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The INDIAN POLICE SERVICE (_Bhāratīya Pulis Sevā_) or IPS, is one of the three All India
India
Services of the Government of India
India
. It has replaced the Indian Imperial Police in 1948, a year after India
India
gained independence from Britain .

The service is not a force itself but provides leaders and commanders to staff the state police and all- India
India
Central Armed Police Forces. Its members are the senior officers of the police. The Bureau of Police Research and Development is responsible for research and development of the police force in India.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 British India
India

* 1.2 Modern India
India

* 1.2.1 Medals and decorations

* 2 Objective

* 3 Selection

* 3.1 Training

* 4 Pay structure (gazetted officers) IPS

* 5 Ranks and insignia

* 5.1 Ranks of the IPS

* 6 Reforms and Major concerns

* 6.1 Corruption and fake encounters * 6.2 National Police Commission (1977-81) * 6.3 Ribeiro Committee (1998-99) * 6.4 Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000) * 6.5 Malimath Committee Report (2003) * 6.6 Soli Sorabjee Committee (2005) * 6.7 Supreme Court intervention (2006) * 6.8 Follow-up from Supreme Court

* 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

HISTORY

BRITISH INDIA

Jamadar, Constable and Sergeant - NCO positions opened to Indians until 1920. Indian Police Medal issued in 1940.

In 1861, the British Government introduced the INDIAN COUNCILS ACT OF 1861. The act created the foundation of a modern and professionalised police bureaucracy in India. It introduced, a new cadre of police, called SUPERIOR POLICE SERVICES, later known as the Indian Imperial Police . The highest rank in the service was the Inspector General for each province. The rank of Inspector General was equated and ranked with Brigadier
Brigadier
and similar ranks in the Indian Armed Forces , as per Central Warrant of Precedence in 1937.

In 1902-03, a Police Commission was established for the Police reforms under Sir Andrew Frazer and Lord Curzon . It recommended the appointment of Indians at officer level in the police. Indians could rise only to the ranks of Inspector of Police, the senior N.C.O. position. However they were not part of Indian Imperial Police .

From 1920, Indian Imperial Police was open to Indians and the entrance examination for the service was conducted both in India
India
and England.

Prior to Independence, senior police officers belonging to the Imperial Police (IP) were appointed by the Secretary of State on the basis of a competitive examination. The first open civil service examination for admission to the service was held in England in June 1893 and the ten top candidates were appointed as probationers in the Indian (Imperial) Police . It is not possible to pinpoint an exact date on which the Indian Police came formally into being. Around 1907, the Secretary of State's officers were directed to wear the letters "IP" on their epaulettes in order to distinguish them from the other officers not recruited by the Secretary of State through examination. In this sense, 1907 could be regarded as the starting point. In 1948, a year after India
India
gained independence; the Imperial Police was replaced by IPS.

MODERN INDIA

In 1972, Kiran Bedi joined the IPS, becoming the first woman police officer. As per media reports in 2016, there is massive shortfall of IPS officers in India, which is nearly 19% to 22% of total strength.

Medals And Decorations

Main articles: Police Medal (India) and President\'s Police Medal

Historically, few officers have been awarded United Nations Medal and have participated in Indian Army
Indian Army
United Nations peacekeeping missions .

OBJECTIVE

The First Police Commission, appointed on 17 August 1865, contained detailed guidelines for the desired system of police in India
India
and defined the police as a governmental department to maintain order, enforce the law , and to prevent and detect crime. The Indian Police Service is not a force itself but a service providing leaders and commanders to staff the state police and all- India
India
Central Armed Police Forces . Its members are the senior officers of the police. With the passage of time Indian Police Service's objectives were updated and redefined, the current rules and functions of an Indian Police Service Officer are as follows:

* To fulfil duties based on border responsibilities, in the areas of maintenance of public peace and order, crime prevention, investigation, and detection, collection of intelligence, VIP security , counter-terrorism , border policing, railway policing, tackling smuggling , drug trafficking, economic offences, corruption in public life , disaster management , enforcement of socio-economic legislation, bio-diversity and protection of environmental laws etc. * Leading and commanding the Indian Intelligence Agencies like Research and Analysis Wing (R"> Prime Minister Modi
Prime Minister Modi
at the National Conference of DGPs at Guwahati
Guwahati
in 2014.

IPS officers are recruited from Civil Services Examination . They are also promoted from State Police Services and DANIPS . However, at present, recruitment from Limited Competitive Examination has been put on hold.

After selection for the IPS, candidates are allocated to a cadre. There is one cadre in each Indian state, with the exception of three joint cadres: Assam
Assam
- Meghalaya
Meghalaya
, Manipur- Tripura
Tripura
, and Arunachal Pradesh - Goa
Goa
- Mizoram
Mizoram
- Union Territories
Union Territories
(AGMUT). Two-thirds of the strength of every cadre is filled directly by IPS officers and the remaining are promoted from the respective states cadre officers.

