Internet
Explorer software". Belfast Telegraph. December 16, 2008.  ^ "Serious security flaw found in IE". BBC News. December 16, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2010.  ^ Goodin, Dan (December 9, 2011). "Chrome is the most secured browser – new study". The Register. Retrieved October 15, 2012.  ^ Accuvant Study Finds Chrome is Most Secure Browser, eSecurity Planet, December 13, 2011, retrieved May 22, 2012  ^ "Browser Security White Paper" (PDF). X41-Dsec GmbH. September 18, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2017.  ^ Seltzer, Larry (April 14, 2005). "The Lame Blame of ActiveX". Security—Opinions. eWeek. Retrieved April 7, 2006.  ^ Lemos, Robert (July 31, 2006). " ActiveX
ActiveX
security faces storm before calm". Security Focus. Retrieved July 11, 2009.  ^ " Secunia
Secunia
2008 Report" (PDF). Secunia.  ^ Goodin, Dan (November 1, 2010). " Internet
Internet
Explorer info leak festers for 2 years". San Francisco: The Register. Retrieved November 2, 2010.  ^ Naraine, Ryan (November 1, 2010). "Two-year-old data leakage flaw still haunts Internet
Internet
Explorer". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 2, 2010.  ^ "Researchers bypass Internet
Internet
Explorer Protected Mode". December 3, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010.  ^ "Top Browsers Per Country, July 2017". Statcounter. 2017. Retrieved 2017-08-02.  ^ Mills, Elinor (January 14, 2010). "New IE hole exploited in attacks on U.S. firms". CNET
CNET
News. CBS Interactive. Retrieved September 26, 2010.  ^ Emery, Daniel (January 16, 2010). " Germany
Germany
issues Explorer warning". BBC News. Retrieved March 26, 2010.  ^ Fildes, Jonathan (January 18, 2010). "France in fresh Explorer warning". BBC News. Retrieved March 26, 2010.  ^ Emily Bourke for AM (January 19, 2010). "Govt issues IE security warning". abc.net.au. Retrieved September 26, 2010.  ^ Martinez-Cabrera, Alejandro (January 18, 2010). "The Technology Chronicles : France and Germany
Germany
warn users not to use Internet Explorer". The San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle.  ^ Govan, Fiona (January 18, 2010). " Germany
Germany
warns against using Microsoft
Microsoft
Internet
Internet
Explorer". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved March 26, 2010.  ^ "CVE-2014-1776". Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE). 2014-01-29. Retrieved 2017-05-16.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Security Advisory 2963983". Microsoft. April 26, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.  ^ Finkle, Jim (April 28, 2014). "U.S., UK advise avoiding Internet Explorer until bug fixed". Reuters. Retrieved April 28, 2014.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Internet
Internet
Explorer Use-After-Free Vulnerability Guidance". United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team. April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.  ^ "Vulnerability Note VU#222929 – Microsoft
Microsoft
Internet
Internet
Explorer use-after-free vulnerability". Carnegie Mellon University. April 27, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.  ^ "U.S.: Stop using Internet
Internet
Explorer until security holes are fixed". Chicago Tribune. April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
warns of Internet
Internet
Explorer flaw". BBC. April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Security Bulletin MS14-021 – Critical Security Update for Internet
Internet
Explorer (2965111)". Microsoft
Microsoft
Technet. May 1, 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2014.  ^ "Market share for browsers, operating systems and search engines". marketshare.hitslink.com.  ^ "Market share for browsers, operating systems and search engines". marketshare.hitslink.com. Retrieved February 9, 2011.  ^ Borland, John. Browser wars: High price, huge rewards, ZDNet, April 15, 2003. Accessed June 2, 2012. ^ "TheCounter.com: The Full-Featured Web Counter with Graphic Reports and Detailed Information". Thecounter.com. Archived from the original on October 3, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.  ^ "TheCounter.com: The Full-Featured Web Counter with Graphic Reports and Detailed Information". Thecounter.com. Archived from the original on October 2, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.  ^ "CNN — Behind the numbers: Browser market share — October 8, 1998". Cnn.com. Archived from the original on August 16, 2000. Retrieved October 17, 2008.  ^ "Web Analytics Online Business Optimization by Omniture". Omniture.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.  ^ Goldman, David (October 6, 2010). " Internet
Internet
Explorer usage falls below 50%". CNN. Retrieved October 6, 2010.  ^ "IE Emergency Mode". im-infected.com. January 28, 2011. Archived from the original on June 30, 2011. Retrieved June 23, 2013.  ^ "Bleeping Computer – Fake IE Emergency Mode (by fake AVG)". January 28, 2011. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

