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INTERNET EXPLORER (formerly MICROSOFT INTERNET EXPLORER and WINDOWS INTERNET EXPLORER, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
and included in the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
line of operating systems , starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows
Windows
95 that year. Later versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs , and included in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) service releases of Windows
Windows
95 and later versions of Windows. The browser is discontinued , but still maintained .

Internet
Internet
Explorer was one of the most widely used web browsers, attaining a peak of about 95% usage share during 2002 and 2003. This came after Microsoft
Microsoft
used bundling to win the first browser war against Netscape
Netscape
, which was the dominant browser in the 1990s. Its usage share has since declined with the launch of Firefox
Firefox
(2004) and Google Chrome
Google Chrome
(2008), and with the growing popularity of operating systems such as macOS , Linux
Linux
, iOS and Android that do not run Internet
Internet
Explorer. Estimates for Internet
Internet
Explorer's overall market share range from 3.91% to 16.84% or by StatCounter's numbers ranked 3rd, just after Firefox
Firefox
(or even as low as 5th when counting all platforms ), as of June 2017 (browser market share is notoriously difficult to calculate). Microsoft
Microsoft
spent over US$100 million per year on Internet
Internet
Explorer in the late 1990s, with over 1,000 people working on it by 1999.

Versions of Internet
Internet
Explorer for other operating systems have also been produced, including an Xbox 360
Xbox 360
version called Internet
Internet
Explorer for Xbox and for platforms Microsoft
Microsoft
no longer supports: Internet Explorer for Mac and Internet Explorer for UNIX (Solaris and HP-UX
HP-UX
), and an embedded OEM version called Pocket Internet
Internet
Explorer, later rebranded Internet Explorer Mobile
Internet Explorer Mobile
made for Windows
Windows
Phone , Windows
Windows
CE , and previously, based on Internet Explorer 7
Internet Explorer 7
for Windows
Windows
Mobile .

On March 17, 2015, Microsoft
Microsoft
announced that Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge would replace Internet
Internet
Explorer as the default browser on its Windows
Windows
10 devices. This effectively makes Internet Explorer 11 the last release. Internet
Internet
Explorer, however, remains on Windows 10 primarily for enterprise purposes. Starting January 12, 2016, only Internet Explorer 11 is supported. Support varies based on the operating system's technical capabilities and its support lifecycle.

The browser has been scrutinized throughout its development for use of third-party technology (such as the source code of Spyglass Mosaic , used without royalty in early versions) and security and privacy vulnerabilities , and the United States and the European Union have alleged that integration of Internet
Internet
Explorer with Windows
Windows
has been to the detriment of fair browser competition.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Internet Explorer 1 Internet Explorer 8 * 1.2 Internet Explorer 9 * 1.3 Internet Explorer 10 * 1.4 Internet Explorer 11 * 1.5 End of life

* 2 Features

* 2.1 Standards support * 2.2 Non-standard extensions * 2.3 Favicon * 2.4 Usability and accessibility * 2.5 Cache * 2.6 Group Policy

* 3 Architecture * 4 Extensibility

* 5 Security

* 5.1 Security vulnerabilities * 5.2 Vulnerability exploited in attacks on U.S. firms * 5.3 Major vulnerability across versions

* 6 Market adoption and usage share

* 6.1 Industry adoption

* 7 Removal * 8 Impersonation by malware * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Internet Explorer
History of Internet Explorer
and Internet
Internet
Explorer version history

The Internet
Internet
Explorer project was started in the summer of 1994 by Thomas Reardon , who, according to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Review of 2003, used source code from Spyglass, Inc. Mosaic, which was an early commercial web browser with formal ties to the pioneering National Center for Supercomputing Applications
National Center for Supercomputing Applications
(NCSA) Mosaic browser. In late 1994, Microsoft
Microsoft
licensed Spyglass Mosaic for a quarterly fee plus a percentage of Microsoft's non- Windows
Windows
revenues for the software. Although bearing a name similar to NCSA Mosaic, Spyglass Mosaic had used the NCSA Mosaic source code sparingly. Microsoft
Microsoft
was sued by Synet Inc. in 1996, over the trademark infringement.

