HOME
The Info List - Indian Air Force



--- Advertisement ---


The INDIAN AIR FORCE (IAF; IAST : _Bhāratīya Vāyu Senā_) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces . Its complement of personnel and aircraft assets ranks fourth amongst the airforces of the world. Its primary mission is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during armed conflict. It was officially established on 8 October 1932 as an auxiliary air force of the British Empire which honored India's aviation service during World War II with the prefix _Royal_. After India gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, the name Royal Indian Air Force was kept and served in the name of Dominion of India . With the government's transition to a Republic in 1950, the prefix _Royal_ was removed after only three years. Since 1950 the IAF has been involved in four wars with neighboring Pakistan and one with the People's Republic of China. Other major operations undertaken by the IAF include Operation _Vijay_ , Operation _Meghdoot_ , Operation _Cactus_ and Operation _Poomalai_ . The IAF's mission expands beyond engagement with hostile forces, with the IAF participating in United Nations peacekeeping missions .

The President of India holds the rank of Supreme Commander of the IAF. The Chief of Air Staff , an air chief marshal , is a four-star officer and is responsible for the bulk of operational command of the Air Force. There is never more than one serving ACM at any given time in the IAF. The rank of Marshal of the Air Force has been conferred by the President of India on one occasion in history, to Arjan Singh . On 26 January 2002 Singh became the first five-star rank officer of the IAF.

CONTENTS

* 1 Mission

* 2 History

* 2.1 Formation and early pilots * 2.2 World War II (1939–1945) * 2.3 First years of independence (1947–1950) * 2.4 Congo crisis and Annexation of Goa (1960–1961) * 2.5 Border disputes and changes in the IAF (1962–1971) * 2.6 Bangladesh Liberation War (1971) * 2.7 Incidents before Kargil (1984–1988) * 2.8 Kargil War (1999) * 2.9 Post Kargil incidents (1999–present)

* 3 Structure

* 3.1 Commands * 3.2 Wings * 3.3 Squadrons and units * 3.4 Flights * 3.5 Sections * 3.6 Garud Commando Force * 3.7 Integrated Space Cell * 3.8 Display teams

* 4 Personnel

* 4.1 Rank structure * 4.2 Officers * 4.3 Airmen * 4.4 Honorary officers * 4.5 Non combatants enrolled and civilians * 4.6 Training and education

* 5 Aircraft

* 5.1 Current inventory * 5.2 Multi-role fighters and strike aircraft * 5.3 Airborne early warning and control aircraft * 5.4 Aerial refuelling * 5.5 Transport aircraft * 5.6 Trainer aircraft * 5.7 Helicopters * 5.8 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

* 6 Land-based missile systems

* 6.1 Surface-To Air Missiles * 6.2 Ballistic missiles

* 7 Future of the Indian Air Force

* 7.1 Expected future acquisitions

* 7.1.1 Single-engined fighter

* 7.2 Current acquisitions * 7.3 DRDO and HAL projects * 7.4 Network-centric warfare

* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links

MISSION

Evolution of the IAF Roundel over the years: 1)1933–1942 2)1942–1945 3)1947–1950 4)1950 – present

The IAF's mission is defined by the Armed Forces Act of 1947 , the Constitution of India , and the Air Force Act of 1950. It decrees that in the aerial battlespace :

Defence of India and every part there of including preparation for defence and all such acts as may be conducive in times of war to its prosecution and after its termination to effective demobilisation.

In practice, this is taken as a directive meaning the IAF bears the responsibility of safeguarding Indian airspace and thus furthering national interests in conjunction with the other branches of the armed forces. The IAF provides close air support to the Indian Army troops on the battlefield as well as strategic and tactical airlift capabilities. The Integrated Space Cell is operated by the Indian Armed Forces , the civilian Department of Space , and the Indian Space Research Organisation . By uniting the civilian run space exploration organizations and the military faculty under a single Integrated Space Cell the military is able to efficiently benefit from innovation in the civilian sector of space exploration, and the civilian departments benefit as well.

The Indian Air Force, with highly trained crews, pilots, and access to modern military assets provides India with the capacity to provide rapid response evacuation, search-and-rescue (SAR) operations, and delivery of relief supplies to affected areas via cargo aircraft. The IAF provided extensive assistance to relief operations during natural calamities such as the Gujarat cyclone in 1998 , the tsunami in 2004 , and North India floods in 2013. The IAF has also undertaken relief missions such as Operation Rainbow in Sri Lanka.

HISTORY

Main article: History of the Indian Air Force See also: List of historical aircraft of the Indian Air Force

FORMATION AND EARLY PILOTS

A Westland Wapiti , one of the first aircraft of the Indian Air Force.

The Indian Air Force was established on 8 October 1932 in British India as an auxiliary air force of the Royal Air Force . The enactment of the Indian Air Force Act 1932 stipulated out their auxiliary status and enforced the adoption of the Royal Air Force uniforms, badges, brevets and insignia. On 1 April 1933, the IAF commissioned its first squadron, No.1 Squadron, with four Westland Wapiti biplanes and five Indian pilots. The Indian pilots were led by British RAF Commanding officer Flight Lieutenant (later Air Vice Marshal) Cecil Bouchier .

WORLD WAR II (1939–1945)

Main article: India during World War 2 World War II photo: Arjan Singh (middle) as Flight Lieutenant. He went on to become Marshal of the Air Force .

During World War II , the IAF played an instrumental role in halting the advance of the Japanese army in Burma , where the first IAF air strike was executed. The target for this first mission was the Japanese military base in Arakan , after which IAF strike missions continued against the Japanese airbases at Mae Hong Son , Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai in northern Thailand .

The IAF was mainly involved in Strike , Close Air Support , Aerial reconnaissance , Bomber Escort and Pathfinding missions for RAF and USAAF Heavy bombers. RAF and IAF pilots would train by flying with their non-native air wings to gain combat experience and communication proficiency. IAF pilots participated in air operations in Europe as part of the RAF.

During the war, the IAF experienced a phase of steady expansion. New aircraft added to the fleet included the US built Vultee Vengeance , Douglas DC-3 , the British Hawker Hurricane , Supermarine Spitfire , and Westland Lysander .

In recognition of the valient service by the IAF, King George VI conferred the prefix "Royal" in 1945. Thereafter the IAF was referred to as the _Royal Indian Air Force_. In 1950, when India became a republic, the prefix was dropped and it reverted to being the Indian Air Force.

FIRST YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE (1947–1950)

Refugees awaiting evacuation by IAF Dakota on Poonch airstrip, December 1947.

After it became independent from the British Empire in 1947, British India was partitioned into the new states of the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan . Along the lines of the geographical partition, the assets of the air force were divided between the new countries. India's air force retained the name of the Royal Indian Air Force, but three of the ten operational squadrons and facilities, located within the borders of Pakistan, were transferred to the Royal Pakistan Air Force . The RIAF Roundel was changed to an interim 'Chakra' roundel derived from the Ashoka Chakra .

Around the same time, conflict broke out between them over the control of the princely state of Jammu however, it did provide effective transport and close air support to the Indian troops.

When India became a republic in 1950, the prefix 'Royal' was dropped from the Indian Air Force. At the same time, the current IAF roundel was adopted.

CONGO CRISIS AND ANNEXATION OF GOA (1960–1961)

The IAF saw significant conflict in 1960, when Belgium\'s 75-year rule over Congo ended abruptly, engulfing the nation in widespread violence and rebellion . The IAF activated No. 5 Squadron , equipped with English Electric Canberra , to support the United Nations Operation in the Congo . The squadron started undertaking operational missions in November. The unit remained there until 1966, when the UN mission ended. Operating from Leopoldville and Kamina , the Canberras soon destroyed the rebel Air Force and provided the UN ground forces with its only long-range air support force.

In late 1961, the Indian government decided to attach the Portuguese colony of Goa after years of disagreement between New Delhi and Lisbon . The Indian Air Force was requested to provide support elements to the ground force in what was called Operation Vijay . Probing flights by some fighters and bombers were carried out from 8–18 December to draw out the Portuguese Air Force , but to no avail. On 18 December, two waves of Canberra bombers bombed the runway of Dabolim airfield taking care not to bomb the Terminals and the ATC tower. Two Portuguese transport aircraft (a Super Constellation and a DC-6 ) found on the airfield were left alone so that they could be captured intact. However the Portuguese pilots managed to take off the aircraft from the still damaged airfield and made their getaway to Portugal . Hunters attacked the wireless station at Bambolim. Vampires were used to provide air support to the ground forces. In Daman , Mystères were used to strike Portuguese gun positions. Ouragans (called Toofanis in the IAF) bombed the runways at Diu and destroyed the control tower, wireless station and the meteorological station. After the Portuguese surrendered the former colony was integrated into India.

BORDER DISPUTES AND CHANGES IN THE IAF (1962–1971)

See also: Aerial warfare in 1965 India Pakistan War

In 1962, border disagreements between China and India escalated to a war when China mobilised its troops across the Indian border. During the Sino-Indian War , India's military planners failed to deploy and effectively use the IAF against the invading Chinese forces. This resulted in India losing a significant amount of advantage to the Chinese; especially in Jammu and Kashmir .

