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The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
( pronunciation (help·info)) (INC, often called Congress) is a broad-based political party in India.[11] Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire
British Empire
in Asia and Africa.[a][12] From the late 19th century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants.[13] Congress led India
India
to independence from Great Britain,[b][14][c][15] and powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire.[d][12] Congress is a secular party whose social liberal platform is generally considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics.[16] Congress' social policy is based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya—the lifting up of all sections of society—which involves the improvement of the lives of economically underprivileged and socially marginalised people.[17] The party primarily endorses social liberalism—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice, and secularism—asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings. After India's independence in 1947, Congress formed the central government of India, and many regional state governments.[18] Congress became India's dominant political party; as of 2015[update], in the 15 general elections since independence, it has won an outright majority on six occasions and has led the ruling coalition a further four times, heading the central government for 49 years. There have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru (1947–1964), and the most recent Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
(2004–2014). Although it did not fare well in the last general elections in India in 2014, it remains one of two major, nationwide, political parties in India, along with the right-wing, Hindu nationalist, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).[e][19] In the 2014 general election, Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member Lok Sabha. From 2004 to 2014, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of several regional parties, formed the Indian government, and was headed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The leader of the party during the period, Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi
has served the longest term as the president of the party. As of March 2018[update], the party is in power in three states: Punjab, Karnataka
Karnataka
and Mizoram
Mizoram
and the union territory of Puducherry.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-independence

1.1.1 Foundation 1.1.2 Early years 1.1.3 Congress as a mass movement

1.2 Post-independence

1.2.1 Nehru/Shastri era (1947–1966) 1.2.2 Indira era (1966–1984) 1.2.3 Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
and Rao era (1985–1998) 1.2.4 Modern era

2 Election symbols 3 In general elections 4 Current structure and composition

4.1 State and territorial units

5 Ideology and policies

5.1 Economic policy 5.2 Healthcare and education 5.3 Security and home affairs 5.4 Foreign policy

6 Presence in various states

6.1 List of current INC
INC
and UPA governments

7 List of Prime Ministers

7.1 List of Prime Ministers (former Congress members)

8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Citations

10 Further reading 11 External links

History Main article: History of the Indian National Congress The history of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
(INC) falls into two distinct eras:

The pre-independence era, when the party was the umbrella organisation leading the campaign for independence; The post-independence era, when the party has had a prominent place in Indian politics.

A. O. Hume, one of the founders of the Indian National Congress

Pre-independence See also: Indian independence movement

First session of Indian National Congress, Bombay, 28–31 December 1885

Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
spinning yarn, in the late 1920s

Foundation The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
conducted its first session in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885 at the initiative of retired Civil service officer Allan Octavian Hume. In 1883, Hume had outlined his idea for a body representing Indian interests in an open letter to graduates of the University of Calcutta.[20] Its aim was to obtain a greater share in government for educated Indians, and to create a platform for civic and political dialogue between them and the British Raj. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 a notice convening the first meeting of the Indian National Union to be held in Poona
Poona
the following December was issued.[21] Due to a cholera outbreak there, it was moved to Bombay. Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay
Bombay
with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee
Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee
was the first president of Congress; the first session was attended by 72 delegates. Representing each province of India, the delegates comprised 54 Hindus and two Muslims; the rest were of Parsi
Parsi
and Jain
Jain
backgrounds. Notable representatives included Scottish ICS officer William Wedderburn, Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozeshah Mehta
Pherozeshah Mehta
of the Bombay
Bombay
Presidency Association, Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi of the Poona
Poona
Sarvajanik Sabha, social reformer and newspaper editor Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Justice K. T. Telang, N. G. Chandavarkar, Dinshaw Wacha, Behramji Malabari, journalist and activist Gooty Kesava Pillai, and P. Rangaiah Naidu of the Madras Mahajana Sabha.[22][23] Early years Within the next few years, Congress' demands became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the British government, and the party decided to advocate in favour of the independence movement because it would allow a new political system in which Congress could be a major party. By 1905, a division opened between the moderates led by Gokhale, who downplayed public agitation, and the new "extremists" who advocated agitation, and regarded the pursuit of social reform as a distraction from nationalism. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who tried to mobilise Hindu Indians by appealing to an explicitly Hindu political identity displayed in the annual public Ganapati
Ganapati
festivals he inaugurated in western India, was prominent among the extremists.[24] Congress included a number of prominent political figures. Dadabhai Naoroji, a member of the sister Indian National Association, was elected president of the party in 1886, and was the first Indian Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons
British House of Commons
(1892–1895). Congress also included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and Mohammed Ali Jinnah—later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. Congress was transformed into a mass movement by Surendranath Banerjea
Surendranath Banerjea
during the partition of Bengal in 1905, and the resultant Swadeshi movement.[23]

Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a constitutional social reformer and moderate nationalist, was elected president of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in 1905. 

Congress "extremist" Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
speaking in 1907 as the Party split into moderates and extremists. Seated at the table is Aurobindo Ghosh and to his right (in the chair) is G. S. Khaparde, both allies of Tilak. 