INTERNET EXPLORER 1 – INTERNET EXPLORER 8

Internet Explorer 1 Main articles: Internet
Internet
Explorer version history § Early versions , Internet Explorer 1 , Internet
Internet
Explorer 2 , Internet Explorer 3 , Internet Explorer 4 , Internet Explorer 5
Internet Explorer 5
, Internet Explorer 6 , Internet Explorer 7
Internet Explorer 7
, and Internet Explorer 8

The first version of Internet
Internet
Explorer, Microsoft
Microsoft
Internet
Internet
Explorer (later referred to as Internet
Internet
Explorer 1) made its debut on August 16, 1995. It was a reworked version of Spyglass Mosaic , which Microsoft
Microsoft
licensed from Spyglass Inc. , like many other companies initiating browser development. It was installed as part of the Internet
Internet
Jumpstart Kit in Microsoft
Microsoft
Plus! for Windows
Windows
95 and Plus!. The Internet
Internet
Explorer team began with about six people in early development. Internet
Internet
Explorer 1.5 was released several months later for Windows
Windows
NT and added support for basic table rendering. By including it free of charge on their operating system , they did not have to pay royalties to Spyglass Inc, resulting in a lawsuit and a US$ 8 million settlement on January 22, 1997.

INTERNET EXPLORER 9

Main article: Internet Explorer 9

Internet Explorer 9 was released on March 14, 2011. Development for Internet Explorer 9 began shortly after the release of Internet Explorer 8. Microsoft
Microsoft
first announced Internet Explorer 9 at PDC 2009 , and spoke mainly about how it takes advantage of hardware acceleration in DirectX
DirectX
to improve the performance of web applications and quality of web typography . At MIX 10 , Microsoft
Microsoft
showed and publicly released the first Platform Preview for Internet
Internet
Explorer 9, a frame for IE9's engine not containing any UI of the browser. Leading up to the release of the final browser, Microsoft
Microsoft
released updated platform previews, each featuring improved JavaScript
JavaScript
compiling (32-bit version), improved scores on the Acid3 test
Acid3 test
, as well as additional HTML5
HTML5
standards support, approximately every 6 weeks. Ultimately, eight platform previews were released. The first public beta was released at a special event in San Francisco, which was themed around "the beauty of the web". The release candidate was released on February 10, 2011, and featured improved performance, refinements to the UI, and further standards support. The final version was released during the South by Southwest (SXSW) Interactive conference in Austin, Texas, on March 14, 2011.

Internet Explorer 9 is only supported on Windows
Windows
7 , Windows
Windows
Server 2008 , and Windows
Windows
Server 2008 R2 , and was supported on Windows Vista SP2. It supports several CSS 3 properties (including border-radius, box-shadow, etc.), and embedded ICC v2 or v4 colour profiles support via Windows
Windows
Color System . The 32-bit version has faster JavaScript
JavaScript
performance, this being due to a new JavaScript engine called "Chakra". It also features hardware accelerated graphics rendering using Direct2D , hardware-accelerated text rendering using DirectWrite , hardware-accelerated video rendering using Media Foundation , imaging support provided by Windows
Windows
Imaging Component , and high fidelity printing powered by the XPS print pipeline. IE9 also supports the HTML5
HTML5
video and audio tags and the Web Open Font Format . Internet Explorer 9 initially scored 95/100 on the Acid3 test, but has scored 100/100 since the test was updated in September 2011.

Internet
Internet
Explorer was to be omitted from Windows
Windows
7 and Windows
Windows
Server 2008 R2 in Europe, but Microsoft
Microsoft
ultimately included it, with a browser option screen allowing users to select any of several web browsers (including Internet
Internet
Explorer).

Internet
Internet
Explorer is now available on Xbox 360
Xbox 360
with Kinect support, as of October 2012.

INTERNET EXPLORER 10

Internet Explorer 10 (app-style version) in Windows
Windows
8 Main article: Internet Explorer 10

Internet Explorer 10 became generally available on October 26, 2012, alongside Windows
Windows
8 and Windows
Windows
Server 2012 , but is by now supported on Windows
Windows
Server 2012, while Windows
Windows
Server 2012 R2 only supports Internet
Internet
Explorer 11. It became available for Windows
Windows
7 on February 26, 2013. Microsoft
Microsoft
announced Internet Explorer 10 in April 2011, at MIX 11 in Las Vegas, releasing the first Platform Preview at the same time. At the show, it was said that Internet Explorer 10 was about 3 weeks in development. This release further improves upon standards support, including HTML5
HTML5
Drag "> Page zoom as seen in IE9

Internet
Internet
Explorer has been designed to view a broad range of web pages and provide certain features within the operating system, including Microsoft
Microsoft
Update . During the heyday of the browser wars , Internet
Internet
Explorer superseded Netscape
Netscape
only when it caught up technologically to support the progressive features of the time.