Three years after the Sino-Indian conflict, in 1965, Pakistan launched Operation Gibraltar , strategy of Pakistan to infiltrate Jammu and Kashmir, and start a rebellion against Indian rule. This came to be known as the Second Kashmir War . This was the first time the IAF actively engaged an enemy air force. However, instead of providing close air support to the Indian Army , the IAF carried out independent raids against PAF bases. These bases were situated deep inside Pakistani territory, making IAF fighters vulnerable to anti-aircraft fire. During the course of the conflict, the PAF enjoyed technological superiority over the IAF and had achieved substantial strategic and tactical advantage due to their sudden attack and whole hearted diplomatic and military support from the US and Britain. The IAF was restrained by the government from retaliating to PAF attacks in the eastern sector while a substantive part of its combat force was deployed there and could not be transferred to the western sector, against the possibility of Chinese intervention. Moreover, international (UN) stipulations and norms did not permit military force to be introduced into the Indian state of J"> HAL HF-24 Marut , the first indigenous fighter jet to enter service with the IAF.

After the 1965 war, the IAF underwent a series of changes to improve its capabilities. In 1966, the Para Commandos regiment was created. To increase its logistics supply and rescue operations ability, the IAF inducted 72 HS 748s which were built by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) under license from Avro . India started to put more stress on indigenous manufacture of fighter aircraft . As a result, HAL HF-24 Marut , designed by the famed German aerospace engineer Kurt Tank , were inducted into the air force. HAL also started developing an improved version of the Folland Gnat , known as HAL Ajeet . At the same time, the IAF also started inducting Mach 2 capable Soviet MiG-21 and Sukhoi Su-7 fighters.

BANGLADESH LIBERATION WAR (1971)

By late 1971, the intensification of the independence movement in erstwhile East Pakistan lead to the Bangladesh Liberation War between India and Pakistan. On 22 November 1971, 10 days before the start of a full-scale war, four PAF F-86 Sabre jets attacked Indian and Mukti Bahini positions at Garibpur , near the international border. Two of the four PAF Sabres were shot down and one damaged by the IAF's Folland Gnats . On 3 December, India formally declared war against Pakistan following massive preemptive strikes by the PAF against Indian Air Force installations in Srinagar, Ambala, Sirsa, Halwara and Jodhpur. However, the IAF did not suffer significantly because the leadership had anticipated such a move and precautions were taken. The Indian Air Force was quick to respond to Pakistani air strikes, following which the PAF carried out mostly defensive sorties .

Within the first two weeks, the IAF had carried out almost 12,000 sorties over East Pakistan and also provided close air support to the advancing Indian Army. IAF also assisted the Indian Navy in its operations against the Pakistani Navy and Maritime Security Agency in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea . On the western front, the IAF destroyed more than 20 Pakistani tanks, 4 APCs and a supply train during the Battle of Longewala . The IAF undertook strategic bombing of West Pakistan by carrying out raids on oil installations in Karachi , the Mangla Dam and a gas plant in Sindh. Similar strategy was also deployed in East Pakistan and as the IAF achieved complete air superiority on the eastern front, the ordnance factories, runways, and other vital areas of East Pakistan were severely damaged. By the time Pakistani forces surrendered, the IAF destroyed 94 PAF Aircraft The IAF was able to conduct a wide range of missions – troop support; air combat; deep penetration strikes; para-dropping behind enemy lines; feints to draw enemy fighters away from the actual target; bombing; and reconnaissance. In contrast, the Pakistan Air Force, which was solely focused on air combat, was blown out of the subcontinent’s skies within the first week of the war. Those PAF aircraft that survived took refuge at Iranian air bases or in concrete bunkers, refusing to offer a fight. Hostilities officially ended at 14:30 GMT on 17 December, after the fall of Dacca on 15 December. India claimed large gains of territory in West Pakistan (although pre-war boundaries were recognised after the war), and the independence of Pakistan's East wing as Bangladesh was confirmed. The IAF had flown over 16,000 sorties on both East and West fronts; including sorties by transport aircraft and helicopters. while the PAF flew about 30 and 2,840. More than 80 percent of the IAF's sorties were close-support and interdiction, and according to neutral assessments about 45 IAF Aircraft were lost while, Pakistan lost 75 aircraft. Not including any F-6s, Mirage IIIs, or the six Jordanian F-104s which failed to return to their donors. But the imbalance in air losses was explained by the IAF's considerably higher sortie rate, and its emphasis on ground-attack missions. On the ground Pakistan suffered most, with 9,000 killed and 25,000 wounded while India lost 3,000 dead and 12,000 wounded. The loss of armoured vehicles was similarly imbalanced. This represented a major defeat for Pakistan. Towards the end of the war, IAF's transport planes dropped leaflets over Dhaka urging the Pakistani forces to surrender, demoralising Pakistani troops in East Pakistan.

INCIDENTS BEFORE KARGIL (1984–1988)

In 1984, India launched Operation Meghdoot to capture the Siachen Glacier in the contested Kashmir region. In Op Meghdoot, IAF's Mi-8 , Chetak and Cheetah helicopters airlifted hundreds of Indian troops to Siachen. Launched on 13 April 1984, this military operation was unique because of Siachen's inhospitable terrain and climate. The military action was successful, given the fact that under a previous agreement, neither Pakistan nor India had stationed any personnel in the area. With India's successful Operation _Meghdoot_ , it gained control of the Siachen Glacier . India has established control over all of the 70 kilometres (43 mi) long Siachen Glacier and all of its tributary glaciers, as well as the three main passes of the Saltoro Ridge immediately west of the glacier— Sia La , Bilafond La , and Gyong La . Pakistan controls the glacial valleys immediately west of the Saltoro Ridge. According to _TIME_ magazine , India gained more than 1,000 square miles (3,000 km2) of territory because of its military operations in Siachen. IAF An-32s were used to airdrop humanitarian supplies in Operation Poomalai .

Following the inability to negotiate an end to the Sri Lankan Civil War , and to provide humanitarian aid through an unarmed convoy of ships, the Indian Government decided to carry out an airdrop of the humanitarian supplies on the evening of 4 June 1987 designated Operation Poomalai (Tamil : Garland) or Eagle Mission 4. Five An-32s escorted by four Mirage 2000 of 7 Sqn AF, 'The Battleaxes', carried out the supply drop which faced no opposition from the Sri Lankan Armed Forces. Another Mirage 2000 orbited 150 km away, acting as an airborne relay of messages to the entire fleet since they would be outside radio range once they descended to low levels. The Mirage 2000 escort formation was led by Wg Cdr Ajit Bhavnani, with Sqn Ldrs Bakshi, NA Moitra and JS Panesar as his team members and Sqn Ldr KG Bewoor as the relay pilot. Sri Lanka accused India of "blatant violation of sovereignty". India insisted that it was acting only on humanitarian grounds.

In 1987, the IAF supported the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) in northern and eastern Sri Lanka in Operation Pawan . About 70,000 sorties were flown by the IAF's transport and helicopter force in support of nearly 100,000 troops and paramilitary forces without a single aircraft lost or mission aborted. IAF An-32s maintained a continuous air link between air bases in South India and Northern Sri Lanka transporting men, equipment, rations and evacuating casualties. Mi-8s supported the ground forces and also provided air transportation to the Sri Lankan civil administration during the elections. Mi-25s of No. 125 Helicopter Unit were utilised to provide suppressive fire against militant strong points and to interdict coastal and clandestine riverine traffic.

On the night of 3 November 1988, the Indian Air Force mounted special operations to airlift a parachute battalion group from Agra , non-stop over 2,000 kilometres to the remote Indian Ocean archipelago of the Maldives in response to Maldivian president Gayoom 's request for military help against a mercenary invasion in Operation Cactus . The IL-76s of No. 44 Squadron landed at Hulhule at 0030 hours and the Indian paratroopers secured the airfield and restored Government rule at Male within hours. Four Mirage 2000 aircraft of 7 Sqn, led by Wg Cdr AV 'Doc' Vaidya, carried out a show of force early that morning, making low-level passes over the islands.

KARGIL WAR (1999)

On 11 May 1999, the Indian Air Force was called in to provide close air support to the Indian Army at the height of the ongoing Kargil conflict with the use of helicopters. The IAF strike was code named Operation Safed Sagar . The first strikes were launched on 26 May, when the Indian Air Force struck infiltrator positions with fighter aircraft and helicopter gunships . The initial strikes saw MiG-27s carrying out offensive sorties, with MiG-21s and later MiG-29s providing fighter cover. The IAF also deployed its radars and the MiG-29 fighters in vast numbers to keep check on Pakistani military movements across the border. Srinagar Airport was at this time closed to civilian air-traffic and dedicated to the Indian Air Force.

On 27 May, the Indian Air Force suffered its first fatality when it lost a MiG-21 and a MiG-27 in quick succession. The following day, while on an offensive sortie, a Mi-17 was shot down by three Stinger missiles and lost its entire crew of four. Following these losses the IAF immediately withdrew helicopters from offensive roles as a measure against the threat of Man-portable air-defence systems (MANPAD). On 30 May, the Mirage 2000s were introduced in offensive capability, as they were deemed better in performance under the high-altitude conditions of the conflict zone. Mirage 2000s were not only better equipped to counter the MANPAD threat compared to the MiGs, but also gave IAF the ability to carry out aerial raids at night. The MiG-29s were used extensively to provide fighter escort to the Mirage 2000. Radar transmissions of Pakistani F-16s were picked up repeatedly, but these aircraft stayed away. The Mirages successfully targeted enemy camps and logistic bases in Kargil and severely disrupted their supply lines. Mirage 2000s were used for strikes on Muntho Dhalo and the heavily defended Tiger Hill and paved the way for their early recapture. At the height of the conflict, the IAF was conducting over forty sorties daily over the Kargil region. By 26 July, the Indian forces had successfully repulsed the Pakistani forces from Kargil.

