Indigenous peoples of Argentina
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Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
has 35 indigenous groups (often referred to as Argentine Amerindians or Native Argentines) according to the Complementary Survey of the Indigenous Peoples of 2004, the Argentine government's first attempt in nearly 100 years to recognize and classify the population according to ethnicity. In the survey, based on
self-identification One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psyc ...
or self-ascription, around 600,000 Argentines declared to be
Amerindian The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Amerindians or Indians, are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European colonization of the Americas, European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who n ...
or first-generation descendants of Amerindians, that is, 1.49% of the population. The most populous indigenous groups were the Aonikenk, Kolla,
Qom Qom ( fa, قم ) is the seventh largest metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a ...
, Wichí,
Diaguita The Diaguita people are a group of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geogr ...
, Mocoví,
Huarpe people The Huarpes or Warpes are an Indigenous peoples in Argentina, indigenous people of Argentina, living in the Cuyo (Argentina), Cuyo region. Some scholars assume that in the Huarpe language, this word means "sandy ground," but according to ''Arte y V ...
s,
Mapuche The Mapuche ( (Spanish: )) are a group of Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ra ...

Mapuche
and Guarani In the , 955,032 Argentines declared to be
Amerindian The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Amerindians or Indians, are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European colonization of the Americas, European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who n ...
or first-generation descendants of Amerindians, that is, 2.38% of the population. Many Argentines also identify as having at least one indigenous ancestor; a genetic study conducted by the
University of Buenos Aires The University of Buenos Aires ( es, Universidad de Buenos Aires, UBA) is a public university, public research university in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Established in 1821, it is the premier institution of higher learning in the country and one o ...
in 2011 showed that more than 56% of the 320 Argentines sampled were shown to have at least one indigenous ancestor in one parental lineage and around 11% had indigenous ancestors in both parental lineages.
Jujuy Province Jujuy () is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as ...

Jujuy Province
, in the
Argentine Northwest The Argentine Northwest (''Noroeste Argentino'') is a geographic and historical region of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South ...
, is home to the highest percentage of households (15%) with at least one indigenous resident or a direct descendant of an indigenous person;
ChubutChubut may refer to: * Chubut Province, Argentina * Chubut River in the Chubut Province * Chubut steamer duck, a flightless duck endemic to Argentina {{Disambiguation, geo ...

Chubut
and
Neuquén Province Neuquén () is a Provinces of Argentina, province of Argentina, located in the west of the country, at the northern end of Patagonia. It borders Mendoza Province to the north, Rio Negro Province to the southeast, and Chile to the west. It also me ...
s, in
Patagonia Patagonia () refers to a geographical region that encompasses the southern end of South America, governed by Argentina and Chile. The region comprises the southern section of the Andes Mountains, lakes, fjords, and glaciers in the west and P ...

Patagonia
, have upwards of 12%.


Prehistory

The earliest known evidence of indigenous peoples in Argentina is dated 11,000 BC and was discovered in what now known as the
Piedra Museo Piedra Museo is an archaeological site in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, and one of the earliest known Archaeology of the Americas, archaeological remains in the Americas. Overview The site was discovered around 1910 by Argentine naturalist Flor ...
archaeological site in Santa Cruz Province. The ''
Cueva de las Manos Cueva de las Manos (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

Cueva de las Manos
,'' also in Santa Cruz, is over 10,000 years old. Both are among the oldest evidence of indigenous culture in the Americas, and have, with a number of similarly ancient sites on other parts of the
southern hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere of Earth ** Northern Hemisphere ** Southern Hemisphere ** Eastern Hemisphere ** Western He ...

southern hemisphere
, challenged the "
Clovis First The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, ...
" hypothesis on the
settlement of the Americas The settlement of the Americas began when Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek palaios - old, lithos - stone), is a period in prehistory Prehistory, also known as ...
(the assumption, based on lacking evidence to the contrary, that the
Clovis culture The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology ...
was the first in the
Western Hemisphere The Western Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining ...
).


History

By the year 1500, many different indigenous communities lived in what is now modern Argentina. They were not a unified group but many independent ones, with distinct languages, societies, and relations with each other. As a result, they did not face the arrival of the Spanish colonization as a single block and had varied reactions toward the Europeans. The Spanish people looked down on the indigenous population, to the point that they held in doubt whether they had souls, following the general thought in Europe. For this reason, they kept very little historical information about them. In the 19th century major population movements altered the original Patagonian demography. Between 1820 and 1850 the original Aonikenk people were conquered and expelled from their territories by invading
Mapuche The Mapuche ( (Spanish: )) are a group of Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ra ...