STANDARDS SUPPORT

Internet
Internet
Explorer, using the Trident
Trident
layout engine :

* Supports HTML
HTML
4.01, HTML
HTML
5, CSS Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3, XML 1.0, and DOM Level 1, with minor implementation gaps. * Fully supports XSLT
XSLT
1.0 as well as an obsolete Microsoft
Microsoft
dialect of XSLT
XSLT
often referred to as WD-xsl, which was loosely based on the December 1998 W3C
W3C
Working Draft of XSL . Support for XSLT
XSLT
2.0 lies in the future: semi-official Microsoft
Microsoft
bloggers have indicated that development is underway, but no dates have been announced. * Almost full conformance to CSS 2.1 has been added in the Internet Explorer 8 release. The trident rendering engine in Internet Explorer 9 in 2011, scored highest in the official W3C
W3C
conformance test suite for CSS 2.1 of all major browsers. * Supports X HTML
HTML
in Internet Explorer 9 ( Trident
Trident
version 5.0). Prior versions can render X HTML
HTML
documents authored with HTML
HTML
compatibility principles and served with a text/html MIME-type . * Supports a subset of SVG in Internet Explorer 9 ( Trident
Trident
version 5.0), excluding SMIL, SVG fonts and filters.

Internet
Internet
Explorer uses DOCTYPE sniffing to choose between standards mode and a "quirks mode " in which it deliberately mimicks nonstandard behaviours of old versions of MSIE for HTML
HTML
and CSS rendering on screen ( Internet
Internet
Explorer always uses standards mode for printing). It also provides its own dialect of ECMAScript called JScript .

Internet
Internet
Explorer was criticised by Tim Berners-Lee for its limited support for SVG which is promoted by W3C
W3C
.

NON-STANDARD EXTENSIONS

Internet
Internet
Explorer has introduced an array of proprietary extensions to many of the standards, including HTML, CSS, and the DOM. This has resulted in a number of web pages that appear broken in standards-compliant web browsers and has introduced the need for a "quirks mode " to allow for rendering improper elements meant for Internet
Internet
Explorer in these other browsers.

Internet
Internet
Explorer has introduced a number of extensions to the DOM that have been adopted by other browsers. These include the innerHTML property, which provides access to the HTML
HTML
string within an element ; the XMLHttpRequest object, which allows the sending of HTTP
HTTP
request and receiving of HTTP
HTTP
response, and may be used to perform AJAX
AJAX
; and the designMode attribute of the contentDocument object, which enables rich text editing of HTML
HTML
documents . Some of these functionalities were not possible until the introduction of the W3C
W3C
DOM methods. Its Ruby character extension to HTML
HTML
is also accepted as a module in W3C X HTML
HTML
1.1, though it is not found in all versions of W3C
W3C
HTML.

Microsoft
Microsoft
submitted several other features of IE for consideration by the W3C
W3C
for standardization. These include the 'behaviour' CSS property, which connects the HTML
HTML
elements with JScript behaviours (known as HTML
HTML
Components, HTC); HTML+TIME profile, which adds timing and media synchronization support to HTML
HTML
documents (similar to the W3C
W3C
XHTML+SMIL ), and the VML vector graphics file format. However, all were rejected, at least in their original forms; VML was subsequently combined with PGML (proposed by Adobe and Sun ), resulting in the W3C-approved SVG format, one of the few vector image formats being used on the web, which IE did not support until version 9.

Other non-standard behaviours include: support for vertical text, but in a syntax different from W3C
W3C
CSS3
CSS3
candidate recommendation, support for a variety of image effects and page transitions, which are not found in W3C
W3C
CSS, support for obfuscated script code, in particular JScript.Encode . Support for embedding EOT fonts in web pages .

FAVICON

Support for favicons was first added in Internet Explorer 5
Internet Explorer 5
. Internet
Internet
Explorer supports favicons in PNG , static GIF
GIF
and native Windows
Windows
icon formats. In Windows
Windows
Vista and later, Internet
Internet
Explorer can display native Windows
Windows
icons that have embedded PNG files.