POST KARGIL INCIDENTS (1999–PRESENT)

Sukhoi Su-30 fighter plane over the Indian landscape during an exercise

On 10 August 1999, IAF MiG-21s intercepted a Pakistan Navy Breguet Atlantique which was flying over Sir Creek , a disputed territory. The aircraft was shot down killing all 16 Pakistani Navy personnel on board. India claimed that the Atlantic was on a mission to gather information on IAF air defence, a charge emphatically rejected by Pakistan which argued that the unarmed aircraft was on a training mission.

Since the late 1990s, the Indian Air Force has been modernising its fleet to counter challenges in the new century. The fleet size of the IAF has decreased to 33 squadrons during this period because of the retirement of older aircraft. Still, India maintains the fourth largest air force in the world. The IAF plans to raise its strength to 42 squadrons. Self-reliance is the main aim that is being pursued by the defence research and manufacturing agencies.

On 20 August 2013, the Indian Air Force created a world record by performing the highest landing of a C-130J at the Daulat Beg Oldi airstrip in Ladakh at the height of 16614 feet (5065 meters). The medium-lift aircraft will be used to deliver troops, supplies and improve communication networks. The aircraft belonged to the _Veiled Vipers_ squadron based at Hindon Air Force Station .

On 13 July 2014, two MiG-21s were sent from Jodhpur Air Base to investigate a Turkish Airlines plane over Jaisalmer when it repeated an identification code , provided by another commercial passenger plane that had already entered Indian airspace before it. The flights were on their way to Mumbai and Delhi, planes were later allowed to proceed after their credentials were verified.

On 25 July 2014, an advanced landing chopper-307 crashed in a field of Sitapur in Uttar Pradesh , on its way to Allahabad from Bareilly . At least 7 people were killed after the incident took place.

On 28 March 2014, C-130J-30 KC-3803 crashed near Gwalior , India, killing all 5 personnel aboard. The aircraft was conducting low level penetration training by flying at around 300 ft when it ran into wake turbulence from another aircraft in the formation, which caused it to crash.

On 2 January 2016, the Pathankot Air Force Station was attacked by terrorists resulting in seven casualties.

STRUCTURE

The President of India is the Supreme Commander of all Indian armed forces and by virtue of that fact is the national Commander-in-chief of the Air Force. The Chief of the Air Staff with the rank of air chief marshal is the Commander of the Indian Air Force. He is assisted by six officers, all with the rank of air marshal:

POST CURRENT HOLDER

Vice Chief of the Air Staff Air Marshal Shirish Baban Deo , PVSM, AVSM, VSM, VM

Deputy Chief of the Air Staff Air Marshal Raghunath Nambiar, AVSM, VM

Deputy Chief of the Air Staff (Operations) Air Marshal PN Pradhan, AVSM

Air Officer in Charge of Administration Air Marshal M K Malik, AVSM, VSM

Air Officer in Charge of Personnel Air Marshal B Suresh, AVSM, VM

Air Officer in Charge of Maintenance Air Marshal P. P. Khandekar

Director General of Inspection and Flight Safety Air Marshal S Harpal Singh, AVSM, SM

Director General of Air Operations Air Marshal H S Arora, AVSM

Director General of Medical Services (Air) Air Marshal Pawan Kapoor, VSM Bar, PHS

In January 2002, the government conferred the rank of Marshal of the Air Force on Arjan Singh making him the first and only _Five-star _ officer with the Indian Air Force and ceremonial chief of the air force.

COMMANDS

Main article: List of Indian Air Force bases

The Indian Air Force is divided into five operational and two functional commands . Each Command is headed by an Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief with the rank of Air Marshal. The purpose of an operational command is to conduct military operations using aircraft within its area of responsibility, whereas the responsibility of functional commands is to maintain combat readiness . Aside from the Training Command at Bangalore, the primary flight training is done at the Air Force Academy, Dundigul (located in Hyderabad ), followed by operational training at various other schools. Advanced officer training for command positions is also conducted at the Defence Services Staff College; specialised advanced flight training schools are located at Bidar , Karnataka and Hakimpet , Telangana (also the location for helicopter training). Technical schools are found at a number of other locations.

OPERATIONAL COMMANDS

* CENTRAL AIR COMMAND (CAC), headquartered at Allahabad , Uttar Pradesh * EASTERN AIR COMMAND (EAC), headquartered at Shillong , Meghalaya * SOUTHERN AIR COMMAND (SAC), headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram , Kerala * SOUTH WESTERN AIR COMMAND (SWAC), headquartered at Gandhinagar , Gujarat * WESTERN AIR COMMAND (WAC), headquartered at New Delhi

FUNCTIONAL COMMANDS

* TRAINING COMMAND (TC), headquartered at Bangalore , Karnataka * MAINTENANCE COMMAND (MC), headquartered at Nagpur , Maharashtra

Within each operational command are anywhere from three to 10 bases or stations, each commanded by an air commodore .

WINGS

INDIAN AIR FORCE

_ Nabha Sparsham Deeptam_ "Touch the Sky with Glory"

HEADQUARTERS

* New Delhi

HISTORY AND TRADITIONS

* History of the Indian Air Force * Future of the Indian Air Force

AIRCRAFT

* Active Indian Air Force aircraft * History of Indian Air Force aircraft

INSTALLATIONS

* Bases

PERSONNEL

* Chief of Air Staff * Ranks and insignia * Garud Commandos

* v * t * e

A wing is a formation intermediate between a command and a squadron. It generally consists of two or three IAF squadrons and helicopter units, along with forward base support units (FBSU). FBSUs do not have or host any squadrons or helicopter units but act as transit airbases for routine operations. In times of war, they can become fully fledged air bases playing host to various squadrons. In all, about 47 wings and 19 FBSUs make up the IAF. Wings are typically commanded by a group captain .

SQUADRONS AND UNITS

Squadrons are the field units and formations attached to static locations. Thus, a flying squadron or unit is a sub-unit of an air force station which carries out the primary task of the IAF. A fighter squadron consists of 18 aircraft; all fighter squadrons are headed by a commanding officer with the rank of wing commander . Some transport squadrons and helicopter units are headed by a commanding officer with the rank of group captain .

FLIGHTS

Flights are sub-divisions of squadrons , commanded by a squadron leader . Each flight consists of two sections.

SECTIONS

The smallest unit is the section, led by a flight lieutenant . Each section consists of three aircraft.

Within this formation structure, IAF has several service branches for day-to-day operations. They are:

FLYING BRANCH

* Flying

TECHNICAL BRANCH

* Engineering

GROUND BRANCH

* Logistics * Administration * Accounts * Education * Medical During hostilities, Garuds undertake combat search and rescue, rescue of downed airmen and other forces from behind enemy lines, suppression of enemy air defence (SEAD), radar busting, combat control, missile and munitions guidance ("lasing" of targets) and other missions in support of air operations. It has been suggested that they undertake an offensive role including raids on enemy air bases etc. during times of war.

Apart from protecting air bases from sabotage and attacks by commando raids, they are also tasked to seal off weapons systems, fighter hangars and other major systems during intrusions and conflicts. and disaster relief during calamities.

INTEGRATED SPACE CELL

Main article: Integrated Space Cell

An Integrated Space Cell, which will be jointly operated by all the three services of the Indian armed forces, the civilian Department of Space and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has been set up to utilise more effectively the country's space-based assets for military purposes. This command will leverage space technology including satellites. Unlike an aerospace command, where the air force controls most of its activities, the Integrated Space Cell envisages co-operation and co-ordination between the three services as well as civilian agencies dealing with space.

India currently has 10 remote sensing satellites in orbit. Though most are not meant to be dedicated military satellites, some have a spatial resolution of 1 metre or below which can be also used for military applications. Noteworthy satellites include the Technology Experiment Satellite (TES) which has a panchromatic camera (PAN) with a resolution of 1-metre, the RISAT-2 which is capable of imaging in all-weather conditions and has a resolution of one metre, the CARTOSAT-2 , CARTOSAT-2A and CARTOSAT-2B which carries a panchromatic camera which has a resolution of 80 centimetres (black and white only).

DISPLAY TEAMS

Main articles: Surya Kiran and Sarang (military) Sarang display team

_The Surya Kiran Aerobatic Team (SKAT)_ (_Surya Kiran_ is Sanskrit for _Sun Rays_) is an aerobatics demonstration team of the Indian Air Force. They were formed in 1996 and are successors to the _Thunderbolts_. The team has a total of 13 pilots (selected from the fighter stream of the IAF) and operate 9 HAL HJT-16 Kiran Mk.2 trainer aircraft painted in a "day-glo orange" and white colour scheme . The Surya Kiran team were conferred squadron status in 2006, and presently have the designation of 52 Squadron (_"The Sharks"_). The team is based at the Indian Air Force Station at Bidar . The IAF has begun the process of converting Surya Kirans to BAE Hawks.