Mapuche
(that called them ''Tehuelches'') armies. By 1870 most of northern Patagonia and the south east Pampas were Araucanized. During the Generation of 1880, European immigration was strongly encouraged as a way of occupying an empty territory, configuring the national population and, through their colonizing effort, gradually incorporating the nation into the world market. These changes were perhaps best summarized by the anthropological metaphor which states that ''“Argentines descend from ships.”'' The strength of the immigration and its contribution to the Argentine ethnography is evident by observing that Argentina became the country in the world that received the second highest number of immigrants, with 6.6 million, second only to the United States with 27 million, and ahead of countries such as Canada,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, Australia, etc.
/ref>
/ref> The expansion of European immigrant communities and the Rail transport in Argentina, railways westward into the
Pampas The Pampas (from the qu, pampa, meaning "plain") are fertile South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any st ...

Pampas
and south into Patagonia was met with Malón raids by displaced tribes. This led to the
Conquest of the Desert The Conquest of the Desert ( es, Conquista del desierto) was an Argentine military The Armed Forces of the Argentina, Argentine Republic, in es, Fuerzas Armadas de la República Argentina, are controlled by the Commander-in-Chief (the Preside ...
in the 1870s, which resulted in over 1,300 indigenous dead. Indigenous cultures in Argentina were consequently affected by a process of invisibilization, promoted by the government during the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th. The extensive explorations, research and writing by Juan Bautista Ambrosetti and other ethnographers during the 20th century, which followed earlier pioneer studies by anthropologists such as Robert Lehmann-Nitsche, encouraged wider interest in indigenous people in Argentina, and their contributions to the nation's culture were further underscored during the administration of President
Juan Perón Juan Domingo Perón (, , ; 8 October 1895 – 1 July 1974) was an Argentine Army The Argentine Army (''Ejército Argentino'', EA) is the Army, land armed force branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic and the senior military ser ...
in the 1940s and 1950s as part of the rustic ''criollo'' culture and values exalted by Perón during that era. Discriminatory policies toward these people and other minorities officially ended, moreover, with the August 3, 1988, enactment of the Antidiscrimination Law (Law 23.592) by President
Raúl Alfonsín Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Foulkes (12 March 1927 – 31 March 2009) was an Argentine Argentines (also known as Argentinians or Argentineans; es, masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes ...

Raúl Alfonsín
, and were countered further with the establishment of a government bureau, the National Institute Against Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Racism (INADI), in 1995.
Corrientes Province Corrientes (, ‘currents’ or ‘streams’; gn, Taragui), officially the Province of Corrientes ( es, Provincia de Corrientes; gn, Taragüí Tetãmini) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrat ...

Corrientes Province
, in 2004, became the first in the nation to award an indigenous language ( Guaraní) with co-official status, and all 35 native peoples were recognized by both the 2004 Indigenous Peoples Census and by their inclusion as self-descriptive categories in the 2010 census; indigenous communities and
Afro-Argentine Afro-Argentines are Argentine people of Sub-Saharan African descent. According to the Argentine national census of 2010, the total population of Argentines was 40,117,096, of whom 149,493 (0.37%) identified as Afro-Argentine. The Afro-Argentine ...
s thus became the only groups accorded any recognition as ethnic categories by the 2010 census.INDEC. Censo 2010.