USABILITY AND ACCESSIBILITY

Internet
Internet
Explorer makes use of the accessibility framework provided in Windows. Internet
Internet
Explorer is also a user interface for FTP, with operations similar to that of Windows
Windows
Explorer. Pop-up blocking and tabbed browsing were added respectively in Internet Explorer 6 and Internet
Internet
Explorer 7. Tabbed browsing can also be added to older versions by installing MSN Search Toolbar or Yahoo Toolbar .

CACHE

Main articles: Temporary Internet Files and Index.dat

Internet
Internet
Explorer caches visited content in the Temporary Internet Files folder to allow quicker access (or offline access) to previously visited pages. The content is indexed in a database file, known as Index.dat . Multiple Index.dat files exist which index different content—visited content, web feeds , visited URLs , cookies, etc.

Prior to IE7, clearing the cache used to clear the index but the files themselves were not reliably removed, posing a potential security and privacy risk. In IE7 and later, when the cache is cleared, the cache files are more reliably removed, and the index.dat file is overwritten with null bytes.

Caching has been improved in IE9.

GROUP POLICY

Main article: Group Policy

Internet
Internet
Explorer is fully configurable using Group Policy . Administrators of Windows
Windows
Server domains (for domain-joined computers) or the local computer can apply and enforce a variety of settings on computers that affect the user interface (such as disabling menu items and individual configuration options), as well as underlying security features such as downloading of files, zone configuration, per-site settings, ActiveX control behaviour and others. Policy settings can be configured for each user and for each machine. Internet
Internet
Explorer also supports Integrated Windows
Windows
Authentication .

ARCHITECTURE

The architecture of IE8. Previous versions had a similar architecture, except that both tabs and the UI were within the same process. Consequently, each browser window could have only one "tab process".

Internet
Internet
Explorer uses a componentized architecture built on the Component Object Model (COM) technology. It consists of several major components, each of which is contained in a separate Dynamic-link library (DLL) and exposes a set of COM programming interfaces hosted by the Internet
Internet
Explorer main executable, iexplore.exe:

* WinInet.dll is the protocol handler for HTTP
HTTP
, HTTPS and FTP
FTP
. It handles all network communication over these protocols. * URLMon.dll is responsible for MIME -type handling and download of web content, and provides a thread-safe wrapper around WinInet.dll and other protocol implementations. * MSHTML.dll houses the Trident
Trident
rendering engine introduced in Internet Explorer 4 , which is responsible for displaying the pages on-screen and handling the Document Object Model
Document Object Model
of the web pages. MSHTML.dll parses the HTML/CSS file and creates the internal DOM tree representation of it. It also exposes a set of APIs for runtime inspection and modification of the DOM tree. The DOM tree is further processed by a layout engine which then renders the internal representation on screen. * IEFrame.dll contains the user interface and window of IE in Internet Explorer 7
Internet Explorer 7
and above. * ShDocVw.dll provides the navigation, local caching and history functionalities for the browser. * BrowseUI.dll is responsible for rendering the browser user interface such as menus and toolbars.

Internet
Internet
Explorer does not include any native scripting functionality. Rather, MSHTML.dll exposes an API that permits a programmer to develop a scripting environment to be plugged-in and to access the DOM tree. Internet Explorer 8 includes the bindings for the Active Scripting engine, which is a part of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
and allows any language implemented as an Active Scripting module to be used for client-side scripting. By default, only the JScript and VBScript modules are provided; third party implementations like ScreamingMonkey (for ECMAScript 4 support) can also be used. Microsoft also makes available the Microsoft
Microsoft
Silverlight runtime (not supported in Windows
Windows
RT ) that allows CLI languages , including DLR -based dynamic languages like IronPython and IronRuby , to be used for client-side scripting.

Internet Explorer 8 introduces some major architectural changes, called Loosely Coupled IE (LCIE). LCIE separates the main window process (frame process) from the processes hosting the different web applications in different tabs (tab processes). A frame process can create multiple tab processes, each of which can be of a different integrity level ; each tab process can host multiple web sites. The processes use asynchronous Inter-Process Communication to synchronize themselves. Generally, there will be a single frame process for all web sites. In Windows
Windows
Vista with Protected Mode turned on, however, opening privileged content (such as local HTML
HTML
pages) will create a new tab process as it will not be constrained by Protected Mode.