"Index DOT Html and Index DOT Css". Browser History: Windows
Windows
Internet Explorer. Retrieved December 22, 2013.  Hachamovitch, Dean (July 27, 2005). " Windows
Windows
Vista & IE7 Beta 1 Available". IEBlog. Microsoft. Retrieved December 22, 2013.  Wilson, Chris (July 30, 2005). "Standards and CSS in IE". IEBlog. Microsoft. Retrieved December 22, 2013.  Graff, Scott (October 7, 2006). "IE7 Is Coming This Month". IEBlog. Microsoft. Retrieved December 22, 2013.  "IE7 Platforms And Outlook Express". IEBlog. Microsoft. March 1, 2005. Retrieved December 22, 2013.  "Gates Highlights Progress on Security, Outlines Next Steps for Continued Innovation". News Center. Microsoft. February 15, 2005. Retrieved December 22, 2013.  Williams, Mary-Lynne; MacNeil, Leslie; Hall, Marty (September 17, 2010). Hachamovitch, Dean, ed. "User Experiences: Evolving the blue "e"". IEBlog. Microsoft. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Internet
Internet
Explorer.

Wikinews has related news: France, Germany
Germany
officials warn against using Internet
Internet
Explorer

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Internet
Internet
Explorer

Official website

Internet
Internet
Explorer Architecture

IE Leak Patterns – Microsoft's analysis of how webpages can cause memory leaks in Internet
Internet
Explorer, and how developers can prevent them

v t e

Internet
Internet
Explorer

Versions

Main

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Other

Mobile for Mac for UNIX IEs4Linux

Overview

History Add-ons Box model Browser Helper Object
Browser Helper Object
(BHO) Easter eggs Extensions Removal Shells

Technologies

Accelerator ActiveX Dynamic HTML

HTA HTML
HTML
Components

favicon.ico HTML+TIME Index.dat JScript MHTML MSXML RSS
RSS
Platform Smart tags Temporary Internet
Internet
Files Vector Markup Language Web Slice WPAD XHR/XDomainRequest

Software & engines

Administration Kit Developer Tools Integrated Windows
Windows
Authentication Tasman Trident

Chakra

Implementations

Active Channel Active Desktop ActiveMovie Channel Definition Format (.cdf) Comic Chat/Chat 2.0 DirectX
DirectX
Media Internet
Internet
Mail and News Microsoft
Microsoft
Java Virtual Machine (MSJVM) MSN Explorer MSN for Mac OS X NetMeeting NetShow Outlook Express Server Gated Cryptography (SGC) Spyglass Windows
Windows
Address Book Windows
Windows
Desktop Update

Events

First browser war Second browser war Download.ject Eolas v. Microsoft Sun v. Microsoft United States v. Microsoft
Microsoft
Corp.

People

Tantek Çelik Thomas Reardon Dean Hachamovitch Scott Isaacs Inori Aizawa

Category Commons Microsoft
Microsoft
portal Internet
Internet
portal

v t e

Web browsers

Comparison

lightweight

History List

for Unix

Timeline Usage share

Features

Ad filtering Augmented browsing Bookmarks

Bookmarklet Live bookmark Smart Bookmarks

Browser extension Browser security Browser synchronizer

comparison

Cookies Download manager Favicon Incremental search Plug-in Privacy mode Tabs Universal Edit Button

