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Vulnerability (computing)
Vulnerabilities are flaws in a computer system that weaken the overall security of the device/system. Vulnerabilities can be weaknesses in either the hardware itself, or the software that runs on the hardware. Vulnerabilities can be exploited by a threat actor, such as an attacker, to cross privilege boundaries (i.e. perform unauthorized actions) within a computer system. To exploit a vulnerability, an attacker must have at least one applicable tool or technique that can connect to a system weakness. In this frame, vulnerabilities are also known as the attack surface. Vulnerability management is a cyclical practice that varies in theory but contains common processes which include: discover all assets, prioritize assets, assess or perform a complete vulnerability scan, report on results, remediate vulnerabilities, verify remediation - repeat. This practice generally refers to software vulnerabilities in computing systems. Agile vulnerability management refers preventing attacks b ...
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Exploit (computer Security)
An exploit (from the English verb ''to exploit'', meaning "to use something to one’s own advantage") is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized). Such behavior frequently includes things like gaining control of a computer system, allowing privilege escalation, or a denial-of-service (DoS or related DDoS) attack. In lay terms, some exploit is akin to a 'hack'. Classification There are several methods of classifying exploits. The most common is by how the exploit communicates to the vulnerable software. A ''remote exploit'' works over a network and exploits the security vulnerability without any prior access to the vulnerable system. A ''local exploit'' requires prior access to the vulnerable system and usually increases the privileges of the person running the exploit past t ...
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NIST
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce whose mission is to promote American innovation and industrial competitiveness. NIST's activities are organized into physical science laboratory programs that include nanoscale science and technology, engineering, information technology, neutron research, material measurement, and physical measurement. From 1901 to 1988, the agency was named the National Bureau of Standards. History Background The Articles of Confederation, ratified by the colonies in 1781, provided: The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states—fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States. Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1789, granted these powers to the new Congr ...
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2010-T10-ArchitectureDiagram
1 (one, unit, unity) is a number representing a single or the only entity. 1 is also a numerical digit and represents a single unit of counting or measurement. For example, a line segment of ''unit length'' is a line segment of length 1. In conventions of sign where zero is considered neither positive nor negative, 1 is the first and smallest positive integer. It is also sometimes considered the first of the infinite sequence of natural numbers, followed by  2, although by other definitions 1 is the second natural number, following  0. The fundamental mathematical property of 1 is to be a multiplicative identity, meaning that any number multiplied by 1 equals the same number. Most if not all properties of 1 can be deduced from this. In advanced mathematics, a multiplicative identity is often denoted 1, even if it is not a number. 1 is by convention not considered a prime number; this was not universally accepted until the mid-20th century. Additionally, 1 is the s ...
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Information Security
Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of protecting information by mitigating information risks. It is part of Risk management information systems, information risk management. It typically involves preventing or reducing the probability of unauthorized/inappropriate access to data, or the unlawful use, Data breach, disclosure, disruption, deletion, corruption, modification, inspection, recording, or devaluation of information. It also involves actions intended to reduce the adverse impacts of such incidents. Protected information may take any form, e.g. electronic or physical, tangible (e.g. Document, paperwork) or intangible (e.g. knowledge). Information security's primary focus is the balanced protection of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data (also known as the CIA triad) while maintaining a focus on efficient policy implementation, all without hampering organization productivity. This is largely achieved through a structured r ...
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CIA Triad
Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of protecting information by mitigating information risks. It is part of information risk management. It typically involves preventing or reducing the probability of unauthorized/inappropriate access to data, or the unlawful use, disclosure, disruption, deletion, corruption, modification, inspection, recording, or devaluation of information. It also involves actions intended to reduce the adverse impacts of such incidents. Protected information may take any form, e.g. electronic or physical, tangible (e.g. paperwork) or intangible (e.g. knowledge). Information security's primary focus is the balanced protection of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data (also known as the CIA triad) while maintaining a focus on efficient policy implementation, all without hampering organization productivity. This is largely achieved through a structured risk management process that involves: * identifying inform ...
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Availability