EXTENSIBILITY

See also: Component Object Model and Browser Helper Object

Internet
Internet
Explorer exposes a set of Component Object Model (COM) interfaces that allows add-ons to extend the functionality of the browser. Extensibility is divided into two types: Browser extensibility and content extensibility. Browser extensibility involves adding context menu entries, toolbars, menu items or Browser Helper Objects (BHO). BHOs are used to extend the feature set of the browser, whereas the other extensibility options are used to expose that feature in the user interface. Content extensibility adds support for non-native content formats. It allows Internet
Internet
Explorer to handle new file formats and new protocols , e.g. WebM or SPDY . In addition, web pages can integrate widgets known as ActiveX controls which run on Windows
Windows
only but have vast potentials to extend the content capabilities; Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft
Microsoft
Silverlight are examples. Add-ons can be installed either locally, or directly by a web site.

Since malicious add-ons can compromise the security of a system, Internet
Internet
Explorer implements several safeguards. Internet
Internet
Explorer 6 with Service Pack 2 and later feature an Add-on Manager for enabling or disabling individual add-ons, complemented by a "No Add-Ons" mode. Starting with Windows
Windows
Vista , Internet
Internet
Explorer and its BHOs run with restricted privileges and are isolated from the rest of the system. Internet Explorer 9 introduced a new component – Add-on Performance Advisor. Add-on Performance Advisor shows a notification when one or more of installed add-ons exceed a pre-set performance threshold. The notification appears in the Notification Bar when the user launches the browser. Windows
Windows
8 and Windows
Windows
RT introduce a Metro-style version of Internet
Internet
Explorer that is entirely sandboxed and does not run add-ons at all. In addition, Windows
Windows
RT cannot download or install ActiveX controls at all; although existing ones bundled with Windows RT still run in the traditional version of Internet
Internet
Explorer.

Internet
Internet
Explorer itself can be hosted by other applications via a set of COM interfaces. This can be used to embed the browser functionality inside a computer program or create Internet
Internet
Explorer shells .

SECURITY

See also: Browser security

Internet
Internet
Explorer uses a zone-based security framework that groups sites based on certain conditions, including whether it is an Internet- or intranet-based site as well as a user-editable whitelist. Security restrictions are applied per zone; all the sites in a zone are subject to the restrictions.

Internet Explorer 6 SP2 onwards uses the Attachment Execution Service of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
to mark executable files downloaded from the Internet
Internet
as being potentially unsafe. Accessing files marked as such will prompt the user to make an explicit trust decision to execute the file, as executables originating from the Internet
Internet
can be potentially unsafe. This helps in preventing accidental installation of malware.

Internet Explorer 7
Internet Explorer 7
introduced the phishing filter, that restricts access to phishing sites unless the user overrides the decision. With version 8, it also blocks access to sites known to host malware . Downloads are also checked to see if they are known to be malware-infected.

In Windows
Windows
Vista , Internet
Internet
Explorer by default runs in what is called Protected Mode, where the privileges of the browser itself are severely restricted—it cannot make any system-wide changes. One can optionally turn this mode off but this is not recommended. This also effectively restricts the privileges of any add-ons. As a result, even if the browser or any add-on is compromised, the damage the security breach can cause is limited.

Patches and updates to the browser are released periodically and made available through the Windows
Windows
Update service, as well as through Automatic Updates . Although security patches continue to be released for a range of platforms, most feature additions and security infrastructure improvements are only made available on operating systems which are in Microsoft's mainstream support phase.

On December 16, 2008, Trend Micro recommended users switch to rival browsers until an emergency IE patch was released to fix a potential security risk which "could allow outside users to take control of a person's computer and steal their passwords". Microsoft representatives countered this recommendation, claiming that "0.02% of internet sites" were affected by the flaw.

On December 17, 2008, a fix to the security problem above became available, with the release of the Security Update for Internet Explorer KB960714, which is available from Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
Update's webpage. Microsoft
Microsoft
has said that this update fixes the security risk found by Trend Micro the previous day.

In 2011, a report by Accuvant, funded by Google, rated the security (based on sandboxing) of Internet
Internet
Explorer worse than Google
Google
Chrome but better than Mozilla
Mozilla
Firefox
Firefox
.