Web standards

Acid tests Cascading Style Sheets HTML HTML5 JavaScript MathML SVG WebGL XHTML

Protocols

HTTP HTTPS OCSP SPDY SSL/TLS WebSocket WPAD

Related topics

BrowserChoice.eu CRL iLoo Internet
Internet
suite Man-in-the-browser Mobile Web Offline reader PAC Pwn2Own Rich Internet
Internet
application Site-specific browser Widget World Wide Web XML

Desktop

Blink-based

Brave Chrome Chromium Dragon Falkon Opera Sleipnir Slimjet SRWare Iron UC Browser Vivaldi Yandex Browser Sputnik SafeZone Whale

Gecko-based

AT&T Pogo Avant Camino Firefox

Conkeror GNU IceCat IceDragon Swiftfox Swiftweasel TenFourFox Timberwolf Tor Browser Waterfox xB Browser

Galeon Ghostzilla Goanna

Basilisk Pale Moon

K-Meleon Kazehakase Kirix Strata Lotus Symphony Lunascape Mozilla

Beonex Communicator Classilla Netscape SeaMonkey

Trident-based

AOL
AOL
Explorer Avant Deepnet Explorer GreenBrowser Internet
Internet
Explorer Lunascape Maxthon MediaBrowser MenuBox NeoPlanet NetCaptor SlimBrowser SpaceTime UltraBrowser WebbIE ZAC Browser

WebKit-based

Arora Avant Dooble Epic Flock Fluid iCab Konqueror Lunascape Maxthon Midori OmniWeb Origyn Web Browser Otter Browser QtWeb rekonq Safari Shiira SlimBoat surf Torch Uzbl Epiphany WebPositive xombrero

Text-based

ELinks Emacs/W3 Line Mode Browser Links Lynx w3m

Other

abaco Amaya Arachne Arena Charon Dillo eww Gazelle HotJava IBM Home Page Reader IBrowse KidZui Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge Mosaic Mothra NetPositive NetSurf Qihoo 360 Secure Browser

Mobile

Blink-based

Android Browser Chromium

Brave Chrome for Android Opera Mobile Silk

Firefox
Firefox
Focus for Android

Gecko-based

Firefox
Firefox
for Android MicroB Minimo Waterfox

WebKit-based

BOLT Dolphin Browser Chrome for iOS Firefox
Firefox
for iOS Firefox
Firefox
Focus for iOS Maxthon Mercury Browser Nokia Browser for Symbian Opera Coast Rockmelt Safari Steel

Other

Blazer CM Browser Deepfish Internet
Internet
Explorer Mobile Iris Browser Konqueror
Konqueror
Embedded Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge NetFront Opera Mini Skweezer Skyfire Teashark ThunderHawk UC Browser Vision WinWAP

Television and video game console

Gecko-based

Kylo

Presto-based

Internet
Internet
Channel

WebKit-based

Google
Google
TV Nintendo 3DS Internet
Internet
Browser Nintendo DS & DSi Browser NetFront Steam Overlay Wii U Internet
Internet
Browser

Other

MSN TV

Software no longer in development shown in italics

Category Commons Internet
Internet
portal Software portal

v t e

Gopher

A protocol for document search and retrieval on the Internet

Active clients

Free/open-source

Arachne Classilla Conkeror ELinks Gnuzilla K-Meleon Kazehakase Line Mode Browser Lynx Mothra W3m

Proprietary

OmniWeb

Discontinued
Discontinued
clients

Agora Amaya Arena AT&T Pogo Beonex Communicator Camino Cello Cyberjack Galeon GopherVR IBrowse Internet
Internet
Explorer for Mac libwww Minimo Minuet Mosaic Mozilla
Mozilla
Application Suite Netscape SlipKnot Songbird tkWWW UdiWWW xB Browser

Previously supported

Epiphany Firefox Flock Internet
Internet
Explorer SeaMonkey

Server software

Bucktooth NetPresenz PyGopherd Squid Synchronet

Search engines

Jughead Veronica Wide area information server (WAIS)