Congress as a mass movement Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
returned from South Africa in 1915. With the help of the moderate group led by Ghokhale, Gandhi
Gandhi
became president of Congress. After the First World War, the party became associated with Gandhi, who remained its unofficial spiritual leader and icon.[25] He formed an alliance with the Khilafat Movement
Khilafat Movement
in 1920 to fight for preservation of the Ottoman Caliphate, and rights for Indians using civil disobedience or satyagraha as the tool for agitation. In 1923, after the deaths of policemen at Chauri Chaura, Gandhi
Gandhi
suspended the agitation. In protest, a number of leaders, Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, and Motilal Nehru, resigned to set up the Swaraj Party. The Khilafat movement collapsed and Congress was split. The rise of Gandhi's popularity and his satyagraha art of revolution led to support from Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Khan Mohammad Abbas Khan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Chakravarti Rajgopalachari, Dr. Anugraha Narayan Sinha, Jayaprakash Narayan, Jivatram Kripalani, and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. As a result of prevailing nationalism, Gandhi's popularity, and the police's attempts at eradicating caste differences, untouchability, poverty, and religious and ethnic divisions, Congress became a forceful and dominant group. Although its members were predominantly Hindu, it had members from other religions, economic classes, and ethnic and linguistic groups.[citation needed] At the Congress 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, Purna Swaraj
Purna Swaraj
(complete independence) was declared as the party's goal, declaring 26 January 1930 as " Purna Swaraj
Purna Swaraj
Diwas" (Independence Day). The same year, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the party for demanding full independence, not just home rule as demanded by Gandhi.[26]

Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose
served as president of the Congress during 1938–39.

After the passage of the Government of India
Government of India
Act of 1935, provincial elections were held in India
India
in the winter of 1936–37 in eleven provinces: Madras, Central Provinces, Bihar, Orissa, United Provinces, Bombay
Bombay
Presidency, Assam, NWFP, Bengal, Punjab, and Sindh. After contesting these elections, the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
gained power in eight of them except Bengal, Punjab, and Sindh. The All-India Muslim League failed to form a government in any province.[27] Congress ministries resigned in October and November 1939 in protest against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow's declaration that India
India
was a belligerent in the Second World War without consulting the Indian people.[28] In 1939, Subhas Chandra Bose, the elected president in both 1938 and 1939, resigned from Congress over the selection of the working committee. The party was not the sole representative of the Indian polity, other parties included the Hindu Mahasabha, and the Forward Bloc.[29] The party was an umbrella organisation, sheltering radical socialists, traditionalists, and Hindu and Muslim conservatives. Gandhi
Gandhi
expelled all the socialist groupings, including the Congress Socialist Party, the Krishak Praja Party, and the Swarajya Party, along with Subhas Chandra Bose, in 1939.[25]

Azad, Patel and Gandhi
Gandhi
at an AICC meeting in Bombay, 1940

Azad Hind, an Indian provisional government, had been established in Singapore
Singapore
in 1943, and was supported by Japan.[30][31] In 1946, the British tried the Indian soldiers who had fought alongside the Japanese during World War II in the INA trials. In response, Congress helped form the INA Defence Committee, which assembled a legal team to defend the case of the soldiers of the Azad Hind government. The team included several famous lawyers, including Bhulabhai Desai, Asaf Ali, and Jawaharlal Nehru.[32] The same year, Congress members initially supported the sailors who led the Royal Indian Navy
Indian Navy
mutiny, but they withdrew support at a critical juncture and the mutiny failed.[citation needed] Post-independence After Indian independence in 1947, the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
became the dominant political party in the country. In 1952, in the first general election held after Independence, the party swept to power in the national parliament and most state legislatures. It held power nationally until 1977, when it was defeated by the Janata coalition. It returned to power in 1980 and ruled until 1989, when it was once again defeated. The party formed the government in 1991 at the head of a coalition, as well as in 2004 and 2009, when it led the United Progressive Alliance. During this period the Congress remained centre-left in its social policies while steadily shifting from a socialist to a neoliberal economic outlook. The Party's rivals at state level have been national parties including the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(CPM), and various regional parties, such as the Telugu Desam Party.[citation needed] A post-partition successor to the party survived as the Pakistan National Congress, a party which represented the rights of religious minorities in the state. The party's support was strongest in the Bengali-speaking province of East Pakistan. After the Bangladeshi War of Independence, it became known as the Bangladeshi National Congress, but was dissolved in 1975 by the government.[33][34][33][35] Nehru/Shastri era (1947–1966)

Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Congress Prime Minister of India (1947–64)