In reliability engineering, the term availability has the following meanings: * The degree to which a system, subsystem or equipment is in a specified operable and committable state at the start of a mission, when the mission is called for at an unknown, ''i.e.'' a random, time. * The probability that an item will operate satisfactorily at a given point in time when used under stated conditions in an ideal support environment. Normally high availability systems might be specified as 99.98%, 99.999% or 99.9996%. Representation The simplest representation of availability (''A'') is a ratio of the expected value of the uptime of a system to the aggregate of the expected values of up and down time (that results in the "total amont of time" ''C'' of the observation window) : A = \frac = \frac Another equation for availability (''A'') is a ratio of the Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), or : A = \frac = \frac If we define the status function X(t) as : X ...
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Integrity
Integrity is the practice of being honest and showing a consistent and uncompromising adherence to strong moral and ethical principles and values. In ethics, integrity is regarded as the honesty and truthfulness or accuracy of one's actions. Integrity can stand in opposition to hypocrisy, in that judging with the standards of integrity involves regarding internal consistency as a virtue, and suggests that parties holding within themselves apparently conflicting values should account for the discrepancy or alter their beliefs. The word ''integrity'' evolved from the Latin adjective ''integer'', meaning ''whole'' or ''complete''. In this context, integrity is the inner sense of "wholeness" deriving from qualities such as honesty and consistency of character. In ethics In ethics, an individual is said to possess the virtue of integrity if the individual's actions are based upon an internally consistent framework of principles. These principles should uniformly adhere to sound log ...
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Confidentiality
Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits the access or places restrictions on certain types of information. Legal confidentiality By law, lawyers are often required to keep confidential anything pertaining to the representation of a client. The duty of confidentiality is much broader than the attorney–client evidentiary privilege, which only covers ''communications'' between the attorney and the client. Both the privilege and the duty serve the purpose of encouraging clients to speak frankly about their cases. This way, lawyers can carry out their duty to provide clients with zealous representation. Otherwise, the opposing side may be able to surprise the lawyer in court with something he did not know about his client, which may weaken the client's position. Also, a distrustful client might hide a relevant fact he thinks is incriminating, but that a skilled lawyer could turn to the client's advant ...
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National Information Assurance Training And Education Center
The National Information Assurance Training and Education Center (NIATEC) is an American consortium of academic, industry, and government organizations to improve the literacy, awareness, training and education standards in Information Assurance. It serves to develop professionals with IA expertise in various disciplines, and ultimately contributes to the protection of the National Information Infrastructure. NIATEC is associated with Idaho State University, a National Security Agency Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education. The Centers of Academic Excellence and NIATEC are components of a plan to establish a federal cyber-corps to defend against cyber-based disruption and attacks. NIATEC has been active in development of training standards associated with both the National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 800-16 and Committee on National Security Systems Instructions 4011, 4012, 4013, 4014, 4015, and 4016. Dr. Corey Schou is th ...
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Risk It
Risk IT, published in 2009 by ISACA,ISACA THE RISK IT FRAMEWORK
(registration required)
provides an end-to-end, comprehensive view of all s related to the use of (IT) and a similarly thorough treatment of risk management, from the tone and culture at the top to operational issues. It is the result of a work group composed of industry experts and academics from different nations, from organizations such as

ISACA
ISACA is an international professional association focused on IT (information technology) governance. On its IRS filings, it is known as the Information Systems Audit and Control Association, although ISACA now goes by its acronym only.
ISACA currently offers 8 certification program as well as other micro-certificates.


History

ISACA originated in United States in 1967, when a group of individuals working on auditing controls in computer systems started to become increasingly critical of the operations of their organizations. They identified a need for a centralized source of information and guidance in the field. In 1969, Stuart Tyrnauer, an employee of the (later)

Threat (computer)
In computer security, a threat is a potential negative action or event facilitated by a vulnerability that results in an unwanted impact to a computer system or application. A threat can be either a negative "intentional" event (i.e. hacking: an individual cracker or a criminal organization) or an "accidental" negative event (e.g. the possibility of a computer malfunctioning, or the possibility of a natural disaster event such as an earthquake, a fire, or a tornado) or otherwise a circumstance, capability, action, or event.Internet Engineering Task Force RFC 2828 Internet Security Glossary This is differentiated from a threat actor who is an individual or group that can perform the threat action, such as exploiting a vulnerability to actualise a negative impact. A more comprehensive definition, tied to an Information assurance point of view, can be found in "''Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) 200, Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Inform ...
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