Content

AllMusic CCSO Nameserver Gophermap Phlog

Hosts

SDF Public Access Unix System The WELL

People

John Goerzen Mark P. McCahill

Gopher+

v t e

News aggregators

Client software

Standalone

Akregator BlogBridge FeedDemon Feedreader Flipboard Genieo Google
Google
Currents Google
Google
Play Newsstand Liferea NetNewsWire NewsAccess Newsbeuter NewsFire QuiteRSS RSS
RSS
Bandit RSSOwl Seesmic WebFetch

Web browsers

AOL
AOL
Explorer Avant Browser Basilisk Camino iCab Flock Internet
Internet
Explorer K-Meleon Kazehakase Maxthon Firefox GNOME Web Netscape
Netscape
Browser Netscape
Netscape
Navigator 9 OmniWeb Pale Moon Safari SeaMonkey Shiira Sleipnir Tencent Traveler Vivaldi Waterfox

Email
Email
clients

Apple Mail Claws Mail FossaMail Gnus IBM Notes Microsoft
Microsoft
Outlook Mozilla
Mozilla
Thunderbird Netscape
Netscape
Messenger 9 Opera Mail Pegasus Mail The Bat! Windows
Windows
Live Mail Zimbra

Web browser
Web browser
plugins

Cooliris Sage

Web apps or mobile apps

Bloglines CommaFeed Cheetah News Daylife Digg Reader Drupal Feedbin Feedly FriendFeed Google
Google
News Google
Google
Reader iGoogle dotCMS Imooty.eu Magnolia My Yahoo! News360 NewsBlur Newsknowledge Netvibes Pageflakes Planet Pulse Rojo.com Prismatic Spokeo The Old Reader Tiny Tiny RSS TweetDeck WebGUI Windows
Windows
Live Personalized Experience winnowTag

Media aggregators

Podcatcher

Adobe Media Player Akregator Amarok Flock iTunes Juice MediaMonkey Miro Rhythmbox Songbird Winamp Zune

RSS+BitTorrent

BitLord BitTorrent 6 Deluge Miro Opera Mail qBittorrent TorrentFlux Tribler μTorrent Vuze

Related articles

Comparison of feed aggregators History of Media aggregation RSS
RSS
enclosure

Italics indicate discontinued software.

v t e

Timeline of web browsers

General

Comparison

lightweight

History List

for Unix

Usage share

1990s

1990

WorldWideWeb
WorldWideWeb
(Nexus)

1991

Line Mode Browser

libwww

1992

Erwise MacWWW
MacWWW
(Samba) MidasWWW tkWWW ViolaWWW

1993

AMosaic Arena Cello Emacs/W3 Lynx 2 NCSA Mosaic VMS Mosaic

1994

AirMosaic

Internet
Internet
in a Box

ANT Fresco Argo IBM WebExplorer SlipKnot Minuet Navipress Mosaic/Mosaic Netscape/ Netscape
Netscape
Navigator Spyglass Mosaic TCP/Connect II

1995

Agora ALynx AMSD Ariadna Cyberjack eWorld Web Browser Grail Internet
Internet
Explorer 1 Internet
Internet
Explorer 2 Netscape
Netscape
Navigator 2 NetShark OmniWeb HotJava UdiWWW WebShark

1996

Cyberdog Arachne AWeb IBrowse Amaya Internet
Internet
Explorer 3 Netscape
Netscape
Navigator 3 Opera 2 Oracle PowerBrowser tcpCONNECT4 Voyager

1997

Netscape
Netscape
Communicator Internet
Internet
Explorer 4 Opera 2.1

1998

NeoPlanet Mozilla
Mozilla
Application Suite Opera 3–3.21

1999

iCab Internet
Internet
Explorer 5 Omniweb
Omniweb
3 Opera 3.5–3.62

2000s

2000

Beonex Communicator Galeon K-Meleon MediaBrowser Netscape
Netscape
6 Opera 4–4.02