Demographics

In addition to the indigenous population in Argentina, most Argentines are descendants of indigenous peoples or have some indigenous ancestry. Many genetic studies have shown that Argentina's genetic footprint is primarily but not overwhelmingly European. In a genetic study involving 441 Argentines from across the North East, North West, Southern, and Central provinces (especially the urban conglomeration of Buenos Aires) of the country, it was observed that 65% of the Argentine population was of European descent, followed by 31% of Amerindian descent, and 4% of African descent. It was also found there were great differences in the ancestry amongst Argentines as one traveled across the country. For example, the population in the North West provinces of Argentina (includes the province of Salta) were on average of 66% Amerindian, 33% European, and 1% of African ancestry. The European immigration to this North West part of the country was limited and the original Amerindian population largely thrived after their initial decline owing to the introduction of European diseases and colonization. Similarly, the study also showed that the population in the North Eastern provinces of Argentina (for example, Misiones, Chaco, Corrientes, and Formosa) were on average 43% of Amerindian, 54% European, and 3% of African ancestry. The population of the Southern provinces of Argentina, such as Rio Negro and Neuquen, were on average 40% of Amerindian, 54% European, and 6% of African ancestry. Finally, only in areas of massive historical European immigration in Argentina, namely the Central provinces, Buenos Aires and the surrounding urban areas, were Argentines of overwhelmingly European ancestry, with the average person having 17% Amerindian, 76% European, and 7% of African ancestry. In another study, that was titled the Regional pattern of genetic admixture in South America, the researchers included results from the genetic study of several hundreds of Argentines from all across the country. The study indicated that Argentines were as a whole made up of 38% Amerindian, 58.9% of European, and 3.1% of African ancestry. Again, there were huge difference in the genetic ancestry from across the various regions of the country. For example, Argentines who hailed from Patagonia were 45% Amerindian and 55% of European ancestry . The population in the North West part of the country were made up of 69% of Amerindian, 23% of European, and 8% of African ancestry. The population in the Gran Chaco part of the country were 38% of Amerindian, 53% of European, and 9% of African ancestry. The population in the Mesopotamian part of the country were 31% of Amerindian, 63% of European, and 6.4% of African ancestry. Finally, the population in the Pampa region of the country were 22% of Amerindian, 68% of European, and 10% of African ancestry. Finally in another study involving the North Western provinces of the country, a total of 1293 individuals from Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca and La Rioja were used. This study showed that the Spanish contribution (50%) predominated in Argentina's North West, followed by the American Indian (40%) and African (10%) contributions. According to this study, Argentines from Jujuy were 53% Amerindian, 47% European, and 0.1% African ancestry. Argentines from Salta were 41% of Amerindian, 56% of European, and 3.1% of African ancestry. Those from Catamarca were 37% of Amerindian, 53% of European, and 10% of African ancestry. Those from La Rioja were on average 31% Amerindian, 50% European, and 19% African ancestry. The inhabitants of Santiago del Estero were on average 30% Amerindian, 46% European, and 24% African ancestry. The inhabitants of Tucuman were on average 24% Amerindian, 67% European, and 9% African ancestry.


Indigenous communities today

Argentina has a total population of 40 million. The Additional Survey on Indigenous Populations, published by the National Institute for Statistics and Census, gives a total of 600,329 people who see themselves as descending from or belonging to indigenous people. For a number of reasons the different indigenous organisations do not believe this to be a credible survey: First, the methodology used in the survey was considered inadequate, as a large number of indigenous people live in urban areas where the survey was not fully conducted. Second, many indigenous people in the country hide their identity for fear of discrimination. Moreover, when the survey was designed in 2001, it was based on the existence of 18 known peoples in the country, today there exist more than 31 groups. This increase reflects a growing awareness amongst indigenous people in terms of their ethnic belonging. As many Argentines either believe that the majority of the indigenous have died out or are on the verge of doing so, or 'their descendants' assimilated into Western civilisation many years ago, they wrongly hold the idea that there are no indigenous people in their country. The use of pejorative terms likening the indigenous to lazy, idle, dirty, ignorant and savage are part of the everyday language in Argentina. Due to these incorrect stereotypes many indigenous have over the years been forced to hide their identity in order to avoid being subjected to racial discrimination. As of 2011 many natives were still being denied land and human rights. Many of the
Qom Qom ( fa, قم ) is the seventh largest metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a ...
native community had been struggling to protect the land they claim as ancestral territory and even the lives of its members. A leader of the Aboriginal Community Félix Díaz claimed that his people were being denied medical assistance, did not have much access to drinking water and traders keep raising
food prices Food prices refer to the average price level The general price level is a hypothetical measure of overall prices for some set of Good (economics), goods and Service (economics), services (the consumer basket), in an economy or monetary union du ...
. He also claimed judges would not even hear the native's complaints.


Indigenous groups by population

According to the 2010 census there are the following indigenous groups:


Indigenous groups by region


Northeast

This region includes the provinces of ,
Corrientes Corrientes (; Guaraní: Taragüí, literally: "Currents") is the capital city of the province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admini ...