Eligibility conditions for Police Personals is defined by Govt recruitment laws. Each rank has different criteria which includes age limit, Education
Education
and physical qualification. Once candidate satisfies all these criteria, he/she can take part in recruitment exam of Indian Police.

TRAINING

The training of IPS officer recruits is conducted at Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy in Hyderabad
Hyderabad
. The authorised cadre strength of Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
is 4920. (3270 Direct Recruitment Posts and 1650 Promotional Posts). The Civil List of IPS officers is an updated (annual) list maintained by the Ministry of Home Affairs , Government of India
India
that lists the posting details of all IPS officers in India. This Civil List can be accessed from this MHA site. It allows searching for an IPS officer on the basis of his name, Batch or Cadre.

PAY STRUCTURE (GAZETTED OFFICERS) IPS

GRADE POSITION IN THE STATE GOVERNMENT(S) SALARY (MONTHLY) EQUIVALENT POSITION OR DESIGNATION IN THE STATE GOVERNMENT(S) OR GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (GOI)

Above Super Time Scale (Apex Scale) (After 30 years of service in IPS Cadre) Director General of Police ₹2,25,000 Director of Intelligence Bureau or Director CBI in GOI, Commissioner of Police of Delhi; Director General or Special
Special
Director General in CAPFs.

Above Super Time Scale (HAG) (Pay-Band-4) (After 25 years of service in IPS Cadre) Additional Director General of Police ₹2,00,000 Special
Special
Commissioner of Police, Commissioner of Police (City ), Special
Special
or Additional Director (GOI) , Additional Director General in CAPFs.

Super Time Scale (Senior Administrative Grade) (Pay-Band-4) (After 18 years of service in IPS Cadre) Inspector General of Police ₹1,75,000 Joint Commissioner of Police , Commissioner of Police (City ), Inspector General of CAPFs.

Super Time Scale (DIG/Conservator Grade) (Pay-Band-4) (After 14 years of service in IPS Cadre) Deputy Inspector General of Police ₹1,50,000 Additional Commissioner of Police , Commissioner of Police (City ), Deputy Inspector General in CAPFs, Director (GOI)

Selection Grade (Pay-Band-4) (After 13 years of service in IPS Cadre) Senior Superintendent of Police ₹1,18,500 Deputy Commissioner of Police (Selection Grade), Commandants of CAPFs.

Junior Administrative Grade (Pay-Band-3) (After 9 years of service in IPS Cadre) Superintendent of Police ₹78,800 Deputy Commissioner of Police, Commandants of CAPFs.

Senior Time Scale (Pay-Band-3) (After 4 years of service in IPS Cadre) Additional Superintendent of Police ₹67,700 Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police, Second in command(2ic) of CAPFs.

Junior Time Scale (Pay-Band-3) (Initial Pay IPS Cadre) Assistant Superintendent of Police ₹56,100 Assistant Commissioner of Police , Deputy Commandants of CAPFs.

RANKS AND INSIGNIA

Main article: List of police ranks in India
India

The standard uniform colour is Khaki.

RANKS OF THE IPS

All STATE POLICE SERVICES officers of and above the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP) or Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP) in State Police and Metropolitan Police forces
Police forces
respectively.

INDIAN POLICE SERVICE OFFICER RANK INSIGNIA INSIGNIA

RANK Director of Intelligence Bureau (GOI) ¹ Commissioner of Police (State ) OR Director General of Police ² Joint Commissioner of Police OR Inspector General of Police Additional Commissioner of Police OR Deputy Inspector General of Police Deputy Commissioner of Police OR Senior Superintendent of Police Deputy Commissioner of Police OR Superintendent of Police Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police OR Additional Superintendent of Police Assistant Commissioner of Police OR Deputy Superintendent of Police

Assistant Superintendent of Police (Probationary Rank: 2 years of service) Assistant Superintendent of Police (Probationary Rank: 1 year of service)

ABBREVIATION DIB CP OR DGP JCP OR IGP ADL.CP OR DIG DCP OR SSP DCP OR SP ADL.DCP OR ASP ACP OR DSP ASST.SP ASST.SP

* ¹ Although DIB is a 4 star post and not a rank, it's given to the senior most IPS officer in Intelligence Bureau . * ² Rank insignia of CP/DGP is similar to Special
Special
CP/Additional DGP (not shown above). * Note: Commissioner of Police diesignation is held by different rank officers in different places. For example, it is held by DG rank officer only in Delhi
Delhi
; by Additional DG rank officer in Mumbai
Mumbai
, Pune
Pune
, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
, Chennai
Chennai
, Bangalore
Bangalore
, Kolkata
Kolkata
, Guwahati
Guwahati
etc; by IG rank officer in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
, Ludhiana , Mysore
Mysore
etc; by DIG rank officer in Trivandrum
Trivandrum
, Kochi
Kochi
etc.