SECURITY VULNERABILITIES

See also: Comparison of web browsers
Comparison of web browsers
§ Security and vulnerabilities

Internet
Internet
Explorer has been subjected to many security vulnerabilities and concerns: much of the spyware , adware , and computer viruses across the Internet
Internet
are made possible by exploitable bugs and flaws in the security architecture of Internet
Internet
Explorer, sometimes requiring nothing more than viewing of a malicious web page in order to install themselves. This is known as a "drive-by install ". There are also attempts to trick the user into installing malicious software by misrepresenting the software's true purpose in the description section of an ActiveX security alert.

A number of security flaws affecting IE originated not in the browser itself, but ActiveX -based add-ons used by it. Because the add-ons have the same privilege as IE, the flaws can be as critical as browser flaws. This has led to the ActiveX-based architecture being criticized for being fault-prone. By 2005, some experts maintained that the dangers of ActiveX have been overstated and there were safeguards in place. In 2006, new techniques using automated testing found more than a hundred vulnerabilities in standard Microsoft
Microsoft
ActiveX components. Security features introduced in Internet
Internet
Explorer 7 mitigated some of these vulnerabilities.

Internet
Internet
Explorer in 2008, had a number of published security vulnerabilities. According to research done by security research firm Secunia
Secunia
, Microsoft
Microsoft
did not respond as quickly as its competitors in fixing security holes and making patches available. The firm also reported 366 vulnerabilities in ActiveX controls, an increase from the prior year.

According to an October 2010 report in The Register
The Register
, researcher Chris Evans had detected a known security vulnerability which, then dating back to 2008, had not been fixed for at least 600 days. Microsoft
Microsoft
says that it had known about this vulnerability but it was of very low severity as the victim web site must be configured in a special way for this attack to be feasible at all.

In December 2010, researchers were able to bypass the "Protected Mode" feature in Internet
Internet
Explorer.

VULNERABILITY EXPLOITED IN ATTACKS ON U.S. FIRMS

Main article: Operation Aurora Browser Market Share Worldwide July 2017] Google Chrome
Google Chrome
Firefox
Firefox
Safari UC Browser Internet
Internet
Explorer Opera No info

In an advisory on January 14, 2010, Microsoft
Microsoft
said that attackers targeting Google
Google
and other U.S. companies used software that exploits a security hole, which had already been patched, in Internet
Internet
Explorer. The vulnerability affected Internet Explorer 6 on Windows
Windows
XP and Server 2003, IE6 SP1 on Windows
Windows
2000 SP4, IE7 on Windows
Windows
Vista, XP, Server 2008 and Server 2003, and IE8 on Windows
Windows
7, Vista, XP, Server 2003, and Server 2008 (R2).

The German government warned users against using Internet
Internet
Explorer and recommended switching to an alternative web browser, due to the major security hole described above that was exploited in Internet Explorer . The Australian and French Government issued a similar warning a few days later.

MAJOR VULNERABILITY ACROSS VERSIONS

On April 26, 2014, Microsoft
Microsoft
issued a security advisory relating to CVE-2014-1776 (use-after-free vulnerability in Microsoft
Microsoft
Internet Explorer 6 through 11 ), a vulnerability that could allow "remote code execution" in Internet Explorer versions 6 to 11. On April 28, 2014, the United States Department of Homeland Security
Department of Homeland Security
's United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) released an advisory stating that the vulnerability could result in "the complete compromise" of an affected system. US-CERT recommended reviewing Microsoft's suggestions to mitigate an attack or using an alternate browser until the bug is fixed. The UK National Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-UK) published an advisory announcing similar concerns and for users to take the additional step of ensuring their antivirus software is up-to-date. Symantec
Symantec
, a cyber security firm, confirmed that "the vulnerability crashes Internet
Internet
Explorer on Windows XP". The vulnerability was resolved on May 1, 2014, with a security update.

MARKET ADOPTION AND USAGE SHARE

This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2016)

See also: History of Internet Explorer
History of Internet Explorer
§ Market adoption and usage share , and Usage share of web browsers Usage share of web browsers according to StatCounter
StatCounter
Historical market share of Internet
Internet
Explorer, 1994–2014

The adoption rate of Internet
Internet
Explorer seems to be closely related to that of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows, as it is the default web browser that comes with Windows. Since the integration of Internet
Internet
Explorer 2.0 with Windows
Windows
95 OSR 1 in 1996, and especially after version 4.0's release in 1997, the adoption was greatly accelerated: from below 20% in 1996, to about 40% in 1998, and over 80% in 2000. This made Microsoft
Microsoft
the winner in the infamous 'first browser war ' against Netscape
Netscape
. Netscape
Netscape
Navigator was the dominant browser during 1995 and until 1997, but rapidly lost share to IE starting in 1998, and eventually slipped behind in 1999. The integration of IE with Windows
Windows
led to a lawsuit by AOL
AOL
, Netscape's owner, accusing Microsoft
Microsoft
of unfair competition. The infamous case was eventually won by AOL
AOL
but by then it was too late, as Internet
Internet
Explorer had already become the dominant browser.