_Sarang_ ( Sanskrit for _Peacock_) is the Helicopter Display Team of the Indian Air Force. The team was formed in October 2003 and their first public performance was at the Asian Aerospace Show, Singapore , 2004. The team flies four HAL Dhruvs painted in red and white with a peacock figure at each side of the fuselage. The team is based at the Indian Air Force base at Air Force Station Sulur, Coimbatore .

PERSONNEL

Officers of the IAF in their uniform .

Over the years reliable sources provided notably divergent estimates of the personnel strength of the Indian Air Force after analysing open-source intelligence . The public policy organisation GlobalSecurity.org had estimated that the IAF had an estimated strength of 110,000 active personnel in 1994. In 2006, Anthony Cordesman estimated that strength to be 170,000 in the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) publication _"The Asian Conventional Military Balance in 2006"_. In 2010, James Hackett revised that estimate to an approximate strength of 127,000 active personnel in the IISS publication _"Military Balance 2010"_. Indian defence minister , Manohar Parrikar , officially released the sanctioned strength of the Indian Air Force in reply to a question in the Lok Sabha .

In 2017, the Indian Air Force had an authorised strength of 12,244 officers and 138,596 enlisted personnel. There was a shortage of 273 officers with the held strength of 11,971 officers. Similarly, there was a shortage of 10,428 enlisted personnel with the held strength of 128,168.

RANK STRUCTURE

Main article: Air Force ranks and insignia of India

The rank structure of the Indian Air Force is based on that of the Royal Air Force . The highest rank attainable in the IAF is Marshal of the Indian Air Force , conferred by the President of India after exceptional service during wartime. MIAF Arjan Singh is the only officer to have achieved this rank. The head of the Indian Air Force is the Chief of the Air Staff , who holds the rank of Air Chief Marshal.

OFFICERS

Anyone holding Indian citizenship can apply to be an officer in the Air Force as long as they satisfy the eligibility criteria. There are four entry points to become an officer. Male applicants, who are between the ages of 16½ and 19 and have passed high school graduation, can apply at the _Intermediate_ level. Men and women applicants, who have graduated from college (three-year course) and are between the ages of 18 and 28, can apply at the _Graduate_ level entry. Graduates of engineering colleges can apply at the _Engineer_ level if they are between the ages of 18 and 28 years. The age limit for the flying and ground duty branch is 23 years of age and for technical branch is 28 years of age. After completing a master's degree, men and women between the ages of 18 and 28 years can apply at the _Post Graduate_ level. Post graduate applicants do not qualify for the flying branch. For the technical branch the age limit is 28 years and for the ground duty branch it is 25. At the time of application, all applicants below 25 years of age must be single. The IAF selects candidates for officer training from these applicants. After completion of training, a candidate is commissioned as a Flying Officer .

RANKS OF THE INDIAN AIR FORCE – OFFICER RANKS SHOULDER

SLEEVE

RANK Marshal of the Air Force1 Air Chief Marshal2 Air Marshal Air Vice Marshal Air Commodore Group Captain Wing Commander Squadron Leader Flight Lieutenant Flying Officer

* 1 Honorary/War time rank * 2 Held only by the Chief of Air Staff

EQUIVALENT RANKS OF INDIAN MILITARY

INDIAN NAVY INDIAN ARMY INDIAN AIR FORCE

COMMISSIONED RANKS

Admiral of the Fleet Field Marshal Marshal of the Air Force

Admiral General Air Chief Marshal

Vice Admiral Lieutenant General Air Marshal

Rear Admiral Major General Air Vice Marshal

Commodore Brigadier Air Commodore

Captain Colonel Group Captain

Commander Lieutenant Colonel Wing Commander

Lt. Commander Major Squadron Leader

Lieutenant Captain Flight Lieutenant

Sub Lieutenant Lieutenant Flying Officer

JUNIOR COMMISSIONED RANKS

Master Chief Petty Officer 1st Class Subedar Major Master warrant officer

Master Chief Petty Officer 2nd Class Subedar Warrant officer

Chief Petty Officer Naib Subedar Junior warrant officer

NON-COMMISSIONED RANKS

Petty Officer Havildar Sergeant

Leading Seaman Naik Corporal

Seaman 1 Lance Naik Leading aircraftsman

Seaman 2 Sepoy Aircraftsman

_FOOTNOTES_

* ^ Risaldar Major in cavalry and armoured regiments * ^ Risaldar in cavalry and armoured regiments

* ^ Naib Risaldar in cavalry and armoured regiments. Called as Jemadar until 1965.

AIRMEN

The duty of an airman in the Indian Air Force is to make sure that all the air and ground operations run smoothly. From operating Air Defence systems to fitting missiles, they are involved in all activities of an air base and give support to various technical and non-technical jobs. The airmen of Technical trades are responsible for maintenance, repair and prepare for use the propulsion system of aircraft and other airborne weapon delivery system, Radar, Voice/Data transmission and reception equipment, latest airborne weapon delivery systems, all types of light, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic systems of airborne missiles, aero engines, aircraft fuelling equipment and heavy duty mechanical vehicles, cranes and loading equipment etc. The competent and qualified Airmen from Technical trades also participate in flying as Flight Engineers, Flight Signallers and Flight Gunners. The recruitment of personnel below officer rank is conducted through All India Selection Tests and Recruitment Rallies. All India Selection Tests are conducted among 15 Airmen Selection Centres (ASCs) located all over India. These centres are under the direct functional control of Central Airmen Selection Board (CASB), with administrative control and support by respective commands. The role of CASB is to carry out selection and enrolment of airmen from the Airmen Selection Centres for their respective commands. Candidates initially take a written test at the time of application. Those passing the written test undergo a physical fitness test, an interview conducted in English, and medical examination. Candidates for training are selected from individuals passing the battery of tests, on the basis of their performance. Upon completion of training, an individual becomes an Airman. Some MWOs and WOs are granted honorary commission in the last year of their service as an honorary Flying Officer or Flight Lieutenant before retiring from the service. Airmen during Air Force Day celebration. The logo (roundel ) of IAF can be seen on the aircraft.

RANKS OF THE INDIAN AIR FORCE – ENLISTED RANKS

JUNIOR COMMISSIONED OFFICER

ENLISTED

SHOULDER

ARM

SLEEVE

RANK Master warrant officer Warrant officer Junior warrant officer Sergeant Corporal Leading aircraftsman Aircraftsman

HONORARY OFFICERS

* Sachin Tendulkar was the first sportsperson and the first civilian without an aviation background to be awarded the honorary rank of group captain by the Indian Air Force.

NON COMBATANTS ENROLLED AND CIVILIANS

Non combatants enrolled (NCs(E)) were established in British India as personal assistants to the officer class, and are equivalent to the _orderly_ or _sahayak_ of the Indian Army.

Almost all the commands have some percentage of civilian strength which are central government employees. These are regular ranks which are prevalent in ministries. They are usually not posted outside their stations and are employed in administrative and non-technical work.

TRAINING AND EDUCATION

Main article: Military academies in India

The Indian Armed Forces have set up numerous military academies across India for training its personnel, such as the National Defence Academy (NDA). Besides the tri-service institutions, the Indian Air Force has a Training Command and several training establishments. While technical and other support staff are trained at various Ground Training Schools, the pilots are trained at the Air Force Academy, Dundigul (located in Hyderabad ). The Pilot Training Establishment at Allahabad , the Air Force Administrative College at Coimbatore , the School of Aviation Medicine at Bangalore , the Air Force Technical College, Bangalore at Jalahalli , the Tactics and Air Combat and Defence Establishment at Gwalior , and the Paratrooper’s Training School at Agra are some of the other training establishments of the IAF.

AIRCRAFT

Main article: List of active Indian military aircraft

CURRENT INVENTORY

An Indian SU-30K Flanker landing at Gwalior airbase A C-130J Hercules on approach A Mil Mi-8 flying over 2007 Aero India 2007 A Ilyushin Il-76 at RAIT 2007 An AEW"> A HAL Dhruv on the Indian Air Force Sarang display team

AIRCRAFT ORIGIN TYPE VARIANT IN SERVICE NOTES

COMBAT AIRCRAFT

MiG-21 Russia fighter

245

MiG-27 Russia ground attack

66

MiG-29 Russia multirole

66

HAL Tejas India multirole

3 117 on order

Mirage 2000 France multirole 2000 H/I 45

Sukhoi Su-30 Russia multirole Su-MKI 200 53 on order

Dassault Rafale France multirole B/C

36 on order

SEPECAT Jaguar UK / France attack M/S 130

AWACS

EMB-145 Brazil AEW&C

1

Beriev A-50 Soviet Union AEW">_ Tejas

* SEPECAT Jaguar : The SEPECAT Jaguar known as Shamsher_ serves as the IAF's primary ground attack force. The IAF currently operates 139 Jaguars. * Mikoyan MiG-27 : The Mikoyan MiG-27 known as _Bahadur_ (Hindi for Valiant) serves as the IAF's primary ground attack force. The IAF currently operates over 85 MiG-27s. * Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 : The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 serves as an Interceptor aircraft in the IAF. The IAF have phased out most of its MiG-21s and plans to keep only 125 that have been upgraded to MiG-21 Bison standard. These aircraft will be phased out between 2014 and 2017.

AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING AND CONTROL AIRCRAFT

The IAF is currently training the crew in operating the indigenously developed DRDO AEW&CS flying on the Embraer ERJ 145 aircraft. The IAF also operates the EL/W-2090 Phalcon AEW"> Boeing C-17 Globemaster III

For strategic airlift operations the IAF uses the Ilyushin Il-76 , known as _Gajraj_ (Hindi for King Elephant) in Indian service. The IAF operated 17 Il-76s in 2010, which are in the process of being replaced by C-17 Globemaster IIIs .

The IAF C-130Js are used by special forces for combined Army-Air Force operations. India purchased six C-130Js; however one crashed at Gwalior on 28 March 2014 while on a training mission, killing all 5 on board and destroying the aircraft. The Antonov An-32 , known in Indian service as the _Sutlej_ (named for the Sutlej River ), serves as a medium transport aircraft in the IAF. The aircraft is also used in bombing roles and para-dropping operations. The IAF currently operates 105 An-32s, all of which are being upgraded. The Dornier Do 228 serves as light transport aircraft in the IAF. The IAF also operates Boeing 737s and Embraer ECJ-135 Legacy aircraft as VIP transports and passenger airliners for troops. Other VIP transport aircraft are used for both the President of India and the Prime Minister of India under the call sign Air India One .

The Hawker Siddeley HS 748 once formed the backbone of the IAF's transport fleet, but are now used mainly for training and communication duties. A replacement is under consideration.

TRAINER AIRCRAFT

IAF BAE Hawk Mk 132 .

The HAL HPT-32 Deepak is IAF's basic flight training aircraft for cadets. The HPT-32 was grounded in July 2009 following a crash that killed two senior flight instructors, but was revived in May 2010 and is to be fitted with a parachute recovery system (PRS) to enhance survivability during an emergency in the air and to bring the trainer down safely. The HPT-32 is to be phased out soon. The HPT 32 has been replaced by Pilatus, a Swiss aircraft. The IAF uses the HAL HJT-16 Kiran mk.I for intermediate flight training of cadets, while the HJT-16 Kiran mk.II provides advanced flight and weapons training. The HAL HJT-16 Kiran Mk.2 is also operated by the Surya Kiran Aerobatic Team (SKAT) of the IAF. The Kiran is to be replaced by the HAL HJT-36 Sitara . The BAE Hawk Mk 132 serves as an advanced jet trainer in the IAF and is progressively replacing the Kiran Mk.II. The IAF has begun the process of converting the Surya Kiran display team to Hawks. A total of 106 BAE Hawk trainers have been ordered by the IAF of which 39 have entered service as of July 2010. IAF also ordered 72 Pipistrel Virus SW 80 microlight aircraft for basic training purpose.

HELICOPTERS

Mi-35 attack helicopter over the Indian landscape

The HAL Dhruv serves primarily as a light utility helicopter in the IAF. In addition to transport and utility roles, newer Dhruvs are also used as attack helicopters. 4 Dhruvs are also operated by the Indian Air Force Sarang Helicopter Display Team. The HAL Chetak is a light utility helicopter and is used primarily for training, rescue and light transport roles in the IAF. The HAL Chetak is being gradually replaced by HAL Dhruv. The HAL Cheetah is a light utility helicopter used for high altitude operations. It is used for both transport and search-and-rescue missions in the IAF.

The Mil Mi-8 and the Mil Mi-17 , Mi-17 1V and Mi-17V 5 are operated by the IAF for medium lift strategic and utility roles. The Mi-8 is being progressively replaced by the Mi-17 series of helicopters. The IAF has ordered 22 Boeing AH-64E Apache attack Helicopters, 68 HAL Light Combat Helicopters(LCH),35 HAL Rudra attack Helicopters, 15 CH-47F Chinook heavy lift helicopters and 150 Mi-17V-5s to replace and augment its existing fleet of Mi-8s and Mi-17s and Mi-24's. The Mil Mi-26 serves as a heavy lift helicopter in the IAF. It can also be used to transport troops or as a flying ambulance. The IAF currently operates 3 Mi-26s.

The Mil Mi-35 serves primarily as an attack helicopter in the IAF. The Mil Mi-35 can also act as a low-capacity troop transport. The IAF currently operates 2 squadrons (No.104 Firebirds and No.125 Gladiators) of Mi-25/35s.

UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

The IAF currently uses the IAI Searcher II and IAI Heron for reconnaissance and surveillance purposes. The IAI Harpy serves as an Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) which is designed to attack radar systems. The IAF also operates the DRDO Lakshya which serves as realistic towed aerial sub-targets for live fire training.

LAND-BASED MISSILE SYSTEMS

Akash missile .

SURFACE-TO AIR MISSILES

The SPYDER (Surface-to-air PYthon and DERby) is an Israeli short and medium range mobile air defence system developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems with assistance from Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI). The SPYDER is a low-level, quick-reaction surface-to-air missile system capable of engaging aircraft, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles, drones, and precision-guided munitions. It provides air defence for fixed assets and for point and area defence for mobile forces in combat areas. Six SPYDER-MRs along with 300 Python-5 surface to missiles (SAMs) and 300 Derby SAMs are in service with the Indian Air Force

The S-125 Pechora and the 9K33 Osa as Surface-to-air missile systems in service are being replaced with the Akash medium range surface-to-air missile system. A total of 8 squadrons has been ordered so far out of which 2 squadrons have been delivered and stationed at Gwalior and Pune.

BALLISTIC MISSILES

The IAF currently operates the Prithvi-II short-range ballistic missile (SRBM). The Prithvi-II is an IAF-specific variant of the Prithvi ballistic missile.

FUTURE OF THE INDIAN AIR FORCE

Main article: Future of the Indian Air Force

The number of aircraft in the IAF has been decreasing from the late 1990s due to retirement of older aircraft and several crashes. To deal with the depletion of force levels, the IAF has started to modernise its fleet. This includes both the upgrade of existing aircraft, equipment and infrastructure as well as induction of new aircraft and equipment, both indigenous and imported. As new aircraft enter service and numbers recover, the IAF plans to have a fleet of 42 squadrons.

EXPECTED FUTURE ACQUISITIONS

Single-engined Fighter

On 3 January 2017, Minister of Defence Manohar Parrikar addressed a media conference and announced plans for a competition to select a Strategic Partner to deliver "... 200 new single engine fighters to be made in India, which will easily cost around ( USD )$45 million apiece without weaponry" with an expectation that Lockheed Martin (USA) and Saab (Sweden) will pitch the F-16 BLOCK 70 and GRIPEN , respectively. An MoD official said that a global tender will be put to market in the first quarter of 2018, with a private company nominated as the strategic partners production agency followed by a two or more year process to evaluate technical and financial bids and conduct trials, before the final government-to-government deal in 2021. This represents 11 squadrons of aircraft plus several 'attrition' aircraft.

CURRENT ACQUISITIONS

The IAF has placed orders for 120 HAL Tejas fighters, 36 Dassault Rafale multi-role fighters, 112 Pilatus PC-7 MkII basic trainers, 72 HAL HJT-36 Sitara trainers, 72 Pipistrel Virus SW 80 microlight aircraft, 10 C-17 Globemaster III strategic air-lifters, 65 HAL Light Combat Helicopters , 139 Mi-17V-5 helicopters. and the IAF has also ordered 18 Israeli SPYDER Surface to Air Missile (SAM) units. IAF has also ordered 6 Airbus A330 tanker aircraft, 22 AH-64E Apache Longbow heavy attack helicopters, 15 CH-47F medium lift helicopters and IAI Harop UCAVs. India is also planning to set up an assembly line of American Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon Block 70 in Bengaluru. It is not yet confirmed whether IAF will induct these aircraft or not. CH-47F Chinook

The IAF has issued a Request for Information (RFI) for 16 C-27J Spartan medium military transport aircraft. A new Request For Information has been issued to replace Hawker Siddeley HS 748 for $2.4 billion. The IAF also submitted a request for information to international suppliers for a stealth unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV)

DRDO AND HAL PROJECTS

Indian defence companies such as HAL and DRDO are developing several aircraft for the IAF such as the HAL Tejas , Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA), DRDO AEWborder:solid #aaa 1px">

* Military of India portal

* Indian Armed Forces * Indian Army * Indian Navy * Army Aviation Corps (India) * Indian Naval Air Arm * Centre for Air Power Studies

NOTES

* ^ According to an Indian reports, a MiG-27 crashed from engine trouble and the escorting MiG-21 was shot down by Pakistani fire while trying to aid the downed pilot. The MiG-21 pilot was killed and the MiG-27 pilot was taken as a war prisoner. Pakistan claims both jets were downed by Pakistani air defence after they crossed into its territory. India claims they were lost over Indian territory.

