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INTELLIGENCE has been defined in many different ways including as one's capacity for logic , understanding , self-awareness , learning , emotional knowledge , planning , creativity , and problem solving . It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive information , and to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context.

Intelligence
Intelligence
is most widely studied in humans , but has also been observed in non-human animals and in plants. Artificial intelligence is intelligence in machines. It is commonly implemented in computer systems using program software .

Within the discipline of psychology , various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted. The psychometric approach is especially familiar to the general public, as well as being the most researched and by far the most widely used in practical settings.

CONTENTS

* 1 History of the term * 2 Definitions * 3 Human
Human
intelligence

* 4 In animals

* 4.1 _g_ factor in non-humans

* 5 In plants * 6 Artificial intelligence * 7 Culture\'s influence on intelligence * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

HISTORY OF THE TERM

Main article: Nous
Nous

Intelligence
Intelligence
derives from the Latin verb ability to think _intelligere_, to comprehend or perceive. A form of this verb, _intellectus _, became the medieval technical term for understanding, and a translation for the Greek philosophical term _nous_. This term was however strongly linked to the metaphysical and cosmological theories of teleological scholasticism , including theories of the immortality of the soul, and the concept of the Active Intellect (also known as the Active Intelligence). This entire approach to the study of nature was strongly rejected by the early modern philosophers such as Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
, Thomas Hobbes , John Locke , and David Hume
David Hume
, all of whom preferred the word "understanding " in their English philosophical works. Hobbes for example, in his Latin _ De Corpore _, used "_intellectus intelligit_" (translated in the English version as "the understanding understandeth") as a typical example of a logical absurdity . The term "intelligence" has therefore become less common in English language philosophy, but it has later been taken up (with the scholastic theories which it now implies) in more contemporary psychology.

DEFINITIONS

The definition of intelligence is controversial. Some groups of psychologists have suggested the following definitions:

From " Mainstream Science on Intelligence " (1994), an op-ed statement in the Wall Street Journal signed by fifty-two researchers (out of 131 total invited to sign).

A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do.

From "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns " (1995), a report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association :

Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, and none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions.

Besides those definitions, psychology and learning researchers also have suggested definitions of intelligence such as:

RESEARCHER QUOTATION

Alfred Binet
Alfred Binet
Judgment, otherwise called "good sense," "practical sense," "initiative," the faculty of adapting one's self to circumstances ... auto-critique.

David Wechsler The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.

Lloyd Humphreys "...the resultant of the process of acquiring, storing in memory, retrieving, combining, comparing, and using in new contexts information and conceptual skills."

Cyril Burt Innate general cognitive ability

Howard Gardner To my mind, a human intellectual competence must entail a set of skills of problem solving — enabling the individual to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that he or she encounters and, when appropriate, to create an effective product — and must also entail the potential for finding or creating problems — and thereby laying the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge.

Linda Gottfredson The ability to deal with cognitive complexity.

Sternberg & Salter Goal-directed adaptive behavior.

Reuven Feuerstein The theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability describes intelligence as "the unique propensity of human beings to change or modify the structure of their cognitive functioning to adapt to the changing demands of a life situation."

Charles Spearman "...all branches of intellectual activity have in common one fundamental function, whereas the remaining or specific elements of the activity seem in every case to be wholly different from that in all the others."

Legg "> The common chimpanzee can use tools . This chimpanzee is using a stick to get food.

Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have also attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal cognition . These researchers are interested in studying both mental ability in a particular species , and comparing abilities between species. They study various measures of problem solving, as well as numerical and verbal reasoning abilities. Some challenges in this area are defining intelligence so that it has the same meaning across species (e.g. comparing intelligence between literate humans and illiterate animals), and also operationalizing a measure that accurately compares mental ability across different species and contexts.

Wolfgang Köhler 's research on the intelligence of apes is an example of research in this area. Stanley Coren's book, _The Intelligence
Intelligence
of Dogs _ is a notable book on the topic of dog intelligence. (See also: Dog intelligence .) Non-human animals particularly noted and studied for their intelligence include chimpanzees , bonobos (notably the language-using Kanzi
Kanzi
) and other great apes , dolphins , elephants and to some extent parrots , rats and ravens .

Cephalopod intelligence also provides important comparative study. Cephalopods appear to exhibit characteristics of significant intelligence, yet their nervous systems differ radically from those of backboned animals. Vertebrates such as mammals , birds , reptiles and fish have shown a fairly high degree of intellect that varies according to each species. The same is true with arthropods .

_G_ FACTOR IN NON-HUMANS

Main article: g Factor in Non- Humans
Humans

Evidence of a general factor of intelligence has been observed in non-human animals. The general factor of intelligence, or _g_ factor , is a psychometric construct that summarizes the correlations observed between an individual’s scores on a wide range of cognitive abilities . First described in humans , the _g_ factor has since been identified in a number of non-human species.

Cognitive ability and intelligence cannot be measured using the same, largely verbally dependent, scales developed for humans. Instead, intelligence is measured using a variety of interactive and observational tools focusing on innovation , habit reversal, social learning , and responses to novelty . Studies have shown that _g_ is responsible for 47% of the individual variance in cognitive ability measures in primates and between 55% and 60% of the variance in mice (Locurto, Locurto). These values are similar to the accepted variance in IQ explained by _g_ in humans (40-50%).

IN PLANTS

Main article: Plant intelligence

It has been argued that plants should also be classified as intelligent based on their ability to sense and model external and internal environments and adjust their morphology , physiology and phenotype accordingly to ensure self-preservation and reproduction.