2001

iCab 2.5 Internet
Internet
Explorer 6 Omniweb
Omniweb
4 Opera 5–5.12

2002

Avant Browser
Avant Browser
7 Camino Epiphany Netscape
Netscape
7 Opera 6–6.1

2003

GreenBrowser Maxthon Opera 7–7.3 Safari SlimBrowser

2004

Avant Browser
Avant Browser
9 Phoenix/Firebird/Firefox Opera 7.5–7.55

2005

AOL
AOL
Explorer Deepnet Explorer Firefox
Firefox
1.5 Opera 8–8.54 Safari 2

2006

Avant Browser
Avant Browser
11 Firefox
Firefox
2 Internet
Internet
Explorer 7 Opera 9–9.27

2007

Maxthon
Maxthon
2 Opera 9.5–9.64 Safari 3 SeaMonkey
SeaMonkey
1.1

2008

Google
Google
Chrome Firefox
Firefox
3 Netscape
Netscape
Browser Netscape
Netscape
Navigator 9 NetSurf
NetSurf
1.2

2009

Avant Browser
Avant Browser
11.7 Google Chrome
Google Chrome
2–3 Firefox
Firefox
3.5 Internet
Internet
Explorer 8 Opera 10–10.63 Pale Moon Safari 4 SeaMonkey
SeaMonkey
2.0

2010s

2010

Google Chrome
Google Chrome
4–8 Firefox
Firefox
3.6 Lunascape
Lunascape
6.0.1 Maxthon
Maxthon
3 NetSurf
NetSurf
2.5 Opera 11–11.64 Safari 5

2011

Google Chrome
Google Chrome
9–16 Firefox
Firefox
4–9 Internet
Internet
Explorer 9 Lunascape
Lunascape
6.5 Opera 12–12.17 SeaMonkey
SeaMonkey
2.1–2.4 Waterfox

2012

Google Chrome
Google Chrome
17–23 Firefox
Firefox
10–17 Internet
Internet
Explorer 10 Lunascape
Lunascape
6.7 Maxthon
Maxthon
3.4 NetSurf
NetSurf
2.9 Safari 6

2013

Google Chrome
Google Chrome
24–31 Firefox
Firefox
18–26 Internet
Internet
Explorer 11 Opera 15–18 Safari 7 SeaMonkey
SeaMonkey
2.15–2.22

2014

Google Chrome
Google Chrome
32–39 Firefox
Firefox
27–34 Lunascape
Lunascape
6.9 NetSurf
NetSurf
3.1 Opera 19–26 Safari 8 SeaMonkey
SeaMonkey
2.23–2.31

2015

Google Chrome
Google Chrome
40–47 Firefox
Firefox
35–43 Lunascape
Lunascape
6.10–6.12 Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge 20, 25 Opera 27–34 Safari 9 SeaMonkey
SeaMonkey
2.32–2.39 Vivaldi

2016

Google Chrome
Google Chrome
48–55 Firefox
Firefox
44–50 Lunascape
Lunascape
6.13–6.15 Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge 38 Opera 35–42 Safari 10

2017

Basilisk Brave Google Chrome
Google Chrome
56–63 Firefox
Firefox
51–57 Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge 40–41 Opera 43–49 Safari 11 SeaMonkey
SeaMonkey
2.46–2.49

Related topics

3D Markup Language for Web Aliweb ARPANET ASCII BITNET Browser wars CompuServe Elm Email File
File
Transfer Protocol Gopher HTML HyperCard HyTelnet NCSA Telnet NLS Prodigy Teletext Telnet Usenet UUCP Videotex Viewdata Virtual Reality Markup Language Web page Whole Internet
Internet
User's Guide and Catalog World Wide Web X.25

v t e

Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
components

Management tools

App Installer Command Prompt Control Panel

Applets

Device Manager Disk Cleanup Disk Defragmenter Driver Verifier Event Viewer IExpress Management Console Netsh Performance Monitor Recovery Console Resource Monitor Settings Sysprep System Configuration System File
File
Checker System Information System Policy Editor System Restore Task Manager Windows
Windows
Error Reporting Windows
Windows
Ink Windows
Windows
Installer PowerShell Windows
Windows
Update