REFERENCES

* ^ http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=(Release ID :159474) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "World Air Forces 2016". _Flightglobal Insight _. 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ International Institute for Strategic Studies : The Military Balance 2014, p.245 * ^ "The IAF Motto". Webmaster IAF – Air Headquarters. Retrieved 7 April 2009. * ^ "A Mother in India: 8th October". 22 October 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2010. * ^ http://www.financialexpress.com/india-news/air-marshal-sb-deo-to-be-new-vice-chief-of-iaf-air-marshal-c-hari-kumar-to-take-charge-of-western-air-command/489723/ * ^ John Pike. " India - Air Force". * ^ "About - The President of India". * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Indian Air For Heraldry (Badges and Insignia)". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 28 November 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2012. * ^ _Air Force Act, 1950_. Ministry of Law & Justice. Retrieved 16 January 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ " India in aerospace defence plan". BBC. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ " India Begins Work On Space Weapons Command". Indo-Asian News Service (IANS). 12 April 2006. Archived from the original on 24 April 2006. Retrieved 23 June 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Aid to Civil Power". Retrieved 7 July 2010. * ^ "HC Deb 3 April 1933 vol 276 cc1473-501". _ Hansard _. Parliament of the United Kingdom . Retrieved 8 April 2009. * ^ "History of the IAF". _Official Website_. Webmaster IAF – Air Headquarters. Retrieved 7 April 2009. * ^ Bedi, Sanjeev (Summer 2008). "Strategic Role of Air Power" (PDF). _Air Power Journal_. Center for Air Power Studies. 3 (2): 27–45. Retrieved 8 April 2009. * ^ "INDIAN AIR FORCE MUSEUM – Heraldry (Badges and Insignia)". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. * ^ Goyal, S.N. (October 1993). "1939–45 Second World War: Air Force Reminiscences". _Sainik Samachar_. Indian Air Force. Archived from the original on 6 October 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2009. * ^ "Royal Indian Air Force in WW2 - Lots of Rare Pics". militaryphotos.net. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. * ^ Engineer, Aspy M. (February 1993). " Air Marshal Aspy Engineer\'s Recollections". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 30 December 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ Lyon 2008 , p. 79 * ^ Massey 2005 , p. 97 * ^ Barua 2005 , p. 192 * ^ Bedi, Sanjeev (Summer 2008). "Strategic Role of Air Power" (PDF). _Air Power Journal_. Center for Air Power Studies. 3 (2): 27–45. * ^ "The Congolese Rescue Operation". US Army History. Retrieved 25 April 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Singh, Charanjit. "The Congo Diary" (PDF). _Air Power Journal_. Center for Air Power Studies. 2 (3): 27–45. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2007. * ^ "Air Force History". Global Security. Retrieved 8 July 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Jagan Pillarisetti. "The Liberation of Goa: 1961". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Pradhan 2010 , p. 185 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Qadir, Shaukat (9 September 2005). "Operation Gibraltar: Battle that never was". _The 1965 War, 40 Years On_. Rediff News. Retrieved 17 January 2012. Pakistan ... undertook a guerrilla operation inside Indian held Kashmir with a large number of regular soldiers ... expecting to be welcomed by the local population and raise them up in arms against the Indian government. * ^ Pradhan & Chavan 2007 , p. xiv * ^ Thomas 1996 , p. 11 * ^ Sisodia & Bhaskar 2005 , p. 82 * ^ Gupta 1997 , p. 43 * ^ Dixit 2002 , p. 149 * ^ Air Marshal Ashok K Goel(retd.). "Sabre Slayers – The Gnat in India". * ^ "1965 war: We achieved air superiority in three days, says Air Force Marshal Arjan Singh". 4 October 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2016. * ^ Praval 1975 , p. 6 * ^ Jones 1985 , p. 78 * ^ Boyne & Fopp 2002 , p. 619 * ^ "The Folland Gnat / HAL Ajeet". 1 December 2009. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010. * ^ "A Whale of a Fighter: the Su-7 in IAF Service". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 30 December 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2010. * ^ Sisson & Rose 1991 , p. 229 * ^ Jagan Pillarisetti. "Boyra Encounter – 22nd November 1971". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2012. * ^ "Newsweek : the international newsmagazine: US edition". _Newsweek_: 34. 20 December 1971. ISSN 0028-9604 . Trying to catch the Indian Air Force napping, Yahya Khan, launched a Pakistani version of Israel's 1967 air blitz in hopes that one quick blow would cripple India's far superior air power. But India was alert and Yahya's strategy of scattering his thin air force over a dozen air fields failed! * ^ Kainikara 2011 , p. 195 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "The War of December 1971". Indian Air Force. Retrieved 3 May 2009. * ^ "Years later, Longewala reminds the do-or-die battle". _The Times of India_ (18 December 2013). India Times. Retrieved 23 August 2015. * ^ Shorey, Anil (February 2005). "Battle of Longewala: Best of Braves". _Sainik Samachar_. 52 (4). Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2009. * ^ Mohan, Jagan. "When lightning strikes". Bharat Rakshak . Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2009. * ^ "Bangladesh: Out of War, a Nation Is Born". _Time _. Time Inc. 20 December 1971. Retrieved 12 April 2011. * ^ Ramunny, Murkot (1 January 1997). "The Sky was the Limit". Northern Book Centre. Retrieved 7 August 2016 – via Google Books. * ^ Simha, Rakesh Krishnan (4 June 2015). "Why the Indian Air Force has a high crash rate". _rbth.com_. Retrieved 25 July 2016. * ^ M. Leonard, Thomas (2006). _Encyclopedia of the Developing World_. Taylor & Francis. p. 806. ISBN 978-0415976640 . Retrieved 13 July 2015. * ^ _The Encyclopedia of 20th Century Air Warfare_, edited by Chris Bishop (Amber publishing 1997, republished 2004 pages 384–387 ISBN 1-904687-26-1 ) * ^ Choudhury, Ishfaq Ilahi. "Air aspect of the Liberation War 1971". Daily Star. Retrieved 8 April 2009. * ^ Ives 2004 , p. 186 * ^ Talbott 2006 , p. 164 * ^ Wirsing, Robert. _Pakistan's security under Zia, 1977–1988: the policy imperatives of a peripheral Asian state_. Palgrave Macmillan, 1991. ISBN 9780312060671 . * ^ Child, Greg. _Thin air: encounters in the Himalayas_. The Mountaineers Books, 1998. ISBN 9780898865882 . * ^ Desmond/Kashmir, Edward W. (31 July 1989). "The Himalayas War at the Top Of the World". Time.com. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Pillarisetti, Jagan. "Operation Poomalai – The Jaffna Food drop". _The Indian Air Force in Sri Lanka – 1987–90_. Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2012. * ^ Weisman, Steven R. (5 June 1987). " India Airlifts Aid to Tamil Rebels". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 17 January 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "OP Pwan". _Know Us_. Indian Air Force. Retrieved 24 July 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Official website of Indian Air Force". Retrieved 28 July 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ " India launches Kashmir air attack". BBC News. 26 May 1999. Retrieved 17 January 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Camp, Philip. "The Mirage 2000 at Kargil". _Kargil 1999_. Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2012. * ^ Bammi 2002 * ^ " India loses two jets". BBC News. 27 May 1999. Retrieved 17 January 2012. * ^ Dutta, Sujan (22 May 2006). "Flyer pushes frontier again – Nachiketa returns to area where his plane was shot down". _Telegraph India_. Calcutta, India. Retrieved 17 January 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ganguly & Kapur 2008 , p. 105 * ^ Jones 2003 , p. 97 * ^ Kapur 2007 , p. 122 * ^ "IAF Scores a Kill !!! Factual Account of Interception". Indian Air Force. Archived from the original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2009. * ^ "IAF shoots down Pak intruder plane". _The Indian Express_. 11 August 1999. Retrieved 25 April 2009. * ^ Ian MacKinnon (11 August 1999). "16 dead as India shoots down Pakistani naval plane". _The Independent_. London. Retrieved 7 June 2009. * ^ "IAF to have 42 combat aircraft squadrons". _IBNLive_. * ^ "IAF\'s C-130J transporter lands near India-China border". _Business Standard_. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013. * ^ "10 reasons why IAF\'s C-130J Super Hercules landing in Daulat Beg Oldie, Ladakh is important". _ India Today_. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013. * ^ " Indian Air Force lands Super Hercules transport plane on airstrip near LAC". _The Indian Express_. 20 August 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013. * ^ "IAF scrambles fighter jets as Turkish plane sparks alert". Patrika Group. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014. * ^ " Indian Air Force chopper crashes in Uttar Pradesh, 7 feared killed" (26 July 2014). Patrika Group. Retrieved 26 July 2014. * ^ Nitin A. Gokhale (28 March 2014). "Air Force\'s new C-130J aircraft crashes near Gwalior, five killed". NDTV.com. * ^ "IAF Super Hercules Crash: 5 Air Force Personnel killed in Gwalior". _IANS_. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 28 March 2014. * ^ "IAF\'s C130 J "Super Hercules" transport aircraft crashes, all five personnel on board dead". _The Economic Times_. 29 March 2014. * ^ "\'Wake turbulence\' led to C-130 J aircraft crash". _The Indian Express _. * ^ "How did terrorists enter so easily despite intel, ask experts". 3 January 2016. * ^ " Air Marshal Nambiar takes charge". _The Hindu_. Retrieved 2017-03-02. * ^ "Press Information Bureau". Retrieved 2017-05-23. * ^ Delhi (29 August 2016). "Rashtriya Khel Protsahan Puruskar for Subroto Mukerjee Sports Education Society". _Business Standard India_. Retrieved 15 September 2016. * ^ "Press Information Bureau". Retrieved 15 September 2016. * ^ Sputnik. " India and Russia to Jointly Set Up $300 Million Logistics Hub for Su30MKI". _sputniknews.com_. Retrieved 15 September 2016. * ^ "Press Information Bureau". Retrieved 2017-03-26. * ^ "Press Information Bureau". Retrieved 15 September 2016. * ^ "..:: India Strategic ::. APPOINTMENTS: Air Marshal Pawan Kapoor Takes Charge as DGMS (Air)". _www.indiastrategic.in_. Retrieved 2017-04-07. * ^ "Press Information Bureau". Retrieved 2017-04-07. * ^ "Marshal of the Indian Air Force". Indian Air Force. Retrieved 4 May 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Indian Air Force". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 29 June 2010. * ^ "Air Force Wings, FBSUs and CMUs". Bharat Rakshak. Retrieved 10 July 2009. * ^ "Air Force FBSUs and CMUs". Bharat Rakshak. Retrieved 10 July 2009. * ^ "Indian Air Force". 10 August 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2010. * ^ * ^ "Indian Air Force: Career Opportunities". Indian Air Force. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2009. * ^ "Constitution of Commando Force" (Press release). Press Information Bureau, Government of India . 18 December 2003. Retrieved 25 July 2008. * ^ " India goes to war in space". 18 June 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2010. * ^ "\' India attains the capability to target, destroy space satellites in orbit\'". intoday.in. * ^ "India\'s spy satellite boost". BBC. 27 November 2001. Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ Herman, Steve (20 April 2008). " India Launches High-Tech Imaging Satellite". Voice of America. Retrieved 31 July 2009. * ^ "CARTOSAT-2A". _Earth Observation Satellites_. ISRO. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2012. * ^ "NDTV.com: India to launch first military satellite in August". 10 June 2008. Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2010. * ^ "Spy satellite to catch miners, land encroachers". 12 July 2010. Retrieved 23 June 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "SURYAKIRANS". armedforces.nic.in. * ^ "Squadrons and Helicopter Units". Bharat Rakshak. Retrieved 17 January 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "IAF\'s Surya Kirans to fly Hawk\'s". 10 October 2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010. * ^ "ILA 2008: Proud as Peacocks". Archived from the original on 26 May 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ "IAFs Sarang helicopter display team adjudged the best at Berlin air show". 12 June 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2010. * ^ Cordesman & Kleiber 2006 , p. 24 * ^ Hackett 2010 , p. 360 * ^ "Press Information Bureau". Retrieved 15 September 2016. * ^ "Press Information Bureau". Retrieved 2017-03-18. * ^ "Career Opportunities as an Officer: Intermediate (10+2)". Indian Air Force. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2009. * ^ "Career Opportunities as an Officer: Graduate". Indian Air Force. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2009. * ^ "Career Opportunities as an Officer: Engineer". Indian Air Force. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2009. * ^ "Career Opportunities as an Officer: Post Graduate". Indian Air Force. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2009. * ^ "Career Opportunities as an Officer". Indian Air Force. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2009. * ^ "Career Graph (for Officers)". Indian Air Force. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Central Airmen Selection Board". Indian Air Force. Retrieved 22 April 2009. * ^ "CASB". _indianairforce.nic.in_. * ^ "IAF clips Sachin Tendulkar, M S Dhoni wings". _indianexpress.com_. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Air HQ Communication Squadron". Global Security. Retrieved 8 July 2010. * ^ "Non Combatant(Enrolled) – Pension Chart". Principal Controller of Defence Accounts. Retrieved 6 July 2010. * ^ "AFRO Career Planning". Indian Air Force. Retrieved 6 July 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ _X_ _Y_ _Z_ _AA_ _AB_ _AC_ _AD_ _AE_ _AF_ _AG_ _AH_ _AI_ _AJ_ "World Air Forces 2017". Flightglobal Insight. 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017. * ^ "Air Force Equipment". Global Security.org. Retrieved 22 April 2009. * ^ " Indian Air Force Opts for More Su-30MKI, Despite Problems". 18 December 2011. Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2011. * ^ Hackett, James (2013). _The Military Balance 2013, Chapter 6 – Asia_. Oxfordshire: Routledge, IISS . p. 301. ISBN 978-1857436808 . As of March 2014. * ^ "Mig-29UPG modernization near completion at 11 BRD". Business-standard.com. 22 September 2016. * ^ "Two IAF Mirage aircraft flown to France for upgradation". 6 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2011. * ^ "French jet Rafale bags $20bn IAF fighter order; India \'briefs\' losing European countries". _The Times of India_. 1 February 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "LCA Tejas makes successful flight". _Times of India_. 23 April 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Light combat aircraft flies with near-full gear". _Daily News and Analysis_. India. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. * ^ "Tejas: IAF inducts HAL\'s ‘Made in India’ Light Combat Aircraft – 10 special facts about the LCA". _The Financial Express_. 2016-07-01. Retrieved 2016-07-01. * ^ Naik, V.P. (26 September 2008). "IAF aiming for Diverse Capabilities, says Vice Chief of Air Staff". _ Air Marshal P V Naik's Keynote Address on Fighter Technology and Advance Systems_. India Strategic. Retrieved 22 April 2009. * ^ "HAL To Tie-Up With BAE Systems For Jaguar Upgrade". 30 November 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2010. * ^ " MiG-27 crashes into field, 1 killed". _The Times of India_. 25 July 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010. * ^ "Indi\'s Fighter Modernisation: Add MiG-29s to the List". Defense Industry Daily. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011. * ^ "MiG 21s to be phased out from 2014: Antony". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012. * ^ " Russia sends 3rd AWACS plane to India". 4 November 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2010. * ^ "First AWACS aircraft lands at Jamnagar air base in Gujarat". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. 26 May 2009. * ^ " India set to decide big military aircraft deals". India Strategic. * ^ Mukherjee, Amit (29 September 2004). "IAF to get 5th IL-78 refueller soon". _The Times of India_. Retrieved 22 April 2009. * ^ Kopp, Carlo. "The PLA-AF\'s Aerial Refuelling Programmes". Air Power Australia. Retrieved 22 April 2009. * ^ "Illyushin Il-76MD Gajraj". Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2010. * ^ "http://www.brahmand.com/news/C-17-Globemaster-IAFs-new-heavy-lift-transport-aircraft/3759/1/15.html". 28 April 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2010. External link in title= (help ) * ^ Bedi, Rahul (5 July 2010). "IAF completes C-17 test-flight". Retrieved 21 July 2010. * ^ " Indian Air Force :: Illyushin 76MD, 78MKI, A-50 – Serials". Bharat-rakshak.com. Retrieved 24 September 2011. * ^ "Lockheed delivers fifth C130J to IAF". Retrieved 9 December 2011. * ^ "IAF Super Hercules Crash: 5 Air Force Personnel killed in Gwalior". _IANS_. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 28 March 2014. * ^ "Deals for Acquisition of C-130 J Super Hercules (Press Release)". 7 December 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "IAF An-32 planes in Ukraine for upgrades". 21 March 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010. * ^ "Dornier Do-228". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2010. * ^ " Boeing 737". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2010. * ^ "Embraer EMB135 Legacy". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2010. * ^ "April 1 date for President with business jets". _Zee News_. 16 March 2009. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2011. * ^ "HAL HS 748M Avro". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2010. * ^ " India clears $2.4 billion plan to buy cargo planes for Air Force". IANS. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2012. * ^ "HAL HPT-32 Deepak". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Sharma, Ravi (16 May 2010). "IAF gives nod for HPT-32 revival". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. Retrieved 17 May 2010. * ^ " HAL HJT-16 Kiran Mk.1/1A". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009. * ^ " HAL HJT-16 Kiran Mk.II". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2009. * ^ "SURYAKIRANS". Retrieved 20 July 2010. * ^ "HJT-36 Sitara Intermediate Jet Trainer, India". Retrieved 6 July 2010. * ^ " India inks deal with BAE for 57 Hawk aircraft". _The Times of India_. 28 July 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2010. * ^ " India Inks World\'s Largest Microlight Aircraft Deal With Slovenian Firm". New Delhi: Arming India. 12 October 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ The Financial Express (12 October 2015). " India inks Rs 130-crore deal for 194 microlight aircraft". _financialexpress.com_. Retrieved 7 August 2016. * ^ "HAL Dhruv". Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010. IAF Dhruvs, can carry a 20mm gun plus eight anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) or four air-to-air missiles or four 68mm rocket pods on outriggers. * ^ _A_ _B_ " HAL Chetak (Alouette III)". Archived from the original on 7 February 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010. * ^ " HAL Cheetah (Alouette II)". Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010. * ^ " Mil Mi-8 (Hip) Rana". Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010. * ^ " Mil Mi-17 (Hip) Pratap". Archived from the original on 21 April 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ Gulshan Luthra and Air Marshal Ashok Goel (Retd) (August 2010). "http://www.indiastrategic.in/topstories694.htm". India Strategic. Retrieved 20 August 2010. External link in title= (help ) * ^ "Mil Mi-26 (Halo)". Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010. * ^ "Mil Mi-25 / Mi-35 (Hind) Akbar". Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010. * ^ "Searcher Mk II Delivered To India". israeli-weapons.com. Retrieved 22 April 2009. * ^ "Heron MALE System—Medium Altitude Long Endurance UAV". defence-update.com. Retrieved 22 April 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Pandit, Rajat (5 July 2010). "Air Force hunts for combat drones". _The Times of India_. Retrieved 14 July 2010. * ^ "Press Information Bureau". Government of India. Retrieved 22 April 2009. * ^ "Air Force Equipment – Missiles – SAM". Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 16 March 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2009. * ^ "Akash Missile". 13 April 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010. * ^ "Prithvi". 5 November 2002. Retrieved 17 July 2010. * ^ "IAF fighter squadrons to rise to 42 by 2022: Antony". _The Times of India_. 18 February 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2009. * ^ Parrikar: India to Kick Off Competition for New Foreign Single-Engine Fighters, Vivek Raghuvanshi, DefenseNews.com, 3 January 2017 * ^ " Air force to get 20 more Tejas fighter aircraft, says Antony". 7 July 2010. Archived from the original on 16 July 2010. * ^ " India Signs Rs 58,000-Crore Deal For 36 Rafale Fighter Jets With France". _ndtv.com_. Retrieved 23 September 2016. * ^ Jay Menon (16 June 2011). " India Selects Pilatus Basic Trainer". Aviation Week. Retrieved 19 June 2011. * ^ "IAF to order 37 more Pilatus trainers worth Rs 1,250 cr". Business Standard. 4 February 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013. * ^ Malyasov, Dylan. " India Will Buy 194 Virus SW 80/10 Microlight Aircraft from Slovenia". _defence-blog.com_. Retrieved 7 August 2016. * ^ " India to buy six more C-17 air-lifters from US". _Hindustan Times_. 4 August 2010. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2010. * ^ "Light Combat Helicopter (LCH)". Knol. 17 August 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2010. * ^ "IAF orders additional 59 Mi-17 choppers from Russia". domain-b.com. 9 September 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2010. * ^ "IAF orders Israeli Spyder Missile". September 2008. Retrieved 12 July 2010. * ^ "Airbus Wins India’s Tanker Rebid". 31 October 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2012. * ^ "Airbus Wins India\'s Tanker Rebid". 1 November 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2012. * ^ "India\'s defence ministry has cleared deals for 22 AH-64E Apache and 15 CH-47F Chinook helicopters". 26 May 2015. * ^ "US pips Russia as \'lowest bidder\' for heavy-lift 15-chopper deal". The Times of India. 28 October 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.