Corrientes
, Entre Ríos,
Formosa , t2 = , s2 = , l2 = beautiful island , bpmf2 = ㄈㄨˊ ㄦˇ ㄇㄛˊ ㄕㄚ , w2 = Fu²-êr³-mo²-sha¹ , p2 = Fúĕrmóshā , tp2 = Fúĕrmósha , mps2 = Fúĕrmóshā , gr2 = Fwu'eelmosha , poj = Tâi-oân , tl = Tâi-uân , h = Thòi-và ...

Formosa
,
Misiones Misiones (, ''Missions'') is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South Ameri ...

Misiones
, Santa Fe, and parts of
Santiago del Estero Province Santiago del Estero (), also known simply as Santiago, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnationa ...

Santiago del Estero Province
. *
Charrúa The Charrúa were an Amerindian, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous People or Indigenous Nation of the Southern Cone in present-day Uruguay and the adjacent areas in Argentina (Entre Ríos Province, Entre Ríos) and Brazil (Rio Grande ...
* Lule * Mbya-Guaraní * Mocoví * Pilagá *
Qom Qom ( fa, قم ) is the seventh largest metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a ...
* Tonocoté * Vilela * Wichí


Northwest

This region includes the provinces of ,
Jujuy San Salvador de Jujuy, Jujuy, Argentina (), commonly known as Jujuy and locally often referred to as San Salvador, is the capital and largest city of Jujuy Province in Argentine Northwest, northwest Argentina. Also, it is the seat of the Doctor Ma ...

Jujuy
,
La Rioja La Rioja (, , ) is an autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution ...
,
Salta Salta () is the capital and largest city in the Provinces of Argentina, Argentine province of Salta Province, the same name. With a population of 618,375 according to the 2010 census, it is also the List of cities in Argentina, 7th most-populous ...

Salta
,
San JuanSan Juan , Spanish for Saint John (disambiguation), Saint John, may refer to: Places Argentina * San Juan Province, Argentina * San Juan, Argentina, the capital of that province * San Juan (Iruya), a small village in the Iruya Department of the ...
, parts of
Santiago del Estero Province Santiago del Estero (), also known simply as Santiago, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnationa ...

Santiago del Estero Province
, and Tucumán. *
Atacama The Atacama Desert ( es, Desierto de Atacama) is a desert plateau in South America covering a 1,600 km (990 mi) strip of land on the Pacific Ocean, Pacific coast, west of the Andes Mountains. The Atacama Desert is the driest nonpolar ...
* Avá-Guaraní * Chané * Chorote * Chulupí *Diaguita, Diaguita-Calchaquí **Chicoana * Kolla *Ocloya *Omaguaca *Tapiete people, Tapiete *
Qom Qom ( fa, قم ) is the seventh largest metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a ...
* Wichí *Quechua people, Quechua


Central

This region includes the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and the provinces of Buenos Aires Province, Buenos Aires, Córdoba Province, Argentina, Córdoba, La Pampa Province, La Pampa, Mendoza Province, Mendoza, and San Luis Province, San Luis. *
Atacama The Atacama Desert ( es, Desierto de Atacama) is a desert plateau in South America covering a 1,600 km (990 mi) strip of land on the Pacific Ocean, Pacific coast, west of the Andes Mountains. The Atacama Desert is the driest nonpolar ...
*Avá Guaraní *Comechingon *Diaguita, Diaguita-Calchaquí *Huarpe people, Huarpe * Kolla *
Mapuche The Mapuche ( (Spanish: )) are a group of Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ra ...

Mapuche
*Querandí, Het *Rankulche


South

This region includes the provinces of
ChubutChubut may refer to: * Chubut Province, Argentina * Chubut River in the Chubut Province * Chubut steamer duck, a flightless duck endemic to Argentina {{Disambiguation, geo ...

Chubut
, Neuquén Province, Neuquén, Río Negro Province, Río Negro, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, Santa Cruz, and Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina, Tierra del Fuego. *Alacaluf people, Alacaluf *Haush people *
Mapuche The Mapuche ( (Spanish: )) are a group of Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ra ...

Mapuche
*Selknam people, Selknam *Puelche people, Puelche * Aonikenk *Yaghan people, Yaghan


See also

*Indigenous peoples of South America *Languages of Argentina *Argentine people *Abipón people *Amaicha *Calchaquí *Capayán *Poya people


Notes


References

*


External links


About Argentina: Indigenous Population
Argentine government website {{DEFAULTSORT:Indigenous Peoples In Argentina Indigenous peoples in Argentina, Colonial Argentina Indigenous peoples of the Gran Chaco