This Hindustan Ambassador has a triangular flag as well as one star (on the blue box). Both these features indicate that the car belongs to a DIG rank IPS officer. Flags (left) & Stars (right) on official cars of senior IPS officers, as per their rank.

* National Emblem above One star above Crossed Sword and Baton

* Director, Intelligence Bureau (Government of India
India
) or Commissioners of Police (State) or Director Generals of Police , States and territories of India
India

* National Emblem above Crossed Sword and Baton * Special
Special
Commissioners of Police (State) or Additional Director Generals of Police , States and territories of India
India

* Director Generals , Indian Intelligence agencies (Government of India) * Director Generals , Indian Federal law enforcement agencies (Government of India) * Director Generals , Central Armed Police Forces (Government of India) * Secretary(ies) (R), Cabinet Secretariat , (Government of India) * Special
Special
Commissioners of Police or Additional Director General of Police , States and territories of India
India
* Special
Special
or Additional Director Generals, Indian Intelligence agencies (Govt of India) * Special
Special
or Additional Director Generals, Indian Federal law enforcement agencies (Govt of India) * Special
Special
or Additional Director Generals, Central Armed Police Forces (Government of India) * Special
Special
or Additional Secretar(ies) (R), Cabinet Secretariat (Government of India)

* One Star above Crossed Sword and Baton * Joint Commissioners of Police or Inspector-Generals of Police , States and territories of India
India

* Joint Directors or Inspector-Generals , Indian Intelligence agencies (Govt of India) * Joint Directors or Inspector-Generals , Indian Federal law enforcement agencies (Govt of India) * Joint Directors or Inspector-Generals , Central Armed Police Forces (Government of India) * Joint Secretar(ies) (R), Cabinet Secretariat , (Government of India)

* National Emblem above three stars in a triangle * Joint Commissioners of Police or Deputy Inspector Generals of Police , States and territories of India
India

* Directors or Deputy Inspector-Generals , Indian Intelligence agencies (Govt of India) * Directors or Deputy Inspector-Generals , Indian Federal law enforcement agencies (Govt of India) * Directors or Deputy Inspector-Generals , Central Armed Police Forces (Government of India) * Director(s) (R), Cabinet Secretariat , (Government of India)

* National Emblem above two stars * Deputy Commissioner of Police (Selection grade) or Senior Superintendent of Police in selection grade with 13+ years of service (IPS officers posted in insurgency infested states such as Jborder:solid #aaa 1px">

* India
India
portal

* Indian State Police Services * Law enforcement in India * Encounter killings by police * Civil Services of India
India
* All India
India
Service * Special Duty Allowance (SDA)