* ^ Egozi, Arie (9 April 2010). "Indian air force orders Harop loitering munitions". Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2010. * ^ "IAF issues RFI for C 27J Spartan". July 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2010. * ^ "MoD Clears $2.4 bn Plan To Buy Cargo Planes For IAF". Defence News. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012. * ^ " India canvasses global suppliers for stealthy UCAV". 7 July 2010. Archived from the original on 10 July 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2010. * ^ " India reveals plan to develop indigenous medium fighter". Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. * ^ "Cabinet panel nod for `Airawat\' project". _The Hindu_. 10 September 2004. Retrieved 24 April 2009. * ^ "Lighter version of Saras aircraft to fly out next year". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. 26 June 2008. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. * ^ "HAL\'s intermediate jet trainer HJT-36 makes maiden flight with Russian engine". _The Hindu_. Chennai, India. 14 May 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2010. * ^ "Light Combat Helicopter (LCH)Specifications". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 26 April 2009. * ^ "HAL looks at foreign partners for chopper project". _The Times of India_. 29 September 2008. * ^ " India developing UAV similar to American Predator drone". _The Economic Times_. 14 November 2011. Archived from the original on 27 December 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2012. * ^ Aroor, Shiv (11 June 2010). "AURA: India\'s UCAV Programme". Retrieved 2 July 2010. * ^ "IAF initiates process for inducting Akash and Trishul SAM\'s". Frontier India. 3 May 2007. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2009. * ^ "IAF to induct Akash missile". _The Indian Express_. 26 December 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2009. * ^ "Indo-French Maitri SR-SAM Awaits Workshare Clearance". 11 February 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2010. * ^ "Prithvi". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 24 April 2009. * ^ Pubby, Manu (12 October 2007). "India, Russia to ink pact for developing fighters". _The Indian Express_. Retrieved 1 August 2009. * ^ "Russia, India may form military transport planes JV in 2–3 months". * ^ "Barak-2 LR-SAM maiden flight later this year". 1 February 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2010. * ^ "IAF Sukhoi Fleet to be Equipped with Homemade Nirbhay Missiles". 21 May 2010. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010. * ^ "IAF\'s AFNET NCW Backbone Goes Live Next Week". Retrieved 1 October 2013.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Bammi, Y.M. (2002). _Kargil 1999, Impregnable Conquered_. Gorkha Publishers. pp. xxviii, 558, 65, 8 p. ISBN 978-81-7525-352-0 . LCCN 2003305922 . * Bajwa, Kuldip Singh (2005). _The Dynamics of Soldiering_. Har-Anand Publications. p. 292. ISBN 978-81-241-0940-3 . * Barua, Pradeep (2005). _The State at War in South Asia_. University of Nebraska Press. pp. xvi, 437. ISBN 978-0-8032-1344-9 . * Boyne, Walter J. ; Fopp, Michael (2002). _Air Warfare: An International Encyclopedia_ (Illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. pp. xvi, 437. ISBN 978-1-57607-345-2 . * Chadha, Vivek (2005). _Low Intensity Conflicts in India_ (Illustrated ed.). SAGE. p. 513. ISBN 978-0-7619-3325-0 . * Coggins, Ed (2000). _Wings That Stay on_ (Illustrated ed.). Turner Publishing Company. pp. iii, 244. ISBN 978-1-56311-568-4 . * Cordesman, Anthony H.; Kleiber, Martin (2006). _The Asian Conventional Military Balance in 2006: Overview of major Asian Powers_ (PDF). Center for Strategic & International Studies. p. 48. * Dixit, Jyotindra Nath (2002). _India- Pakistan in War & Peace_. Routledge. p. 501. ISBN 978-0-415-30472-6 . * Europa Publications (2005). _Far East and Australasia 2003_. Europa Publications. p. 1538. ISBN 978-1-85743-133-9 . * Ganguly, Sumit; Kapur, S. Paul (2008). _Nuclear Proliferation in South Asia_ (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. pp. xii, 251. ISBN 978-0-415-44049-3 . * Gupta, Amit (1997). _Building an Arsenal: The Evolution of Regional Power Force Structures_ (Illustrated ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. xi, 217. ISBN 978-0-275-95787-2 . * Ives, Jack D. (2004). _Himalayan Perceptions: Environmental Change and the Well-being of Mountain Peoples_ (Illustrated ed.). Routledge. pp. xxi, 271. ISBN 978-0-415-31798-6 . * International Institute for Strategic Studies (2002). _The Military Balance 2002/2003_ (Map ed.). International Institute for Strategic Studies. ISBN 978-0-19-851672-9 . * International Institute for Strategic Studies ; Hackett, James (ed.) (3 February 2010). _The Military Balance 2010_. London: Routledge . ISBN 1-85743-557-5 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Jones, Aubrey (1985). _Britain\'s Economy: The Roots of Stagnation_ (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-30816-8 . * Jones, Owen Bennett (2003). _Pakistan: Eye of the Storm_ (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Yale University Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-300-10147-8 . * Kainikara, Sanu (2007). _Red Air: Politics in Russian Air Power_. Universal Publishers. ISBN 978-1-58112-983-0 . * Kapur, S. Paul (2007). _Dangerous Deterrent: Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and Conflict in South Asia_ (Annotated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-8047-5549-8 . * Karthikeyan, K.R.; Gupta; Sendilkumar, R.; Jaganathan, D. (2008). _A Textbook of Agricultural Extension Management_. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. pp. v, 192. ISBN 978-81-269-0881-3 . * Khan, J.A. (2004). _Air Power and Challenges to IAF_. APH Publishing. pp. xxxii, 361. ISBN 978-81-7648-593-7 . * Lyon, Peter (2008). _Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia_ (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-712-2 . * Massey, Reginald (2005). _Azaadi!_. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-469-1 . * Pradhan, R.D. (1999). _Debacle to Revival: Y.B. Chavan as Defence Minister, 1962–65_. Orient Blackswan. pp. xii, 316. ISBN 978-81-250-1477-5 . * Pradhan, R. D.; Chavan, Yashwantrao Balwantrao (2007). _1965 War, the Inside Story: Defence Minister Y.B. Chavan\'s Diary of India- Pakistan War_. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. pp. xviii, 141. ISBN 978-81-269-0762-5 . * Praval, Karam Chand (1975). _India's Paratroopers (A History of the Parachute Regiment of India)_. Leo Cooper, London. ISBN 978-0-85052-184-9 . * Shiva, Vandana (2005). _ India Divided: Diversity and Democracy Under Attack_. Seven Stories Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-58322-540-0 . * Sisodia, N.S.; Bhaskar, Chitrapu Uday (2005). _Emerging India: Security and Foreign Policy Perspectives_. Bibliophile South Asia. pp. xx,376. ISBN 978-81-86019-51-1 . * Sisson, Richard; Rose, Leo E. (1991). _War and Secession: Pakistan, India, and the Creation of Bangladesh_ (revised ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07665-5 . * Thomas, Raju G.C. (1996). _India\'s Security Environment: Towards the Year 2000_. DIANE Publishing. pp. iv, 33. ISBN 978-1-4289-1389-9 .

* Tiwary, AK, Air Vice Marshal (2012). _ Indian Air Force in wars_. New Delhi: Lancer. ISBN 9781935501336 . * Warikoo, K. (2009). _Himalayan Frontiers of India: Historical, Geo-Political and Strategic Perspectives_ (Illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. pp. xv, 240. ISBN 978-0-415-46839-8 . * Wilson, Stewart (2002). _North American F-86 SABRE_ (Illustrated ed.). Wilson Media Pty, Limited. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-876722-05-0 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to INDIAN AIR FORCE _.

* Official website of

.