From 1951 until his death in 1964, Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
was Congress' paramount leader under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi, whose Indian independence movement dominated the party. Congress gained power in landslide victories in the general elections of 1951–52, 1957, and 1962.[36] During his tenure, Nehru implemented policies based on import substitution industrialisation, and advocated a mixed economy where the government-controlled public sector co-existed with the private sector.[37] He believed the establishment of basic and heavy industries was fundamental to the development and modernisation of the Indian economy.[36] The Nehru government directed investment primarily into key public sector industries—steel, iron, coal, and power—promoting their development with subsidies and protectionist policies.[37] Nehru embraced secularism, socialistic economic practices based on state-driven industrialisation, and a non-aligned and non-confrontational foreign policy that became typical of the modern Congress Party.[38] The policy of non-alignment during the Cold War meant Nehru received financial and technical support from both the Eastern and Western Blocs to build India's industrial base from nothing.[39][40] During his period in office, there were four known assassination attempts on Nehru.[41] The first attempt on his life was during partition in 1947 while he was visiting the North-West Frontier Province in a car. The second was by a knife-wielding rickshaw-puller in Maharashtra in 1955.[42] A third attempt happened in Bombay
Bombay
in 1956.[43] The fourth was a failed bombing attempt on railway tracks in Maharashtra in 1961.[41] Despite threats to his life, Nehru despised having excess security personnel around him and did not like his movements to disrupt traffic.[41] In 1964, Nehru died because of an aortic dissection, raising questions about the party's future.[44][45][46] After his death, K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
became the president of the All India Congress Committee.[47] Kamaraj had also been involved in the Indian independence movement, and he introduced education to millions of rural poor by providing free education along with a free midday meal, when he was chief minister of Tamil Nadu (1954–1963).[48] As a member of "the syndicate", a group within Congress, he proposed the Kamaraj Plan
Kamaraj Plan
that encouraged six Congress chief ministers and six senior cabinet ministers to resign to take up party work.[49][50][51] Kamaraj was widely credited as the "kingmaker" in Indian politics for bringing Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri
to power in 1964.[52] No leader except Shastri had Nehru's popular appeal.[53] Shastri became a national hero following victory in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.[54] His slogan, "Jai Jawan Jai Kisan" ("Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer"), became very popular during the war.[55] Shastri retained many members of Nehru's Council of Ministers; T. T. Krishnamachari was retained as Finance Minister of India, as was Defence Minister Yashwantrao Chavan.[56] Shastri appointed Swaran Singh
Swaran Singh
to succeed him as External Affairs Minister.[57] Shashtri appointed Indira Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru's daughter and former party president, Minister of Information and Broadcasting.[58] Gulzarilal Nanda
Gulzarilal Nanda
continued as the Minister of Home Affairs.[59] As Prime Minister, Shastri continued Nehru's policy of non-alignment,[60] but built closer relations with the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
of 1962, and the formation of military ties between China
China
and Pakistan, Shastri's government expanded the defence budget of India's armed forces. He also promoted the White Revolution—a national campaign to increase the production and supply of milk by creating the National Dairy Development Board.[61] The Madras anti-Hindi agitation of 1965 occurred during Shastri's tenure.[62][63] On 11 January 1966, a day after signing the Tashkent Declaration, Shastri died in Tashkent, reportedly of a heart attack; but the circumstances of his death remain mysterious.[64][65][66] Indira era (1966–1984) See also: The Emergency (India); Assassination of Indira Gandhi; Indian general election, 1977; and 1984 anti-Sikh riots After Shastri's death, Congress elected Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
as leader over Morarji Desai. Once again, politician K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
was instrumental in achieving this result. In 1967, following a poor performance in the general election, Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
started moving towards the political left. In mid-1969, she was involved in a dispute with senior party leaders on a number of issues. The two major issues were Gandhi supporting the independent candidate, V. V. Giri, rather than the official Congress party candidate, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, for the vacant post of the President of India.[67][68] The second issue was Mrs. Gandhi's abrupt nationalization of the 14 biggest banks in India, which resulted in the resignation of the finance minister, Morarji Desai. Later in the year, the Congress party president, S. Nijalingappa, expelled her from the party for indiscipline.[69][70] Mrs. Gandhi
Gandhi
as a counter-move launched her own faction of the INC. Mrs. Gandhi's faction, called Congress (R), was supported by most of the Congress MPs while the original party had the support of only 65 MPs.[71] In the mid-term parliamentary elections held in 1971, the Gandhi-led Congress (R) Party won a landslide victory on a platform of progressive policies such as the elimination of poverty (Garibi Hatao).[72] The policies of the Congress (R) Party under Gandhi before the 1971 elections included proposals to abolish the Privy Purse to former rulers of the Princely states, and the 1969 nationalisation of India's 14 largest banks.[73]

Indira Gandhi, second-longest-serving Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
and the only woman to hold the office.

The New Congress Party's popular support began to wane in the mid-1970s. From 1975, Gandhi's government grew increasingly more authoritarian and unrest among the opposition grew. On 12 June 1975, the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India's parliament, void on the grounds of electoral malpractice.[74] However, Gandhi
Gandhi
rejected calls to resign and announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court. She moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. In response to increasing disorder and lawlessness, Gandhi's cabinet and government recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
declare a State of Emergency, which he did on 25 June 1975 based on the provisions of Article 352 of the Constitution.[citation needed] During the nineteen-month emergency, widespread oppression and abuse of power by Gandhi's unelected younger son and political heir Sanjay Gandhi
Gandhi
and his close associates occurred.[75][76][77] This period of oppression ended on 23 January 1977, when Gandhi
Gandhi
released all political prisoners and called fresh elections for the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
to be held in March.[78] The Emergency officially ended on 23 March 1977.[79] In that month's parliamentary elections, the opposition Janata Party won a landslide victory over Congress, winning 295 seats in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
against Congress' 153. Gandhi
Gandhi
lost her seat to her Janata opponent Raj Narain. On 2 January 1978, she and her followers seceded and formed a new opposition party, popularly called Congress (I)—the I signifying Indira. During the next year, her new party attracted enough members of the legislature to become the official opposition.[citation needed] In November 1978, Gandhi
Gandhi
regained a parliamentary seat. In January 1980, following a landslide victory for Congress (I), she was again elected prime minister.[80] The national election commission declared Congress (I) to be the real Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
for the 1984 general election, and the designation I was dropped.[81][82] During Gandhi's new term as prime minister, her youngest son Sanjay died in an aeroplane crash in June 1980.[83][84] This led her to encourage her elder son Rajiv, who was working as a pilot, to enter politics. Gradually, Indira Gandhi's politics and outlook grew more authoritarian and autocratic, and she became the central figure within the Congress Party. As prime minister, she became known for her political ruthlessness and unprecedented centralisation of power.[citation needed] Gandhi's term as prime minister also saw increasing turmoil in Punjab, with demands for Sikh autonomy by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale
Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale
and his militant followers.[85] In 1983, they headquartered themselves in the Golden Temple in Amritsar
Amritsar
and started accumulating weapons.[86] In June 1984, after several futile negotiations, Gandhi
Gandhi
ordered the Indian Army
Indian Army
to enter the Golden Temple to establish control over the complex and remove Bhindranwale and his armed followers. This event is known as Operation Blue Star.[87] On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi's bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, shot her with their service weapons in the garden of the prime minister's residence in response to her authorisation of Operation Blue Star.[86] Gandhi
Gandhi
was due to be interviewed by British actor Peter Ustinov, who was filming a documentary for Irish television.[88] Her assassination prompted the 1984 anti-Sikh riots, during which more than 3,000 people were killed.[89] Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
and Rao era (1985–1998)