Windows
Windows
Insider

WinRE WMI

Apps

Alarms & Clock Calculator Calendar Camera Character Map Cortana Edge Fax and Scan Feedback Hub Get Help Groove Music Magnifier Mail Messaging Maps Media Player Movies & TV Mobility Center Money News Narrator Notepad OneDrive OneNote Paint Paint 3D People Phone Companion Photos Quick Assist Snipping Tool Speech Recognition Skype Sports Sticky Notes View 3D Store Tips Voice Recorder Wallet Weather Windows
Windows
To Go Windows
Windows
Story Remix WordPad Xbox

Shell

Action Center Aero AutoPlay AutoRun ClearType Explorer Search

Indexing Service IFilter Saved search Namespace Special
Special
folder

Start menu Taskbar Task View Windows
Windows
Spotlight Windows
Windows
XP visual styles

Services

Service Control Manager BITS CLFS Multimedia Class Scheduler Shadow Copy Task Scheduler Error Reporting Wireless Zero Configuration

File
File
systems

CDFS DFS exFAT IFS FAT NTFS

Hard link Junction point Mount Point Reparse point Symbolic link TxF EFS

ReFS UDF

Server

Domains Active Directory DNS Group Policy Roaming user profiles Folder redirection Distributed Transaction Coordinator MSMQ Windows
Windows
Media Services Rights Management Services IIS Remote Desktop Services WSUS SharePoint Network Access Protection PWS DFS Replication Remote Differential Compression Print Services for UNIX Remote Installation Services Windows
Windows
Deployment Services System Resource Manager Hyper-V Server Core

Architecture

Architecture of Windows
Windows
NT Startup process

NT Vista

CSRSS Desktop Window Manager Portable Executable

EXE DLL

Enhanced Write Filter Graphics Device Interface hal.dll I/O request packet Imaging Format Kernel Transaction Manager Library files Logical Disk Manager LSASS MinWin NTLDR Ntoskrnl.exe Object Manager Open XML
XML
Paper Specification Registry Resource Protection Security Account Manager Server Message Block Shadow Copy SMSS System Idle Process USER WHEA Win32 console Winlogon WinUSB

Security

Security and Maintenance BitLocker Data Execution Prevention Family Safety Kernel Patch Protection Mandatory Integrity Control Protected Media Path User Account Control User Interface Privilege Isolation Windows
Windows
Defender Windows
Windows
Firewall

Compatibility

COMMAND.COM Virtual DOS machine Windows
Windows
on Windows WoW64 Windows
Windows
Subsystem for Linux

API

Active Scripting

WSH VBScript JScript

COM

ActiveX ActiveX
ActiveX
Document COM Structured storage DCOM OLE OLE Automation Transaction Server

DirectX .NET Framework Universal Windows
Windows
Platform Windows
Windows
Mixed Reality Windows
Windows
Runtime WinUSB

Games

Solitaire Collection

Discontinued

Games

3D Pinball Chess Titans FreeCell Hearts InkBall Hold 'Em Purble Place Reversi Spider Solitaire Solitaire Tinker

Apps

ActiveMovie Anytime Upgrade Address Book Backup and Restore Cardfile CardSpace Contacts Desktop Gadgets Diagnostics DriveSpace DVD Maker Easy Transfer Fax File
File
Manager Food & Drink Help and Support Center Health & Fitness HyperTerminal Internet
Internet
Explorer Journal Media Center Meeting Space Messaging Messenger Mobile Device Center Movie Maker MSN Dial-up NetMeeting NTBackup Outlook Express Travel Photo Gallery Photo Viewer Program Manager Steps Recorder WinHelp Write

Others

ScanDisk File
File
Protection Media Control Interface Next-Generation Secure Computing Base POSIX subsystem Interix Video for Windows Windows
Windows
SideShow Windows
Windows
Services for UNIX Windows
Windows
System Assessment Tool WinFS

Spun off to Microsoft
Microsoft
Store

DVD Player Hover! Mahjong Minesweeper

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 177507367 LCCN: n96018990 GND: 4438485-3 BNF:

.