Internet
Internet
Explorer peaked during 2002 and 2003, with about 95% share. Its first notable competitor after beating Netscape
Netscape
was Firefox
Firefox
from Mozilla
Mozilla
, which itself was an offshoot from Netscape.

Firefox
Firefox
1.0 had surpassed Internet Explorer 5
Internet Explorer 5
in early 2005, with Firefox
Firefox
1.0 at roughly 8 percent market share.

Approximate usage over time based on various usage share counters averaged for the year overall, or for the fourth quarter, or for the last month in the year depending on availability of reference.

According to StatCounter
StatCounter
Internet
Internet
Explorer's marketshare fell below 50% in September 2010. In May 2012, it was announced that Google Chrome overtook Internet
Internet
Explorer as the most used browser worldwide.

INDUSTRY ADOPTION

Browser Helper Objects are also used by many search engine companies and third parties for creating add-ons that access their services, such as search engine toolbars. Because of the use of COM, it is possible to embed web-browsing functionality in third-party applications. Hence, there are a number of Internet
Internet
Explorer shells , and a number of content-centric applications like RealPlayer also use Internet
Internet
Explorer's web browsing module for viewing web pages within the applications.

REMOVAL

Main article: Removal of Internet Explorer

While a major upgrade of Internet
Internet
Explorer can be uninstalled in a traditional way if the user has saved the original application files for installation, the matter of uninstalling the version of the browser that has shipped with an operating system remains a controversial one.

The idea of removing a stock install of Internet
Internet
Explorer from a Windows
Windows
system was proposed during the United States v. Microsoft Corp. case. One of Microsoft's arguments during the trial was that removing Internet
Internet
Explorer from Windows
Windows
may result in system instability. Indeed, programs that depend on libraries installed by IE, including Windows
Windows
help and support system, fail to function without IE. Before Windows
Windows
Vista , it was not possible to run Windows Update without IE because the service used ActiveX technology, which no other web browser supports.

IMPERSONATION BY MALWARE

The popularity of Internet
Internet
Explorer has led to the appearance of malware abusing its name. On January 28, 2011, a fake Internet Explorer browser calling itself " Internet
Internet
Explorer – Emergency Mode" appeared. It closely resembles the real Internet
Internet
Explorer, but has fewer buttons and no search bar. If a user launches any other browser such as Google Chrome
Google Chrome
, Mozilla
Mozilla
Firefox
Firefox
, Opera , Safari or the real Internet
Internet
Explorer, this browser will pop-up instead. It also displays a fake error message, claiming that the computer is infected with malware and Internet
Internet
Explorer has entered Emergency Mode. It blocks access to legitimate sites such as Google
Google
if infected users try to access them.

SEE ALSO

* Microsoft
Microsoft
portal * Internet
Internet
portal * Software portal

* Bing Bar * History of the web browser * List of web browsers * Month of bugs * Web 2.0 * Windows
Windows
Filtering Platform * Winsock

NOTES

* ^ Since version 10 * ^ In version 6 and earlier * ^ In versions 7, 8, and 9

REFERENCES

* ^ "Cumulative security update for Internet
Internet
Explorer: July 11, 2017 (4025252))". Security TechCenter. Microsoft
Microsoft
. 11 July 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2017. * ^ A B C "Frequently Asked Questions". Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge Development. Microsoft
Microsoft
. The latest features and platform updates will only be available in Microsoft
Microsoft
Edge. We will continue to deliver security updates to Internet Explorer 11 through its supported lifespan. To ensure consistent behavior across Windows
Windows
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FURTHER READING

* "Index DOT Html and Index DOT Css". Browser History: Windows Internet
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Explorer. Retrieved December 22, 2013. * Hachamovitch, Dean (July 27, 2005). " Windows
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Vista & IE7 Beta 1 Available". IEBlog. Microsoft
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