Rajiv Gandhi, Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
(1984–1989) and President of the Indian National Congress

In 1984, Indira Gandhi's son Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
became nominal head of Congress, and went on to became prime minister upon her assassination.[90] In December, he led Congress to a landslide victory, where it secured 401 seats in the legislature.[91] His administration took measures to reform the government bureaucracy and liberalise the country's economy.[92] Rajiv Gandhi's attempts to discourage separatist movements in Punjab and Kashmir backfired. After his government became embroiled in several financial scandals, his leadership became increasingly ineffectual.[93] Gandhi
Gandhi
was regarded as a non-abrasive person who consulted other party members and refrained from hasty decisions.[94] The Bofors scandal
Bofors scandal
damaged his reputation as an honest politician, but he was posthumously cleared of bribery allegations in 2004.[95] On 21 May 1991, Gandhi
Gandhi
was killed by a bomb concealed in a basket of flowers carried by a woman associated with the Tamil Tigers.[96] He was campaigning in Tamil Nadu for upcoming parliamentary elections. In 1998, an Indian court convicted 26 people in the conspiracy to assassinate Gandhi.[97] The conspirators, who consisted of Tamil militants from Sri Lanka and their Indian allies, had sought revenge against Gandhi
Gandhi
because the Indian troops he sent to Sri Lanka in 1987 to help enforce a peace accord there had fought with Tamil separatist guerrillas.[98][99]

P. V. Narasimha Rao
P. V. Narasimha Rao
served as the tenth Prime Minister of India (1991–1996). He was the first prime minister from South India
South India
and the state of Andhra Pradesh.

Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
was succeeded as party leader by P. V. Narasimha Rao, who was elected prime minister in June 1991.[100] His rise to the prime ministership was politically significant because he was the first holder of the office from South India. His administration oversaw major economic change and experienced several home incidents that affected India's national security.[101] Rao, who held the Industries portfolio, was personally responsible for the dismantling of the Licence Raj, which came under the purview of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.[102] He is often called the "father of Indian economic reforms".[103][104] Future prime ministers Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
and Manmohan Singh continued the economic reform policies begun by Rao's government. Rao accelerated the dismantling of the Licence Raj, reversing the socialist policies of previous governments.[105][106] He employed Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
as his finance minister to begin a historic economic change. With Rao's mandate, Singh launched India's globalisation reforms that involved implementing International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) policies to prevent India's impending economic collapse.[102] Rao was also referred to as Chanakya
Chanakya
for his ability to push tough economic and political legislation through the parliament while he headed a minority government.[107][108] By 1996, the party's image was suffering from allegations of corruption, and in elections that year, Congress was reduced to 140 seats, its lowest number in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
to that point. Rao later resigned as prime minister and, in September, as party president.[109] He was succeeded as president by Sitaram Kesri, the party's first non- Brahmin
Brahmin
leader.[110] Modern era

Sonia Gandhi, the leader of INC
INC
from 1998 to 2017

The 1998 general election saw Congress win 141 seats in the Lok Sabha, its lowest tally until then.[111] To boost its popularity and improve its performance in the forthcoming election, Congress leaders urged Sonia Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi's widow, to assume leadership of the party. She had previously declined offers to become actively involved in party affairs, and had stayed away from politics. After her election as party leader, a section of the party that objected to the choice because of her Italian ethnicity broke away and formed the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), led by Sharad Pawar. The breakaway faction commanded strong support in the state of Maharashtra and limited support elsewhere. The remainder continued to be known as the Indian National Congress.[112] Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi
struggled to revive the party in her early years as its president; she was under continuous scrutiny for her foreign birth and lack of political acumen. In the snap elections called by the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government in 1999, Congress' tally further plummeted to just 114 seats.[113] Although the leadership structure was unaltered as the party campaigned strongly in the assembly elections that followed, Gandhi
Gandhi
began to make such strategic changes as abandoning the party’s 1998 Pachmarhi resolution of ekla chalo, or "go it alone" policy, and formed alliances with other like-minded parties. In the intervening years, the party was successful at various legislative assembly elections; at one point, Congress ruled 15 states.[114] For the 2004 general election, Congress forged alliances with regional parties including the NCP and the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.[115] The party's campaign emphasised social inclusion and the welfare of the common masses—an ideology that Gandhi
Gandhi
herself endorsed for Congress during her presidency—with slogans such as Congress ka haath, aam aadmi ke saath ("Congress hand in hand with the common man"), contrasting with the NDA's " India
India
Shining" campaign.[113][116][117][118][119] The Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) won 222 seats in the new parliament, defeating the NDA by a substantial margin. With the subsequent support of the communist front, Congress won a majority and formed a new government. Despite massive support from within the party, Gandhi
Gandhi
declined the post of prime minister, choosing to appoint Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
instead. She remained as party president and headed the National Advisory Council (NAC).[120] During its first term in office, the UPA government passed several social reform bills. These included an employment guarantee bill, the Right to Information Act, and a right to education act. The NAC, as well as the Left Front that supported the government from the outside, were widely seen as being the driving force behind such legislation. The Left Front withdrew its support of the government over disagreements about the U.S.– India
India
Civil Nuclear Agreement. Despite the effective loss of 62 seats in parliament, the government survived the trust vote that followed.[121] In the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
elections held soon after, Congress won 207 seats, the highest tally of any party since 1991. The UPA as a whole won 262, enabling it to form a government for the second time. The social welfare policies of the first UPA government, and the perceived divisiveness of the BJP, are broadly credited with the victory.[122] By the 2014 Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
elections, the party had lost much of its popular support, mainly because of several years of poor economic conditions in the country, and growing discontent over a series of corruption allegations involving government officials, including the 2G spectrum case and the Indian coal allocation scam.[123][124] Congress won only 44 seats,[125] which was its worst-ever performance in a national election and brought into question whether it would continue to be identified as an officially recognised party.[126] Gandhi
Gandhi
retired as party president in December 2017, having served for a record nineteen years. She was succeeded by her son Rahul Gandhi.[118] Election symbols