A counter argument is that intelligence is commonly understood to involve the creation and use of persistent memories as opposed to computation that does not involve learning. If this is accepted as definitive of intelligence, then it includes the artificial intelligence of robots capable of "machine learning", but excludes those purely autonomic sense-reaction responses that can be observed in many plants. Plants are not limited to automated sensory-motor responses, however, they are capable of discriminating positive and negative experiences and of 'learning' (registering memories) from their past experiences. They are also capable of communication, accurately computing their circumstances, using sophisticated cost–benefit analysis and taking tightly controlled actions to mitigate and control the diverse environmental stressors.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Main article: Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (or AI) is both the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it, through "the study and design of intelligent agents " or "rational agents", where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success. Achievements in artificial intelligence include constrained and well-defined problems such as games, crossword -solving and optical character recognition and a few more general problems such as autonomous cars . General intelligence or strong AI has not yet been achieved and is a long-term goal of AI research.

Among the traits that researchers hope machines will exhibit are reasoning , knowledge , planning , learning , communication , perception , and the ability to move and to manipulate objects. In the field of artificial intelligence there is no consensus on how closely the brain should be simulated .

CULTURE\'S INFLUENCE ON INTELLIGENCE

_Intelligence_ and _culture_ are very distinct terms. Intelligence can be defined as a person’s cognitive abilities to learn. It is also associated with school performance, IQ, logic, abstract thought, self-awareness, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity, and problem solving. Culture can be defined as a way of life that influences our views, experiences, and engagement with our lives and the world around us. It is shaped by the political, social, and environmental contexts in which we live. Together these form part of the sociocultural theory, coined by Lev Vygotsky. The sociocultural theory investigates “how social factors influence cognition and development, and how social and cultural practices shape and define thought” (Siegler & Abibali, p. 108). More specifically, culture shapes intelligence.

Intelligence
Intelligence
and culture is most widely studied in humans. There are not any known studies that examine the culture and intelligence of non-human or plant life in the same way. These are psychological terms that are most easily identified in humans.

The sociocultural theory closely relates to intelligence and culture. Lev Vygotsky was the first researcher to define the sociocultural theory. The theory proposes that children learn a larger part of their cognitive abilities from social interactions with adults or older children and people. He distinctly defines this as the Zone of Proximal Development. Older people provide scaffolding, or tools that help children improve their cognitive abilities. Successful intelligence incorporates the socio-cultural environment and people’s ability to be successful in the environment and in their personal standards (Steinberg border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Thinking portal * Logic
Logic
portal * Psychology
Psychology
portal

* Active intellect * Intelligence
Intelligence
(journal) * Intelligence
Intelligence
Quotient * Knowledge
Knowledge
* Neuroscience and intelligence * Noogenesis * Outline of human intelligence * Passive intellect * Self-test of Intelligence
Intelligence
* Theory of multiple intelligences

REFERENCES

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221932479 . * ^ Gottfredson, L. (1998). "The General Intelligence
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11226466 . * ^ Feuerstein, R., Feuerstein, S., Falik, L 2002). Dynamic assessments of cognitive modifiability. ICELP Press, Jerusalem: Israel; Feuerstein, R. (1990). The theory of structural modifiability. In B. Presseisen (Ed.), Learning
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and thinking styles: Classroom interaction. Washington, DC: National Education Associations * ^ Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence” objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology, 15, 201–293. (K. R-26) * ^ S. Legg; M. Hutter (2007). "Universal Intelligence: A Definition
Definition
of Machine Intelligence". _Minds & Machines_. 17 (4): 391–444. doi :10.1007/s11023-007-9079-x . * ^ "TED Speaker: Alex Wissner-Gross: A new equation for intelligence". TED.com. Retrieved 2016-09-07. * ^ Tirri, Nokelainen. _Measuring Multiple Intelligences and Moral Sensitivities in Education_. Springer. ISBN 978-94-6091-758-5 . * ^ Coren, Stanley (1995). _The Intelligence
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30700778 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Reader, S. M., Hager, Y., & Laland, K. N. (2011). The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1567), 1017-1027. * ^ Kamphaus, R. W. (2005). Clinical assessment of child and adolescent intelligence. Springer Science & Business Media. * ^ Trewavas, Anthony (September 2005). "Green plants as intelligent organisms". _Trends in Plant Science_. 10 (9): 413–419. PMID 16054860 . doi :10.1016/j.tplants.2005.07.005 . * ^ Trewavas, A. (2002). "Mindless mastery". _Nature_. 415 (6874): 841. PMID 11859344 . doi :10.1038/415841a . * ^ Goh, C. H.; Nam, H. G.; Park, Y. S. (2003). "Stress memory in plants: A negative regulation of stomatal response and transient induction of rd22 gene to light in abscisic acid-entrained Arabidopsis plants". _The Plant Journal_. 36 (2): 240–255. PMID 14535888 . doi :10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01872.x . * ^ Volkov, A. G.; Carrell, H.; Baldwin, A.; Markin, V. S. (2009). "Electrical memory in Venus flytrap". _Bioelectrochemistry_. 75 (2): 142–147. PMID 19356999 . doi :10.1016/j.bioelechem.2009.03.005 . * ^ Rensing, L.; Koch, M.; Becker, A. (2009). "A comparative approach to the principal mechanisms of different memory systems". _Naturwissenschaften_. 96 (12): 1373–1384. Bibcode :2009NW.....96.1373R. PMID 19680619 . doi :10.1007/s00114-009-0591-0 .

* ^ _A_ _B_ Goebel, Randy; Poole, David L.; Mackworth, Alan K. (1997). _Computational intelligence: A logical approach_ (pdf). Oxford : Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-19-510270-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter (2003). _Artificial intelligence: A modern approach_. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-790395-2 . OCLC
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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55510125 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * Stanovich, Keith (2009). _What Intelligence
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