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Data History of Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
(Official Raj Govt. Page)". Retrieved 2010-04-26. * ^ "Authorised Cadre Strength of the Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
(as on 01.01.2016)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs . Retrieved 11 January 2017. * ^ "IPS, IAS and IFS: All India
India
Services (Government of India)" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-04-13. * ^ "Service Profile for Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
(IPS)" (PDF). _ Ministry of Home Affairs (India) _. 23 August 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Shahidullah, Shahid M. _Comparative Criminal Justice
Justice
Systems_. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2012. ISBN 9781449604257 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "A worrisome slide in Army’s status". Hindustan Times . Retrieved 22 April 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Alexander, K. _Police Reforms in India: An Analytical Study_. Discovery Publishing House, 2006. ISBN 9788183561280 . * ^ "First woman IPS officer Kiran Bedi seeks voluntary retirement". _Economic Times_. 27 November 2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ "States reel under huge shortfall of IPS officers". Retrieved 30 December 2016. * ^ "908 posts of IPS officers lying vacant". Retrieved 30 December 2016. * ^ "Duties and Responsibilities of Indian Police Service officers". UPSCguide.com. Retrieved 2009-12-19. * ^ http://mha.nic.in/pdfs/ips_cadre_stren.pdf * ^ http://mha1.nic.in/pdfs/ProGuidPAR160410.pdf * ^ http://mha1.nic.in/pdfs/IPS-Guid-190710.pdf * ^ "Why is the colour of the Indian police uniform khaki?". _The Times of India_. 3 March 2007. Retrieved 2010-05-11. * ^ "Modern ranks and insignia of IPS and SPS Officers Bio". Retrieved 2010-01-20. * ^ Mumbai
Mumbai
CP\'s post downgraded again from DG to ADG * ^ "Director, Intelligence Bureau\'s Insignia Equivalent to Armed Forces Generals". Government of India. Retrieved 2009-07-27. * ^ Indian Military : Service Benefits and Issues: Illegal (Police) badges of rank in J & K. Indianmilitary.info (2011-01-10). Retrieved on 2013-08-17. * ^ "Inept Delhi
Delhi
cops get HC rap". _DNA_. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012. * ^ "Two ACPs are suspended". _The Hindu_. Retrieved 28 December 2012. * ^ "Failure of governance root cause of crimes against women: Verma committee". _The Hindu_. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013. * ^ "Read: Highlights of Justice
Justice
Verma Committee report". _CNNIBNLive_. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013. * ^ "IPS officer spent 7 years in jail before he busted biggest bribery case". India
India
Today . Retrieved 3 March 2017. * ^ "IPS officer gets 13-year jail term for pilfering seized drug". Daily News and Analysis . Retrieved 3 March 2017. * ^ "Home Ministry set to transfer young IPS officers after charges of \'corruption\' and \'dereliction of duty\'". Mail Online . Retrieved 3 March 2017. * ^ "Corruption case against IPS officer, 5 held by Vigilance Dept.". The Hindu
The Hindu
. Retrieved 3 March 2017. * ^ "Booked for job fraud, IPS officer on the run". The Tribune (Chandigarh) . Retrieved 3 March 2017. * ^ "2 IPS officers \'compulsorily\' retired for not performing". The New Indian Express
The New Indian Express
. Retrieved 3 March 2017. * ^ "MHA terminates services of IPS officer connected to Bhojpur fake encounter". The Indian Express . Retrieved 3 March 2017. * ^ "CBI arrests IPS officer in 2004 Ishrat Jahan fake encounter case". The Telegraph (Calcutta) . Retrieved 3 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "PRAKASH SINGH Case at LIIofIndia.org". Retrieved 12 April 2013. * ^ "Ribeiro Committee". Archived from the original on 6 Mar 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013. * ^ "Padmanabhaiah Committee". Archived from the original on 6 Mar 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013. * ^ Dutta, Mriganka Shekhar; Marico Baruah (1 January 2008). "POLICING THE NATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY : AN APPRAISAL OF THE PROPOSED REFORMS" (PDF). _NUJS Law Review_. Retrieved 3 January 2015. * ^ " Prakash Singh Case". Retrieved 12 April 2013. * ^ Prasad, Devika; Caroline Avanzo (5 November 2006). "Seize the opportunity". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2007-09-12. * ^ Strip, Mobius; Ramesh Ramanathan (7 May 2007). "Sohrabbudin\'s encounter: An article on Prakash Singh, IPS". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2007-09-12. * ^ "COMPLIANCE WITH SUPREME COURT DIRECTIVES" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013. * ^ "The Supreme Court of India
India
takes the lead on police reform: Prakash Singh vs. Union of India". Retrieved 2007-09-12. * ^ Das, Sunrat (6 May 2007). "Board to lend ears to transfer woes". Retrieved 2007-09-12. * ^ "SC asks states to file affidavit on police reforms". _Hindustan Times_. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012.

_Notes_

* ^ The rank of IGP is ranked and equated with the rank of Brigadier
Brigadier
/ equivalent rank of the Indian Armed Forced as per Warrant of Precedence – 1937, as per Minstry of Home Affairs' directions contained in Letter No 12/11/99-Pub II dated 26 Dec 1966. This Warrant of Precedence is compiled from a joint consideration of the existing Central Warrant of Precedence (which is till the rank of Major General) and Warrant of Precedence – 1937, as per Minstry of Home Affairs' directions contained in Letter No 12/11/99-Pub II dated 26 Dec 1966, the validity of which has been confirmed by Letter No 12/1/2007-Public dated 14 Aug 2007. The MHA has confirmed in 2007 that the Old Warrant of Precedence shall be taken as a guide to determine ranks below the ones mentioned in the current WoP.

FURTHER READING

* _History of services of Indian police service, as on 1 July 1966_, by Ministry of Home Affairs, India. Published by Govt. of India, 1969. * _The peace keepers: Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
(IPS)_, by S. R. Arun, IPS, DGP Uttar Pradesh. Published by Berghahn Books, 2000. ISBN 978-81-7049-107-1 . * _The Indian Police Journal (IPJ)_, by Bureau of Police Research and Development , Ministry of Home Affairs. Published by Govt. of India, October–December 2009 Vol.LVI-No.4. ISSN 0537-2429 . * _History of services of Indian police service, as on 1 July 1966_, by Ministry of Home Affairs, India. Published by Govt. of India, 1969.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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