Election symbol of Indira's Congress (R) party during the period 1971–1977

As of 2014, the election symbol of Congress, as approved by the Election Commission of India, is an image of a right hand with its palm facing front and its fingers pressed together;[127] this is usually shown in the centre of a tricolor flag. The hand symbol was first used by Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
when she split from the Congress (R) faction following the 1977 elections and created the New Congress (I).[128] The symbol of the original Congress during elections held between 1952 and 1971 was an image of two bullocks with a plough.[129] The symbol of Indira's Congress (R) during the 1971–1977 period was a cow with a suckling calf.[130] In general elections

Year General election Seats won Change in # of seats Percentage of vote Vote swing

Indian general election, 1934 5th Central Legislative Assembly 42 42

Indian general election, 1945 6th Central Legislative Assembly 59 17

Indian general election, 1951 1st Lok Sabha 364

44.99%

Indian general election, 1957 2nd Lok Sabha 371 7 47.78% 2.79%

Indian general election, 1962 3rd Lok Sabha 361 10 44.72% 3.06%

Indian general election, 1967 4th Lok Sabha 283 78 40.78% 2.94%

Indian general election, 1971 5th Lok Sabha 352 69 43.68% 2.90%

Indian general election, 1977 6th Lok Sabha 153 199 34.52% 9.16%

Indian general election, 1980 7th Lok Sabha 351 198 42.69% 8.17%

Indian general election, 1984 8th Lok Sabha 415 64 49.01% 6.32%

Indian general election, 1989 9th Lok Sabha 197 218 39.53% 9.48%

Indian general election, 1991 10th Lok Sabha 244 47 35.66% 3.87%

Indian general election, 1996 11th Lok Sabha 140 104 28.80% 7.46%

Indian general election, 1998 12th Lok Sabha 141 1 25.82% 2.98%

Indian general election, 1999 13th Lok Sabha 114 27 28.30% 2.48%

Indian general election, 2004 14th Lok Sabha 145 32 26.7% 1.6%

Indian general election, 2009 15th Lok Sabha 206 61 28.55% 2.02%

Indian general election, 2014 16th Lok Sabha 44 162 19.3% 9.25%

Current structure and composition Congress is structured in a hierarchical manner, and the organisational structure, created by Mohandas Gandhi's re-arrangement of the party between 1918 and 1920, has been largely retained.[citation needed][131] A president and the All India
India
Congress Committee (AICC) are elected by delegates from state and district parties at an annual national conference; in every Indian state and union territory—or pradesh—there is a Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC), which is the state-level unit of the party responsible for directing political campaigns at local and state levels, and assisting the campaigns for parliamentary constituencies.[citation needed][132] Each PCC has a working committee of twenty members, most of whom are appointed by the party president, the leader of the state party, who is chosen by the prime minister. Those elected as members of the states' legislative assemblies form the Congress Legislature Parties in the various state assemblies; their chairperson is usually the party's nominee for Chief Ministership. The party is also organised into various committees, and sections; it publishes a daily newspaper, the National Herald.[133] Despite being a party with a structure, Congress under Indira did not hold any organizational elections after 1972.[134] The AICC is composed of delegates sent from the PCCs.[133] The delegates elect Congress committees, including the Congress Working Committee, consisting of senior party leaders and office bearers. The AICC takes all important executive and political decisions.[132] Since Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
formed Congress (I) in 1978, the President of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
has effectively been: the party's national leader, head of the organisation, head of the Working Committee and all chief Congress committees, chief spokesman, and Congress' choice for Prime Minister of India. Constitutionally, the president is elected by the PCCs and members of the AICC; however, this procedure has often been by-passed by the Working Committee, which has elected its own candidate.[133] The Congress Parliamentary Party (CPP) consists of elected MPs in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
and Rajya Sabha.[132] There is also a Congress Legislative Party (CLP) leader in each state. The CLP consists of all Congress Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) in each state. In cases of states where the Congress is single-handedly ruling the government, the CLP leader is the Chief Minister.[132] Other directly affiliated groups include: the National Students Union of India
National Students Union of India
(NSUI), the Indian Youth Congress
Indian Youth Congress
— the party's youth wing, the Indian National Trade Union Congress, Mahila Congress, its women's division, and Congress Seva Dal—its voluntary organisation.[135][136] State and territorial units

Andaman and Nicobar PCC Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
PCC Arunachal Pradesh PCC Assam
Assam
PCC Bihar
Bihar
PCC Chandigarh PCC Chhattisgarh PCC Dadra and Nagar Haveli PCC Daman and Diu PCC Delhi PCC Goa PCC Gujarat PCC Haryana PCC Himachal Pradesh PCC Jammu and Kashmir PCC Jharkhand PCC Karnataka
Karnataka
PCC Kerala
Kerala
PCC Lakshadweep PCC Madhya Pradesh PCC Maharashtra PCC Manipur
Manipur
PCC Meghalaya PCC Mizoram
Mizoram
PCC Nagaland PCC Odisha PCC Puducherry
Puducherry
PCC Punjab PCC Rajasthan PCC Sikkim PCC Tamil Nadu PCC Telangana PCC Tripura PCC Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
PCC Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
PCC West Bengal PCC

Further information: National Students Union of India, Indian Youth Congress, Indian National Trade Union Congress, Mahila Congress, and All India
India
Minority Congress Ideology and policies

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Congress is a civic nationalist party that follows a form of nationalism that supports the values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.[137] Throughout much of the Cold War
Cold War
period, Congress supported a foreign policy of nonalignment that called for India
India
to form ties with both the Western and Eastern Blocs, but to avoid formal alliances with either.[citation needed] American support for Pakistan
Pakistan
led the party to endorse a friendship treaty with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1971.[citation needed] In 2004, when the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance came to power, its chairperson Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi
unexpectedly relinquished the premiership to Manmohan Singh. This Singh-led "UPA I" government executed several key pieces of legislation and projects, including the Rural Health Mission, Unique Identification Authority, the Rural Employment Guarantee scheme, and the Right to Information Act.[citation needed] Economic policy The history of economic policy of Congress-led governments can be divided into two periods. The first period lasted from independence, in 1947, to 1991 and put great emphasis on the public sector. The second period began with economic liberalization in 1991. At the beginning of the first period, the Congress prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
implemented policies based on import substitution industrialization and advocated a mixed economy where the government-controlled public sector would co-exist with the private sector.[138] He believed that the establishment of basic and heavy industry was fundamental to the development and modernisation of the Indian economy. The government, therefore, directed investment primarily into key public-sector industries—steel, iron, coal, and power—promoting their development with subsidies and protectionist policies.[139] This period was called the Licence Raj, or Permit Raj,[140] which was the elaborate system of licences, regulations, and accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run businesses in India
India
between 1947 and 1990.[141] The Licence Raj
Licence Raj
was a result of Nehru and his successors' desire to have a planned economy where all aspects of the economy were controlled by the state, and licences were given to a select few. Up to 80 government agencies had to be satisfied before private companies could produce something; and, if the licence were granted, the government would regulate production.[142] The licence raj system continued under Indira Gandhi.In addition,many key sectors such as banking, steel coal, and oil were nationalized.[71][143] Under Rajiv Gandhi, small steps were taken to liberalize the economy.[144] In 1991, the new Congress-party government, led by P. V. Narasimha Rao, initiated reforms to avert the impending 1991 economic crisis.[104][145] The reforms progressed furthest in opening up areas to foreign investment, reforming capital markets, deregulating domestic business, and reforming the trade regime. The goals of Rao's government were to reduce the fiscal deficit, privatize the public sector, and increase investment in infrastructure. Trade reforms and changes in the regulation of foreign direct investment were introduced in order to open India
India
to foreign trade while stabilising external loans. Rao chose Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
for the job. Singh, an acclaimed economist and former chairman of the Resrve Bank, played a central role in implementing these reforms. In 2004, Singh became prime minister of the Congress-led UPA government. Singh remained prime minister after the UPA won the 2009 general elections. The UPA government introduced policies aimed at reforming the banking and financial sectors, as well as public sector companies.[146] It also introduced policies aimed at relieving farmers of their debt.[147] In 2005, Singh's government introduced the value added tax, replacing the sales tax. India
India
was able to resist the worst effects of the global Economic crisis of 2008.[148][149] Singh's government continued the Golden Quadrilateral, the Indian highway modernisation program that was initiated by Vajpayee's government.[150] At present, Congress endorses a mixed economy in which the private sector and the state both direct the economy, which has characteristics of both market and planned economies. Congress advocates import substitution industrialisation—the replacement of foreign imports with domestic products. Congress believes the Indian economy should be liberalised to increase the pace of development. Healthcare and education In 2005, the Congress-led government started the National Rural Health Mission, which employed about 500,000 community health workers. It was praised by American economist Jeffrey Sachs.[151] In 2006, it implemented a proposal to reserve 27% of seats in the All India Institute of Medical Studies (AIIMS), the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), and other central higher education institutions, for Other Backward Classes, which led to the 2006 Indian anti-reservation protests.[citation needed] The Singh government also continued the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme, which includes the introduction and improvement of mid-day school meals and the opening of new schools throughout India, especially in rural areas, to fight illiteracy.[152] During Manmohan Singh's prime-ministership, eight Institutes of Technology were opened in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Orissa, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Himachal Pradesh.[153] Security and home affairs Congress has strengthened anti-terrorism laws with amendments to the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act
(UAPA).[154] The National Investigation Agency (India) (NIA) was created by the UPA government soon after the November 2008 Mumbai terror attacks, in response to the need for a central agency to combat terrorism.[155] The Unique Identification Authority of India
India
was established in February 2009 to implement the proposed Multipurpose National Identity Card, with the objective of increasing national security.[citation needed] Foreign policy

Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
with American President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
at the White House

Congress has continued the foreign policy started by P. V. Narasimha Rao. This includes the peace process with Pakistan, and the exchange of high-level visits by leaders from both countries.[156] The party has tried to end the border dispute with the People's Republic of China
China
through negotiations.[157][158] Relations with Afghanistan have also been a concern for Congress.[159] During Afghan President Hamid Karzai's visit to New Delhi
New Delhi
in August 2008, Manmohan Singh increased the aid package to Afghanistan for the development of schools, health clinics, infrastructure, and defence.[160] India
India
is now one of the single largest aid donors to Afghanistan.[160] When in power between 2004 and 2014, Congress worked on India's relationship with the United States. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited the US in July 2005 to negotiate an Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement. US President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
visited India
India
in March 2006; during this visit, a nuclear agreement that would give India
India
access to American nuclear fuel and technology in exchange for the IAEA inspection of its civil nuclear reactors was proposed. Over two years of negotiations, followed by approval from the IAEA, the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the US Congress, the agreement was signed on 10 October 2008.[161] Congress' policy has been to cultivate friendly relations with Japan as well as European Union
European Union
countries including the United Kingdom, France, and Germany.[162] Diplomatic relations with Iran have continued, and negotiations over the Iran-Pakistan- India
India
gas pipeline have taken place.[163] In April 2006, New Delhi
New Delhi
hosted an India–Africa summit attended by the leaders of 15 African states.[164] Congress' policy has also been to improve relations with other developing countries, particularly Brazil and South Africa.[165] Presence in various states

Current ruling parties in the states and union territories of India   BJP   Coalition with BJP   INC   Coalition with INC   Other parties

As of December 2017, Congress is in power in the states of Punjab, Karnataka
Karnataka
and Mizoram, where the party has majority support. In Puducherry
Puducherry
it shares power with alliance partners. Previously, Congress governed Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, and Manipur. List of current INC
INC
and UPA governments

State/UT Chief Minister Party/alliance partner CM since Seats in Assembly Last election

Mizoram Lal Thanhawla INC 11 December 2008 33/40 25 November 2013

Karnataka Siddaramaiah INC 13 May 2013 122/225 5 May 2013

Puducherry V. Narayanasamy INC 6 June 2016 17/30 16 May 2016

Punjab Amarinder Singh INC 16 March 2017 77/117 4 February 2017

List of Prime Ministers

No. Prime Ministers Year Duration Constituency

1 Jawaharlal Nehru 1947–64 17 years Phulpur

2 Gulzarilal Nanda (Acting Prime Minister) May–June 1964; January 1966 26 days Sabarkantha

3 Lal Bahadur Shastri 1964–66 2 years Allahabad

4 Indira Gandhi 1966–77, 1980–84 16 years Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(Rajya Sabha), Rae Bareli, Medak

5 Rajiv Gandhi 1984–89 5 years Amethi

6 P. V. Narasimha Rao 1991–96 5 years Nandyal

7 Manmohan Singh 2004–14 10 years Assam
Assam
(Rajya Sabha)

List of Prime Ministers (former Congress members) A majority of non-Congress prime ministers of India
India
are former Congress members.

No. Prime Ministers Year Duration Constituency

1 Morarji Desai 1977–79 2 years Surat

2 Charan Singh July 1979; January 1980 170 days Baghpat

3 V. P. Singh 1989–90 1 year Fatehpur

4 Chandra Shekhar 1990 223 Days Ballia

5 H. D. Deve Gowda 1996–97 1 year Karnataka
Karnataka
(Rajya Sabha)

6 I. K. Gujral 1997–98 1 year Bihar
Bihar
(Rajya Sabha)

See also

Liberalism
Liberalism
portal India
India
portal Politics portal

Congress Working Committee All India
India
Congress Committee All India
India
Mahila Congress Pradesh Congress Committee Statewise Election history of Congress Party Nehru - Feroze Gandhi
Gandhi
family List of political parties in India Politics of India List of Presidents of the Indian National Congress

References Notes

^ "The first modern nationalist movement to arise in the non-European empire, and one that became an inspiration for many others, was the Indian Congress."[12] ^ "South Asian parties include several of the oldest in the post-colonial world, foremost among them the 129-year-old Indian National Congress that led India
India
to independence in 1947"[14] ^ "The organization that led India
India
to independence, the Indian National Congress, was established in 1885."[15] ^ "... anti-colonial movements ... which, like many other nationalist movements elsewhere in the empire, were strongly infuenced by the Indian National Congress."[12] ^ "During the first five decades of India's independence, the left-of-center, secular Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
(INC) and its factions have ruled almost continuously ... While the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP) ..."[19]

Citations

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Indian National Congress
- Policy and structure". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 17 November 2014.  ^ Saez, Lawrence; Sinha, Aseema (2010). "Political cycles, political institutions and public expenditure in India, 1980–2000". British Journal of Political Science. 40 (01): 91–113. doi:10.1017/s0007123409990226.  ^ " Progressive Alliance
Progressive Alliance
Participants". Progressive Alliance.  ^ "Full Member Parties of Socialist International". Socialist International.  ^ " India
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Lok Sabha
Polls Results India
India
- IBNLive". in.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2015.  ^ "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013" (PDF). India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.  ^ "Members: Lok Sabha". loksabha.nic.in. Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
Secretariat. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ "STRENGTHWISE PARTY POSITION IN THE RAJYA SABHA". Rajya Sabha. Retrieved 28 January 2018.  ^ "Indian National Congress". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 February 2018.  ^ a b c d Marshall, P. J. (2001), The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire, Cambridge University Press, p. 179, ISBN 978-0-521-00254-7  ^ "Information about the Indian National Congress". www.open.ac.uk. Arts & Humanities Research council. Retrieved 29 July 2015.  ^ a b Chiriyankandath, James (2016), Parties and Political Change in South Asia, Routledge, p. 2, ISBN 978-1-317-58620-3  ^ a b Kopstein, Jeffrey; Lichbach, Mark; Hanson, Stephen E. (2014), Comparative Politics: Interests, Identities, and Institutions in a Changing Global Order, Cambridge University Press, p. 344, ISBN 978-1-139-99138-4  ^ " Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
– about INC, history, symbol, leaders and more". Elections.in. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.  ^ Sahasrabuddhe, Vinay (8 August 2016). "In Decline Mode, Congress Struggles With a 'Crisis of Purpose'". The Quint. Retrieved 17 December 2017.  ^ "Indian National Congress, Political Party, India". Encyclopaedia Britannica.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) Quote: "broadly based political party of India. Formed in 1885, the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
dominated the Indian movement for independence from Great Britain. It subsequently formed most of India's governments from the time of independence and often had a strong presence in many state governments." ^ a b Strömbäck, Jesper; Kaid, Lynda Lee (2009), The Handbook of Election News Coverage Around the World, Routledge, p. 126, ISBN 978-1-135-70345-5  ^ Sitaramayya, B. Pattabhi (1935). The history of the Indian National Congress (1885–1935). Working Committee of the Congress. pp. 12–13.  ^ Sitaramayya, B. Pattabhi. 1935. The History of the Indian National Congress. Working Committee of the Congress. Scanned version ^ Sitaramayya, B. Pattabhi (1935). The history of the Indian National Congress (1885–1935). Working Committee of the Congress. pp. 12–27.  ^ a b Walsh, Judith E. A Brief History of India. Infobase Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 9781438108254.  ^ Stanley A. Wolpert, Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India
India
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Gandhi
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Cornell University
Press. p. 439.  ^ Moshe Y. Sachs (1967). Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations: Asia and Australasia. Worldmark Press.  ^ Richard Sisson, Leo E. Rose (1991). War and Secession: Pakistan, India
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Jawaharlal Nehru
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India
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-Life History". www.perunthalaivar.org. The Perun Thalaivar organization. Retrieved 23 June 2014.  ^ "The Syndicate: Kingmakers of India". pib.nic.in. Press Information Bureau: Government of India. Retrieved 23 June 2014.  ^ Mahendra Prasad Singh (1 January 1981). Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in 1969. Abhinav Publications. p. 46. ISBN 978-81-7017-140-9.  ^ Bala Jeyaraman (2 September 2013). Kamaraj: The Life and Times of K. Kamaraj. Rupa Publications. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-81-291-3227-7.  ^ N. S. Gehlot (1991). The Congress Party in India: Policies, Culture, Performance. Deep & Deep Publications. p. 180. ISBN 978-81-7100-306-8.  ^ Mahendra Prasad Singh (1 January 1981). Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in 1969. Abhinav Publications. p. 42. ISBN 978-81-7017-140-9.  ^ R. C. Kochar (1 January 1997). Congress and Socialism: Economic Programmes and Policies. Anamika Publishers & Distributors. p. 130. ISBN 978-81-86565-24-7.  ^ "The Indo- Pakistan
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S. Nijalingappa
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Further reading

The Indian National Congress: An Historical Sketch, by Frederick Marion De Mello. Published by H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1934. The Indian National Congress, by Hemendra Nath Das Gupta. Published by J. K. Das Gupta, 1946. Indian National Congress: A Descriptive Bibliography of India's Struggle for Freedom, by Jagdish Saran Sharma. Published by S. Chand, 1959. Social Factors in the Birth and Growth of the Indian National Congress Movement, by Ramparkash Dua. Published by S. Chand, 1967. Split in a Predominant Party: The Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in 1969, by Mahendra Prasad Singh. Abhinav Publications, 1981. ISBN 81-7017-140-7. Concise History of the Indian National Congress, 1885–1947, by B. N. Pande, Nisith Ranjan Ray, Ravinder Kumar, Manmath Nath Das. Published by Vikas Pub. House, 1985. ISBN 0-7069-3020-7. The Indian National Congress: An Analytical Biography, by Om P. Gautam. Published by B.R. Pub. Corp., 1985. A Century of Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, by Pran Nath Chopra, Ram Gopal, Moti Lal Bhargava. Published by Agam Prakashan, 1986. The Congress Ideology and Programme, 1920–1985, by Pitambar Datt Kaushik. Published by Gitanjali Pub. House, 1986. ISBN 81-85060-16-9. Struggling and Ruling: The Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, by Jim Masselos. Published by Sterling Publishers, 1987. The Encyclopedia of Indian National Congress, by A. Moin Zaidi, Shaheda Gufran Zaidi, Indian Institute of Applied Political Research. Published by S.Chand, 1987. Indian National Congress: A Reconstruction, by Iqbal Singh, Nehru Memorial Museum and Library. Published by Riverdale Company, 1988. ISBN 0-913215-32-5. INC, the Glorious Tradition, by A. Moin Zaidi, Indian National Congress. AICC. Published by Indian Institute of Applied Political Research, 1989. Indian National Congress: A Select Bibliography, by Manikrao Hodlya Gavit, Attar Chand. Published by U.D.H. Pub. House, 1989. ISBN 81-85044-05-8. The Story of Congress PilgrFile: 1885–1985, by A. Moin Zaidi, Indian National Congress. Published by Indian Institute of Applied Political Research, 1990. ISBN 81-85355-46-0. (7 vols) Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in England, by Harish P. Kaushik. Published by Friends Publications, 1991. Women in Indian National Congress, 1921–1931, by Rajan Mahan. Published by Rawat Publications, 1999. History of Indian National Congress, 1885–2002, by Deep Chand Bandhu. Published by Kalpaz Publications, 2003. ISBN 81-7835-090-4. Bipan Chandra, Amales Tripathi, Barun De. Freedom Struggle. India: National Book Struggle. ISBN 978-81-237-0249-0.

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